Publications by authors named "Iman El Sayed"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Utilization of environmentally friendly essential oils on enhancing the postharvest characteristics of Ramat cut flowers.

Heliyon 2021 Jan 19;7(1):e05909. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Ornamental Horticulture Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt.

is one of the most consumed and most valuable cut flowers worldwide. In this study, the effectiveness of three concentrations of either thyme oil (300,400 and 500 mg/l) or clove oil (150,250 and 500 mg/l) as additives in holding the postharvest solutions of chrysanthemum ''Arctic Queen White'' cut flowers were investigated. The experiments were carried out as a completely randomized design in three replicates. Many postharvest characteristics have been evaluated, such as the vase life of cut flowers, diameters of head flowers and stem, dry matter of flowers, total vase water uptake, total loss of water, relative fresh weight. Additionally, the chlorophyll contents, total sugar, and bacterial counts were determined. The results showed that the longest vase life of cut chrysanthemum was 36.50, 33.40 days, and 35.88, 31.33 days by addition of either the thyme oil (500 mg/l) or clove oil (250 mg/l) in holding solution as compared with distilled water (18.09 and 17.22 days) in both seasons. The highest total vase water uptake and relative fresh weight were (225.00, 211.05 g/flower/day) and (79.89, 70.37 %) of cut chrysanthemum treated with 500 mg/l thyme oil in both seasons. Whereas the lowest total water loss in the two seasons was 155.11 and 156.60 g/flower/day was found with 400 mg/l thyme oil. The greatest chlorophyll a, b, carotenoids, and total sugar contents obtained from treated cut chrysanthemum with 500 mg/l thyme oil (6.89, 2.37, 5.99 mg/g, and 0.88 mg/gm D.W, respectively). Furthermore, the treatment of cut flowers with selected oils has significantly decreased the bacterial growth compared to the control. Whereas the minimum bacterial activities were <1 C.F.U/ml with cut chrysanthemum fortified with 500 mg/l thyme and clove oils. Moreover, the superlative treatments with thyme (500 mg/l) and clove (250 mg/l) showed a prime state of xylem vessels comparable with the control.thus, the usage (addition) of thyme and clove oils as a natural preservative in holding solutions instead of chemicals would be of great economic and environmental impact (Values).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e05909DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7820481PMC
January 2021

Efficacy of Electronic Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Am J Health Promot 2020 Dec 17:890117120980289. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Department of Biomedical Informatics and Medical Statistics, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.

Background: Smoking is a major public health problem and widely recognized as one cause of premature morbidity and mortality. No updated evidence to conclude about the certainty of evidence for adopting E-Cigarettes as smoking cessation intervention despite enough debate. We aim to synthesize available evidence to assess the efficacy as well as safety of E-Cigarettes versus different forms of NRT and placebo to quit smoking. Methods: We comprehensively searched of clinical trials in Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (via PubMed), PsycINFO, Science Direct, Center for reviews and dissemination and HTA database and Trip database. We also searched clinicalTrial.gov and WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) portal. We searched grey literature including Dissertations (ProQuest Dissertations and Theses), Web of Science Thomson Reuters: Conference Proceedings Citation Index, and unpublished manuscripts, examined the references of relevant articles, hand searched topic-specific journals and contacted authors for incomplete data. After data extraction, we assessed the risk of bias using the Cochrane RoB 2 tool. We synthesized data by random-effects model through the Mantel-Haenszel method and R software. We conducted subgroup analysis by length of follow-up and sensitivity analysis by restricting to only studies with low risk of bias. We created a summary of findings table based on GRADE approach. Results: We retrieved 12 clinical trials involving 9863 participants. Four studies were judged as low risk of bias across five domains of RoB 2 tool and the rest were judged as unclear risk of bias. CO- validated one-month continuous abstinence rate was significantly higher in E-cigarettes group than control (5 studies, 32.6 vs 23.1%, N = 1970, RR 1.335, 95 % CI 1.068; 1.667, moderate evidence). However, Three-month and six- month abstinence rate didn't differ significantly between E-cigarettes and control groups (3 Studies, 12.1 vs 12.8%, N=1099, RR 1.52, 95% CI 0.348; 6.701) and (7studies, N = 5435,10.2 vs 6.6%, RR 1.347, 95%CI 0.953; 1.903, very low evidence) respectively. There is very low certainty evidence of effect of E-cigarettes compared to control whether NRT or placebo on sustained reduction of 50% or greater in baseline cigarette consumption at different follow-up periods (1 month, 3 studies, 50.9 vs 33.2%, N = 955, RR 1.29, 95 % CI 0.59; 2.82), (3 Month , 3 studies, 43.2 vs 25.3%, N = 1067, RR 1.36, 95 % CI 0.66; 2.79), (6 month , 5 studies, 27.1 vs 13.4%, N = 1981, RR 1.38, 95 % CI 0.90; 2.11) and at 12 month (1 study, 14.5 vs 12%, N = 300, RR 1.21, 95 % CI 0.64; 2.27). Only one study of 884 participants displayed improved point abstinence by 46% (improvement range 17-82%) in E-cigarettes group relative to control at 12 months (1study, 32.7 vs 22.3%, N = 884, RR 1.46, 95 % CI 1.17; 1.82, moderate evidence). E-cigarettes may increase the proportion of serious adverse effect at 6 month-follow up (1 study, 9.3 vs 5.1%, N = 657, RR 1.81, 95 % CI 1.03; 3.19, low evidence) Conclusion: We are uncertain if E-cigarettes improve continuous abstinence rate at short term (1 month). There is very low certainty evidence of the effect of E-cigarettes compared to control whether NRT or placebo on the sustained reduction of 50% or greater in baseline cigarette consumption as well as 7-day point prevalence abstinence rate at 1-,3-, and 6-month follow-up periods. Long term efficacy of E-cigarettes is unknown, and E-cigarettes may increase or have no effects on the proportion of serious adverse effect at 6 months follow up. The information presented are indeed useful for policy makers , public health practitioners, and to encourage further research. Further clinical trials are needed to assess the long-term efficacy and safety of E-cigarettes and ongoing trials are urgently needed to help concluding about the efficacy of E-cigarettes for smoking cessation.

Objective: to synthesize evidence about the efficacy of electronic cigarettes and placebo to quit smoking.

Data Sources: We searched for clinical trials with no publication date restriction until December 2019. The search included CENTRAL, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Science Direct, Center for reviews and dissemination and HTA database and Trip database, clinical trials registries, gray literature and examined the references of relevant articles.

Inclusion And Exclusion Criteria: Two review authors independently checked the titles and abstracts then the full text of initial hits. Main outcomes were sustained continuous abstinence rate, 7-day point prevalence abstinence rate, sustained reduction of 50% or greater in baseline cigarette consumption and adverse effects.

Data Extraction And Synthesis: Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias using the Cochrane RoB 2 tool. We conducted a random-effects model through the Mantel-Haenszel method.

