Publications by authors named "Ilgaz Akata"

25 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The unique genome organization of two novel fusariviruses hosted by the true morel mushroom Morchella esculenta.

Virus Res 2021 Sep 17;302:198486. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Ankara University Faculty of Science Department of Biology 06100 Tandogan, Ankara, Turkey.

Two putative mycoviruses belonging to the proposed family "Fusariviridae" were identified in Morchella esculenta by sequencing of double-stranded RNAs extracted from the morel mushroom. These viruses were tentatively named "Morchella esculenta fusarivirus 1″ (MeFV1) and "Morchella esculenta fusarivirus 2″ (MeFV2). Including the poly(A) tail the complete genomes of MeFV1 and MeFV2 are composed of 9096 and 9011 nucleotides (nt) respectively. Both genomes contain four non-overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) in which the largest and the smallest ORFs are ORF2 and ORF3 for both genomes respectively. The ORF1 of MeFV1 and MeFV2 are preceded by the 5' untranslated regions (UTRs) of 27 and 37 nt respectively and encode 341 and 339 aa long proteins that do not exhibit significant similarity to any of the protein sequences present in GenBank database. The 1502 and 1511 aa long proteins encoded by ORF2 of MeFV1 and MeFV2 share 84.42% sequence identity to each other and are 58.54% and 58.57% identical to the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of Morchella importuna fusarivirus 1 (MiFV1) respectively. Interestingly, a Promethin/LDAF1 protein domain that is associated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and lipid droplet (LD) membranes was identified at the N terminal regions of MeFV1 and MeFV2 RdRps, implying that the replication of these viruses is linked to the lipid membranes. The ORF3 and ORF4 of MeFV1 and MeFV2 encode proteins (268 and 333 aa long, and 645 and 647 aa long respectively) that only share significant sequence similarities with the proteins encoded by the ORF2 and ORF3 of MiFV1 respectively. The 3' UTRs of MeFV1 and MeFV2 are 162 and 159 nt long respectively and both of them have 51 nt long terminal poly(A) traits. To our knowledge, MeFV1 and MeFV2 are the first fusariviruses identified in M. esculenta and this is the first study reporting on the presence of Promethin/LDAF1 domain in viral RdRps.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2021.198486DOI Listing
September 2021

Element concentration, daily intake of elements, and health risk indices of wild mushrooms collected from Belgrad Forest and Ilgaz Mountain National Park (Turkey).

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 13. Epub 2021 May 13.

Faculty of Science and Literature, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Kilis 7 Aralik University, TR-79000, Kilis, Turkey.

The aim of this study was to determine the element content of wild edible and inedible mushroom species (Agaricus campestris, Armillaria ostoyae, Boletus reticulatus, Bondarzewia mesenterica, Bovistella utriformis, Cantharellus cibarius, Marasmius oreades, Megacollybia platyphylla, Meripilus giganteus, Neoboletus erythropus, Panellus stipticus, Phaeotremella foliacea, Pleurotus ostreatus, Podoscypha multizonata, Russula aurea, R. chloroides, R. virescens, T. versicolor, Trametes gibbose, and Trichaptum biforme) collected from the Belgrad Forests and the Ilgaz Mountain National Park. Based on the results of elemental analyses, daily metal intake (DMI) and health risk index (HRI) values of edible mushrooms collected from both localities were also calculated. As, Cd, Cr, Se, P, Hg, Cu, Mn, Fe, Zn, Al, Ca, Mg, and K contents of mushrooms were in the ranges of 0.16-3.45, 0.09-2.4, 0.15-2.34, 0.3-8.13, 0.28-11.44, 14.03-37.81, 3.87-108.57, 6.18-149.77, 11.9-776.1, 5.4-317.4, 7.4-355.2, 15.4-3517.3, 266.0-2500.0, and 628.0-24083.0 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. As a result of the DMI and HRI analyses, Cu concentration of B. utriformis (DMI: 46.53 μg/kg body weight/serving, HRI: 1.16) and Cd concentrations of A. campestris (DMI: 0.49 μg/kg body weight/serving, HRI: 1.36), A. ostoyae (DMI: 1.03 μg/kg body weight/serving, HRI: 2.86), B. utriformis (DMI: 0.52 μg/kg body weight/serving, HRI: 1.44), and P. ostreatus (DMI: 0.45 μg/kg body weight/serving, HRI: 1.24) were found to exceed the legal limits determined by authorities. It was concluded that the species collected from the regions in question should be consumed in a controlled manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-14376-6DOI Listing
May 2021

Molecular characterization of a new endornavirus inhabiting the ectomycorrhizal fungus Hygrophorus penarioides.

Braz J Microbiol 2021 Apr 26. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Evolutionary Genetics Laboratory (eGL), Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, Ankara University, Dışkapı, 06110, Ankara, Turkey.

