Publications by authors named "Ilja M Nolte"

190 Publications

Lack of association of FKBP5 SNPs and haplotypes with susceptibility and treatment response phenotypes in Han Chinese with major depressive disorder: A pilot case-control study (STROBE).

Medicine (Baltimore) 2021 Sep;100(36):e26983

University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Epidemiology, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Abstract: The identification of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes putatively related to pathophysiological processes in major depressive disorder (MDD) might improve both diagnosis and personalized treatment strategies eventually leading to more effective interventions. Considering the important role of the glucocorticoid receptor and the related FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP51) in the pathophysiology of MDD, we aimed to investigate putative associations between variants of FKBP5, the coding gene of FKBP51, with antidepressant treatment resistance and MDD susceptibility.Nine common SNPs of the FKBP5 gene prioritized based on location and, putative or known functions were genotyped in Han Chinese population, including MDD patients with or without antidepressant-treatment resistance and healthy controls. Associations of FKBP5 SNPs with MDD susceptibility and treatment response were examined in the whole group of MDD patients, as well as in subgroups stratified by antidepressant treatment resistance, compared with healthy controls.In total, 181 Han Chinese patients with MDD and 80 healthy controls were recruited. No significant SNP or haplotype associations were observed in the whole patient group. There were nominal significant differences both for the haplotype block with SNPs in strong LD (r2 > 0.8, P = .040) and haplotype block with SNPs in moderate LD (r2 > 0.1, P = .017) between the haplotype distributions of patients with antidepressant treatment resistance (n = 81) and healthy controls, but both significances did not survive multiple testing correction. Furthermore, no specific haplotype could be observed causing a significant difference in any combination between all comparisons.No associations were observed of FKBP5 variants with MDD or antidepressant treatment response. The lack of associations might be due to the relatively small sample size of this study (power ranged from 0.100 to 0.752). A follow-up study will need larger, better phenotyped, and more homogeneous samples to draw a definitive conclusion regarding the involvement of this gene in MDD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000026983DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8428740PMC
September 2021

The associations of CNR1 SNPs and haplotypes with vulnerability and treatment response phenotypes in Han Chinese with major depressive disorder: A case-control association study.

Mol Genet Genomic Med 2021 Sep 6;9(9):e1752. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Tianjin Mental Health Institute, Tianjin Anding Hospital, Tianjin, China.

Background: Understanding how genetic polymorphisms are associated with the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) may aid in diagnosis and the development of personalized treatment strategies. CNR1 is the gene coding Cannabinoid type 1 receptor which is highly involved in emotional processing and in regulating neurotransmitter releases. We aimed to investigate the associations of CNR1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with MDD susceptibility and treatment response.

Methods: The study reported data on 181 Han Chinese with MDD and 80 healthy controls. The associations of CNR1 genetic polymorphisms with MDD susceptibility and treatment response were examined, wherein the MDD patients were subgrouped further by responding to antidepressant treatment, compared with healthy controls separately.

Results: The CNR1 SNPs rs806367 and rs6454674 and haplotype C-T-T-C of rs806366, rs806367, rs806368, and rs806370 were associated with increased susceptibility for MDD and antidepressant treatment resistance, but the association was not detected in other SNPs or the haplotype block of rs806368 and rs806370.

Conclusion: The CNR1 is a promising candidate for the genetic association study of MDD. Larger and well-characterized samples are required to confirm the genetic association of CNR1 with MDD because of the limitations such as relatively small sample size and lack of information for correcting confounding factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mgg3.1752DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8457701PMC
September 2021

Genetic association study of childhood aggression across raters, instruments, and age.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 07 30;11(1):413. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology and Neuroscience, King's College London, London, UK.

Childhood aggressive behavior (AGG) has a substantial heritability of around 50%. Here we present a genome-wide association meta-analysis (GWAMA) of childhood AGG, in which all phenotype measures across childhood ages from multiple assessors were included. We analyzed phenotype assessments for a total of 328 935 observations from 87 485 children aged between 1.5 and 18 years, while accounting for sample overlap. We also meta-analyzed within subsets of the data, i.e., within rater, instrument and age. SNP-heritability for the overall meta-analysis (AGG) was 3.31% (SE = 0.0038). We found no genome-wide significant SNPs for AGG. The gene-based analysis returned three significant genes: ST3GAL3 (P = 1.6E-06), PCDH7 (P = 2.0E-06), and IPO13 (P = 2.5E-06). All three genes have previously been associated with educational traits. Polygenic scores based on our GWAMA significantly predicted aggression in a holdout sample of children (variance explained = 0.44%) and in retrospectively assessed childhood aggression (variance explained = 0.20%). Genetic correlations (r) among rater-specific assessment of AGG ranged from r = 0.46 between self- and teacher-assessment to r = 0.81 between mother- and teacher-assessment. We obtained moderate-to-strong rs with selected phenotypes from multiple domains, but hardly with any of the classical biomarkers thought to be associated with AGG. Significant genetic correlations were observed with most psychiatric and psychological traits (range [Formula: see text]: 0.19-1.00), except for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Aggression had a negative genetic correlation (r = ~-0.5) with cognitive traits and age at first birth. Aggression was strongly genetically correlated with smoking phenotypes (range [Formula: see text]: 0.46-0.60). The genetic correlations between aggression and psychiatric disorders were weaker for teacher-reported AGG than for mother- and self-reported AGG. The current GWAMA of childhood aggression provides a powerful tool to interrogate the rater-specific genetic etiology of AGG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-021-01480-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8324785PMC
July 2021

Spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity and its association with age, sex, obesity indices and hypertension: a population study.

Am J Hypertens 2021 Jul 30. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Department of Psychiatry, Interdisciplinary Center Psychopathology and Emotion regulation, The Netherlands.

Background: Low baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disorders. We investigated determinants of BRS in a large sample from general population.

