Prof. Imad Fadl Elmula, MD, PhD. - Assafa Academy - Prof.

Prof. Imad Fadl Elmula

MD, PhD.

Assafa Academy

Prof.

Khartoum, Khartoum | Sudan

Additional Specialties: Clinical Genetics and Urology

ORCID logohttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-3191-9485


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Prof. Imad Fadl Elmula, MD, PhD. - Assafa Academy - Prof.

Prof. Imad Fadl Elmula

MD, PhD.

Introduction

Primary Affiliation: Assafa Academy - Khartoum, Khartoum , Sudan

Additional Specialties:

Research Interests:


View Prof. Imad Fadl Elmula’s Resume / CV

Education

Mar 2017
Faculty of medicine, Lund University, Lund
Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D)
Clinical Genetics
Mar 1998
Health and Welfare, Stockholm
Swedish Board of Urology
Mar 1997
Clinical Diploma in Renal Transplant Surgery Malmö University Hospital, Malmo
Malmö University Hospital, Malmo
Mar 1997
Lund University hospital, Lund, Sweden
Clinical Diploma in Pediatric Surgical Urology
Mar 1984
Faculty of Medicine, University of Craiova, Craiova
MD

Publications

61Publications

561Reads

13Profile Views

79PubMed Central Citations

In vitro Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cell into Insulin-Producing Cells

Cells. Int J Stem Cell Res Transplant. 6(1), 287-293

International Journal of Stem Cell Research and Transplantation (IJST

AbstractAdipose or fatty tissue is similar to bone marrow ontogenetically. Mesenchymal stem cells can be isolated from differenttypes of adipose tissue depots in greater amount than other sources, making them especially suitable for use in regenerativemedicine.Adipose tissue was taken from Sudanese donors; the SVF which contains MSCs was isolated using enzymatic and density centrifugation techniques. The AD-MSCs were differentiated to insulin producing cells using three steps protocol. The therapeutic effect of islet β-like cells was determined in vivo using diabetics albino Wister rats.The adherent cells firstly appeared round and spherical in shape, the characteristic shape of MSC was detected after three weeks incubation. The pheno type of these cells showed positives CD34 and CD13 and negatives CD45 and HLADR markers. AD-MSCs were induced into insulin producing cells by a 3-step (15-days) protocol. The differentiated cells were positive for diathizone stain and displayed positive immuno-reactivity to antihuman insulin antibody. Insulin secretion by islet β-like cells in high glucose concentration medium showed positive result with >3.5 u/mlscale reading. The in vivo resultof diabetic rats, showed the response in the test group after 24h, one week later the glucose level decreased from 400mg/dl to 96mg/dl (P=0.021), while in the control group the glucose raised up to 600mg/dl.The AD-MSCs can be differentiated into islet β- like cells in vitro and function as insulin producing cells both in vitro and invivo, these cells are promising source of stem cells for β- cells regeneration.Keywords: Adipose Tissue; Mesenchymal Stem Cell; Islets β-like Cells; ISCT; L-DMEM; FBS; PBS; HRP; DTZl; ELIZA

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October 2019
24 Reads

Bacterial meningitis in Sudanese children; critical evaluation of the clinical decision using clinical prediction rules.

BMC Pediatr 2019 09 6;19(1):319. Epub 2019 Sep 6.

Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, National University-Sudan, Khartoum, Sudan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12887-019-1684-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6729048PMC
September 2019
9 Reads
1.918 Impact Factor

Acacia Senegal (Gum Arabic) Supplementation Modulate Lipid Profile and Ameliorated Dyslipidemia among Sickle Cell Anemia Patients.

J Lipids 2019 18;2019:3129461. Epub 2019 Jun 18.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/3129461DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6604417PMC
June 2019
10 Reads

The Impact of Monoclonal Origin and Intraluminal Seeding Mechanism on Management of Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer: Needs for More Preoperative Adjuvant Intravesical Immune-and/or Chemo-Therapy

Clin Oncol. 2018; 3: 1420

Clinics in Oncology

Bladder cancer is a common disease, worldwide it is ranked as the seventh and the seventeenth most frequent cancer worldwide in men and women respectively. Based on the histopathology (grading and staging), bladder cancer can be classifed into non-muscle invasive (superfcial) and muscleinvasive disease. Te natural history of the superfcial tumors differs from the muscle invasive ones. Most non-muscle invasive tumors are characterized by multiplicity, high recurrence rate, and heterogeneous natural history. According to many investigators, the multifocal nature of nonmuscle invasive uroepithelial cancer, together with a propensity for recurrence (polychrono topicity) is the results of intraluminal seeding of viable detached malignant cells that results in genetically monoclonal multiple tumors. Tus, the intraluminal shedding and implantation of viable tumor cells have been proposed as the mechanisms responsible for both synchronous and metachronous multifocal bladder tumors. Tese fndings are of considerable relevance for therapeutic strategies, suggesting that complete endoscopic removal of the primary tumor is ofen not enough to treat even non-muscle invasive bladder cancer because by, or during, the time of initial treatment, several micro satellite tumors are already implanted in the bladder. Terefore, additional measures to prevent tumor cell seeding and growth of the already implanted ones may reduce the recurrence rate of non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. Te intraluminal seeding mechanism of synchronous and/or metachronous tumors enforces more emphasis on intravesical adjuvant therapy in superfcial bladder cancer, including the use of intravesical chemo- or immunotherapy and long interval follow-up for those patients. Adopting such therapeutic strategy may improve morbidity and mortality of superfcial bladder cancer.

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March 2018
18 Reads

Sexually transmitted infections other than HIV/AIDS among women of low socio-economic class attending antenatal clinics in Khartoum, Sudan.

Int J STD AIDS 2017 07 31;28(8):781-787. Epub 2016 Aug 31.

4 Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Sudan Medical and Scientific Research Institute, University of Medical Sciences and Technology, Khartoum, Sudan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956462416668080DOI Listing
July 2017
38 Reads
1.040 Impact Factor

Awareness and Attitudes of Nursing Students towards Prevention of Cervical Cancer

AbdAllah AAA, Hummeida ME, Elmula IMF (2016)

Cervical Cancer:

Cervical cancer is the second most common women cancer worldwide, accounting for 13% of female cancers. It ranks as the second most frequent cancer among women after breast cancer in Sudan as well as other developing countries. This study seeks to assess the knowledge, and the attitude of female staff and students of undergraduate nursing students of Khartoum universities, Sudan, towards cervical cancer prevention. A structured interview questionnaire was used for data collection, the questions were made to capture the objectives of the study. Most of the students (84.0%) were not aware of other screening methods than Pap smear test and the burden of cervical cancer and its prevention (p = 0.000). Approximately half of the respondents (49.9%) have no complete information about the HPV vaccine. However, the other half showed positive attitudes towards HPV vaccination and were eager to recommend HPV vaccine to their family and other members of the community. More than two thirds of respondents exhibited positive attitude and were willing to undergo Pap smear in the future. The study shows that the majority of the participants have poor information about cervical cancer prevention. Education would motivate nurses to participate actively in awareness raising, screening, and management

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May 2017
20 Reads

Gum Arabic as novel anti-oxidant agent in sickle cell anemia, phase II trial.