Viruses hosted by uncultivated fungi have been poorly studied. We carried out studies to characterize a large dsRNA segment (~20 kbp) detected in the basidiomycetous, ectomycorrhizal fungus Hygrophorus penarioides. The dsRNA was gel-purified and its randomly amplified cDNA fragments were used for high throughput sequencing (HTS). Reads were de novo assembled and BLASTx analysis revealed sequence similarity to viruses of the family Endornaviridae. The 5' and 3' terminal sequences of the dsRNA segment were determined by performing RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RLM-RACE). The full-length cDNA sequence of the putative endornavirus comprises 16,785 nt and contains a single, long open reading frame which encodes for a polyprotein of 5522 aa with conserved domains for cysteine-rich region, helicase, glycosyltransferase, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The virus was named Hygrophorus penarioides endornavirus 1 (HpEnV1). A BLASTp search performed using the polyprotein sequence revealed that the most closely related, fully sequenced endornavirus to HpEnV1 is Ceratobasidium endornavirus B.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s42770-021-00500-8DOI Listing
April 2021

Metal concentrations of wild mushroom species collected from Belgrad forest (Istanbul, Turkey) with their health risk assessments.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 9;28(27):36193-36204. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Faculty of Science and Literature, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Kilis 7 Aralik University, TR-79000, Kilis, Turkey.

Wild edible mushrooms are very popular for both their flavors and nutritional values. However, some mushroom species can be harmful to human health as they accumulate some elements in excessive amounts. The aim of this study was to determine the concentrations of Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, P, Se, and Zn of some wild edible (Agaricus arvensis, A. bitorquis, A. sylvaticus, Amanita vaginata, Armillaria mellea, Clavariadelphus pistillaris, Clitocybe nebularis, Clitopilus prunulus, Hygrophorus marzuolus, H. russula, Lactarius volemus, Lycoperdon molle, and Macrolepiota mastoidea) and non-edible mushroom species (A. citrina, Auricularia mesenterica, Chanterellus melanoxeros, Chondrostereum purpureum, Clathrus ruber, L. controversus, L. helvus, and L. zonarius) collected from Belgrad forest (Istanbul, Turkey). Daily intakes of element (DIE) and health risk index (HRI) values of the edible mushroom species were also calculated. The concentrations of the elements in question were determined to be in the ranges of 9.7-556.8, 2.5-2226.7, 0.06-2.52, 0.03-13.17, 3.74-100.19, 13.3-507.4, 2635.0-28614.0, 493.0-2412.0, 6.97-3150.73, 0.29-13.26, 0.38-3.67, and 9.1-293.8 mg/kg, respectively. The Cd concentration of H. russula (DIE: 1.08, HRI: 1.08), Cr concentration of C. nebularis (DIE: 5.64, HRI: 1.88), and the Cu concentration of M. mastoidea (DIE: 42.94, HRI: 1.07) were above the reference values. The results showed that the long-term consumption of H. russula, C. nebularis, and M. mastoidea collected from Belgrad forest can have a negative impact on human health. Therefore, it was concluded that the element concentrations of edible wild mushrooms in this region should be examined periodically.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13235-8DOI Listing
July 2021

Molecular characterization of a novel partitivirus hosted by the false morel mushroom Gyromitra esculenta.

Arch Virol 2021 Apr 11;166(4):1247-1251. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Faculty of Science Department of Biology, Ankara University, 06100, Tandogan, Ankara, Turkey.

Virus populations of uncultivated fungi remain scarcely studied. In the present study, we characterized a new partitivirus isolated from the false morel mushroom Gyromitra esculenta, named "Gyromitra esculenta partitivirus 1" (GePV1). The complete genome of GePV1, whose sequence was determined by combining high-throughput sequencing and RLM-RACE approaches, comprises two dsRNA segments of 1971 bp and 1799 bp, respectively. Each dsRNA genome segment contains a single open reading frame (ORF), encoding a putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) and a capsid protein (CP), respectively. The sequences of the RdRp and CP exhibited the highest similarity (69.77% and 47.00% identity, respectively) to those of Rosellinia necatrix partitivirus 2 (RnPV2). Phylogenetic analysis based on the CP and RdRp sequences demonstrated that GePV1 clusters within a clade that includes members of the genus Alphapartitivirus, family Partitiviridae. We propose that GePV1 is a new member of the genus Alphapartitivirus. This is the first study reporting on a new partitivirus identified in the false morel mushroom Gyromitra esculenta.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-021-04978-3DOI Listing
April 2021

Evaluation of the metal concentrations of wild mushroom species with their health risk assessments.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 May 7;28(17):21437-21454. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Faculty of Science and Literature, Kilis 7 Aralik University, TR-79000, Kilis, Turkey.