Methods: In a population-based study (n=901) data were collected on BRS, arm cuff blood pressure (BP) and obesity indices including body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), waist circumference and percentage body fat (%BF). BRS was calculated by spectral analysis software based on continuously recorded spontaneous fluctuations in beat-to-beat finger BP for 10 to 15 minutes. Correlations and multivariable regression analyses were used to test associations of age, sex, obesity indices and hypertension with BRS while considering effects of lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol consumption and physical activity).

Results: In multivariable analysis, age, sex, %BF, and hypertension were independently associated with BRS. BRS decreased with -0.10 (95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.15 to -0.06) ms/mmHg with each year of increase in age. Women had -1.55 (95% CI: -2.28 to -0.73) ms/mmHg lower mean BRS than men. The effects of %BF (per 10% increase) and hypertension on BRS were -0.55 (95% CI: -0.97 to -0.13) ms/mmHg and -1.23 (95% CI: -1.92 to -0.46) ms/mmHg, respectively. There was no evidence of associations between BRS and lifestyle factors. Age, age 2, sex, and their interactions plus %BF and hypertension contributed 16.9% of total variance of BRS.

Conclusions: In this large general population study, we confirm prior findings that age and sex are important factors associated with BRS and find %BF is more strongly related to less favorable BRS levels than BMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajh/hpab122DOI Listing
July 2021

Meat intake and risk of mortality and graft failure in kidney transplant recipients.

Am J Clin Nutr 2021 10;114(4):1505-1517

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Background: It is unknown whether meat intake is beneficial for long-term patient and graft survival in kidney transplant recipients (KTR).

Objectives: We first investigated the association of the previously described meat intake biomarkers 1-methylhistidine and 3-methylhistidine with intake of white and red meat as estimated from a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Second, we investigated the association of the meat intake biomarkers with long-term outcomes in KTR.

Methods: We measured 24-h urinary excretion of 1-methylhistidine and 3-methylhistidine by validated assays in a cohort of 678 clinically stable KTR. Cross-sectional associations were assessed by linear regression. We used Cox regression analyses to prospectively study associations of log2-transformed biomarkers with mortality and graft failure.

Results: Urinary 1-methylhistidine and 3-methylhistidine excretion values were median: 282; interquartile range (IQR): 132-598 µmol/24 h and median: 231; IQR: 175-306 µmol/24 h, respectively. Urinary 1-methylhistidine was associated with white meat intake [standardized β (st β): 0.20; 95% CI: 0.12, 0.28; P < 0.001], whereas urinary 3-methylhistidine was associated with red meat intake (st β: 0.30; 95% CI: 0.23, 0.38; P < 0.001). During median follow-up for 5.4 (IQR: 4.9-6.1) y, 145 (21%) died and 83 (12%) developed graft failure. Urinary 3-methylhistidine was inversely associated with mortality independently of potential confounders (HR per doubling: 0.55; 95% CI: 0.42, 0.72; P < 0.001). Both urinary 1-methylhistidine and urinary 3-methylhistidine were inversely associated with graft failure independent of potential confounders (HR per doubling: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.73, 0.96; P = 0.01; and 0.59; 95% CI: 0.41, 0.85; P = 0.004, respectively).

Conclusions: High urinary 3-methylhistidine, reflecting higher red meat intake, is independently associated with lower risk of mortality. High urinary concentrations of both 1- and 3-methylhistidine, of which the former reflects higher white meat intake, are independently associated with lower risk of graft failure in KTR. Future intervention studies are warranted to study the effect of high meat intake on mortality and graft failure in KTR, using these biomarkers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/nqab185DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8488867PMC
October 2021

The trans-ancestral genomic architecture of glycemic traits.

Nat Genet 2021 06 31;53(6):840-860. Epub 2021 May 31.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Glycemic traits are used to diagnose and monitor type 2 diabetes and cardiometabolic health. To date, most genetic studies of glycemic traits have focused on individuals of European ancestry. Here we aggregated genome-wide association studies comprising up to 281,416 individuals without diabetes (30% non-European ancestry) for whom fasting glucose, 2-h glucose after an oral glucose challenge, glycated hemoglobin and fasting insulin data were available. Trans-ancestry and single-ancestry meta-analyses identified 242 loci (99 novel; P < 5 × 10), 80% of which had no significant evidence of between-ancestry heterogeneity. Analyses restricted to individuals of European ancestry with equivalent sample size would have led to 24 fewer new loci. Compared with single-ancestry analyses, equivalent-sized trans-ancestry fine-mapping reduced the number of estimated variants in 99% credible sets by a median of 37.5%. Genomic-feature, gene-expression and gene-set analyses revealed distinct biological signatures for each trait, highlighting different underlying biological pathways. Our results increase our understanding of diabetes pathophysiology by using trans-ancestry studies for improved power and resolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-021-00852-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7610958PMC
June 2021

Interleukin 6 and Development of Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction in the General Population.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 06 17;10(11):e018549. Epub 2021 May 17.

Division of Nephrology Department of Internal Medicine University of GroningenUniversity Medical Center Groningen Groningen the Netherlands.

Background The cause of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is poorly understood, and specific therapies are lacking. Previous studies suggested that inflammation plays a role in the development of HFpEF. Herein, we aimed to investigate in community-dwelling individuals whether a higher plasma interleukin 6 (IL-6) level is associated with an increased risk of developing new-onset heart failure (HF) over time, and specifically HFpEF. Methods and Results We performed a case-cohort study based on the PREVEND (Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-Stage Disease) study, a prospective general population-based cohort study. We included 961 participants, comprising 200 participants who developed HF and a random group of 761 controls. HF with reduced ejection fraction or HFpEF was defined on the basis of the left ventricular ejection fraction of ≤40% or >40%, respectively. In Cox proportional hazard regression analyses, IL-6 levels were statistically significantly associated with the development of HF (hazard ratio [HR], 1.28; 95% CI, 1.02-1.61; =0.03) after adjustment for key risk factors. Specifically, IL-6 levels were significantly associated with the development of HFpEF (HR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.16-2.19; =0.004), whereas the association with HF with reduced ejection fraction was nonsignificant (HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.75-1.47; =0.77). In sensitivity analyses, defining HFpEF as left ventricular ejection fraction ≥50%, IL-6 levels were also significantly associated with the development of HFpEF (HR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.04-2.06; =0.03) after adjustment for key risk factors. Conclusions IL-6 is associated with new-onset HFpEF in community-dwelling individuals, independent of potential confounders. Our findings warrant further research to investigate whether IL-6 might be a novel treatment target to prevent HFpEF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.018549DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8483531PMC
June 2021

Multi-ancestry genome-wide gene-sleep interactions identify novel loci for blood pressure.