Results: We retrieved involving 9863 participants. CO- validated 1-month continuous abstinence rate improved by 33% in the e-cigarettes group (range 6-66%, moderate evidence). We are uncertain if e-cigarettess influence continuous abstinence rate at 3-, 6- and 12 months as well as sustained reduction of 50% or greater in baseline cigarette consumption at different follow-up periods. One study of 884 participants displayed improved 12-month 7-day point abstinence by 46% (range 17%-82%). E-cigarettes may increase or do not affect the proportion of serious adverse effect at 6 and 12 months follow up.

Conclusion: Very low certainty evidence supported e-cigarettess to help quit smoking in the short term. There is not enough evidence to determine if e-cigarettess are a safe and efficacious means of smoking cessation in the long term (12+ months).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0890117120980289DOI Listing
December 2020

Predictors of CPAP outcome in hospitalized COVID-19 patients.

Respirology 2020 12 2;25(12):1316-1319. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

Critical Care Medicine Department, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/resp.13964DOI Listing
December 2020

Mapping 123 million neonatal, infant and child deaths between 2000 and 2017.

Authors:
Roy Burstein Nathaniel J Henry Michael L Collison Laurie B Marczak Amber Sligar Stefanie Watson Neal Marquez Mahdieh Abbasalizad-Farhangi Masoumeh Abbasi Foad Abd-Allah Amir Abdoli Mohammad Abdollahi Ibrahim Abdollahpour Rizwan Suliankatchi Abdulkader Michael R M Abrigo Dilaram Acharya Oladimeji M Adebayo Victor Adekanmbi Davoud Adham Mahdi Afshari Mohammad Aghaali Keivan Ahmadi Mehdi Ahmadi Ehsan Ahmadpour Rushdia Ahmed Chalachew Genet Akal Joshua O Akinyemi Fares Alahdab Noore Alam Genet Melak Alamene Kefyalew Addis Alene Mehran Alijanzadeh Cyrus Alinia Vahid Alipour Syed Mohamed Aljunid Mohammed J Almalki Hesham M Al-Mekhlafi Khalid Altirkawi Nelson Alvis-Guzman Adeladza Kofi Amegah Saeed Amini Arianna Maever Loreche Amit Zohreh Anbari Sofia Androudi Mina Anjomshoa Fereshteh Ansari Carl Abelardo T Antonio Jalal Arabloo Zohreh Arefi Olatunde Aremu Bahram Armoon Amit Arora Al Artaman Anvar Asadi Mehran Asadi-Aliabadi Amir Ashraf-Ganjouei Reza Assadi Bahar Ataeinia Sachin R Atre Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla Martin Amogre Ayanore Samad Azari Ebrahim Babaee Arefeh Babazadeh Alaa Badawi Soghra Bagheri Mojtaba Bagherzadeh Nafiseh Baheiraei Abbas Balouchi Aleksandra Barac Quique Bassat Bernhard T Baune Mohsen Bayati Neeraj Bedi Ettore Beghi Masoud Behzadifar Meysam Behzadifar Yared Belete Belay Brent Bell Michelle L Bell Dessalegn Ajema Berbada Robert S Bernstein Natalia V Bhattacharjee Suraj Bhattarai Zulfiqar A Bhutta Ali Bijani Somayeh Bohlouli Nicholas J K Breitborde Gabrielle Britton Annie J Browne Sharath Burugina Nagaraja Reinhard Busse Zahid A Butt Josip Car Rosario Cárdenas Carlos A Castañeda-Orjuela Ester Cerin Wagaye Fentahun Chanie Pranab Chatterjee Dinh-Toi Chu Cyrus Cooper Vera M Costa Koustuv Dalal Lalit Dandona Rakhi Dandona Farah Daoud Ahmad Daryani Rajat Das Gupta Ian Davis Nicole Davis Weaver Dragos Virgil Davitoiu Jan-Walter De Neve Feleke Mekonnen Demeke Gebre Teklemariam Demoz Kebede Deribe Rupak Desai Aniruddha Deshpande Hanna Demelash Desyibelew Sagnik Dey Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne Meghnath Dhimal Daniel Diaz Leila Doshmangir Andre R Duraes Laura Dwyer-Lindgren Lucas Earl Roya Ebrahimi Soheil Ebrahimpour Andem Effiong Aziz Eftekhari Elham Ehsani-Chimeh Iman El Sayed Maysaa El Sayed Zaki Maha El Tantawi Ziad El-Khatib Mohammad Hassan Emamian Shymaa Enany Sharareh Eskandarieh Oghenowede Eyawo Maha Ezalarab Mahbobeh Faramarzi Mohammad Fareed Roghiyeh Faridnia Andre Faro Ali Akbar Fazaeli Mehdi Fazlzadeh Netsanet Fentahun Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad João C Fernandes Irina Filip Florian Fischer Nataliya A Foigt Masoud Foroutan Joel Msafiri Francis Takeshi Fukumoto Nancy Fullman Silvano Gallus Destallem Gebremedhin Gebre Tsegaye Tewelde Gebrehiwot Gebreamlak Gebremedhn Gebremeskel Bradford D Gessner Birhanu Geta Peter W Gething Reza Ghadimi Keyghobad Ghadiri Mahsa Ghajarzadeh Ahmad Ghashghaee Paramjit Singh Gill Tiffany K Gill Nick Golding Nelson G M Gomes Philimon N Gona Sameer Vali Gopalani Giuseppe Gorini Bárbara Niegia Garcia Goulart Nicholas Graetz Felix Greaves Manfred S Green Yuming Guo Arvin Haj-Mirzaian Arya Haj-Mirzaian Brian James Hall Samer Hamidi Hamidreza Haririan Josep Maria Haro Milad Hasankhani Edris Hasanpoor Amir Hasanzadeh Hadi Hassankhani Hamid Yimam Hassen Mohamed I Hegazy Delia Hendrie Fatemeh Heydarpour Thomas R Hird Chi Linh Hoang Gillian Hollerich Enayatollah Homaie Rad Mojtaba Hoseini-Ghahfarokhi Naznin Hossain Mostafa Hosseini Mehdi Hosseinzadeh Mihaela Hostiuc Sorin Hostiuc Mowafa Househ Mohamed Hsairi Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi Mohammad Hasan Imani-Nasab Usman Iqbal Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani Nazrul Islam Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam Mikk Jürisson Nader Jafari Balalami Amir Jalali Javad Javidnia Achala Upendra Jayatilleke Ensiyeh Jenabi John S Ji Yash B Jobanputra Kimberly Johnson Jost B Jonas Zahra Jorjoran Shushtari Jacek Jerzy Jozwiak Ali Kabir Amaha Kahsay Hamed Kalani Rohollah Kalhor Manoochehr Karami Surendra Karki Amir Kasaeian Nicholas J Kassebaum Peter Njenga Keiyoro Grant Rodgers Kemp Roghayeh Khabiri Yousef Saleh Khader Morteza Abdullatif Khafaie Ejaz Ahmad Khan Junaid Khan Muhammad Shahzeb Khan Young-Ho Khang Khaled Khatab Amir Khater Mona M Khater Alireza Khatony Mohammad Khazaei