The ability of mushrooms to accumulate heavy metals has increased concerns over their toxic effects on human health in recent years. The aim of this study was to determine the metal contents (Zn, Fe, Co, Mn, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Cd), daily intake of metal (DIM) and health risk index (HRI) values of nineteen different mushroom species (edible, inedible, and poisonous) collected from Uzungol, Trabzon (Turkey). Although the area where mushrooms were collected has the status of "Natural Park," there has been an excessive human settlement in recent years. Elemental analyses have shown that Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Co, Cd, Pb, and Ni concentrations in mushrooms were in the following ranges: 49.0-1713.0, 3.0-425.0, 3.0-154.0, 16.0-134.0, 0.17-1.79, 0.28-7.88, 0.07-5.68, and 0.24-6.82 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. As a result of DIM analysis, while it was determined that the daily consumption of Hygrophorus pudorinus, Meripilus giganteus, and Sarcodon imbricatus was safe for all the metals examined, HRI analysis showed that only M. giganteus and S. imbricatus can be consumed safely. The content of Cd was found to be above the legal limits determined by the competent authorities. According to Pearson correlation analysis, the correlations between Fe-Pb, Cu-Zn, Cd-Co, Pb-Co, Cd-Fe, Co-Fe, Cd-Pb, and Fe-Mn pairs were statistically significant (p < 0.01). Although the data obtained from this study did not provide clear data on environmental pollution in the area where the samples were collected, it was concluded that the competent authorities should take measures regarding possible environmental pollution at this location.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11685-0DOI Listing
May 2021

Full-length genome characterization of a novel alphapartitivirus detected in the ectomycorrhizal fungus Hygrophorus penarioides.

Virus Genes 2021 Feb 3;57(1):94-99. Epub 2021 Jan 3.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Ankara University, Tandogan, 06100, Ankara, Turkey.

Virus populations of ectomycorrhizal fungi remain poorly studied. In the present study, we characterized a new partitivirus isolated from the basidiomycetous, ectomycorrhizal fungus Hygrophorus penarioides, named "Hygrophorus penarioides partitivirus 1" (HpPV1). The whole genome of HpPV1, determined by merging deep sequencing and RLM-RACE approaches, comprised two dsRNA segments of 2053 bp and 2072 bp, respectively. Both dsRNA genome segments included a single open reading frame (ORF), encoding a putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), and a capsid protein (CP), respectively. Based on BLASTp search, the sequences of the RdRp and CP exhibits the highest similarity (67.49% and 75.61% identity, respectively) to those of partitiviruses identified from an ascomycetous ectomycorrhizal fungus Sarcosphaera coronaria. Phylogenetic analyses performed based on the CP and RdRp sequences demonstrated that HpPV1 clusters within a clade that includes members of the genus Alphapartitivirus, belonging to the family Partitiviridae. Here, we propose that HpPV1 is a new member of the genus Alphapartitivirus. This is the first study reporting on a new partitivirus identified from the basidiomycetous, ectomycorrhizal fungus Hygrophorus penarioides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11262-020-01814-9DOI Listing
February 2021

Metal concentration and health risk assessment of eight Russula mushrooms collected from Kizilcahamam-Ankara, Turkey.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Apr 26;28(13):15743-15754. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Faculty of Science and Literature, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Kilis 7 Aralik University, TR-79000, Kilis, Turkey.

The aim of this study was to determine the essential element (Zn, Ca, K, Fe, Na, and Mg), essential trace element (Co, Mn, Cr, and Cu), and non-essential element (Pb, Ni, and Cd) contents of eight different Russula species (R. risigallina (Batsch) Sacc., R. cyanoxantha (Schaeff.) Fr., R. delica Fr., R. vinosa Lindblad, R. olivacea (Schaeff.) Fr., R. velenovskyi Melzer & Zvára, R. turci Bres., and R. parazurea Jul. Schäff.) collected from Soguksu National Park (Turkey), which is a region away from the city center (Kizilcahamam, Ankara). In addition to the metal contents of these species, daily intake and health risk index values of the metals in question were also calculated and discussed. As a result of elemental analysis, the major elements were K (28980-58,380 mg/kg), Mg (704-1404 mg/kg), and Ca (190-1662 mg/kg). Except for R. risigallina, R. olivacea, and R. velenovskyi, elemental concentrations were within the limits that can be safely consumed as nutrients in terms of their metal content. The daily intakes of metal (DIM) values of R. risigallina and R. olivacea for Cr exceed the reference dose limits (3.80 and 3.87 μg/kg body weight/serving, respectively). According to the health risk index (HRI) measurements, the HRI values of R. risigallina and R. olivacea for Cr and of R. velenovskyi for Cd were found to be above 1.0 and could pose a health risk. In order to analyze the mineral composition variability of the studied mushroom species, principal component analysis (PCA) and the hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) techniques were also performed. Regarding the significant correlations between all descriptors (r > 0.7), there was a positive relationship between Mg-K, Ni-Co, Ni-Na, Cr-Ni, Cr-Co, Zn-Mg, Zn-K, Cd-Mg couples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-11833-6DOI Listing
April 2021

Novel and diverse mycoviruses co-inhabiting the hypogeous ectomycorrhizal fungus Picoa juniperi.