BMC Hematol 2017 16;17. Epub 2017 Mar 16.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12878-017-0075-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5356407PMC
March 2017
18 Reads

Maternal Serum Triple Screening Test and Pregnancy Outcome in Elderly Sudanese Pregnant Ladies in Khartoum State-Sudan

Pathology and Laboratory Medicine 2017; 1(2): 54-60

Pathology and Laboratory Medicine

The possibility to deliver infants with congenital defects or diseases is thought to be associated with increased in maternal age. This fact is well established and documented in previous studies done in the United States of America. Infants with birth defects is not the only disastrous outcome, pregnancy and delivery complications, abortion, stillbirth are also known consequences. The aim of this study, to detect a possible association between increased maternal age, and Triple Screening Test results. And compare the findings of the Triple Screening Test results with abnormal pregnancy outcome among Sudanese pregnant ladies. Study performed in ninety-one pregnant ladies accepted to participate. Participants were assigned to two groups; study group including 69 (75.8%) women equal to and above 35 years and control group including 22 (24.2%) women less than 30 years. Structured questionnaire, clinical examinations including ultra-sound for the determination of gestational age were also performed. Blood samples were collected from all participants during the 14th to 20th week of gestational age. Sera were separated and used for the determination of human chorionic gonadotropin, alpha fetoprotein, and free estriol concentrations using standardized quantitative methods (ELISA) collectively known as the Triple Screening Test. In the study group, participants delivered 57 (82.6%) normal healthy infants. Twelve ladies (17.4%) delivered infants with adverse dimorphic features. The defects varied; four (5.8%) had stillbirth, four (5.8%) had abortion at the second trimester, three (4.3%) had premature delivery, and one (1.4%) had intrauterine death. And matching control group, none of the participants (0%) give birth to an infant with congenital defect. Highly significant positive correlation was detected between increase in maternal age and abnormal pregnancy outcome. The Triple Screening Test against the pregnancy outcome in study group, showed statistically significant differences between levels of β-HCG, AFP, and Free estriol and pregnancy outcomes with Pvalues of 0.000, 0.5240, and 0.000 were obtained using Pearson Chi-squire test of significance, respectively. Study conclude that abnormal pregnancy outcome is strongly associated with increase in maternal age. Also there were strongly association between the Triple Screening Test and abnormal pregnancy outcome.

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March 2017
18 Reads

Ring chromosome may signal progression of Fanconi anemia.

Gulf J Oncolog 2016 Sep;1(22):43-46

Dept. of Clinical Genetics, Assafa Academy, Khartoum-Sudan.

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September 2016
18 Reads

Sexually transmitted infections other than HIV/AIDS among women of low socio-economic class attending antenatal clinics in Khartoum, Sudan

International Journal of STD & AIDS

Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are major health threats affecting people globally; however, the burden of STIs is greatest in low-income countries. Since they are physiologically more vulnerable, women are mostly affected. The risk is increased dramatically during pregnancy leading to serious health complications that may affect the newborn. Underprivileged pregnant women attending antenatal clinics for routine checkups in displaced camps, a women’s prison and several peripheral health centres were clinically and laboratory screened for trichomoniasis, chlamydial infections, gonorrhea and syphilis. A total of 426 women with an age range of 14-45 years were included. Clinical data, blood, cervical and vaginal swabs were collected. Conventional bacteriological and serological methods were applied. All attendees were HIV1/2-negative. The prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Treponema pallidum infections was found to be 7.8%, 4.9%, 0% and 5%, respectively. Although vaginal discharge, among other symptoms, is known to be the most significant indicator for STIs, our identified positive predictive value was only 14.1%. We conclude that use of syndromic approach for diagnosing and treating attendees of antenatal settings is of low clinical value and many easily curable STIs will be overlooked. Consequently, trichomoniasis, chlamydial infection and syphilis prevailed widely among this population

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July 2016
17 Reads

Status of serum magnesium in Sudanese patients with cardiac syndrome X

Neelain Medical Journal

Background:Cardiac syndrome X (angina chest pain, positive stress - ECG, and normal coronary angiogram) has serious medical complications. Magnesium may be an important factor associated with the disease. The present study aimed to examine the association between serum magnesium and cardiac syndrome X (CSX) in Sudanese patients. Materials and methods:A total of 50 patients with CSX and their matching control were enrolled in this study, 4 ml of venous blood were collected and placed in plain containers, centrifuged and used for determination of serum magnesium. Magnesium quantified by using a calmagite method. Data were entered to the computer and analysed by using SPSS. Results:Median (75th -25th quartile) of the serum magnesium showed no significant difference between the patients with CSX and their well-matched control [2.4(1.9-2.8) vs. 2.5 (1.9-3.2) mg/dl;P= 0.150]. Direct correlation was observed between serum magnesium and urea [r= 0.214;P=0.032]. Conclusion serum magnesium was not associated with cardiac syndrome X in this setting

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June 2016
19 Reads

Gum Arabic as fetal hemoglobin inducing agent in sickle cell anemia; in vivo study.

BMC Hematol 2015 29;15:19. Epub 2015 Dec 29.

Department of Physiology Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12878-015-0040-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4696138PMC
December 2015
15 Reads

Distribution of Haptoglobin Phenotypes among Sudanese Leukemic patients

January 2015European Academic Research II(10

European Academic Research

AbstractThis study aimed to investigate the correlation between haptoglobin (Hp) phenotypes and leukaemia among Sudanese. Hp phenotypes were determined in 106 Sudanese patients with the four most common types of leukemia: acute myeloid leukemia (AML), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and were compared to 106 normal controls. We could not confirm the previously suggested increased incidence of the Hp1 gene and the Hp1-1 phenotype among leukemic patients. A higher frequency of haptoglobin 2-1 was observed among both patients and the control group

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October 2015
3 Reads

Frequencies of secretors and non-secretors of ABH group substances among Sudanese population

Muddathir, et al., 2015: Vol 3(4)

American Journal of Research Communication

AbstractBackgroundThe secretor gene (Se) is the gene that controls the presence of ABH and Lewis blood group substances to appear in soluble state in body fluids (e.g., saliva, semen, sweat, etc). According to the presence or absence of this gene the people are classified as secretors genotype (SeSe or Sese) and non-secretors (sese). Although the secretor gene prevalence is known internationally, especially in Caucasians, there is few if any information and literature regarding the prevalence of secretor status among African and Arab population so the present study aimed to determine the frequencies of ABH secretor status among the Sudanese population.Materials and MethodsA total of 100 Sudanese families (566 apparently healthy individuals), all were residents of Khartoum City were investigated for the presence of salivary ABH substances during the period between January 2012 and April 2013. Saliva samples were collected and analysed by haemagglutination inhibition testResult The gene frequencies for Se and se were 0.219 and 0.781 respectively, while the phenotype prevalence rates for (SeSe), (Sese), and (sese) were 12% (68/566),19.8% (112/566) and 68.2% (386/566) respectively. Conclusion: The prevalence of the secretor gene in Sudan is greatly different from the rest ofthe worldand that might be due to different ethnic background involved in this study.