Mol Psychiatry 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Long and short sleep duration are associated with elevated blood pressure (BP), possibly through effects on molecular pathways that influence neuroendocrine and vascular systems. To gain new insights into the genetic basis of sleep-related BP variation, we performed genome-wide gene by short or long sleep duration interaction analyses on four BP traits (systolic BP, diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure, and pulse pressure) across five ancestry groups in two stages using 2 degree of freedom (df) joint test followed by 1df test of interaction effects. Primary multi-ancestry analysis in 62,969 individuals in stage 1 identified three novel gene by sleep interactions that were replicated in an additional 59,296 individuals in stage 2 (stage 1 + 2 P < 5 × 10), including rs7955964 (FIGNL2/ANKRD33) that increases BP among long sleepers, and rs73493041 (SNORA26/C9orf170) and rs10406644 (KCTD15/LSM14A) that increase BP among short sleepers (P < 5 × 10). Secondary ancestry-specific analysis identified another novel gene by long sleep interaction at rs111887471 (TRPC3/KIAA1109) in individuals of African ancestry (P = 2 × 10). Combined stage 1 and 2 analyses additionally identified significant gene by long sleep interactions at 10 loci including MKLN1 and RGL3/ELAVL3 previously associated with BP, and significant gene by short sleep interactions at 10 loci including C2orf43 previously associated with BP (P < 10). 2df test also identified novel loci for BP after modeling sleep that has known functions in sleep-wake regulation, nervous and cardiometabolic systems. This study indicates that sleep and primary mechanisms regulating BP may interact to elevate BP level, suggesting novel insights into sleep-related BP regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41380-021-01087-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8517040PMC
April 2021

Genome-wide association study of circulating interleukin 6 levels identifies novel loci.

Hum Mol Genet 2021 04;30(5):393-409

Institute of Cardiovascular Science, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, UK.

Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is a multifunctional cytokine with both pro- and anti-inflammatory properties with a heritability estimate of up to 61%. The circulating levels of IL-6 in blood have been associated with an increased risk of complex disease pathogenesis. We conducted a two-staged, discovery and replication meta genome-wide association study (GWAS) of circulating serum IL-6 levels comprising up to 67 428 (ndiscovery = 52 654 and nreplication = 14 774) individuals of European ancestry. The inverse variance fixed effects based discovery meta-analysis, followed by replication led to the identification of two independent loci, IL1F10/IL1RN rs6734238 on chromosome (Chr) 2q14, (Pcombined = 1.8 × 10-11), HLA-DRB1/DRB5 rs660895 on Chr6p21 (Pcombined = 1.5 × 10-10) in the combined meta-analyses of all samples. We also replicated the IL6R rs4537545 locus on Chr1q21 (Pcombined = 1.2 × 10-122). Our study identifies novel loci for circulating IL-6 levels uncovering new immunological and inflammatory pathways that may influence IL-6 pathobiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddab023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8098112PMC
April 2021

Interaction between ERAP Alleles and HLA Class I Types Support a Role of Antigen Presentation in Hodgkin Lymphoma Development.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jan 22;13(3). Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Department of Pathology and Medical Biology, University of Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands.

Genetic variants in the HLA region are the strongest risk factors for developing Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), suggesting an important role for antigen presentation. This is supported by another HL-associated genomic region which contains the loci of two enzymes that process endogenous proteins to peptides to be presented by HLA class I, i.e., endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 () and . We hypothesized that and HLA class I type interact in HL susceptibility, as shown previously for several autoimmune diseases. We detected ERAP1 and ERAP2 expression in tumor cells and cells in the microenvironment in primary HL tissue samples. Seven SNPs and haplotypes showed strong associations with RNA and protein levels of and in LCLs and HL cell lines. Analysis of HLA class I types, SNPs and haplotypes by direct genotyping or imputation from genome-wide association data in 390 HL patients revealed significant interactions between , rs27038 and the rs27038 associated haplotype, as well as between and rs26618. In conclusion, our results show that and HLA class I interact in genetic susceptibility to HL, providing further evidence that antigen presentation is an important process in HL susceptibility and pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13030414DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7865538PMC
January 2021

GWASinspector: comprehensive quality control of genome-wide association study results.

Bioinformatics 2021 Jan 8. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Groningen University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Summary: Quality control (QC) of genome wide association study (GWAS) result files has become increasingly difficult due to advances in genomic technology. The main challenges include continuous increases in the number of polymorphic genetic variants contained in recent GWASs and reference panels, the rising number of cohorts participating in a GWAS consortium, and inclusion of new variant types. Here, we present GWASinspector, a flexible R package for comprehensive QC of GWAS results. This package is compatible with recent imputation reference panels, handles insertion/deletion and multi-allelic variants, provides extensive QC reports and efficiently processes big data files. Reference panels covering three human genome builds (NCBI36, GRCh37 and GRCh38) are available. GWASinspector has a user friendly design and allows easy set-up of the QC pipeline through a configuration file. In addition to checking and reporting on individual files, it can be used in preparation of a meta-analysis by testing for systemic differences between studies and generating cleaned, harmonized GWAS files. Comparison with existing GWAS QC tools shows that the main advantages of GWASinspector are its ability to more effectively deal with insertion/deletion and multi-allelic variants and its relatively low memory use.

Availability And Implementation: Our package is available at The Comprehensive R Archive Network (CRAN): https://CRAN.R-project.org/package=GWASinspector. Reference datasets and a detailed tutorial can be found at the package website at http://gwasinspector.com/.