Virology 2021 Jan 3;552:10-19. Epub 2020 Oct 3.

Ankara University Faculty of Science Department of Biology, 06100, Tandogan, Ankara, Turkey.

Viruses hosted by ectomycorrhizal fungi remain poorly studied. In this study, we detected eight new fungal viruses co-infecting a single isolate of the hypogeous ectomycorrhizal fungus Picoa juniperi using high-throughput sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of one identified virus abbreviated as PjMTV1 revealed its closest relatives as members of the newly proposed family "Megatotiviridae". Phylogenetic analyses of two identified viruses abbreviated as PjV1 and PjV2 showed that these viruses are associated with members of the proposed family "Fusagraviridae". Phylogenetic analysis of the identified one another virus abbreviated as PjYV1 demonstrated that this virus is related to the members of the proposed family Yadokariviridae. The remaining four identified virus-like contigs were determined as segments of the bipartite dsRNA mycoviruses from the family Partitiviridae. The mycoviruses reported in this study are the first viruses described in Picoa juniperi, and PjMTV1 characterized herein is the secondly reported member of the newly proposed family "Megatotiviridae".
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virol.2020.09.009DOI Listing
January 2021

Toxin components and toxicological importance of Galerina marginata from Turkey.

Toxicon 2020 Nov 28;187:29-34. Epub 2020 Aug 28.

Department of Natural, Herbal and Cosmetic Products, Duzce University, Duzce, Turkey.

Amatoxins, most of which are hepatotoxic, can cause fatal intoxication. While mushrooms in the amatoxin-containing Galerina genus are rare, they can poison humans and animals worldwide. Few studies have profiled the toxicity of Galerina marginata. In addition, many studies indicate that macrofungi can have different characteristics in different regions. In this study, the quantities of toxins present in G. marginata from different provinces in Turkey were analysed using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection (RP-HPLC-UV) and liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). G. marginata samples were collected from three different regions of Turkey. The taxonomic categorization of mushrooms was based on their micro- and macroscopic characteristics. The presence of toxins α-amanitin (AA), β-amanitin (BA), γ-amanitin (GA), phalloidin (PHD) and phallacidin (PHC) quantities were measured using RP-HPLC-UV and then were confirmed using LC-ESI-MS/MS. BA levels were higher than AA levels in G. marginata mushrooms collected from all three regions. Moreover, the levels of GA were below the detection limit and no phallotoxins were detected. This is the first study to identify and test the toxicity of G. marginata collected from three different regions of Turkey using RP-HPLC-UV. This is also the first study to confirm the UV absorption of amatoxins in G. marginata using LC-ESI-MS/MS, which is a far more sensitive process. More studies evaluating the toxicity of G. marginata in other geographic regions of the world are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2020.08.017DOI Listing
November 2020

Novel and divergent bipartite mycoviruses associated with the ectomycorrhizal fungus Sarcosphaera coronaria.

Virus Res 2020 09 23;286:198071. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Ankara University Faculty of Agriculture Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture, 06110 Dışkapı, Ankara, Turkey.

Members of the family Partitiviridae are reported from a variety of fungal and plant taxa. After dsRNA-preparation, deep sequencing, and bioinformatics, we here reveal the existence of various divergent partitiviruses co-infecting the ectomycorrhizal fungus Sarcosphaera coronaria, symbiotically associated with the pine species Pinus brutia in Turkey. A total of 75 complete or nearly complete sequences related to the members of Alphapartitivirus and Betapartitivirus, were detected from the ascocarp sample of the fungal isolate. Two of the identified partitivirus genome segments encoding for partitiviral capsid protein represent evolutionarily distinct members of Alphapartitivirus, indicating that they may have diverged in the presence of long spatial isolation. In an attempt to match the two genome segments of the identified partitiviruses and distinguish individual species co-inhabiting a single host, nine possible genome segment pairs were identified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virusres.2020.198071DOI Listing
September 2020

Metal concentration and health risk assessment of fifteen wild mushrooms collected from the Ankara University Campus (Turkey).

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Sep 6;27(26):32474-32480. Epub 2020 Jun 6.

Faculty of Science and Literature, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Kilis 7 Aralik University, TR-79000, Kilis, Turkey.