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October 2015
4 Reads

Factors Affecting Treatment Compliance of Heart Failure Patients in Sudan

Public Health and Preventive Medicine Vol. 1, No. 3, 2015, pp. 120-124

Public Health and Preventive Medicine

AbstractIntroductionHeart failure is known to affect cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, the present study aimed to identify most common factors affecting compliance to treatment among Sudanese patients with heart failure. MethodsThis cross-sectional study was conducted during January –October 2014on all heart failure patients (132) admitted to the Sudan heart Institute. Demographic and clinical data were collected from all patients and analyzed using SPSS version 20 software. The data was analyzed by using descriptive statistics including frequency, percentage, mean with standard deviation (SD) Chi-square, P value of ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant.ResultsThe result of present study revealed that overall of 132 patients’ compliance ranged between 7 (5.3%) and 117(88.6%) of the patients, the high rate of compliance was found in medications 117 (88.6%), and follow –up appointment keeping 108 (81.8)%. barriers or reasons of not complying with treatment compliance and life style modification were determined, the main reasons were stopping medication due to; cost of themedications 56(42.4%), lack of knowledge to comply with the dietary restrictions102 (77.2%), lack of knowledge to weight himself daily 111(84.0%), lack of knowledge to comply with the dietary high in potassium 113(85.6%), and lack of knowledge to avoid drinking excess fluids 106(80.3%). ConclusionThe study showed that the knowledge seem to be main cause of non-compliance. Thus, education and counseling are extremely needed to increased patients-knowledge about their disease, in general to decreasing the level of non-compliance and to promoting of achieving the positive medical care outcomes as possible.

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July 2015
6 Reads

Compliance to Treatment and Quality of Life of Sudanese Patients with Heart Failure

International Journal of Preventive Medicine Research Vol. 1, No. 2, 2015, pp. 40-44

International Journal of Preventive Medicine Research

AbstractBackground: Heart failure is known to decrease the quality of life, especially in non-compliance patients with regards to medications and life style changes.ObjectiveThe present study aimed to determine the level of compliance to treatment and quality of life of Sudanese patients with heart failure.MethodsThis descriptive study was conducted on 76 patients with heart failure admitted to the Sudan Heart Institute. Demographic and clinical data including the compliance (medication, sodium restriction, fluid restriction, daily weights, exercises, and appointment-keeping) were collected. The quality of life was measured using the Minnesota living with heart failure Questionnaire. The data were collected from all patients and the analyzed using SPSS version 22 software. ResultsHeart failure patients showed low compliance ranged between 11.84% and 75% of which the highest compliance was to medication (75%) followed by the follow-up appointments (71.05%), and the lowest compliances were to the fluids restrictions (11.84%), the weight monitoring (17.10%), regular exercise (21.05%), and the sodium restriction (27.6%). Quality of life score ranged between 62-97 score and the Mean (SD) 83.6 (7.82) which revealed of poor quality of life in most of Sudanese patients with heart failure involved in the present study. ConclusionThe study showed that patients with heart failure in Sudan have low compliance to treatment and poor quality of life.

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February 2015
3 Reads

P53 GENE CODON 72 POLYMORPHISM GENOTYPING IN MENINGIOMA AMONG SUDANESE PATIENTS

International Journal of Current Research Vol. 6, Issue, 04, pp.6254-6257, April, 2014

International Journal of Current Research

AbstractBackgroundMeningiomas predominantly benign tumors that may result from an adverse effect of cranial irradiation and trauma. They account for 20% of all primary intracranial neoplasm. The incidence is likely to be much higher, since many benign meningiomas do not produce symptoms. The p53 tumor suppressor is a key regulator of cell cycle progression, such that its inactivation promotes increased cell growth and tumor genesis.ObjectivesThe study design to characterize the p53 codon polymorphism in Sudanese memimgioma patients & to correlate the p53 genotype with biological characteristic of the tumor.Material and methodsThe study was conducted at Al-Shaab Teaching Hospital at The National Center for Neurologic Sciences (NCNS) during the period September 2009 and March 2011. It includes cranial meningioma Sudanese patients that were diagnosed based on radiology and histology. 70 meningiomas’ tissue samples were taken for DNA extraction. The amplification was carried out using PCR.ResultsThe genotyping analysis of 70 cases for p53 alleles revealed Arg/Arg was reported in 70% of the cases (30) whereas Pro/Pro seen in 17 (24.3%) and Arg/Pro was reported in only 4 (5.7).

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April 2014
5 Reads

A comparison between intravenous and intraperitoneal injection of human stem cell (cd34+) with/ or without mesenchymal stem cell in albino rats

January 2014International Journal of Current Research 6(122)

International Journal of Current Research

AbstractThis study aimed to assess the stem cell infusion or combined infusion containing haemopoietic stem cells plus mesenchymal stem cells in albino rats through intravenous and intraperitoneal infusion. used for human cells engraftment, whereas 10 served as a control group. 20 to 40 ml of cord blood samples and length of 12 cm of umbilical cords for Wharton jelly samples were obtained from 10 newborns delivered after full term following ethical conse mononuclear cells from cord blood samples while trypsin enzymatic treatment was used for Wharton jelly samples. Purification of CD34+ cells was done using RosetteSep and EasySep techniques. The expression and count o study confirmed the success of human umbilical cord HSC/CD34+ by albino rats and differentiation to CD45+ cells, besi highly increase of the harvested mononuclear cells from the spleen and bone marrow without any case of GvHD within 3 weeks period. Moreover, best engraftment obtained from the infusion that contains CD34+ cells and MSCs

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January 2014
5 Reads

Molecular Cytogenetic Study of the NF2 Gene Deletion in Meningioma in Sudanese Patients.

Balkan J Med Genet 2013 Dec;16(2):29-32

Jena University Hospital, Friedrich Schiller University, Institute of Human Genetics, Jena, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/bjmg-2013-0028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4001412PMC
December 2013
3 Reads
0.167 Impact Factor

Extra virgin olive oil potentiates the effects of aromatase inhibitors via glutathione depletion in estrogen receptor-positive human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells.