Supplementary Information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btaa1084DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8034536PMC
January 2021

Sex-dimorphic genetic effects and novel loci for fasting glucose and insulin variability.

Nat Commun 2021 01 5;12(1):24. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of Biostatistics and Data Science, Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.

Differences between sexes contribute to variation in the levels of fasting glucose and insulin. Epidemiological studies established a higher prevalence of impaired fasting glucose in men and impaired glucose tolerance in women, however, the genetic component underlying this phenomenon is not established. We assess sex-dimorphic (73,089/50,404 women and 67,506/47,806 men) and sex-combined (151,188/105,056 individuals) fasting glucose/fasting insulin genetic effects via genome-wide association study meta-analyses in individuals of European descent without diabetes. Here we report sex dimorphism in allelic effects on fasting insulin at IRS1 and ZNF12 loci, the latter showing higher RNA expression in whole blood in women compared to men. We also observe sex-homogeneous effects on fasting glucose at seven novel loci. Fasting insulin in women shows stronger genetic correlations than in men with waist-to-hip ratio and anorexia nervosa. Furthermore, waist-to-hip ratio is causally related to insulin resistance in women, but not in men. These results position dissection of metabolic and glycemic health sex dimorphism as a steppingstone for understanding differences in genetic effects between women and men in related phenotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19366-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7785747PMC
January 2021

Serum uric acid is associated with increased risk of posttransplantation diabetes in kidney transplant recipients: a prospective cohort study.

Metabolism 2021 03 13;116:154465. Epub 2020 Dec 13.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Background: Serum uric acid (SUA) is associated with fasting glucose in healthy subjects, and prospective epidemological studies have shown that elevated SUA is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Whether SUA is independently associated with higher risk of posttransplantation diabetes mellitus (PTDM) in kidney transplant recipients (KTR) remains unknown.

Methods: We performed a longitudinal cohort study of 524 adult KTR with a functioning graft ≥1-year, recruited at a university setting (2008-2011). Multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional-hazards regression analyses were performed to assess the association between time-updated SUA and risk of PTDM (defined according the American Diabetes Association's diagnostic criteria).

Results: Mean (SD) SUA was 0.43 (0.11) mmol/L at baseline. During 5.3 (IQR, 4.1-6.0) years of follow-up, 52 (10%) KTR developed PTDM. In univariate prospective analyses, SUA was associated with increased risk of PTDM (HR 1.75, 95% CI 1.36-2.26 per 1-SD increment; P < 0.001). This finding remained materially unchanged after adjustment for components of the metabolic syndrome, lifestyle, estimated glomerular filtration rate, immunosuppressive therapy, cytomegalovirus and hepatitis C virus infection (HR 1.89, 95% CI 1.32-2.70; P = 0.001). These findings were consistent in categorical analyses, and robust in sensitivity analyses without outliers.

Conclusions: In KTR, higher SUA levels are strongly and independently associated with increased risk of PTDM. Our findings are in agreement with accumulating evidence supporting SUA as novel independent risk marker for type 2 diabetes, and extend the evidence, for the first time, to the clinical setting of outpatient KTR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2020.154465DOI Listing
March 2021

Meta-analysis uncovers genome-wide significant variants for rapid kidney function decline.

Kidney Int 2021 04 31;99(4):926-939. Epub 2020 Oct 31.

Division of Nephrology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA; Kidney Research Institute, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Rapid decline of glomerular filtration rate estimated from creatinine (eGFRcrea) is associated with severe clinical endpoints. In contrast to cross-sectionally assessed eGFRcrea, the genetic basis for rapid eGFRcrea decline is largely unknown. To help define this, we meta-analyzed 42 genome-wide association studies from the Chronic Kidney Diseases Genetics Consortium and United Kingdom Biobank to identify genetic loci for rapid eGFRcrea decline. Two definitions of eGFRcrea decline were used: 3 mL/min/1.73m/year or more ("Rapid3"; encompassing 34,874 cases, 107,090 controls) and eGFRcrea decline 25% or more and eGFRcrea under 60 mL/min/1.73m at follow-up among those with eGFRcrea 60 mL/min/1.73m or more at baseline ("CKDi25"; encompassing 19,901 cases, 175,244 controls). Seven independent variants were identified across six loci for Rapid3 and/or CKDi25: consisting of five variants at four loci with genome-wide significance (near UMOD-PDILT (2), PRKAG2, WDR72, OR2S2) and two variants among 265 known eGFRcrea variants (near GATM, LARP4B). All these loci were novel for Rapid3 and/or CKDi25 and our bioinformatic follow-up prioritized variants and genes underneath these loci. The OR2S2 locus is novel for any eGFRcrea trait including interesting candidates. For the five genome-wide significant lead variants, we found supporting effects for annual change in blood urea nitrogen or cystatin-based eGFR, but not for GATM or LARP4B. Individuals at high compared to those at low genetic risk (8-14 vs. 0-5 adverse alleles) had a 1.20-fold increased risk of acute kidney injury (95% confidence interval 1.08-1.33). Thus, our identified loci for rapid kidney function decline may help prioritize therapeutic targets and identify mechanisms and individuals at risk for sustained deterioration of kidney function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2020.09.030DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8010357PMC
April 2021

Vibration threshold in non-diabetic subjects.