Salman Khazaei Maryam Khazaei-Pool Jagdish Khubchandani Neda Kianipour Yun Jin Kim Ruth W Kimokoti Damaris K Kinyoki Adnan Kisa Sezer Kisa Tufa Kolola Soewarta Kosen Parvaiz A Koul Ai Koyanagi Moritz U G Kraemer Kewal Krishan Kris J Krohn Nuworza Kugbey G Anil Kumar Manasi Kumar Pushpendra Kumar Desmond Kuupiel Ben Lacey Sheetal D Lad Faris Hasan Lami Anders O Larsson Paul H Lee Mostafa Leili Aubrey J Levine Shanshan Li Lee-Ling Lim Stefan Listl Joshua Longbottom Jaifred Christian F Lopez Stefan Lorkowski Sameh Magdeldin Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek Muhammed Magdy Abd El Razek Azeem Majeed Afshin Maleki Reza Malekzadeh Deborah Carvalho Malta Abdullah A Mamun Navid Manafi Ana-Laura Manda Morteza Mansourian Francisco Rogerlândio Martins-Melo Anthony Masaka Benjamin Ballard Massenburg Pallab K Maulik Benjamin K Mayala Mohsen Mazidi Martin McKee Ravi Mehrotra Kala M Mehta Gebrekiros Gebremichael Meles Walter Mendoza Ritesh G Menezes Atte Meretoja Tuomo J Meretoja Tomislav Mestrovic Ted R Miller Molly K Miller-Petrie Edward J Mills George J Milne G K Mini Seyed Mostafa Mir Hamed Mirjalali Erkin M Mirrakhimov Efat Mohamadi Dara K Mohammad Aso Mohammad Darwesh Naser Mohammad Gholi Mezerji Ammas Siraj Mohammed Shafiu Mohammed Ali H Mokdad Mariam Molokhia Lorenzo Monasta Yoshan Moodley Mahmood Moosazadeh Ghobad Moradi Masoud Moradi Yousef Moradi Maziar Moradi-Lakeh Mehdi Moradinazar Paula Moraga Lidia Morawska Abbas Mosapour Seyyed Meysam Mousavi Ulrich Otto Mueller Atalay Goshu Muluneh Ghulam Mustafa Behnam Nabavizadeh Mehdi Naderi Ahamarshan Jayaraman Nagarajan Azin Nahvijou Farid Najafi Vinay Nangia Duduzile Edith Ndwandwe Nahid Neamati Ionut Negoi Ruxandra Irina Negoi Josephine W Ngunjiri Huong Lan Thi Nguyen Long Hoang Nguyen Son Hoang Nguyen Katie R Nielsen Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum Yirga Legesse Nirayo Molly R Nixon Chukwudi A Nnaji Marzieh Nojomi Mehdi Noroozi Shirin Nosratnejad Jean Jacques Noubiap Soraya Nouraei Motlagh Richard Ofori-Asenso Felix Akpojene Ogbo Kelechi E Oladimeji Andrew T Olagunju Meysam Olfatifar Solomon Olum Bolajoko Olubukunola Olusanya Mojisola Morenike Oluwasanu Obinna E Onwujekwe Eyal Oren Doris D V Ortega-Altamirano Alberto Ortiz Osayomwanbo Osarenotor Frank B Osei Aaron E Osgood-Zimmerman Stanislav S Otstavnov Mayowa Ojo Owolabi Mahesh P A Abdol Sattar Pagheh Smita Pakhale Songhomitra Panda-Jonas Animika Pandey Eun-Kee Park Hadi Parsian Tahereh Pashaei Sangram Kishor Patel Veincent Christian Filipino Pepito Alexandre Pereira Samantha Perkins Brandon V Pickering Thomas Pilgrim Majid Pirestani Bakhtiar Piroozi Meghdad Pirsaheb Oleguer Plana-Ripoll Hadi Pourjafar Parul Puri Mostafa Qorbani Hedley Quintana Mohammad Rabiee Navid Rabiee Amir Radfar Alireza Rafiei Fakher Rahim Zohreh Rahimi Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar Shadi Rahimzadeh Fatemeh Rajati Sree Bhushan Raju Azra Ramezankhani Chhabi Lal Ranabhat Davide Rasella Vahid Rashedi Lal Rawal Robert C Reiner Andre M N Renzaho Satar Rezaei Aziz Rezapour Seyed Mohammad Riahi Ana Isabel Ribeiro Leonardo Roever Elias Merdassa Roro Max Roser Gholamreza Roshandel Daem Roshani Ali Rostami Enrico Rubagotti Salvatore Rubino Siamak Sabour Nafis Sadat Ehsan Sadeghi Reza Saeedi Yahya Safari Roya Safari-Faramani Mahdi Safdarian Amirhossein Sahebkar Mohammad Reza Salahshoor Nasir Salam Payman Salamati Farkhonde Salehi Saleh Salehi Zahabi Yahya Salimi Hamideh Salimzadeh Joshua A Salomon Evanson Zondani Sambala Abdallah M Samy Milena M Santric Milicevic Bruno Piassi Sao Jose Sivan Yegnanarayana Iyer Saraswathy Rodrigo Sarmiento-Suárez Benn Sartorius Brijesh Sathian Sonia Saxena Alyssa N Sbarra Lauren E Schaeffer David C Schwebel Sadaf G Sepanlou Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi Faramarz Shaahmadi Masood Ali Shaikh Mehran Shams-Beyranvand Amir Shamshirian Morteza Shamsizadeh Kiomars Sharafi Mehdi Sharif Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini Hamid Sharifi Jayendra Sharma Rajesh Sharma Aziz Sheikh Chloe Shields Mika Shigematsu Rahman Shiri Ivy Shiue Kerem Shuval Tariq J Siddiqi João Pedro Silva Jasvinder A Singh Dhirendra Narain Sinha Malede Mequanent Sisay Solomon Sisay Karen Sliwa David L Smith Ranjani Somayaji Moslem Soofi Joan B Soriano Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy Agus Sudaryanto Mu'awiyyah Babale Sufiyan Bryan L Sykes P N Sylaja Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos Karen M Tabb Takahiro Tabuchi Nuno Taveira Mohamad-Hani Temsah Abdullah Sulieman Terkawi Zemenu Tadesse Tessema Kavumpurathu Raman Thankappan Sathish Thirunavukkarasu Quyen G To Marcos Roberto Tovani-Palone Bach Xuan Tran Khanh Bao Tran Irfan Ullah Muhammad Shariq Usman Olalekan A Uthman Amir Vahedian-Azimi Pascual R Valdez Job F M van Boven Tommi Juhani Vasankari Yasser Vasseghian Yousef Veisani Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian Francesco S Violante Sergey Konstantinovitch Vladimirov Vasily Vlassov Theo Vos Giang Thu Vu Isidora S Vujcic Yasir Waheed Jon Wakefield Haidong Wang Yafeng Wang Yuan-Pang Wang Joseph L Ward Robert G Weintraub Kidu Gidey Weldegwergs Girmay Teklay Weldesamuel Ronny Westerman Charles Shey Wiysonge Dawit Zewdu Wondafrash Lauren Woyczynski Ai-Min Wu Gelin Xu Abbas Yadegar Tomohide Yamada Vahid Yazdi-Feyzabadi Christopher Sabo Yilgwan Paul Yip Naohiro Yonemoto Javad Yoosefi Lebni Mustafa Z Younis Mahmoud Yousefifard Hebat-Allah Salah A Yousof Chuanhua Yu Hasan Yusefzadeh Erfan Zabeh Telma Zahirian Moghadam Sojib Bin Zaman Mohammad Zamani Hamed Zandian Alireza Zangeneh Taddese Alemu Zerfu Yunquan Zhang Arash Ziapour Sanjay Zodpey Christopher J L Murray Simon I Hay