Food Chem Toxicol 2013 Dec 23;62:817-24. Epub 2013 Oct 23.

Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Al-Neelain University, 12702 Khartoum, Sudan; Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Al-Neelain University, 12702 Khartoum, Sudan. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2013.10.024DOI Listing
December 2013
36 Reads
3 Citations
2.900 Impact Factor

MOLECULAR DIAGNOSIS OF EXTRA-PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS FROM BLOOD SPECIMENS AMONG PATIENTS ATTENDING EL-SHAAB TEACHING HOSPITAL

International Journal of Current Research Vol. 5, Issue, 06, pp.1542-1544, June, 2013

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CURRENT RESEARCH

ABSTRACTArticle History: Background: Tuberculosis prevalence and mortality rates are increasing specially for the CNS infection which is life threatening and when it involves the spine it has the potential to cause serious morbidity, including permanent neurologic deficits and severe deformities and brain tuberculoma usually lead to death. Extra-pulmonary TB accounts for approximately 10% of tuberculous infectionsMethodsThis quantitative descriptive case study hospital based conducted at Elshaab Teaching Hospital National Center for Neurological sciences (NCNS) between August 2009 and November 2010. PCR technique was used to diagnose 121patients suspected to have Pott's disease or brain tuberculomata. A group of healthy people who received BCG vaccine were included in this study as control group.The resultsPatients suspected to have brain tuberculoma were sixty three (52.1%), Pott's disease were forty nine (40.5%) and other extrapulmonary tuberculosis were only nine (7.4%).The results of the PCR for M. tuberculosis from blood sample of the121 patients were positive in 60(49.6%) patients. The frequency of positive result found among Pott’s disease was 23.9% (n 29) followed by tuberculoma 21.4% (n 26) & other extra-pulmonary tuberculosis 4.1% (n 5)Recommendations PCR for M. tuberculosis from blood specimen is recommended for diagnosis of patients suspected to have brain tuberculoma or Pott's disease according to their symptoms and their MRI findings.

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June 2013
1 Read

Disorders of sex development among Sudanese children: 5-year experience of a pediatric endocrinology clinic.

J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2012 ;25(11-12):1065-72

Faculty of Medicine, Divison of Pediatric Endocrinology, University of Khartoum, Khartoum-Amarrat Post Office Box 15146, Khartoum 12217, Sudan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jpem-2011-0467DOI Listing
March 2013
8 Reads
0.711 Impact Factor

Frequency of BCR-ABL fusion transcripts in Sudanese patients with chronic myeloid leukemia using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.

Saudi Med J 2013 Jan;34(1):29-33

Department of Hematology and Blood Transfusion, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Alzaiem Alazhari University, Khartoum, Sudan.

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January 2013
25 Reads
1 Citation
0.554 Impact Factor

The significance of the free/total prostate-specific antigen ratio nin prostate cancer detection in Sudanese with intermediate total proste-specific antigen levels

Sudan Med J 2012 December;48(3)

Sudan Med J

AbstractObjective To evaluate the diagnostic utility of free to total PSA ratio estimation in prostate cancer detection in Sudanese patients with total PSA levels between 2.5-10 ng/ml.  Sudanese men were referred to Soba University Clinic for prostate evaluation. Out of the 540 only 236 men with serum total PSA levels (2.5-10 ng/ml) were included in the study. All included patients underwent prostatic biopsy. Free and total PSA were measured using immunoflourometric method. To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of free to total PSA ratio in detecting prostate cancer we used receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves.Results The free to total PSA ratio values ranged between 10.9% to 28.7%. The mean values were significantly lower in the cancer group (15.3%) than in the benign group (19.4%) (P 0.001). The ROC curve of free to total PSA ratio (AUC 0.964; with confidence interval (CI) of 95%, range 0.921-1.000) was significantly more predictive of cancer than tPSA (AUC = 0.751; 95% CI, range between 0.653-0.849 for Sudanese population with total PSA ranging between 2.5 to 10.0 ng/ml (P 0.001). Conclusion Measuring the ratio of free to total PSA may provide a better tool for differentiation of prostate cancer from benign disease than tPSA or fPSA, if used alone in Sudanese patients with a tPSA levels between 2.5 and 10.0 ng/ml.Conclusion Measuring the ratio of free to total PSA may provide a better tool for differentiation of prostate cancer from benign disease than tPSA or fPSA, if used alone in Sudanese patients with a tPSA levels between 2.5 and 10.0 ng/ml.

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December 2012
2 Reads

Significance of serum total prostate specific antigen and digital rectal examination in the diagnosis of prostate cancer.

Saudi Med J 2011 Nov;32(11):1133-6

Department of Clinical Chemistry, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Al Neelain University, Khartoum, Sudan.

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November 2011
24 Reads
0.554 Impact Factor

Age-specific reference range for serum prostate-specific antigen in Sudanese men.

Saudi Med J 2011 Sep;32(9):930-2

Department of Clinical Chemistry, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Al-Neelain University, PO Box 12702, Postal Code 11121, Khartoum, Sudan.

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September 2011
18 Reads
2 Citations
0.554 Impact Factor

Tuberculosis in Sudan: a study of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain genotype and susceptibility to anti-tuberculosis drugs.

BMC Infect Dis 2011 Aug 16;11:219. Epub 2011 Aug 16.

Al Neelain University, Khartoum, P. O. Box 12702, 11121 Khartoum, Sudan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2334-11-219DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3166935PMC
August 2011
44 Reads
14 Citations
2.613 Impact Factor

Sequestrated Plasmodium falciparum parasites in human infections: different genotype distribution in placental as compared to that in the peripheral circulation

Al Neelain Medical Journal 2011 vol. 1 No. 2

Al Neelain Medical Journal

ABSTRACTIntroduction: In regions highly endemic for malaria, the prevalence of placental malaria ranges from 30% to 60% and has been associated with increased risk of adverse infant outcomes, particularly in primigravidae.Objectives The study was conducted on mothers after delivery to detect sequestered Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) parasite by using PCR based genotyping technique.Materials and methodsThe study was conducted during the period of January 2009 to September 2011. 5ml of venous and placental blood were obtained from 75 mothers after delivery, attended to Omdurman Maternity Hospital. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral and placental blood samples using modified phenol chloroform technique. The msp-1 allele (MAD20,) and msp-2 allele A1, A2, B1 and B2, plasmodium falciparum primers were used for PCR. The PCR product was analyzed on 1.5% Agarose gel and visualized by gel documentation system after ethidium bromide staining.Results The results revealed that the overall malaria detection rate in peripheral blood and placental blood using ICT was 10.7%. With the PCR (msp-1 alleles) the detection rate of malaria in peripheral blood was found to be 9.3%, while in placental blood the same technique showed a detection rate of 10.7%. For PCR (msp-2 alleles), the detection rate of malaria in peripheral blood was 12%, while in placental blood the sametechnique showed detection rate of 21.3% malaria.ConclusionIn the vast majority of cases, some sequestered genotypes remain hidden, undetected in the peripheral circulation, indicating that analysis of peripheral parasites generates a partial picture of a P. falciparum infection. The cord blood must be collected from the umbilical cord to detected placental P. falciparum infection particularly in primigravidae

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March 2011
1 Read

Frequencies of BCR-ABL1 fusion transcripts among Sudanese chronic myeloid leukaemia patients.