The aim of this study is to analyze Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Co, Cd, Pb, and Ni contents of Cyclocybe cylindracea, Armillaria mellea, Bjerkandera adusta, Rheubarbariboletus armeniacus, Coprinellus disseminatus, C. micaceus, C. comatus, Inonotus hispidus, Lepista nuda, Leucoagaricus leucothites, Pleurotus ostreatus, Cerioporus squamosus, Schizophyllum commune, Scleroderma verrucosum, and Trametes trogii collected from the Ankara University Besevler 10th Year Campus (Turkey), an area where human settlement and traffic are intense. In addition to the elemental analysis, the daily intake of metal (DIM) and health risk index (HRI) values of the edible ones were also calculated. Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Co, Cd, Pb, and Ni concentrations of the samples were found to be 112.0-5079.0, 3.0-124.0, 4.0-77.0, 2.0-196.0, 0.18-2.98, 0.18-5.3, 0.04-10.98, and 0.22-8.23 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. As a result of DIM and HRI analysis, C. cylindracea, L. nuda, and C. squamosus were found to be within the reference dose limits determined by competent authorities and can be safely consumed in terms of all metals studied. However, the Cd, Co, and Fe contents of C. micaceus were found to be above 1.0 (1.06, 4.25, and 7.06, respectively). In addition, it has been found that A. mellea, R. armeniacus, C. comatus, L. leucothites, and P. ostreatus are toxic in terms of Cd/Co, Fe/Pb, Co/Fe, Cd, and Fe contents, respectively. As the area in question is a traffic intensive area, it has been concluded that the emissions of the vehicles should be controlled in terms of legal limits and that the consumption of some mushrooms in this region should not be preferred until necessary measures are taken.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09530-5DOI Listing
September 2020

Investigation of the Polyphenol Composition, Biological Activities, and Detoxification Properties of Some Medicinal Mushrooms from Turkey.

Turk J Pharm Sci 2019 Jun 27;16(2):155-160. Epub 2019 Mar 27.

Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Ankara, Turkey.

Objectives: Ethanolic extracts of the mushroom species , and were investigated for their polyphenolic contents and biological activities.

Materials And Methods: The radical scavenging activity of the extracts was evaluated by 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) (DPPH) method and their polyphenolic compounds were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Furthermore, the activity effects of mushroom extracts on the enzyme glutathione-S-transferase (GST) were also examined. Additionally, the antimicrobial activity of mushroom extracts was evaluated by disc diffusion method.

Results: Ethanolic extract of demonstrated the highest total phenolic content and total flavonoid contents, with 227.23±4.96 mg gallic acid equivalent/g and 42.14±0.20 quercetin equivalent/g, respectively. The highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was observed for ethanolic extracts of , with 10.687±1.643 µg/mL IC. HPLC analysis demonstrated that was composed of ferulic acid, gallic acid, and myricetin compounds. The highest GST enzyme activity effect was detected with the ethanol extracts of and . None of the mushroom extracts demonstrated significant inhibition of the bacterial strains used.

Conclusion: These results indicate that may be proposed as a new potential source of natural medicine and its potential may be related to its polyphenolic content, which needs further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4274/tjps.galenos.2018.03274DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7227972PMC
June 2019

Metal concentration and health risk assessment of wild mushrooms collected from the Black Sea region of Turkey.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Jul 3;27(21):26419-26441. Epub 2020 May 3.

Faculty of Science and Literature, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Kilis 7 Aralik University, 79000, Kilis, Turkey.

Mushrooms are rich sources of organic nutrients (especially proteins). However, they can excessively accumulate metals in their fruiting bodies that pose a risk to human health. The aim of this study was the determination of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn contents, daily intake, and health risk index values of some mushroom species collected from the eastern Black Sea region of Turkey (Arsin, Trabzon). The samples were collected from hazelnut gardens that are free from industrial pollution and have a low population density. As a result of elemental analysis, it was determined that the concentration ranges of Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the mushrooms were as follows: 0.29-9.11, 0.04-3.70, 0.01-8.29, 0.18-20.82, 3.1-79.8, 5.2-673.0, 14.9-752.0, 63.0-7769.0 mg/kg dry weight. Daily intakes of all the elements were found to be below the reference dose in Fistulina hepatica, Hydnum repandum, Macrolepiota procera, and Tapinella atrotomentosa. Amanita caesarea, Agrocybe praecox, Amanita vaginata, Cantharellus cibarius, Craterellus cornucopioides, Daedalea quercina, Gymnopus dryophilus, Ganoderma lucidum, and Infundibulicybe gibba were found to have high risk index values especially with respect to Cd, Co, and Pb. According to Pearson correlation analysis, the correlations between Fe-Mn (0.840, p < 0.01) and Pb-Ni (0.7540, p < 0.01) couples are significant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09025-3DOI Listing
July 2020

Antioxidant, Anticancer, Antimicrobial, and Antibiofilm Properties of the Culinary-Medicinal Fairy Ring Mushroom, Marasmius oreades (Agaricomycetes).

Int J Med Mushrooms 2019 ;21(6):571-582

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey.