Nature 2019 10 16;574(7778):353-358. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Since 2000, many countries have achieved considerable success in improving child survival, but localized progress remains unclear. To inform efforts towards United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 3.2-to end preventable child deaths by 2030-we need consistently estimated data at the subnational level regarding child mortality rates and trends. Here we quantified, for the period 2000-2017, the subnational variation in mortality rates and number of deaths of neonates, infants and children under 5 years of age within 99 low- and middle-income countries using a geostatistical survival model. We estimated that 32% of children under 5 in these countries lived in districts that had attained rates of 25 or fewer child deaths per 1,000 live births by 2017, and that 58% of child deaths between 2000 and 2017 in these countries could have been averted in the absence of geographical inequality. This study enables the identification of high-mortality clusters, patterns of progress and geographical inequalities to inform appropriate investments and implementations that will help to improve the health of all populations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1545-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6800389PMC
October 2019

Global, Regional, and National Cancer Incidence, Mortality, Years of Life Lost, Years Lived With Disability, and Disability-Adjusted Life-Years for 29 Cancer Groups, 1990 to 2017: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study.

Authors:
Christina Fitzmaurice Degu Abate Naghmeh Abbasi Hedayat Abbastabar Foad Abd-Allah Omar Abdel-Rahman Ahmed Abdelalim Amir Abdoli Ibrahim Abdollahpour Abdishakur S M Abdulle Nebiyu Dereje Abebe Haftom Niguse Abraha Laith Jamal Abu-Raddad Ahmed Abualhasan Isaac Akinkunmi Adedeji Shailesh M Advani Mohsen Afarideh Mahdi Afshari Mohammad Aghaali Dominic Agius Sutapa Agrawal Ayat Ahmadi Elham Ahmadian Ehsan Ahmadpour Muktar Beshir Ahmed Mohammad Esmaeil Akbari Tomi Akinyemiju Ziyad Al-Aly Assim M AlAbdulKader Fares Alahdab Tahiya Alam Genet Melak Alamene Birhan Tamene T Alemnew Kefyalew Addis Alene Cyrus Alinia Vahid Alipour Syed Mohamed Aljunid Fatemeh Allah Bakeshei Majid Abdulrahman Hamad Almadi Amir Almasi-Hashiani Ubai Alsharif Shirina Alsowaidi Nelson Alvis-Guzman Erfan Amini Saeed Amini Yaw Ampem Amoako Zohreh Anbari Nahla Hamed Anber Catalina Liliana Andrei Mina Anjomshoa Fereshteh Ansari Ansariadi Ansariadi Seth Christopher Yaw Appiah Morteza Arab-Zozani Jalal Arabloo Zohreh Arefi Olatunde Aremu Habtamu Abera Areri Al Artaman Hamid Asayesh Ephrem Tsegay Asfaw Alebachew Fasil Ashagre Reza Assadi Bahar Ataeinia Hagos Tasew Atalay Zerihun Ataro Suleman Atique Marcel Ausloos Leticia Avila-Burgos Euripide F G A Avokpaho Ashish Awasthi Nefsu Awoke Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla Martin Amogre Ayanore Henok Tadesse Ayele Ebrahim Babaee Umar Bacha Alaa Badawi Mojtaba Bagherzadeh Eleni Bagli Senthilkumar Balakrishnan Abbas Balouchi Till Winfried Bärnighausen Robert J Battista Masoud Behzadifar Meysam Behzadifar Bayu Begashaw Bekele Yared Belete Belay Yaschilal Muche Belayneh Kathleen Kim Sachiko Berfield Adugnaw Berhane Eduardo Bernabe Mircea Beuran Nickhill Bhakta Krittika Bhattacharyya Belete Biadgo Ali Bijani Muhammad Shahdaat Bin Sayeed Charles Birungi Catherine Bisignano Helen Bitew Tone Bjørge Archie Bleyer Kassawmar Angaw Bogale Hunduma Amensisa Bojia Antonio M Borzì Cristina Bosetti Ibrahim R Bou-Orm Hermann Brenner Jerry D Brewer Andrey Nikolaevich Briko Nikolay Ivanovich Briko Maria Teresa Bustamante-Teixeira Zahid A Butt Giulia Carreras Juan J Carrero Félix Carvalho Clara Castro Franz Castro Ferrán Catalá-López Ester Cerin Yazan Chaiah Wagaye Fentahun Chanie Vijay Kumar Chattu Pankaj Chaturvedi Neelima Singh Chauhan Mohammad Chehrazi Peggy Pei-Chia Chiang Tesfaye Yitna Chichiabellu Onyema Greg Chido-Amajuoyi Odgerel Chimed-Ochir Jee-Young J Choi Devasahayam J Christopher Dinh-Toi Chu Maria-Magdalena Constantin Vera M Costa Emanuele Crocetti Christopher Stephen Crowe Maria Paula Curado Saad M A Dahlawi Giovanni Damiani Amira Hamed Darwish Ahmad Daryani José das Neves Feleke Mekonnen Demeke Asmamaw Bizuneh Demis Birhanu Wondimeneh Demissie Gebre Teklemariam Demoz Edgar Denova-Gutiérrez Afshin Derakhshani Kalkidan Solomon Deribe Rupak Desai Beruk Berhanu Desalegn Melaku Desta Subhojit Dey Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne Meghnath Dhimal Daniel Diaz Mesfin Tadese Tadese Dinberu Shirin Djalalinia David Teye Doku Thomas M Drake Manisha Dubey Eleonora Dubljanin Eyasu Ejeta Duken Hedyeh Ebrahimi Andem Effiong Aziz Eftekhari Iman El Sayed Maysaa El Sayed Zaki Shaimaa I El-Jaafary Ziad El-Khatib Demelash Abewa Elemineh Hajer Elkout Richard G Ellenbogen Aisha Elsharkawy Mohammad Hassan Emamian Daniel Adane Endalew Aman Yesuf Endries Babak Eshrati Ibtihal Fadhil Vahid Fallah Omrani Mahbobeh Faramarzi Mahdieh Abbasalizad Farhangi Andrea Farioli Farshad Farzadfar Netsanet Fentahun Eduarda Fernandes Garumma Tolu Feyissa Irina Filip Florian Fischer James L Fisher Lisa M Force Masoud Foroutan Marisa Freitas Takeshi Fukumoto Neal D Futran Silvano Gallus Fortune Gbetoho Gankpe Reta Tsegaye Gayesa Tsegaye Tewelde Gebrehiwot Gebreamlak Gebremedhn Gebremeskel Getnet Azeze Gedefaw Belayneh K Gelaw Birhanu Geta Sefonias Getachew Kebede Embaye Gezae Mansour Ghafourifard Alireza Ghajar Ahmad Ghashghaee Asadollah Gholamian Paramjit Singh Gill Themba T G Ginindza Alem Girmay Muluken Gizaw Ricardo Santiago Gomez Sameer Vali Gopalani Giuseppe Gorini Bárbara Niegia Garcia Goulart Ayman Grada Maximiliano Ribeiro Guerra Andre Luiz Sena Guimaraes Prakash C Gupta Rahul Gupta Kishor Hadkhale Arvin Haj-Mirzaian Arya Haj-Mirzaian Randah R Hamadeh Samer Hamidi Lolemo Kelbiso Hanfore Josep Maria Haro Milad Hasankhani Amir Hasanzadeh Hamid Yimam Hassen Roderick J Hay Simon I Hay Andualem Henok Nathaniel J Henry Claudiu Herteliu Hagos D Hidru Chi Linh Hoang Michael K Hole Praveen Hoogar Nobuyuki Horita H Dean Hosgood Mostafa Hosseini Mehdi Hosseinzadeh Mihaela Hostiuc Sorin Hostiuc Mowafa Househ Mohammedaman Mama Hussen Bogdan Ileanu Milena D Ilic Kaire Innos Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani Kufre Robert Iseh Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam Farhad Islami Nader Jafari Balalami Morteza Jafarinia Leila Jahangiry Mohammad Ali