Genet Mol Biol 2010 Apr 1;33(2):229-31. Epub 2010 Jun 1.

Department of Molecular Biology, Institute of Endemic Diseases, University of Khartoum, Khartoum Sudan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1415-47572010005000037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3036862PMC
April 2010
24 Reads
3 Citations
1.202 Impact Factor

A First Cytogenetic Study of Down Syndrome in Sudan

JoDD Volume 14, Number 2, 2008

Journal on Developmental Disabilities (JoDD)

AbstractIn this study, we report the first series of cases of Down syndrome (DS) cytogenetically analyzed in Sudan. Five children with clinical features of DSunderwent cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic analyses. Cytogenetic analysis of parents was also performed for counselling purposes. All children showed karyotypes consistent with DS. One child showed a Robertsonian translocation that was not present in either of her parents. The other cases showed c lassical trisomy 21. Molecular cytogenetic analysis confirmed the diagnosis in one case. Cytogenetic analysis of suspected DS is of value to objectively confirm the diagnosis and to provide a basis for genetic counselling.

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October 2008
3 Reads

Massive primary leiomyosarcoma of the testis

Sudan JMS Vol. 2, No. 3, Sep. 2007

Sudan JMS

Abstract:Primary leiomyosarcoma of the testis is a very rare tumor with only 9 reported cases in the English literature, of which none has been reported in patient of African descent. In this report we described the first case of a massive primary leiomyosarcoma of the testis. A 20-year-old-man presented with huge fungating tumor of the left scrotum with no clinical or imaging evidence of regional or distance metastasis. Left radical orchiectomy was performed, followed by satisfactory postoperative recovery. The postoperative histopathology examination and Immunohistochemistry for desmin, actin, vimenten, and S-100 indicate primary leiomyosarcoma of the left testis. Eleven month later the patient developed convulsion episodes. Brain CT scan and MRI showed brain metastatic deposition. Abdominal ultrasound indicates involvement of paraaortic lymph nodes. The patient received 5 cycles of vincristine, actinomycin D, and cyclophosphamide in addition to Epanutin 50 mg three times a day. However, Twenty two month after surgery thepatient underwent another surgery for local recurrence. The present case showed aggressive course of primary testicular leiomyosarcoma in contrast to the benign course previously reported. In addition to radical orchiectomy with high ligation of the spermatic cord, systemic chemotherapy, and regional radiotherapy may be the treatment of choice for some primary leiomyosarcoma of the testis.

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September 2007
3 Reads

A case of Cornelia de Lange syndrome from Sudan.

BMC Pediatr 2007 Jan 29;7. Epub 2007 Jan 29.

The Orchids Organization for Children with Special Needs, Khartoum, Sudan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2431-7-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1794225PMC
January 2007
16 Reads
3 Citations
1.920 Impact Factor

Cancer cytogenetic

SMM-2006

SMM

AbstractAccording to the national registry at the ministry of nonrandom in distribution and sometimes occur in Health, cancer holds the second cause of death in highlySudan. Worldwide, one in three persons develops aberrations are therefore highly informative with cancer at some time during their lives, and one in regard to the pathogenetic events of carcinogenesis, four dies from this disease. and their identification and classification have Today, it is widely accepted that cancer arises proved to be of great diagnostic and prognostic value through a multistep accumulation of inherited for patients with malignant disorders. and/or acquired mutations of the genetic material Cancer cytogenetic was recently introduced inleading neoplastically Sudan, however it is not yet full valued and thustransformed cells showing unrestrained proliferation used by Sudanese physician in the diagnosis and and the ability to infiltrate locally and to set up managementdistant metastases. Many of the genetic alterations malignancies, bone and soft tissue tumors. The acquired present article reviews the importance of cancerto by clonal selection neoplastic cells of are visible as chromosomal aberrations which are clearly specific cytogenetic of and pattern. patients its role These with in chromosome hematological clinical practice

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June 2006
6 Reads

A del(X)(p11) carrying SRY sequences in an infant with ambiguous genitalia.

BMC Pediatr 2006 Apr 4;6:11. Epub 2006 Apr 4.

Institute of Endemic Diseases, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2431-6-11DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1458339PMC
April 2006
11 Reads
2 Citations
1.920 Impact Factor

Female genital mutilation of a karyotypic male presenting as a female with delayed puberty.

BMC Womens Health 2006 Mar 29;6. Epub 2006 Mar 29.

Institute of Endemic Diseases, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan.

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http://bmcwomenshealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/14
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6874-6-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1440851PMC
March 2006
27 Reads
2 Citations
1.660 Impact Factor

Molecular diagnosis of spinal muscular atrophy

Sudan JMS Vol 1; No. 3 2006

Sudan JMS

AbstractSpinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a common often fatal, autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease that leads to  progressive atrophy and wasting of voluntary muscles and paralysis due to degeneration of the anterior horn cells of the spinal cord. Due to increased consanguinity marriage in Muslims countries such as Sudan, the prevalence of SMA cases are much higher than in Europe and North America population. Clinically the disease is very difficult to diagnose and, also to differentiate between SMA variants. The disease is linked to mutation in the Survival Motor Neuron gene (SMN), normally the gene is present in two highly homologous copies SMN1 and SMN2 that mapped to chromosome 5q13. Homozygous deletion of exons 7 and 8 of SMN1 are responsible for spinal muscular atrophy.Studies have shown that approximately 94% of patients with spinal muscular atrophy lack both copies of SMN1 exon 7, and most carriers have only one copy of SMN1 exon 7. The molecular analysis of the biallelic exon 7 of the SMN1 deletion became standard and reliable test in cases of SMA. Also the recent use of another quantitative test that based on "real-time PCR" has enhanced the diagnostic potential by increasing the detection rate especially in cases caused by point mutation of the SMN1 gene. In the absence of effective treatment, carrier detection and prenatal prediction of affected fetus using molecular markers are acceptable preventive options, especially for the more severe forms of the disease. In Sudan, the recent introduction of advance molecular techniques may help to introduce carrier detection and prenatal screening as clinical service for Sudanese affected families. The present article discusses the possible future use of molecular techniques in clinical diagnosis, prenatal screening, and carrier detection in patients and families with SMA in Suda

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March 2006
7 Reads

Chromosomal changes in uroepithelial carcinomas.

