Publications by authors named "Ilona Kareinen"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Severe Spontaneous Atherosclerosis in two Korat Breed Cats is Comparable to Human Atherosclerosis.

J Comp Pathol 2021 Oct 24;188:52-61. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Veterinary Biosciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory vascular disease and the leading cause of mortality in humans worldwide. In most domestic animal species, however, primary atherosclerosis is of little clinical relevance. Cats are considered to be atheroresistant and, to our knowledge, spontaneous atherosclerosis has not been reported in cats. Here we report the clinical and histopathological findings in two related cats of the Korat breed that presented with clinical signs of heart failure. In both cases, the clinical signs appeared in adulthood, were progressive and led to death. At necropsy, severe atherosclerotic lesions were present in large and medium-sized arteries and were characterized by the formation of a fibrous cap and a lipid core, which contained a particularly large accumulation of cholesterol crystals, as indicated by the presence of many cholesterol clefts. The lesions closely resembled those of advanced human atherosclerosis. There were no underlying diseases or medical treatments that could have predisposed to the atherosclerosis in these two genetically related cats. A genetic predisposition to human-like atherosclerosis in the local Korat cat population is suspected.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcpa.2021.08.006DOI Listing
October 2021

Native and oxidised lipoproteins negatively regulate the serum amyloid A-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation in human macrophages.

Clin Transl Immunology 2021 3;10(8):e1323. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Helsinki Rheumatic Diseases and Inflammation Research Group Translational Immunology Research Program University of Helsinki Helsinki University Clinicum Helsinki Finland.

Objectives: The NLRP3 inflammasome plays a key role in arterial wall inflammation. In this study, we elucidated the role of serum lipoproteins in the regulation of NLRP3 inflammasome activation by serum amyloid A (SAA) and other inflammasome activators.

Methods: The effect of lipoproteins on the NLRP3 inflammasome activation was studied in primary human macrophages and THP-1 macrophages. The effect of oxidised low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was examined in an mouse model of SAA-induced peritoneal inflammation.

Results: Native and oxidised high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and LDLs inhibited the interaction of SAA with TLR4. HDL and LDL inhibited the secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrosis factor by reducing their transcription. Oxidised forms of these lipoproteins reduced the secretion of mature IL-1β also by inhibiting the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome induced by SAA, ATP, nigericin and monosodium urate crystals. Specifically, oxidised LDL was found to inhibit the inflammasome complex formation. No cellular uptake of lipoproteins was required, nor intact lipoprotein particles for the inhibitory effect, as the lipid fraction of oxidised LDL was sufficient. The inhibition of NLRP3 inflammasome activation by oxidised LDL was partially dependent on autophagy. Finally, oxidised LDL inhibited the SAA-induced peritoneal inflammation and IL-1β secretion .

Conclusions: These findings reveal that both HDL and LDL inhibit the proinflammatory activity of SAA and this inhibition is further enhanced by lipoprotein oxidation. Thus, lipoproteins possess major anti-inflammatory functions that hinder the NLRP3 inflammasome-activating signals, particularly those exerted by SAA, which has important implications in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cti2.1323DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8329955PMC
August 2021

History, clinical findings and outcome of horses with radiographical signs of equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis.

Vet Rec 2019 12 10;185(23):730. Epub 2019 Oct 10.

Department of Equine and Small Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

The progression of equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis (EOTRH) has not been completely evaluated, and currently, the only effective treatment is extraction of severely affected teeth. We aim to describe how the disease relates to the history and clinical findings and to report on the outcome in individual horses. This case series comprises data collected from 20 horses (age 14-29 years old) with radiographic findings of EOTRH in their incisor and/or canine teeth. Most horses affected with EOTRH in this study were admitted for dental problems, but some for other complaints such as colic. Of the 288 teeth evaluated radiographically, 224 teeth were abnormal. Radiographic findings were most frequently located in the apical aspect and reserve crown of the teeth, and lesions were also commonly found in clinically normal teeth. Histopathology of extracted teeth showed inflammation in the periodontal ligament and revealed that resorption often extended to the dentine. Some owners were unwilling to allow extraction of their horses' severely affected teeth, even though this treatment has been shown to increase the wellbeing of the horse. As EORTH is a life-long condition, the progression of the disease has to be continuously monitored and the treatments adjusted accordingly.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.105253DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7008772PMC
December 2019

3-Hydroxyanthralinic acid metabolism controls the hepatic SREBP/lipoprotein axis, inhibits inflammasome activation in macrophages, and decreases atherosclerosis in Ldlr-/- mice.