Jahani Nader Jahanmehr Mihajlo Jakovljevic Spencer L James Mehdi Javanbakht Sudha Jayaraman Sun Ha Jee Ensiyeh Jenabi Ravi Prakash Jha Jost B Jonas Jitendra Jonnagaddala Tamas Joo Suresh Banayya Jungari Mikk Jürisson Ali Kabir Farin Kamangar André Karch Narges Karimi Ansar Karimian Amir Kasaeian Gebremicheal Gebreslassie Kasahun Belete Kassa Tesfaye Dessale Kassa Mesfin Wudu Kassaw Anil Kaul Peter Njenga Keiyoro Abraham Getachew Kelbore Amene Abebe Kerbo Yousef Saleh Khader Maryam Khalilarjmandi Ejaz Ahmad Khan Gulfaraz Khan Young-Ho Khang Khaled Khatab Amir Khater Maryam Khayamzadeh Maryam Khazaee-Pool Salman Khazaei Abdullah T Khoja Mohammad Hossein Khosravi Jagdish Khubchandani Neda Kianipour Daniel Kim Yun Jin Kim Adnan Kisa Sezer Kisa Katarzyna Kissimova-Skarbek Hamidreza Komaki Ai Koyanagi Kristopher J Krohn Burcu Kucuk Bicer Nuworza Kugbey Vivek Kumar Desmond Kuupiel Carlo La Vecchia Deepesh P Lad Eyasu Alem Lake Ayenew Molla Lakew Dharmesh Kumar Lal Faris Hasan Lami Qing Lan Savita Lasrado Paolo Lauriola Jeffrey V Lazarus James Leigh Cheru Tesema Leshargie Yu Liao Miteku Andualem Limenih Stefan Listl Alan D Lopez Platon D Lopukhov Raimundas Lunevicius Mohammed Madadin Sameh Magdeldin Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek Azeem Majeed Afshin Maleki Reza Malekzadeh Ali Manafi Navid Manafi Wondimu Ayele Manamo Morteza Mansourian Mohammad Ali Mansournia Lorenzo Giovanni Mantovani Saman Maroufizadeh Santi Martini S Martini Tivani Phosa Mashamba-Thompson Benjamin Ballard Massenburg Motswadi Titus Maswabi Manu Raj Mathur Colm McAlinden Martin McKee Hailemariam Abiy Alemu Meheretu Ravi Mehrotra Varshil Mehta Toni Meier Yohannes A Melaku Gebrekiros Gebremichael Meles Hagazi Gebre Meles Addisu Melese Mulugeta Melku Peter T N Memiah Walter Mendoza Ritesh G Menezes Shahin Merat Tuomo J Meretoja Tomislav Mestrovic Bartosz Miazgowski Tomasz Miazgowski Kebadnew Mulatu M Mihretie Ted R Miller Edward J Mills Seyed Mostafa Mir Hamed Mirzaei Hamid Reza Mirzaei Rashmi Mishra Babak Moazen Dara K Mohammad Karzan Abdulmuhsin Mohammad Yousef Mohammad Aso Mohammad Darwesh Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi Hiwa Mohammadi Moslem Mohammadi Mahdi Mohammadian Abdollah Mohammadian-Hafshejani Milad Mohammadoo-Khorasani Reza Mohammadpourhodki Ammas Siraj Mohammed Jemal Abdu Mohammed Shafiu Mohammed Farnam Mohebi Ali H Mokdad Lorenzo Monasta Yoshan Moodley Mahmood Moosazadeh Maryam Moossavi Ghobad Moradi Mohammad Moradi-Joo Maziar Moradi-Lakeh Farhad Moradpour Lidia Morawska Joana Morgado-da-Costa Naho Morisaki Shane Douglas Morrison Abbas Mosapour Seyyed Meysam Mousavi Achenef Asmamaw Muche Oumer Sada S Muhammed Jonah Musa Ashraf F Nabhan Mehdi Naderi Ahamarshan Jayaraman Nagarajan Gabriele Nagel Azin Nahvijou Gurudatta Naik Farid Najafi Luigi Naldi Hae Sung Nam Naser Nasiri Javad Nazari Ionut Negoi Subas Neupane Polly A Newcomb Haruna Asura Nggada Josephine W Ngunjiri Cuong Tat Nguyen Leila Nikniaz Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum Yirga Legesse Nirayo Molly R Nixon Chukwudi A Nnaji Marzieh Nojomi Shirin Nosratnejad Malihe Nourollahpour Shiadeh Mohammed Suleiman Obsa Richard Ofori-Asenso Felix Akpojene Ogbo In-Hwan Oh Andrew T Olagunju Tinuke O Olagunju Mojisola Morenike Oluwasanu Abidemi E Omonisi Obinna E Onwujekwe Anu Mary Oommen Eyal Oren Doris D V Ortega-Altamirano Erika Ota Stanislav S Otstavnov Mayowa Ojo Owolabi Mahesh P A Jagadish Rao Padubidri Smita Pakhale Amir H Pakpour Adrian Pana Eun-Kee Park Hadi Parsian Tahereh Pashaei Shanti Patel Snehal T Patil Alyssa Pennini David M Pereira Cristiano Piccinelli Julian David Pillay Majid Pirestani Farhad Pishgar Maarten J Postma Hadi Pourjafar Farshad Pourmalek Akram Pourshams Swayam Prakash Narayan Prasad Mostafa Qorbani Mohammad Rabiee Navid Rabiee Amir Radfar Alireza Rafiei Fakher Rahim Mahdi Rahimi Muhammad Aziz Rahman Fatemeh Rajati Saleem M Rana Samira Raoofi Goura Kishor Rath David Laith Rawaf Salman Rawaf Robert C Reiner Andre M N Renzaho Nima Rezaei Aziz Rezapour Ana Isabel Ribeiro Daniela Ribeiro Luca Ronfani Elias Merdassa Roro Gholamreza Roshandel Ali Rostami Ragy Safwat Saad Parisa Sabbagh Siamak Sabour Basema Saddik Saeid Safiri Amirhossein Sahebkar Mohammad Reza Salahshoor Farkhonde Salehi Hosni Salem Marwa Rashad Salem Hamideh Salimzadeh Joshua A Salomon Abdallah M Samy Juan Sanabria Milena M Santric Milicevic Benn Sartorius Arash Sarveazad Brijesh Sathian Maheswar Satpathy Miloje Savic Monika Sawhney Mehdi Sayyah Ione J C Schneider Ben Schöttker Mario Sekerija Sadaf G Sepanlou Masood Sepehrimanesh Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi Faramarz Shaahmadi Hosein Shabaninejad Mohammad Shahbaz Masood Ali Shaikh Amir Shamshirian Morteza Shamsizadeh Heidar Sharafi Zeinab Sharafi Mehdi Sharif Ali Sharifi Hamid Sharifi Rajesh Sharma Aziz Sheikh Reza Shirkoohi Sharvari Rahul Shukla Si Si Soraya Siabani Diego Augusto Santos Silva Dayane Gabriele Alves Silveira Ambrish Singh Jasvinder A Singh Solomon Sisay Freddy Sitas Eugène Sobngwi Moslem Soofi Joan B Soriano Vasiliki Stathopoulou Mu'awiyyah Babale Sufiyan Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos Takahiro Tabuchi Ken Takahashi Omid Reza Tamtaji Mohammed Rasoul Tarawneh Segen Gebremeskel Tassew Parvaneh Taymoori Arash Tehrani-Banihashemi Mohamad-Hani Temsah Omar Temsah Berhe Etsay Tesfay Fisaha Haile Tesfay Manaye Yihune Teshale Gizachew Assefa Tessema Subash Thapa Kenean Getaneh Tlaye Roman Topor-Madry Marcos Roberto Tovani-Palone Eugenio Traini Bach Xuan Tran Khanh Bao Tran Afewerki Gebremeskel Tsadik Irfan Ullah Olalekan A Uthman Marco Vacante Maryam Vaezi Patricia Varona Pérez Yousef Veisani Simone Vidale Francesco S Violante Vasily Vlassov Stein Emil Vollset Theo Vos Kia Vosoughi Giang Thu Vu Isidora S Vujcic Henry Wabinga Tesfahun Mulatu Wachamo Fasil Shiferaw Wagnew Yasir Waheed Fitsum Weldegebreal Girmay Teklay Weldesamuel Tissa Wijeratne Dawit Zewdu Wondafrash Tewodros Eshete Wonde Adam Belay Wondmieneh Hailemariam Mekonnen Workie Rajaram Yadav Abbas Yadegar Ali Yadollahpour Mehdi Yaseri Vahid Yazdi-Feyzabadi Alex Yeshaneh Mohammed Ahmed Yimam Ebrahim M Yimer Engida Yisma Naohiro Yonemoto Mustafa Z Younis Bahman Yousefi Mahmoud Yousefifard Chuanhua Yu Erfan Zabeh Vesna Zadnik Telma Zahirian Moghadam Zoubida Zaidi Mohammad Zamani Hamed Zandian Alireza Zangeneh Leila Zaki Kazem Zendehdel Zerihun Menlkalew Zenebe Taye Abuhay Zewale Arash Ziapour Sanjay Zodpey Christopher J L Murray