Authors:
Imad Fadl-Elmula

Cell Chromosome 2005 Aug 7;4. Epub 2005 Aug 7.

Al Neelain Medical Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Al Neelain University, Khartoum, Sudan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-9268-4-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1199610PMC
August 2005
12 Reads
12 Citations

Overview on the first human cytogenetic research in Sudan

SJMS-2004

SJMS

AbstractIntroduction: The present study is the first human cytogenetic project in Sudan whichwas titled: Cytogenetic and FISH analyses in Sudanese patients with dysmorphicfeatures, ambiguous genitalia, and infertility. The aim of the present study was not only to characterize the genetic alterations in patients with dysmorphic features, ambiguous genitalia and/or infertility among Sudanese population, but also to attract the medical community attention to the importance of human cytogenetics in clinical genetics practice, and also to facilitate the introduction and clinical application of such valuable service in Sudan.

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October 2004
7 Reads

[Sudanese cytogeneticists--vision of a new kind of assistance].

Lakartidningen 2004 Feb;101(8):702-5

Avdelningen för klinisk genetik, Universitetssjukhuset i Lund.

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February 2004
20 Reads

Chromosomal abnormalities in inflammatory pseudotumor of the urinary bladder.

Cancer Genet Cytogenet 2003 Jun;143(2):169-71

Department of Surgical Urology, Faculty of Medicine, Upper Nile University, Upper Nile State, Sudan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0165-4608(02)00846-4DOI Listing
June 2003
13 Reads

Chromosomal aberrations in benign and malignant bilharzia-associated bladder lesions analyzed by comparative genomic hybridization

BMC Cancer. 2002 Mar 22;2:5

BMC Cancer

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Bilharzia-associated bladder cancer (BAC) is a major health problem in countries where urinary schistosomiasis is endemic. Characterization of the genetic alterations in this cancer might enhance our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of the disease but, in contrast to nonbilharzia bladder cancer, BAC has rarely been the object of such scrutiny. In the present study, we aimed to characterize chromosomal imbalances in benign and malignant post-bilharzial lesions, and to determine whether their unique etiology yields a distinct cytogenetic profile as compared to chemically induced bladder tumors.

METHODS:

DNAs from 20 archival paraffin-embedded post-bilharzial bladder lesions (6 benign and 14 malignant) obtained from Sudanese patients (12 males and 8 females) with a history of urinary bilharziasis were investigated for chromosomal imbalances using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH). Subsequent FISH analysis with pericentromeric probes was performed on paraffin sections of the same cases to confirm the CGH results.

RESULTS:

Seven of the 20 lesions (6 carcinomas and one granuloma) showed chromosomal imbalances varying from 1 to 6 changes. The most common chromosomal imbalances detected were losses of 1p21-31, 8p21-pter, and 9p and gain of 19p material, seen in three cases each, including the benign lesion.

CONCLUSION:

Most of the detected imbalances have been repeatedly reported in non-bilharzial bladder carcinomas, suggesting that the cytogenetic profiles of chemical- and bilharzia-induced carcinomas are largely similar. However, loss of 9p seems to be more ubiquitous in BAC than in bladder cancer in industrialized countries.

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March 2002
1 Read

Identification of cytogenetic subgroups and karyotypic pathways in transitional cell carcinoma.

Cancer Res 2001 Nov;61(22):8241-6

Department of Clinical Genetics, University Hospital, SE-221 85 Lund, Sweden.

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November 2001
12 Reads
11 Citations
9.330 Impact Factor

Characterization of chromosomal abnormalities in uroepithelial carcinomas by G-banding, spectral karyotyping and FISH analysis.

Int J Cancer 2001 Jun;92(6):824-31

Department of Clinical Genetics, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.

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http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/ijc.1267
Publisher Site
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.1267DOI Listing
June 2001
18 Reads
2 Citations
5.085 Impact Factor

Karyotypic characterization of urinary bladder transitional cell carcinomas.

Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2000 Nov;29(3):256-65

Department of Clinical Genetics, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.

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November 2000
9 Reads
6 Citations
4.041 Impact Factor

Karyotypic characterization of urinary bladder transitional cell carcinomas

Genes Chromosomes Cancer. 2000 Nov;29(3):256-65

Genes Chromosomes Cancer

Abstract

Samples from 34 primary transitional cell carcinomas (TCCs) of the bladder were short-term-cultured and processed for cytogenetic analysis after G-banding of the chromosomes. Clonal chromosome abnormalities were detected in 27 tumors and normal karyotypes in 3, and the cultures from 4 tumors failed to grow. Losses of genetic material were more common than gains, indicating that loss of tumor suppressor genes may be of major importance in TCC pathogenesis. There was no clonal heterogeneity within individual tumors, consonant with the view that TCCs are monoclonal in origin. The most striking finding was the involvement of chromosome 9 in 92% of the informative cases, as numerical loss of one chromosome copy in 15 cases, but as structural rearrangement in 8. The changes in chromosome 9 always led to loss of material; from 9p, from 9q, or of the entire chromosome. A total of 16 recurrent, unbalanced structural rearrangements were seen, of which del(1)(p11), add(3)(q21), add(5)(q11), del(6)(q13), add(7)(q11), add(11)(p11), i(13)(q10), del(14)(q24), and i(17)(q10) are described here for the first time. The karyotypic imbalances were dominated by losses of the entire or parts of chromosome arms 1p, 9p, 9q, 11p, 13p, and 17p, loss of an entire copy of chromosomes 9, 14, 16, 18, and the Y chromosome, and gains of chromosome arms 1q and 13q and of chromosomes 7 and 20. The chromosome bands and centomeric breakpoints preferentially involved in structural rearrangements were 1q12, 2q11, 5q11, 8q24, 9p13, 9q13, 9q22, 11p11, and 13p10. Rearrangements of 17p and the formation of an i(5)(p10) were associated with more aggressive tumor phenotypes. There was also a general correlation between the tumors' grade/stage and karyotypic complexity, indicating that progressive accumulation of acquired genetic alterations is the driving force behind multistep bladder TCC carcinogenesis.

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November 2000
4 Reads

Cytogenetic analysis of upper urinary tract transitional cell carcinomas.

Cancer Genet Cytogenet 1999 Dec;115(2):123-7

Department of Clinical Genetics, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0165-4608(99)00075-8DOI Listing
December 1999
15 Reads
2 Citations

Cytogenetic monoclonality in multifocal uroepithelial carcinomas: evidence of intraluminal tumour seeding.