This study is based on the phenolic composition and the antioxidant, anticancer, antimicrobial, and antibiofilm activities of the edible mushroom Marasmius oreades from Turkey. The phenolic composition of an M. oreades ethanol extract was measured by using the Folin-Ciocalteu method, aluminium chloride colorimetry, and ultraperformance liquid chromatography. The antioxidant activity was evaluated on the basis of DPPH radical scavenging activity. The effect of the M. oreades ethanol extract was also screened in order to determine glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and superoxide dismutase enzyme activities. The antimicrobial activity of the mushroom extract was evaluated by using well diffusion and was based on the minimum inhibitory concentration. In addition, the antibiofilm potential of M. oreades was analyzed against Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Finally, the anticancer effects of the mushroom extract were tested on colon (HT-29) and breast (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231) cancer cell lines by using the MTT assay. The results revealed that the total amount of phenolics in the ethanol extract of M. oreades was 10.990 ± 0.0007 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g, and the total amount of flavonoids was 1.139 ± 0.0052 mg quercetin equivalent/100 g. The ultraperformance liquid chromatography results indicated that the M. oreades ethanol extract contained various phenolic compounds: catechin, ferulic, gallic acid, and vanillic acid. The M. oreades ethanol extract scavenged about 80% of DPPH free radicals. It did not show any effect on the glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase enzyme activities, but its maximal concentration (10 mg/mL) increased superoxide dismutase activity (8%). The ethanol extract of M. oreades showed a moderate anticancer effect on the HT-29, MCF-7, and MDA-MB-231 cell lines. Although the ethanolic extract of the mushroom did not show sufficient antibacterial activity, it presented a strong antibiofilm effect against all studied pathogenic strains at the tested concentrations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1615/IntJMedMushrooms.2019030874DOI Listing
February 2020

Complete genome sequence of a novel mitovirus from the ectomycorrhizal fungus Geopora sumneriana.

Arch Virol 2019 Nov 3;164(11):2853-2857. Epub 2019 Aug 3.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Ankara University, Tandogan, 06100, Ankara, Turkey.

A double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) segment was extracted from the ectomycorrhizal fungus Geopora sumneriana (Cooke) M. Torre, and its full-length cDNA sequence, comprising 3146 nucleotides, was determined. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of a large open reading frame (ORF) on the positive strand of this dsRNA segment when the mold mitochondrial genetic code was applied. The ORF encodes a putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), which shares the highest degree of similarity with Tuber excavatum mitovirus, with 37.52% identity. This dsRNA segment represents the genome replication intermediate of a novel mitovirus that was tentatively designated as "Geopora sumneriana mitovirus 1" (GsMV1). Phylogenetic analysis further suggested that GsMV1 is a member of the family Narnaviridae. This is the first study reporting on a mitovirus genome sequence in the ectomycorrhizal fungus G. sumneriana.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-019-04367-xDOI Listing
November 2019

Two new species of Amanitasect.Phalloideae from Africa, one of which is devoid of amatoxins and phallotoxins.

MycoKeys 2019 6;53:93-125. Epub 2019 Jun 6.

Meise Botanic Garden, 38 Nieuwelaan, 1860 Meise, Belgium Meise Botanic Garden Meise Belgium.

Two new species of Amanitasect.Phalloideae are described from tropical Africa (incl. Madagascar) based on both morphological and molecular (DNA sequence) data. was collected, associated with , in Rwanda, Burundi and Tanzania. It is consumed by local people and chemical analyses showed the absence of amatoxins and phallotoxins in the basidiomata. Surprisingly, molecular analysis performed on the same specimens nevertheless demonstrated the presence of the gene sequence encoding for the phallotoxin phallacidin (PHA gene, member of the MSDIN family). The second species, was collected in Tanzania and Madagascar. It is also characterised by a complete PHA gene sequence and is suspected to be deadly poisonous. Both species clustered together in a well-supported terminal clade in multilocus phylogenetic inferences (including nuclear ribosomal partial LSU and ITS-5.8S, partial -α, and β-tubulin genes), considered either individually or concatenated. This, along with the occurrence of other species in sub-Saharan Africa and their phylogenetic relationships, are briefly discussed. Macro- and microscopic descriptions, as well as pictures and line drawings, are presented for both species. An identification key to the African and Madagascan species of Amanitasect.Phalloideae is provided. The differences between the two new species and the closest species are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.53.34560DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6565643PMC
June 2019

Determination of anti-oxidative, anti-microbial activity and heavy metal contents of Leucoagaricus leucothites.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2018 Sep;31(5(Supplementary)):2163-2168

Department of Medical Biology, Faculty of Medicine, Nigde Omer Halisdemir University, Nigde, Turkey.