JAMA Oncol 2019 12;5(12):1749-1768

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle.

Importance: Cancer and other noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are now widely recognized as a threat to global development. The latest United Nations high-level meeting on NCDs reaffirmed this observation and also highlighted the slow progress in meeting the 2011 Political Declaration on the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases and the third Sustainable Development Goal. Lack of situational analyses, priority setting, and budgeting have been identified as major obstacles in achieving these goals. All of these have in common that they require information on the local cancer epidemiology. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study is uniquely poised to provide these crucial data.

Objective: To describe cancer burden for 29 cancer groups in 195 countries from 1990 through 2017 to provide data needed for cancer control planning.

Evidence Review: We used the GBD study estimation methods to describe cancer incidence, mortality, years lived with disability, years of life lost, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs). Results are presented at the national level as well as by Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a composite indicator of income, educational attainment, and total fertility rate. We also analyzed the influence of the epidemiological vs the demographic transition on cancer incidence.

Findings: In 2017, there were 24.5 million incident cancer cases worldwide (16.8 million without nonmelanoma skin cancer [NMSC]) and 9.6 million cancer deaths. The majority of cancer DALYs came from years of life lost (97%), and only 3% came from years lived with disability. The odds of developing cancer were the lowest in the low SDI quintile (1 in 7) and the highest in the high SDI quintile (1 in 2) for both sexes. In 2017, the most common incident cancers in men were NMSC (4.3 million incident cases); tracheal, bronchus, and lung (TBL) cancer (1.5 million incident cases); and prostate cancer (1.3 million incident cases). The most common causes of cancer deaths and DALYs for men were TBL cancer (1.3 million deaths and 28.4 million DALYs), liver cancer (572 000 deaths and 15.2 million DALYs), and stomach cancer (542 000 deaths and 12.2 million DALYs). For women in 2017, the most common incident cancers were NMSC (3.3 million incident cases), breast cancer (1.9 million incident cases), and colorectal cancer (819 000 incident cases). The leading causes of cancer deaths and DALYs for women were breast cancer (601 000 deaths and 17.4 million DALYs), TBL cancer (596 000 deaths and 12.6 million DALYs), and colorectal cancer (414 000 deaths and 8.3 million DALYs).

Conclusions And Relevance: The national epidemiological profiles of cancer burden in the GBD study show large heterogeneities, which are a reflection of different exposures to risk factors, economic settings, lifestyles, and access to care and screening. The GBD study can be used by policy makers and other stakeholders to develop and improve national and local cancer control in order to achieve the global targets and improve equity in cancer care.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2019.2996DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6777271PMC
December 2019

A cross-sectional study to assess Evidence-Based Medicine teaching method: online or face-to-face?

BMJ Evid Based Med 2019 Apr 11;24(2):59-62. Epub 2018 Dec 11.

Department of Critical Care Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.