Cardiovasc Res 2020 10;116(12):1948-1957

Cardiovascular Medicine Unit, Department of Medicine, Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Karolinska University Hospital, SE-17176 Stockholm, Sweden.

Aims: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease involving immunological and metabolic processes. Metabolism of tryptophan (Trp) via the kynurenine pathway has shown immunomodulatory properties and the ability to modulate atherosclerosis. We identified 3-hydroxyanthranilic acid (3-HAA) as a key metabolite of Trp modulating vascular inflammation and lipid metabolism. The molecular mechanisms driven by 3-HAA in atherosclerosis have not been completely elucidated. In this study, we investigated whether two major signalling pathways, activation of SREBPs and inflammasome, are associated with the 3-HAA-dependent regulation of lipoprotein synthesis and inflammation in the atherogenesis process. Moreover, we examined whether inhibition of endogenous 3-HAA degradation affects hyperlipidaemia and plaque formation.

Methods And Results: In vitro, we showed that 3-HAA reduces SREBP-2 expression and nuclear translocation and apolipoprotein B secretion in HepG2 cell cultures, and inhibits inflammasome activation and IL-1β production by macrophages. Using Ldlr-/- mice, we showed that inhibition of 3-HAA 3,4-dioxygenase (HAAO), which increases the endogenous levels of 3-HAA, decreases plasma lipids and atherosclerosis. Notably, HAAO inhibition led to decreased hepatic SREBP-2 mRNA levels and lipid accumulation, and improved liver pathology scores.

Conclusions: We show that the activity of SREBP-2 and the inflammasome can be regulated by 3-HAA metabolism. Moreover, our study highlights that targeting HAAO is a promising strategy to prevent and treat hypercholesterolaemia and atherosclerosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cvr/cvz258DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7519886PMC
October 2020

Chymase released from hypoxia-activated cardiac mast cells cleaves human apoA-I at Tyr and compromises its cardioprotective activity.

J Lipid Res 2018 06 26;59(6):945-957. Epub 2018 Mar 26.

Wihuri Research Institute, Helsinki, Finland. Electronic address:

ApoA-I, the main structural and functional protein of HDL particles, is cardioprotective, but also highly sensitive to proteolytic cleavage. Here, we investigated the effect of cardiac mast cell activation and ensuing chymase secretion on apoA-I degradation using isolated rat hearts in the Langendorff perfusion system. Cardiac mast cells were activated by injection of compound 48/80 into the coronary circulation or by low-flow myocardial ischemia, after which lipid-free apoA-I was injected and collected in the coronary effluent for cleavage analysis. Mast cell activation by 48/80 resulted in apoA-I cleavage at sites Tyr and Phe, but hypoxic activation at Tyr only. In vitro, the proteolytic end-product of apoA-I with either rat or human chymase was the Tyr-truncated fragment. This fragment, when compared with intact apoA-I, showed reduced ability to promote migration of cultured human coronary artery endothelial cells in a wound-healing assay. We propose that C-terminal truncation of apoA-I by chymase released from cardiac mast cells during ischemia impairs the ability of apoA-I to heal damaged endothelium in the ischemic myocardium.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1194/jlr.M077503DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5983404PMC
June 2018

Hemin and Cobalt Protoporphyrin Inhibit NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation by Enhancing Autophagy: A Novel Mechanism of Inflammasome Regulation.

J Innate Immun 2017 22;9(1):65-82. Epub 2016 Sep 22.

Wihuri Research Institute, Helsinki, Finland.