PLoS One 2020 7;15(10):e0237733. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Department of Neurosurgery, University Medical Center Groningen and University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Measuring vibration perception threshold (VPT) accurately classifies and quantifies the severity of loss of vibration perception. A biothesiometer (Bio-thesiometer®; Bio Medical Instrument Co, Ohio, USA) appears to be the most suitable tool to determine VPT due to its low inter-rater variability and low occurence of adaption to the sensation. Different VPT values for a biothesiometer have been described, however, specification on age, height and different measurement locations is currently lacking. The objective of our study was to identify determinants of vibration perception in non-diabetic subjects, in order to provide individualized normal values of VPTs for clinical practice. Measurements of the vibration perception were performed on the big toes, insteps, lateral malleoli, and wrists. A total of 205 healthy subjects were included (108 (52.7%) males) with a median [interquartile range] age of 59 [51;64] (range 21-80) years. Mean height was 174.45 ± 9.20 cm and mean weight was 82.94 ± 14.84 kg, resulting in a mean BMI of 27.19 ± 4.00 kg/m2. In stepwise forward linear regression analyses, age (st. β = 0.51, p < 0.001) and height (st. β = 0.43, p < 0.001) were found to be the independent unmodifiable determinants of the VPT at the big toe. Regression coefficients for quantiles of the determinants age and height were incorporated in the corresponding regression equations. This study provides equations to calculate age- and height-specific normal values for VPT that can be used in clinical practice and in large research studies.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0237733PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7540842PMC
November 2020

Plasma cadmium is associated with increased risk of long-term kidney graft failure.

Kidney Int 2021 05 14;99(5):1213-1224. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

The kidney is one of the most sensitive organs to cadmium-induced toxicity, particularly in conditions of long-term oxidative stress. We hypothesized that, in kidney transplant recipients, nephrotoxic exposure to cadmium represents an overlooked hazard for optimal graft function. To test this, we performed a prospective cohort study and included 672 outpatient kidney transplant recipients with a functioning graft of beyond one year. The median plasma cadmium was 58 ng/L. During a median 4.9 years of follow-up, 78 kidney transplant recipients developed graft failure with a significantly different distribution across tertiles of plasma cadmium (13, 26, and 39 events, respectively). Plasma cadmium was associated with an increased risk of graft failure (hazard ratio 1.96, 95% confidence interval 1.56‒2.47 per log ng/L). Similarly, a dose-response relationship was observed over increasing tertiles of plasma cadmium, after adjustments for potential confounders (donor, recipient, transplant and lifestyle characteristics), robust in both competing risk and sensitivity analyses. These findings were also consistent for kidney function decline (graft failure or doubling of serum creatinine). Thus, plasma cadmium is independently associated with an increased risk of long-term kidney graft failure and decline in kidney function. Further studies are needed to investigate whether exposure to cadmium represents an otherwise overlooked modifiable risk factor for adverse long-term graft outcomes in different populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.kint.2020.08.027DOI Listing
May 2021

Metasubtract: an R-package to analytically produce leave-one-out meta-analysis GWAS summary statistics.

Authors:
Ilja M Nolte

Bioinformatics 2020 08;36(16):4521-4522

Summary: statistics from a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (meta-GWAS) can be used for many follow-up analyses. One valuable application is the creation of polygenic scores. However, if polygenic scores are calculated in a validation cohort that was part of the meta-GWAS consortium, this cohort is not independent and analyses will therefore yield inflated results. The R package 'MetaSubtract' was developed to subtract the results of the validation cohort from meta-GWAS summary statistics analytically. The statistical formulas for a meta-analysis were inverted to compute corrected summary statistics of a meta-GWAS leaving one (or more) cohort(s) out. These formulas have been implemented in MetaSubtract for different meta-analyses methods (fixed effects inverse variance or square root sample size weighted z-score) accounting for no, single or double genomic control correction. Results obtained by MetaSubtract correlate very well to those calculated using the traditional way, i.e. by performing a meta-analysis leaving out the validation cohort. In conclusion, MetaSubtract allows researchers to compute meta-GWAS summary statistics that are independent of the GWAS results of the validation cohort without requiring access to the cohort level GWAS results of the corresponding meta-GWAS consortium.

Availability And Implementation: https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/MetaSubtract.

Supplementary Information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bioinformatics/btaa570DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7750933PMC
August 2020

Galectin-3 and Risk of Late Graft Failure in Kidney Transplant Recipients: A 10-year Prospective Cohort Study.

Transplantation 2021 05;105(5):1106-1115

Division of Nephrology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Background: Galectin-3 may play a causal role in kidney inflammation and fibrosis, which may also be involved in the development of kidney graft failure. With novel galectin-3-targeted pharmacological therapies increasingly coming available, we aimed to investigate whether galectin-3 is associated with risk of late graft failure in kidney transplant recipients (KTR).

Methods: We studied adult KTR who participated in TransplantLines Insulin Resistance and Inflammation Biobank and Cohort Study, recruited in a university setting (2001-2003). Follow-up was performed for a median of 9.5 (interquartile range, 6.2-10.2) years. Overall and stratified (Pinteraction < 0.05) multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional-hazards regression analyses were performed to study the association of galectin-3 with risk of graft failure (restart of dialysis or retransplantation).

Results: Among 561 KTR (age 52 ± 12 y; 54% males), baseline median galectin-3 was 21.1 (interquartile range, 17.0-27.2) ng/mL. During follow-up, 72 KTR developed graft failure (13, 18, and 44 events over increasing tertiles of galectin-3). Independent of adjustment for donor, recipient, and transplant characteristics, galectin-3-associated with increased risk of graft failure (hazard ratios [HR] per 1 SD change, 2.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.63-2.75; P < 0.001), particularly among KTR with systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg (HR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.80-2.92; P < 0.001; Pinteraction = 0.01) or smoking history (HR, 2.56; 95% CI, 1.95-3.37; P < 0.001; Pinteraction = 0.03). Similarly, patients in the highest tertile of galectin-3 were consistently at increased risk of graft failure.

Conclusions: Serum galectin-3 levels are elevated in KTR, and independently associated with increased risk of late graft failure. Whether galectin-3-targeted therapies may represent novel opportunities to decrease the long-standing high burden of late graft failure in stable KTR warrants further studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TP.0000000000003359DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8078111PMC
May 2021

Thyroid function and risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality: a prospective population-based cohort study.

Endocrine 2021 02 6;71(2):385-396. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Purpose: Although thyroid hormones are irrefutably implicated in cardiovascular physiology, the impact of within-reference range variations of thyroid function on cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains unclear. Elucidating this is important, since it could foster preventive treatment and reduce global CVD burden. We therefore investigated the impact of within-reference range variations of thyroid function on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality.