Mushrooms, a treasure of diverse bioactive scaffolds, have been widely admired due to their nutritional and medicinal significance all over the world. The current study intended to evaluate the therapeutic potentiality of an edible mushroom, Leucoagaricus leucothites (Vittad.) Wasser. Thus, anti-oxidant potential of L. leucothites was determined using DPPH assay and for the determination of anti-microbial potential agar dilution procedure was followed. TOS (total oxidant status), TAS (total anti-oxidant status), and OSI (oxidative stress index) values were evaluated utilizing Rel Assay Kits. For the assessment of heavy metal contents, wet decomposition approach with atomic absorption spectrophotometry was adopted. Screening of phytochemicals present in ethanolic extract of L. leucothites were determined by HPLC. TAS, TOS and OSI values were found to be 8.291mmol/L, 10.797μmol/L and 0.130 respectively. Our results declared that heavy metal contents are generally in the safe range. Phytochemical analysis of L. leucothites has affirmed the presence of important phenolics such as gallic acid, catechin, and hesperidin. Investigations on anti-oxidant and anti-microbial potential of L. leucothites has uncovered the fact that this naturally occurring, biologically active, and therapeutically effective mushroom specie has natural borne anti-oxidant and anti-microbial potential and it would be worthwhile to use it for nutritional as well as medicinal purpose.
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September 2018

Viruses infecting macrofungi.

Virusdisease 2018 Mar 8;29(1):1-18. Epub 2018 Feb 8.

Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, Ankara University, Ankara, Turkey.

Ever since their discovery just about 56 years ago in the cultivated mushroom , many more viruses infecting fungi have been identified in a wide range of fungal taxa. With mostly being asymptomatic, especially the ones that are detrimental to their phytopathogenic hosts are intensively studied due to their considerable importance in developing novel plant protection measures. Contrary to the rapid accumulation of notable data on viruses of plant pathogenic microfungi, much less information have hitherto been obtained in regards to the viruses whose hosts are macrofungi. According to the current literature, only more than 80 distinct viruses bearing either linear dsRNA or linear positive sense ssRNA genome and infecting a total number of 34 macrofungal species represented with four and 30 have been identified so far. Among these 34 macrofungal species, 14 are cultivated edible and wild edible mushroom species. According to the 10th ICTV (International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses) Report, macrofungal viruses with linear dsRNA genome are classified into five families (, , , and ) and macrofungal viruses with linear positive sense ssRNA genome are classified into seven families (, , , , , and ). In this review, following a brief overview of some general characteristics of fungal viruses, an up to date knowledge on viruses infecting macrofungal hosts were presented by summarizing the previous, recent and prospective studies of the field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13337-018-0434-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5877858PMC
March 2018

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY SCREENING OF .

Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 2016 3;13(4):42-46. Epub 2016 Jul 3.

Kastamonu University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Department of Biology, TR 37150, Kastamonu, TURKEY.

Background: Fungi have a potential of using both as nutritive and medicinal food stuff. Because of containing several therapeutic agents, they are reported to be used for hundreds of years to treat several diseases caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites. The aim of this study is to determine the antimicrobial activity of , which were collected from Yomra, Trabzon, Turkey.

Materials And Methods: samples were air dried and extracted by using ethanol. Antimicrobial activity of ethanol extracts were investigated against 21 bacterial and 2 fungal strains, namely, DSMZ 1971, ATCC 6633, ATCC 10231, DSMZ 1386, ATCC 13048, ATCC 29212, ATCC 25922, CFAI, ATCC 7644, DSMZ 50071, P1, ATCC 13075, SL 1344, ATCC 25923, MC1.B, DSMZ 20044 and DSMZ 6784 by using the disk diffusion method.

Results: It is observed that ethanol extracts of has antimicrobial activity against several Gram positive and Gram negative microorganisms tested. As a result of the study, an antimicrobial activity of found against most of strains used in the study.

Conclusion: The results of our study clearly puts forward that could have a possible medicinal use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21010/ajtcam.v13i4.7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5566152PMC
September 2017

ANTIMICROBIAL SCREENING OF ROOTS.

Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med 2016 12;13(5):178-181. Epub 2016 Aug 12.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Arts, Kastamonu University, TR 37150, Kastamonu, Turkey.

Background: It was previously shown that some parts of , which is commonly known as oud or oodh, such as roots have been used as a traditional medical herbal in different countries. In Turkey is one of the ingredients while preparing famous Mesir paste, which was invented as a medicinal paste and used from the Ottoman period to now at least for 500 years. The identification the antimicrobial activity of ethanol extract of roots is main purpose of this analysis.

Materials And Methods: By using 17 bacteria and 1 fungi, which include Bacillus, Candida, Enterobacter, Enterococcus, Escherichia, Klebsiella, Listeria, Pseudomonas, Salmonella and Staphylococcus genera, the activity of root extracts were analysed by the help of the disk diffusion method, that is one of the methods commonly used to determine antimicrobial activities.

Results: As a result of the study it was observed that ethanol extracts of roots have a clear antimicrobial activity against nearly all microorganism used in the study, but only two bacteria namely ATCC 25922 and SL 1344.

Conclusion: According to the disk diffusion test results it may be possible to propose that roots should have a medicinal uses especially against , ATCC 7644, DSMZ 1971, DSMZ 1386, DSMZ 20044 and ATCC 25923.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21010/ajtcam.v13i5.23DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5416638PMC
August 2017

A new pollen-derived microcarrier for pantoprazole delivery.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2017 Feb 4;71:937-942. Epub 2016 Nov 4.