Inflammasomes are intracellular protein platforms, which, upon activation, produce the highly proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. Heme, hemin and their degradation products possess significant immunomodulatory functions. Here, we studied whether hemin regulates inflammasome function in macrophages. Both hemin and its derivative, cobalt protoporphyrin (CoPP), significantly reduced IL-1β secretion by cultured human primary macrophages, the human monocytic leukemia cell line and also mouse bone marrow-derived and peritoneal macrophages. Intraperitoneal administration of CoPP to mice prior to urate crystal-induced peritonitis alleviated IL-1β secretion to the peritoneal cavity. In cultured macrophages, hemin and CoPP inhibited NLRP3 inflammasome assembly by reducing the amount of intracellular apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase-recruitment domain (ASC). The reduction of ASC was associated with enhanced autophagosome formation and autophagic flux. Inhibition of autophagy prevented the CoPP-induced depletion of ASC, implying that the depletion was caused by increased autophagy. Our data indicate that hemin functions as an endogenous negative regulator of the NLRP3 inflammasome. The inhibition is mediated via enhanced autophagy that results in increased degradation of ASC. This regulatory mechanism may provide a novel approach for the treatment of inflammasome-related diseases.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000448894DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6738905PMC
October 2017

Chronic intermittent psychological stress promotes macrophage reverse cholesterol transport by impairing bile acid absorption in mice.

Physiol Rep 2015 May;3(5)

Wihuri Research Institute, Helsinki, Finland.

Psychological stress is a risk factor for atherosclerosis, yet the pathophysiological mechanisms involved remain elusive. The transfer of cholesterol from macrophage foam cells to liver and feces (the macrophage-specific reverse cholesterol transport, m-RCT) is an important antiatherogenic pathway. Because exposure of mice to physical restraint, a model of psychological stress, increases serum levels of corticosterone, and as bile acid homeostasis is disrupted in glucocorticoid-treated animals, we investigated if chronic intermittent restraint stress would modify m-RCT by altering the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids. C57Bl/6J mice exposed to intermittent stress for 5 days exhibited increased transit through the large intestine and enhanced fecal bile acid excretion. Of the transcription factors and transporters that regulate bile acid homeostasis, the mRNA expression levels of the hepatic farnesoid X receptor (FXR), the bile salt export pump (BSEP), and the intestinal fibroblast growth factor 15 (FGF15) were reduced, whereas those of the ileal apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT), responsible for active bile acid absorption, remained unchanged. Neither did the hepatic expression of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the key enzyme regulating bile acid synthesis, change in the stressed mice. Evaluation of the functionality of the m-RCT pathway revealed increased fecal excretion of bile acids that had been synthesized from macrophage-derived cholesterol. Overall, our study reveals that chronic intermittent stress in mice accelerates m-RCT specifically by increasing fecal excretion of bile acids. This novel mechanism of m-RCT induction could have antiatherogenic potential under conditions of chronic stress.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.14814/phy2.12402DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4463831PMC
May 2015

Enhanced vascular permeability facilitates entry of plasma HDL and promotes macrophage-reverse cholesterol transport from skin in mice.

J Lipid Res 2015 Feb 3;56(2):241-53. Epub 2014 Dec 3.

Wihuri Research Institute, Helsinki, Finland.

Reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) pathway from macrophage foam cells initiates when HDL particles cross the endothelium, enter the interstitial fluid, and induce cholesterol efflux from these cells. We injected [(3)H]cholesterol-loaded J774 macrophages into the dorsal skin of mice and measured the transfer of macrophage-derived [(3)H]cholesterol to feces [macrophage-RCT (m-RCT)]. Injection of histamine to the macrophage injection site increased locally vascular permeability, enhanced influx of intravenously administered HDL, and stimulated m-RCT from the histamine-treated site. The stimulatory effect of histamine on m-RCT was abolished by prior administration of histamine H1 receptor (H1R) antagonist pyrilamine, indicating that the histamine effect was H1R-dependent. Subcutaneous administration of two other vasoactive mediators, serotonin or bradykinin, and activation of skin mast cells to secrete histamine and other vasoactive compounds also stimulated m-RCT. None of the studied vasoactive mediators affected serum HDL levels or the cholesterol-releasing ability of J774 macrophages in culture, indicating that acceleration of m-RCT was solely due to increased availability of cholesterol acceptors in skin. We conclude that disruption of the endothelial barrier by vasoactive compounds enhances the passage of HDL into interstitial fluid and increases the rate of RCT from peripheral macrophage foam cells, which reveals a novel tissue cholesterol-regulating function of these compounds.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1194/jlr.M050948DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4306679PMC
February 2015
-->