We aimed to study differences in postgraduate students' achievement if they are taught evidence-based medicine (EBM) by face-to-face or by online learning. We assessed the performance of 28 postgraduate students who completed a face-to-face learning module and 34 students who completed an online learning module in a cross-sectional study. The teaching materials were the same in both courses so that any performance difference would be due to the teaching method. Grading involved semester work (15%), midterm (25%), oral (15%) and final (30%) examinations. Students were evaluated by a project submitted by the end of the semester (15%). Percentage of student satisfaction was calculated. Mean midterm and final examination scores did not differ significantly between the two groups (p=0.759 and 0.721, respectively). Students from both groups achieved almost the same median score on the oral discussion examination (p=0.31). Students who attended the online learning module were associated with a significantly higher median project score compared with those who attended the face-to-face teaching (p<0.001). In general, students from both modules were similarly satisfied about course contents, lecturers and students' assessment process although one-third of students felt non-equality and unfair instructors' practice towards them in face-to-face teaching method. Further research should be paid towards assessment of EBM e-learning to support the developing era of evidence-based practice in low-income to middle-income countries.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjebm-2018-111117DOI Listing
April 2019

Antibiotics for treating scrub typhus.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 09 24;9:CD002150. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Department of Biomedical Informatics and Medical Statistics, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.

Background: Scrub typhus, an important cause of acute fever in Asia, is caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi, an obligate intracellular bacterium. Antibiotics currently used to treat scrub typhus include tetracyclines, chloramphenicol, macrolides, and rifampicin.

Objectives: To assess and compare the effects of different antibiotic regimens for treatment of scrub typhus.

Search Methods: We searched the following databases up to 8 January 2018: the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group specialized trials register; CENTRAL, in the Cochrane Library (2018, Issue 1); MEDLINE; Embase; LILACS; and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT). We checked references and contacted study authors for additional data. We applied no language or date restrictions.

Selection Criteria: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs comparing antibiotic regimens in people with the diagnosis of scrub typhus based on clinical symptoms and compatible laboratory tests (excluding the Weil-Felix test).

Data Collection And Analysis: For this update, two review authors re-extracted all data and assessed the certainty of evidence. We meta-analysed data to calculate risk ratios (RRs) for dichotomous outcomes when appropriate, and elsewhere tabulated data to facilitate narrative analysis.

Main Results: We included six RCTs and one quasi-RCT with 548 participants; they took place in the Asia-Pacific region: Korea (three trials), Malaysia (one trial), and Thailand (three trials). Only one trial included children younger than 15 years (N = 57). We judged five trials to be at high risk of performance and detection bias owing to inadequate blinding. Trials were heterogenous in terms of dosing of interventions and outcome measures. Across trials, treatment failure rates were low.Two trials compared doxycycline to tetracycline. For treatment failure, the difference between doxycycline and tetracycline is uncertain (very low-certainty evidence). Doxycycline compared to tetracycline may make little or no difference in resolution of fever within 48 hours (risk ratio (RR) 1.14, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.90 to 1.44, 55 participants; one trial; low-certainty evidence) and in time to defervescence (116 participants; one trial; low-certainty evidence). We were unable to extract data for other outcomes.Three trials compared doxycycline versus macrolides. For most outcomes, including treatment failure, resolution of fever within 48 hours, time to defervescence, and serious adverse events, we are uncertain whether study results show a difference between doxycycline and macrolides (very low-certainty evidence). Macrolides compared to doxycycline may make little or no difference in the proportion of patients with resolution of fever within five days (RR 1.05, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.10; 185 participants; two trials; low-certainty evidence). Another trial compared azithromycin versus doxycycline or chloramphenicol in children, but we were not able to disaggregate date for the doxycycline/chloramphenicol group.One trial compared doxycycline versus rifampicin. For all outcomes, we are uncertain whether study results show a difference between doxycycline and rifampicin (very low-certainty evidence). Of note, this trial deviated from the protocol after three out of eight patients who had received doxycycline and rifampicin combination therapy experienced treatment failure.Across trials, mild gastrointestinal side effects appeared to be more common with doxycycline than with comparator drugs.

Authors' Conclusions: Tetracycline, doxycycline, azithromycin, and rifampicin are effective treatment options for scrub typhus and have resulted in few treatment failures. Chloramphenicol also remains a treatment option, but we could not include this among direct comparisons in this review.Most available evidence is of low or very low certainty. For specific outcomes, some low-certainty evidence suggests there may be little or no difference between tetracycline, doxycycline, and azithromycin as treatment options. Given very low-certainty evidence for rifampicin and the risk of inducing resistance in undiagnosed tuberculosis, clinicians should not regard this as a first-line treatment option. Clinicians could consider rifampicin as a second-line treatment option after exclusion of active tuberculosis.Further research should consist of additional adequately powered trials of doxycycline versus azithromycin or other macrolides, trials of other candidate antibiotics including rifampicin, and trials of treatments for severe scrub typhus. Researchers should standardize diagnostic techniques and reporting of clinical outcomes to allow robust comparisons.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD002150.pub2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6485465PMC
September 2018

An Assessment Scale for Patients with Postoperative Superficial Incisional Surgical Site Infection: a Cross-Sectional Study.

Indian J Surg 2018 Jun 12;80(3):259-268. Epub 2016 Nov 12.

2Medical Surgical Nursing Department, Faculty of Nursing, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt.

Superficial incisional surgical site infection (SSI) is a common postoperative complication in surgical patients. The aim of this study was to assess the predictive power of an assessment scale for identifying patients at risk of superficial incisional SSI. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at the Department of Surgery at the Medical Research Institute Hospital, Alexandria University. A sample of 150 adult patients aged from 18 to 65 years, who undergoing general surgeries that had clean sutured surgical wounds, was randomly selected. Forty-six patients (30.7%) had SSI. The total score can significantly discriminate between positive and negative superficial incisional SSI patients with diagnostic accuracy of AUC (SE) = 0.66 (0.048). Each score more than the cutoff point (11.5) will increase the risk of surgical site infection development by 2.5 times (OR (95% CI) = 2.5 (1.26-3.1)). The developed assessment scale can discriminate between patients who are at risk of superficial incisional SSI and those who are not. It can be used as a preliminary screening tool for subsequent investigation for the presence of infection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12262-016-1566-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6014960PMC
June 2018

Coacervation-Mediated Combinatorial Synthesis of Biomatrices for Stem Cell Culture and Directed Differentiation.

Adv Mater 2018 May 16;30(22):e1706100. Epub 2018 Apr 16.

B CUBE Center for Molecular Bioengineering, Technische Universität Dresden, Arnoldstraße 18, 01307, Dresden, Germany.

Combinatorial screening represents a promising strategy to discover biomaterials for tailored cell culture applications. Although libraries incorporating different biochemical cues have been investigated, few simultaneously recapitulate relevant biochemical, physical, and dynamic features of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Here, a noncovalent system based on liquid-liquid phase separation (coacervation) and gelation mediated by glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-peptide interactions is reported. Multiple biomaterial libraries are generated using combinations of sulfated glycosaminoglycans and poly(ethylene glycol)-conjugated peptides. Screening these biomaterials reveals preferred biomatrices for the attachment of six cell types, including primary mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and primary neural precursor cells (NPCs). Incorporation of GAGs sustains the expansion of all tested cell types comparable to standard cell culture surfaces, while osteogenic differentiation of MSC and neuronal differentiation of NPC are promoted on chondroitin and heparan biomatrices, respectively. The presented noncovalent system provides a powerful tool for developing tissue-specific ECM mimics.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.201706100DOI Listing
May 2018

Educational inequality in cancer mortality: a record linkage study of over 35 million Italians.