Methods: We included community-dwelling individuals aged 28-75 years from a prospective cohort study, without known use of thyroid-affecting therapy and with thyrotropin within reference range. Associations of thyroid function with mortality were quantified using Cox models and adjusted for sociodemographic and cardiovascular risk factors.

Results: Mean (SD) age of the 6,054 participants (52.0% male) was 53.3 (12.0) years. During 47,594 person-years of follow-up, we observed 380 deaths from all causes and 103 from CVDs. Although higher thyrotropin was not associated with all-cause mortality (adjusted HR 1.02, 95% CI 0.92-1.14), point estimates for cardiovascular mortality diverged toward increased risk in younger (<72 years) participants (1.31, 1.00-1.72) and decreased risk in elderly (≥72 years) (0.77, 0.56-1.06). Higher free thyroxine (FT) was associated with all-cause mortality (1.18, 1.07-1.30) and with cardiovascular mortality only in elderly (1.61, 1.19-2.18), but not in younger participants (1.03, 0.78-1.34). Higher free triiodothyronine (FT) was associated with all-cause mortality in females only (1.18, 1.02-1.35). FT was not associated with cardiovascular mortality (0.91, 0.70-1.18).

Conclusions: Community-dwelling elderly individuals with high-normal thyroid function are at increased risk of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality, reinforcing the need of redefining the current reference ranges of thyroid function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12020-020-02397-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7881952PMC
February 2021

Genetic Risk Scores for Complex Disease Traits in Youth.

Circ Genom Precis Med 2020 08 11;13(4):e002775. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

Department of Epidemiology (T.X., B.W., I.M.N., P.J.v.d.M., H.S.), University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands.

Background: For most disease-related traits the magnitude of the contribution of genetic factors in adolescents remains unclear.

Methods: Twenty continuous traits related to anthropometry, cardiovascular and renal function, metabolism, and inflammation were selected from the ongoing prospective Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey cohort in the Netherlands with measurements of up to 5 waves from age 11 to 22 years (n=1354, 47.6% males) and all traits available at the third wave (mean age [SD]=16.22 [0.66]). For each trait, unweighted and weighted genetic risk scores (GRSs) were generated based on significantly associated single nucleotide polymorphisms identified from literature. The variance explained by the GRSs in adolescents were estimated by linear regression after adjustment for covariates.

Results: Except for ALT (alanine transaminase), all GRSs were significantly associated with their traits. The trait variance explained by the GRSs was highest for lipoprotein[a] (39.59%) and varied between 0.09% (ALT) and 18.49% (LDL [low-density lipoprotein]) for the other traits. For most traits, the variances explained in adolescents were comparable with or slightly smaller than those in adults. Significant increases of trait levels (except ALT) and increased risks for overweight/obesity (odds ratio, 6.41 [95% CI, 2.95-15.56]) and hypertension (odds ratio, 2.86 [95% CI, 1.39-6.17]) were found in individuals in the top GRS decile compared with those at the bottom decile.

Conclusions: Variances explained by adult-based GRSs for disease-related traits in adolescents, although still relatively modest, were comparable with or slightly smaller than in adults offering promise for improved risk prediction at early ages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCGEN.119.002775DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7439939PMC
August 2020

The miR-26b-5p/KPNA2 Axis Is an Important Regulator of Burkitt Lymphoma Cell Growth.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jun 4;12(6). Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Department of Pathology and Medical Biology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, 9700RB Groningen, The Netherlands.

The expression of several microRNAs (miRNAs) is known to be changed in Burkitt lymphoma (BL), compared to its normal counterparts. Although for some miRNAs, a role in BL was demonstrated, for most of them, their function is unclear. In this study, we aimed to identify miRNAs that control BL cell growth. Two BL cell lines were infected with lentiviral pools containing either 58 miRNA inhibitors or 44 miRNA overexpression constructs. Eighteen constructs showed significant changes in abundance over time, indicating that they affected BL growth. The screening results were validated by individual green fluorescent protein (GFP) growth competition assays for fifteen of the eighteen constructs. For functional follow-up studies, we focused on miR-26b-5p, whose overexpression inhibited BL cell growth. Argonaute 2 RNA immunoprecipitation (Ago2-IP) in two BL cell lines revealed 47 potential target genes of miR-26b-5p. Overlapping the list of putative targets with genes showing a growth repression phenotype in a genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 knockout screen, revealed eight genes. The top-5 candidates included EZH2, COPS2, KPNA2, MRPL15, and NOL12. EZH2 is a known target of miR-26b-5p, with oncogenic properties in BL. The relevance of the latter four targets was confirmed using sgRNAs targeting these genes in individual GFP growth competition assays. Luciferase reporter assay confirmed binding of miR-26b-5p to the predicted target site for KPNA2, but not to the other genes. In summary, we identified 18 miRNAs that affected BL cell growth in a loss- or gain-of-function screening. A tumor suppressor role was confirmed for miR-26b-5p, and this effect could at least in part be attributed to KPNA2, a known regulator of OCT4, c-jun, and MYC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12061464DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7352454PMC
June 2020

Erythropoietin, Fibroblast Growth Factor 23, and Death After Kidney Transplantation.

J Clin Med 2020 06 4;9(6). Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands.