Br J Cancer 1999 Sep;81(1):6-12

Department of Clinical Genetics, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.bjc.6690643DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2374340PMC
September 1999
21 Reads
8 Citations
4.840 Impact Factor

Cytogenetic heterogeneity in a second primary radiation-induced bladder carcinoma: ten karyotypically unrelated clones.

Cancer Genet Cytogenet 1998 Sep;105(2):134-7

Department of Clinical Genetics, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0165-4608(98)00028-4DOI Listing
September 1998
15 Reads
1 Citation

Chromosome abnormalities in squamous cell carcinoma of the urethra.

Genes Chromosomes Cancer 1998 Sep;23(1):72-3

Department of Clinical Genetics, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.

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September 1998
14 Reads
4.041 Impact Factor

Chromosomal abnormalities in two bladder carcinomas with secondary squamous cell differentiation.

Cancer Genet Cytogenet 1998 Apr;102(2):125-30

Department of Clinical Genetics, University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0165-4608(97)00363-4DOI Listing
April 1998
15 Reads
3 Citations

Chromosomal abnormalities in two bladder carcinomas with secondary squamous cell differentiation

Cancer Genet Cytogenet

Cancer Genet Cytogenetics

Two secondary squamous cell carcinomas of the bladder (i.e., tumors that originated from primary transitional cell carcinomas) were examined cytogenetically. Both tumors showed complex karyotypes with many of the same aberrations that have formerly been described in transitional cell carcinomas. Monosomy 9, trisomy 7, and rearrangements of chromosomes 3, 8, 10, 13, and 17 were common to both tumors. Among other changes that have been implicated in bladder carcinogenesis, an isochromosome for 5p was seen in one tumor and loss of 11p material in the other. Our findings indicate that secondary squamous cell carcinomas of the bladder are karyotypically indistinguishable from advanced transitional cell carcinomas of the same organ. The putative genetic changes that steer the differentiation of the neoplastic epithelium in the direction of squamous cells thus remain unknown.

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April 1998
16 Reads

[The spontaneous change in the optokinetic reactivity in lizards].

Authors:
W Kirmse

Acta Biol Med Ger 1975 ;34(5):891-7

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February 1976
3 Reads

Clinical, Cytogenetic, and Molecular characterization of Disorders of Sexual Development (DSD) in Sudan

Genomics and Applied Biology

Abstract Sex determination is defined as a genetic events that lead to male or female gonadal-development, whereas sexual differentiation is the subsequent steps leading to functional sexuality and secondary sexual characteristics. DSD have an estimated incidence of 0.1 to 0.5% of live births. It presents in several forms e.g., male and female pseudohermaphroditism, gonadaldysgenesis, and true hermaphroditism. Aims The present study aimed to explore and characterize cytogenetics, molecular alterations, hormonal profile, and clinical aspects of different types of DSD in Sudan for the first time. Methods The study comprised 70 patients, of which 18 raised as males, and 52 as females. Medical history, physical examination, culturing of lymphocytes, chromosomal analysis, PCR analysis for SRY gene, hormonal profile, pelvic ultrasound, laparoscopic examination (when required), histopathology, and psychological assessment were done. Results The vast majority of patients (40%) were adults ≥17-year-old, followed by patients ≤ 2 year-old (33%). Although, 50% of the patients were referred due to genital ambiguity, other cause including primary amenorrhea, failure to thrive, and short stature were reported. Of the 70 patients only 13 patients (19%) were satisfied with their sex of rearing, 5 patients (6%) were not satisfied, 16 patients (23%) could not decide, and 36 patients (51%) were children. Female genital mutilation was performed in almost all adult patients raised as female including those diagnosed as Male pseudohermaphrodites. The analysis showed 23 patients were diagnosed as male pseudohermaphrodit es, 2 as test icular feminizati on syndrome, 14 as complete gonadal dysgenesi s, 8 as fem ale pseudohermaphrodites, 6 as true hermaphrodites, 1 as Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, one case of Down syndrome, and 15 patients were under controversial till the end of the study. Conclusion Based on the study conclusion one may concludes that multidisciplinary approach remains the best strategy for diagnosis and management of such cases. Labor-attending staff should be well trained to avoid sex assignment errors`. Female genital mutation, if performed in DSD, ends the chance of prepuberty diagnosis and complicates the sex-reassignment constructive surgery. Keywords Disorders of sexual development; intersex

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13 Reads

USING OF HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA IN STAINING OF APPENDICULAR TISSUE SECTIONS

European Journal of Biomedical AND Pharmaceutical sciences

Objectives: this was a retrospective descriptive study performed on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue sections prepared from healthy and/or inflamed Appendix and aimed to assess the quality of staining by Roselle (Hibiscus Sabdariffa) natural extract compared to the routine H&E staining method. Methods: the appendicular tissue sections were grouped and stained by different concentrations of Hibiscus Sabdariffa solution with parallel H&E staining as control. Results: about 20% of sections showed first degree staining quality in 5% solution, more than half of them showed the best staining quality within 60 minutes time duration. Conclusions: Hibiscus Sabdariffa solution can be used effectively in staining of appendicular tissues instead of H&E staining method.

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21 Reads

Interleukin-4 Intron 3 VNTR Polymorphism Gene in Leukemic Patients

Ahmed et al., J Blood Disord Transfus 2016, 7:3

Blood Disorders & Transfusion

Background: Leukemia is a group of chronic malignant disorders of White blood cells and its precursor. Interleukin-4 (IL-4) is inflammatory cytokine that determines the activation and differentiation of B-cells, mast cells, erythroid progenitors. Several studies have investigated the association between IL-4 intron 3 variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism and cancer risk in humans; however, this association is not investigatedamong patients with leukemia. Material and Methods: The present study aimed to investigate genotype and allele frequencies of IL-4 gene intron 3(VNTR) polymorphism in patients with leukemia compared to healthy control. The study included 231 patients with leukemia and 163 healthy controls. Genomic DNA was isolated from 3 ml of anticoagulated venous blood samples by modified salting out method. IL-4 intron 3 VNTR polymorphism determined by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with specific primers. The data were analysed using SPSS software program version 21. P value, Odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to estimate the strength of the association. Results: The allele frequency was showed in 25.9% (60/231) leukemic patients while 74.1% (171/231) showed absence of allele compared with the presence of allele in all control group with significance differences of P value=0.00 and risk factor of 4.617 times for leukemia. The frequencies of P1P1, P2P2, and P1P2 genotypes of intron 3 VNTR polymorphism in leukemic patients were significantly different from control group P value=0.00.The result showed, P1P1 and P1P2 allele were highly risk for developing leukemia than P2P2 (OR:P1P1 1.24, 95% CI: 0.675-2.279; OR P1P2: 1.24, 95% CI: 0.568-2.7; OR P2P2:0.72, 95% CI: 0.398-1.3). Conclusion: IL-4 intron 3 VNTR polymorphism could influences in the risk of leukemia; this could be used as early prognostic marker in the course of the disease.