Cancer Causes Control 2017 Sep 26;28(9):997-1006. Epub 2017 Jul 26.

Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Vanzetti 5, 20133, Milan, Italy.

Purpose: Large studies are needed to evaluate socioeconomic inequality for site-specific cancer mortality. We conducted a longitudinal census-based national study to quantify the relative inequality in cancer mortality among educational levels in Italy.

Methods: We linked the 2011 Italian census with the 2012 and 2013 death registries. Educational inequality in overall cancer and site-specific cancer mortality were evaluated by computing the mortality rate ratio (MRR).

Results: A total of 35,708,445 subjects aged 30-74 years and 147,981 cancer deaths were registered. Compared to the lowest level of education (none or primary school), the MRR for all cancers in the highest level (university) was 0.57 (95% CI 0.55; 0.58) in men and 0.84 (95% CI 0.81; 0.87) in women. Higher education was associated with reduced risk of mortality from lip, oral cavity, pharynx, oesophagus, stomach, colon and liver in both sexes. Higher education (university) was associated with decreased risk of lung cancer in men (MRR: 0.43, 95% CI 0.41; 0.46), but not in women (MRR: 1.00, 95% CI 0.92; 1.10). Highly educated women had a reduced risk of mortality from cervical cancer than lower educated women (MRR: 0.39, 95% CI 0.27; 0.56), but they had a similar risk for breast cancer (MRR: 1.01, 95% CI 0.94; 1.09).

Conclusions: Education is inversely associated with total cancer mortality, and the association was stronger in men. Different patterns and trends in tobacco smoking in men and women account for at least most of the gender differences.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10552-017-0930-yDOI Listing
September 2017

The frequency of bladder cancer in Alexandria, Egypt, over the last two decades.

Eur J Cancer Prev 2018 09;27(5):477-478

Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CEJ.0000000000000368DOI Listing
September 2018

A meta-analysis of the effect of different neuroprotective drugs in management of patients with traumatic brain injury.

Neurosurg Rev 2018 Apr 18;41(2):427-438. Epub 2016 Aug 18.

Critical Care Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University, Sultan Hussein Street, Alexandria, Egypt.

Traumatic brain injury is a major problem worldwide. Our objective is to synthesize available evidence in the literature concerning the effectiveness of neuroprotective drugs (cerebrolysin, citicoline, and piracetam) on Glasgow outcome score (GOS), cognitive performance, and survival in traumatic brain injury patients. Comprehensive search of electronic databases, search engines, and conferences proceedings; hand search journals; searching reference lists of relevant articles, theses, and local publications; and contact of authors for incomplete data were performed. Studies included patients in all age groups regardless of severity of trauma. There was no publication date restriction. Two reviewers independently extracted data from each study. Fixed effect or random effects model selection depends on results of statistical tests for heterogeneity. The literature search yielded 13 studies. Patients treated with cerebrolysin (n = 112) had favorable GOS three times more than controls (OR 3.019; 95 % CI 1.76 to 5.16; p = 0.003*). The odds of cognition improvement in the treatment group was 3.4 times more than controls (OR 3.4; 95 % CI 1.82 to 5.21; p < 0.001*). Survival of cerebrolysin-treated patients did not differ from controls (103 patients; OR = 2.81; 95 % CI 0.905 to 8.76). Citicoline did not improve GOS (1355 patients; OR 0.96; 95 % CI 0.830 to 1.129; p = 0.676), cognitive performance (4 studies; 1291 patients; OR 1.35; 95 % CI 0.58 to 3.16; p = 0.478), and survival (1037 patients; OR = 1.38; 95 % CI 0.855 to 2.239). One study showed a positive effect of piracetam on cognition. Further research with high validity is needed to reach a solid conclusion about the use of neuroprotective drugs in cases of brain injury.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10143-016-0775-yDOI Listing
April 2018

Critical thinking and attitude of physicians toward evidence-based medicine in Alexandria, Egypt.

J Egypt Public Health Assoc 2015 Sep;90(3):115-20

Departments of aBiomedical Informatics and Medical Statistics bExperimental and Clinical Surgery, Medical Research Institute, Alexandria, Egypt.

Background: Evidence-based practice is important for developing countries and is expected to thrive in a questioning culture. Experienced physicians differ in the making of clinical judgements, which are often not based on evidence. Although this topic is of paramount importance to the quality of care provided in the university hospitals in Alexandria, little research has been done about attitudes towards evidence-based medicine (EBM), and the extent of physicians' skills to access and interpret evidence.

Objective: This study aimed to investigate the relation between the attitude towards EBM and the indicators for questioning mind and critical appraisal skills among physicians in Alexandria, Egypt.

Participants And Methods: In a cross-sectional study, physicians (N=549) were randomly selected from different clinical departments in three of the university hospitals in Alexandria, Egypt using the stratified proportionate random sampling technique. A self-administrated questionnaire modified from the questionnaire used by McColl and colleagues was used.

Results: A high percentage of physicians (83%) had positive attitude towards EBM. Feeling knowledge gap every day was reported by 34.2% of the physicians while 55.6% felt knowledge gap less frequently. The percentage of physicians who understood the meaning of different measures used to assess the importance of results and quality of evidence in meta-analysis studies ranged from 10.8 to 24.2%. Higher frequency of feeling knowledge gap in clinical practice and the ability to correctly answer different questions reflecting critical reading skills were all significantly associated with positive attitude towards EBM (P<0.05). A significant association (P<0.05) was also found between the frequency of feeling knowledge gap and the ability to answer questions related to critical reading of literature.

Conclusion And Recommendations: This study has identified a significant relation between critical thinking skills and having a positive attitude towards EBM among physicians in the university hospitals in Alexandria. The study supported the hypothesis that strategies that encouraging critical thinking in medical education could improve the attitude of physicians towards EBM. Adopting teaching methods that encourage critical thinking in medical education as well as including the concepts and principals of critical appraisal of scientific research in the syllabus of both undergraduate and postgraduate medical students are recommended.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.EPX.0000470848.07476.f9DOI Listing
September 2015

Patient skin preparation for surgery.

J Egypt Public Health Assoc 2008 ;83(3-4):295-305

General Organization of Teaching Hospitals & Institutes, Cairo, Egypt.

Skin preparation of the patient begins before arriving to the operating room; its purpose is to reduce the risk of post operative wound infection. The objective of this study was to assess the skin preparation for surgical procedures in 3 different hospitals of the General Organization for Teaching Hospitals & Institutes (GOTHI) and to determine their conformity to the existing protocol and make comparisons between them in their performance. A prospective study using the audit was done for 1 month, nearly for the same period in each of the 3 hospitals (A,B,C) to observe the skin preparation practices considering showering, hair removal and the 5 steps of patient skin preparation on table in the operating room. The global results revealed that the compliance rate in the three hospitals together as regards performing the 5 steps of skin preparation in the operating room was 36.2%. It was 50.6% in hospital A, 43.3% in hospital B and 18.7% in hospital C. As regards showering before surgery, it was 55%, removing hair appropriately (clipping) was 23.7% and removing hair by means was 44.6%.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
November 2015