Elevated levels of erythropoietin (EPO) are associated with an increased risk of death in renal transplant recipients (RTRs), but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Emerging data suggest that EPO stimulates production of the phosphaturic hormone fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), another strong risk factor for death in RTRs. We hypothesized that the hitherto unexplained association between EPO levels and adverse outcomes may be attributable to increased levels of FGF23. We included 579 RTRs (age 51 ± 12 years, 55% males) from the TransplantLines Insulin Resistance and Inflammation Cohort study (NCT03272854). During a follow-up of 7.0 years, 121 RTRs died, of which 62 were due to cardiovascular cause. In multivariable Cox regression analysis, EPO was independently associated with all-cause (HR, 1.66; 95% CI 1.16-2.36; = 0.005) and cardiovascular death (HR, 1.87; 95% CI 1.14-3.06; = 0.01). However, the associations were abrogated following adjustment for FGF23 (HR, 1.28; 95% CI 0.87-1.88; = 0.20, and HR, 1.45; 95% CI 0.84-2.48; = 0.18, respectively). In subsequent mediation analysis, FGF23 mediated 72% and 50% of the association between EPO and all-cause and cardiovascular death, respectively. Our results underline the strong relationship between EPO and FGF23 physiology, and provide a potential mechanism underlying the relationship between increased EPO levels and adverse outcomes in RTRs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9061737DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7356141PMC
June 2020

Gene-educational attainment interactions in a multi-ancestry genome-wide meta-analysis identify novel blood pressure loci.

Mol Psychiatry 2021 06 5;26(6):2111-2125. Epub 2020 May 5.

Health Disparities Research Section, Laboratory of Epidemiology and Population Sciences, National Institute on Aging, National Institutes of Health, Baltimore, MD, 21224, USA.

Educational attainment is widely used as a surrogate for socioeconomic status (SES). Low SES is a risk factor for hypertension and high blood pressure (BP). To identify novel BP loci, we performed multi-ancestry meta-analyses accounting for gene-educational attainment interactions using two variables, "Some College" (yes/no) and "Graduated College" (yes/no). Interactions were evaluated using both a 1 degree of freedom (DF) interaction term and a 2DF joint test of genetic and interaction effects. Analyses were performed for systolic BP, diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure, and pulse pressure. We pursued genome-wide interrogation in Stage 1 studies (N = 117 438) and follow-up on promising variants in Stage 2 studies (N = 293 787) in five ancestry groups. Through combined meta-analyses of Stages 1 and 2, we identified 84 known and 18 novel BP loci at genome-wide significance level (P < 5 × 10). Two novel loci were identified based on the 1DF test of interaction with educational attainment, while the remaining 16 loci were identified through the 2DF joint test of genetic and interaction effects. Ten novel loci were identified in individuals of African ancestry. Several novel loci show strong biological plausibility since they involve physiologic systems implicated in BP regulation. They include genes involved in the central nervous system-adrenal signaling axis (ZDHHC17, CADPS, PIK3C2G), vascular structure and function (GNB3, CDON), and renal function (HAS2 and HAS2-AS1, SLIT3). Collectively, these findings suggest a role of educational attainment or SES in further dissection of the genetic architecture of BP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41380-020-0719-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7641978PMC
June 2021

Heritability and genetic correlations of obesity indices with ambulatory and office beat-to-beat blood pressure in the Oman Family Study.

J Hypertens 2020 08;38(8):1474-1480

Department of Epidemiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands.

Objective: To more precisely and comprehensively estimate the genetic and environmental correlations between various indices of obesity and BP.

Methods: We estimated heritability and genetic correlations of obesity indices with BP in the Oman family study (n = 1231). Ambulatory and office beat-to-beat BP was measured and mean values for SBP and DBP during daytime, sleep, 24-h and 10 min at rest were calculated. Different indices were used to quantify obesity and fat distribution: BMI, percentage of body fat (%BF), waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR). SOLAR software was used to perform univariate and bivariate quantitative genetic analyses adjusting for age, age, sex, age-sex and age--sex interactions.

Results: Heritabilities of BP ranged from 30.2 to 38.2% for ambulatory daytime, 16.8--21.4% for sleeping time, 32.1--40.4% for 24-h and 22--24.4% for office beat-to-beat measurements. Heritabilities for obesity indices were 67.8% for BMI, 52.2% for %BF, 37.3% for waist circumference and 37.9% for WHtR. All obesity measures had consistently positive phenotypic correlations with ambulatory and office beat-to-beat SBP and DBP (r-range: 0.14--0.32). Genetic correlations of obesity indices with SBP and DBP were higher than environmental correlations (rG: 0.16--0.50; rE: 0.01--0.31).

Conclusion: The considerable genetic overlap between a variety of obesity indices and both ambulatory and office beat-to-beat BP highlights the relevance of pleiotropic genes. Future GWAS analyses should discover the specific genes both influencing obesity indices and BP to help unravel their shared genetic background.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HJH.0000000000002430DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7374053PMC
August 2020

Duality of Tocopherol Isoforms and Novel Associations with Vitamins Involved in One-Carbon Metabolism: Results from an Elderly Sample of the LifeLines Cohort Study.

Nutrients 2020 Feb 23;12(2). Epub 2020 Feb 23.

Department of Internal Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands.

Whether the affinity of serum vitamin E with total lipids hampers the appropriate assessment of its association with age-related risk factors has not been investigated in epidemiological studies. We aimed to compare linear regression-derived coefficients of the association of non-indexed and total lipids-indexed vitamin E isoforms with clinical and laboratory characteristics pertaining to the lipid, metabolic syndrome, and one-carbon metabolism biological domains. We studied 1429 elderly subjects (non-vitamin supplement users, 60-75 years old, with low and high socioeconomic status) from the population-based LifeLines Cohort and Biobank Study. We found that the associations of tocopherol isoforms with lipids were inverted in total lipids-indexed analyses, which may be indicative of overcorrection. Irrespective of the methods of standardization, we consistently found positive associations of α-tocopherol with vitamins of the one-carbon metabolism pathway and inverse associations with characteristics related to glucose metabolism. The associations of γ-tocopherol were often opposite to those of α-tocopherol. These data suggest that tocopherol isoforms and one-carbon metabolism are related, with beneficial and adverse associations for α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol, respectively. Whether tocopherol isoforms, or their interplay, truly affect the one-carbon metabolism pathway remains to be further studied.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12020580DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7071362PMC
February 2020

Altered Gut Microbial Fermentation and Colonization with in Renal Transplant Recipients.

J Clin Med 2020 Feb 14;9(2). Epub 2020 Feb 14.

Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands.