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MOSQUITO BORNE PARASITIC DISEASES IN MEROWE DAM AREA- NORTHERN SUDAN

Journal of Science

Merowe dam is located in the Northern State of Sudan across the River Nile. The dam is a hydroelectric and irrigation scheme that may probably develop climatic and environmental changes which might have profound impact on the vectors and vector borne diseases in the area not only by the echo changes but also through the new labors and settlers. The study aimed also to study the distribution of each Plasmodium species in the population of the area and to investigate the possibility of the presence of Wucheraria bancrofti prevalence in the mosquitoes and population as well. A total of 260 volunteers (64.2% of them were females; age ranged between 10 and 92 years) were selected by systematic random sampling method. Demographic and socioeconomic data were obtained using predesigned structured questionnaire. Blood samples were taken on filter papers for screening of Plasmodium spp and Wucheraria bancrofti DNA using real time PCR. The analysis of the genomic DNAs obtained from 260 healthy volunteers, were positive for Plasmodium spp in 135 cases (51.9%). Of these, P. falciparum spp was seen in 121 (89.9%), while P. vivax in only 2 cases (1.5%), and mixed infection was seen in 12cases (8.9%).The PCR analysis showed positive Wucheraria bancrofti in 3 cases out of 260. Plasmodium falciparum is the predominant species detected in the study population, P.vivax has been identified for the first time including mixed infection with P. falciparum in 8.9% of the study population. Wucheraria bancrofti has been detected for the first time in both human subjects and Culex mosquito.

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Improvement of Outcome of Chromosomal Breakage Test Using Novel Statistical Equation

ajmms.20170703.06

American Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences

This study aimed to develop a statistical equation to determine the amount of blood needed for cytogenetic culture in chromosomal breakage test, based on the white blood cell (WBC) count of the tested patients. Material and Methods: A total of 69 patients with aplastic anemia and a provisional diagnosis of Fanconi anemia were enrolled in the present study. The WBC count and chromosomal breakage test were performed for all patients. Correlation between WBC count and the successful cell cultures was determined using ANOVA test. Then the correlations between WBC count, cell culture result, and quality of metaphases were determined using Pearson's correlation test. The equation was then used to determine the needed amount of blood. Result: Of the 69 cultures, 60(87%) showed an adequate number of metaphase, of which, 8 had excellent metaphase appearance, 25 had good appearance and 27 had a bad appearance. The remaining 9(13%) failed to grow in culture. ANOVA test showed that cell culture success was correlated positively with WBC count (P.value = 0.01), furthermore, Pearson's correlation showed the cell culture result and metaphase quality was correlated positively with WBC count (P.value = 0.00). The equation was established statistically. Conclusion: The equation obtained by the study may improve the success and quality of chromosomal breakage test. However, future study needs to validate the value of the equation.

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16 Reads

Rare Suprasellar Chordoid Meningioma with INI1 gene mutation

sjms.v12i3.1001

Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences

Background: Chordoid Meningioma is a rare brain tumour characterized genetically by loss of genetic material from chromosome 22q at cytogenetic level resulting in mutation of NF2 gene. Objectives and case report: In the present report, we described a rare case of suprasellar chordoid meningioma, which presented in a 32-year-old-woman. Her only complain was throbbing headache. Neurological examination showed left temporal hemianopia, decreased visual acuity (3/6), and no physical abnormalities related to Castleman syndrome were noted. Cranial magnetic resonance (MR) images demonstrated a 28x15 mm mass in the sellar region, which showed iso-to low intensity that enhanced vividly after gadolinium with upwards displacement of the Optic chiasm. Total surgical excision of the tumour was performed and subsequent histological examination of the tumour showed typical histology pattern of chordoid meningioma grade II according to the WHO classification system of meningiomas. Genomic DNA was extracted and mutation analysis for INI1 gene using primer of exon 4, 5, 7, and 9 showed mutation involving exon 9. DNA sequencing showed heterozygosity C-T mutation in exon 9 of INI1 gene leading to change of amino acid serine to phenylalanine at (codon 63). The details of this case are presented with a review of the literature.

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Mesenchymal - Like Stem Cell Derived from Wharton's Jelly of the Umbilical Cord; Processing Time and Trypsinization Prospects

AbstractBackground: The umbilical cord is a noncontroversial source of mesenchymal-like stem cells. Mesenchymal-like cells are found in several tissue compartments of the umbilical cord, placenta, and decidua Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) could be isolated from Wharton jelly which represents a rich source of primitive cells, with the same properties of MSCs from cord blood and bone marrow. Recently it have been accepted that umbilical cord blood and Wharton jelly (WJ) are potential source for hematopoietic stem cells and Mesenchymal stem cell. Therefore, the umbilical cord blood stem cells can be viewed as a source of stem cells of choice for clinical and non-clinical research applications. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) represent another archetype of multipotent cells that give rise to a variety of cell types including osteocytes, chondrocytes, adipocytes and other kinds of connective tissue cells such as those in tendons.Objective: This study was conducted to assess the count and viability of MSCs like isolated from Wharton jelly in different processing time and trypsinization time. Materials and Methods: About 12 cm of 25 umbilical cords for Wharton jelly samples were obtained from 25 newborns delivered after full term following ethical consent. Preparation of Wharton jelly samples from umbilical cord has been prepared according to the previous report by IKiran Seshareddy et al, 2008. Wharton jelly samples were divided into 3 groups (G1, G2 and G3) and kept in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) with 1% p C. The processing times for isolation of MSCs like of G1,G2 and G3 were 84 - 96 hours , 12 - 24 hours and 24 - 48 hours respectively, while the times of trypsin digestion were 45 minutes for G1 and 30 minutes for G2 and G3. The MSCs like suspension was obtained from Wharton Jelly samples after trypsin enzymatic digestion for counting, viability and culturing.Results and Conclusions: The Mean count of the MSCs like cells for G1, G2 and G3 were 340.125/ ml, 257.142/ml and 390.000/ml respectively. Although there was no statistical difference (P.value = 0.34) between the mean count of MSCs like from Wharton Jelly but the highest count was obtained from G3 with viability for all groups was >80%. Moreover, 0.05% trypsin was functional like 0.25% trypsin and collagenase in digestion. MSCs like from Wharton Jelly could be isolated for 96 hours C with 1% penicillin and streptomycin in sterile conditions and appropriate precautions. The incubation time for trypsin digestion of Wharton Jelly should not exceed 45 minutes to avoid the stress of cells by enzymatic treatment. The best way to ensure the optimal viability was to process the WJ samples within 24 to 48 hours in 4 C of collection and 30 minutes trypsinization. II

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November 0001
2 Reads