Ankara University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biology, 06100 Ankara, Turkey.

Plant-derived carriers have emerged as promising materials for drug encapsulation. Especially, sporopollenin microcapsules extracted from diverse pollen species have been proved to be effective drug carriers due to their biocompatibility, homogeneity in size, resistance to harsh chemical conditions and high thermal stability. Here in this study, sporopollenin microcapsules were isolated successfully from the pollens of a common tree (Corylus avellana, the European hazelnut) and used as a carrier for pantoprazole (PaNa) (a proton pump inhibitor). The drug entrapment efficiency was recorded as 29.81%. SEM micrographs clearly showed the drug was loaded into the microcapsules through the apertures of microcapsule and also some drugs were adsorbed on the surface of microcapsules. FT-IR spectra analysis confirmed the drug loading. Thermogravimetric analysis revealed that thermal stability of PaNa was enhanced by encapsulation. In vitro release studies showed that PaNa-loaded sporopollenin microcapsules exhibited better release performance than the control. C. avellana sporopollenin microcapsules can make an efficient carrier for delivery of PaNa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2016.11.009DOI Listing
February 2017

A Case Study: What Doses of Amanita phalloides and Amatoxins Are Lethal to Humans?

Wilderness Environ Med 2015 Dec 9;26(4):491-6. Epub 2015 Oct 9.

Department of Pharmacology, Duzce University School of Medicine, Duzce, Turkey (Dr Kaya).

There are few data estimating the human lethal dose of amatoxins or of the toxin level present in ingested raw poisonous mushrooms. Here, we present a patient who intentionally ingested several wild collected mushrooms to assess whether they were poisonous. Nearly 1 day after ingestion, during which the patient had nausea and vomiting, he presented at the emergency department. His transaminase levels started to increase starting from hour 48 and peaking at hour 72 (alanine aminotransferase 2496 IU/L; aspartate aminotransferase 1777 IU/L). A toxin analysis was carried out on the mushrooms that the patient said he had ingested. With reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, an uptake of approximately 21.3 mg amatoxin from nearly 50 g mushroom was calculated; it consisted of 11.9 mg alpha amanitin, 8.4 mg beta amanitin, and 1 mg gamma amanitin. In the urine sample taken on day 4, 2.7 ng/mL alpha amanitin and 1.25 ng/mL beta amanitin were found, and there was no gamma amanitin. Our findings suggest that the patient ingested approximately 0.32 mg/kg amatoxin, and fortunately recovered after serious hepatotoxicity developed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wem.2015.08.002DOI Listing
December 2015

A Case Study: Rare Lepiota brunneoincarnata Poisoning.

Wilderness Environ Med 2015 Sep 12;26(3):350-4. Epub 2015 Mar 12.

Department of Internal Medicine, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey (Drs Kose and Guler).

Amatoxin poisoning from the genus Lepiota may have a deadly outcome, although this is not seen as often as it is from the genus Amanita. In this report, we present a patient who was poisoned by a sublethal dose of Lepiota brunneoincarnata mushrooms. The patient was hospitalized 12 hours after eating the mushrooms. The patient's transaminase levels increased dramatically starting on day 4. Aspartate transaminase peaked at 78 hours. Starting at 1265 IU/L, alanine transaminase peaked at 90 hours at 5124 IU/L. The patient was discharged on day 8 to outpatient care, and his transaminase levels returned to normal ranges in the subsequent days. A toxin analysis was carried out on the mushrooms that the patient claimed to have eaten. Using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography analysis, an uptake of approximately 19.9 mg of amatoxin from nearly 30 g of mushrooms was calculated. This consisted of 10.59 mg of α-amanitin, 9.18 mg of β-amanitin, and 0.16 mg of γ-amanitin. In conclusion, we present a patient from Turkey who was poisoned by L. brunneoincarnata mushrooms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wem.2014.12.025DOI Listing
September 2015

Fatty acid compositions of six wild edible mushroom species.

ScientificWorldJournal 2013 6;2013:163964. Epub 2013 Jun 6.

Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Celal Bayar University, 45140 Manisa, Turkey.

The fatty acids of six wild edible mushroom species (Boletus reticulatus, Flammulina velutipes var. velutipes, Lactarius salmonicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus, Polyporus squamosus, and Russula anthracina) collected from different regions from Anatolia were determined. The fatty acids were identified and quantified by gas chromatography and studied using fruit bodies. Fatty acid composition varied among species. The dominant fatty acid in fruit bodies of all mushrooms was cis-linoleic acid (18 : 2). Percentage of cis-linoleic acid in species varied from 22.39% to 65.29%. The other major fatty acids were, respectively, cis-oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Fatty acids analysis of the mushrooms showed that the unsaturated fatty acids were at higher concentrations than saturated fatty acids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/163964DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3690749PMC
September 2013
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