Renal transplant recipients (RTRs) often suffer from posttransplant diarrhea. The observed dysbiosis in RTR may influence the fermentation processes in the gut. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether fermentation differs between RTRs and healthy controls (HCs), by measuring breath H and CH concentrations. Additionally, we determined the fecal presence of the methanogen (), which plays a main role in the process of methanogenesis. Data from the TransplantLines Biobank and Cohort Study (NCT03272841) was used. A total of 142 RTRs and 77 HCs were included. Breath H concentrations in RTRs were not significantly different from HCs. Breath CH concentrations in RTRs were significantly lower compared with HCs (median [interquartile range (IQR)] 7.5 [3.9-10.6] ppm vs. 16.0 [8.0-45.5] ppm, < 0.001). was less frequently present in the feces of RTRs compared to HCs (28.6% vs. 86.4% resp., < 0.001). Our findings regarding the altered methanogenesis in the gut of RTRs show similarities with previous results in inflammatory bowel disease patients. These findings provide novel insight into the alterations of fermentation after renal transplantation, which may contribute to understanding the occurrence of posttransplant diarrhea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9020518DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7073595PMC
February 2020

Pretransplant NT-proBNP, Dialysis Vintage, and Posttransplant Mortality in Kidney Transplant Recipients.

Transplantation 2020 10;104(10):2158-2165

Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen and University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Background: End-stage kidney disease and dialysis vintage are characterized by accelerated atherosclerosis, volume overload, and progressive left ventricular hypertrophy, leading to elevated N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels. Pretransplant dialysis vintage is associated with excess mortality after transplantation. We want to study whether pretransplant NT-proBNP is associated with posttransplantation mortality and if it explains the association of dialysis vintage with posttransplantation mortality in kidney transplant recipients (KTR).

Methods: We measured plasma NT-proBNP on arrival at the hospital before kidney transplantation in 658 KTR between January 1995 and December 2005 in our center. Multivariable Cox regression analyses, adjusted for potential confounders, were used to prospectively study the associations of dialysis vintage and NT-proBNP with all-cause mortality.

Results: During median 12.7 (7.8-15.6) years of follow-up after transplantation, 248 (37.7%) KTR died. Dialysis vintage was associated with an increased risk of posttransplant mortality in the fully adjusted model (hazard ratio [HR], 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.43; P = 0.02), independent of potential confounders. The association weakened materially and lost significance after further adjustment for NT-proBNP (HR, 1.14; 0.96-1.34; P = 0.14). NT-proBNP was independently associated with all-cause mortality in the fully adjusted model (HR, 1.34; 1.16-1.55; P < 0.001). The association remained independent of adjustment for dialysis vintage (HR, 1.31; 1.13-1.52; P < 0.001).

Conclusions: Our study shows that longer dialysis vintage is associated with a higher mortality risk in KTR, and this association might be explained for a considerable part by variation in pretransplant NT-proBNP at the time of transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TP.0000000000003125DOI Listing
October 2020

Plasma versus Erythrocyte Vitamin E in Renal Transplant Recipients, and Duality of Tocopherol Species.

Nutrients 2019 Nov 19;11(11). Epub 2019 Nov 19.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands.

Redox imbalance is an adverse on-going phenomenon in renal transplant recipients (RTR). Vitamin E has important antioxidant properties that counterbalance its deleterious effects. However, plasma vitamin E affinity with lipids challenges interpretation of its levels. To test the hypothesis that erythrocyte membranes represent a lipids-independent specimen to estimate vitamin E status, we performed a cross-sectional study in a cohort of adult RTR ( = 113) recruited in a university setting (2015-2018). We compared crude and total lipids-standardized linear regression-derived coefficients of plasma and erythrocyte tocopherol species in relation to clinical and laboratory parameters. Strongly positive associations of fasting lipids with plasma tocopherol became inverse, rather than absent, in total lipids-standardized analyses, indicating potential overadjustment. Whilst, no variables from the lipids domain were associated with the tocopherol species measured from erythrocyte specimens. In relation to inflammatory status and clinical parameters with antioxidant activity, we found associations in directions that are consistent with either beneficial or adverse effects concerning α- or γ-tocopherol, respectively. In conclusion, erythrocytes offer a lipids-independent alternative to estimate vitamin E status and investigate its relationship with parameters over other biological domains. In RTR, α- and γ-tocopherol may serve as biomarkers of relatively lower or higher vulnerability to oxidative stress and inflammation, noticeably in opposite directions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11112821DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6893692PMC
November 2019

Using Polygenic Scores in Social Science Research: Unraveling Childlessness.

Front Sociol 2019 22;4:74. Epub 2019 Nov 22.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.

Biological, genetic, and socio-demographic factors are all important in explaining reproductive behavior, yet these factors are typically studied in isolation. In this study, we explore an innovative sociogenomic approach, which entails including key socio-demographic (marriage, education, occupation, religion, cohort) and genetic factors related to both behavioral [age at first birth (AFB), number of children ever born (NEB)] and biological fecundity-related outcomes (endometriosis, age at menopause and menarche, polycystic ovary syndrome, azoospermia, testicular dysgenesis syndrome) to explain childlessness. We examine the association of all sets of factors with childlessness as well as the interplay between them. We derive polygenic scores (PGS) from recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and apply these in the Health and Retirement Study ( = 10,686) and Wisconsin Longitudinal Study ( = 8,284). Both socio-demographic and genetic factors were associated with childlessness. Whilst socio-demographic factors explain 19-46% in childlessness, the current PGS explains <1% of the variance, and only PGSs from large GWASs are related to childlessness. Our findings also indicate that genetic and socio-demographic factors are not independent, with PGSs for AFB and NEB related to education and age at marriage. The explained variance by polygenic scores on childlessness is limited since it is largely a behavioral trait, with genetic explanations expected to increase somewhat in the future with better-powered GWASs. As genotyping of individuals in social science surveys becomes more prevalent, the method described in this study can be applied to other outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fsoc.2019.00074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8022451PMC
November 2019
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