Publications by authors named "Ileana Silvestre Patallo"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Multi-institutional dosimetric delivery assessment of intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery on different treatment platforms.

Radiother Oncol 2020 Jun 20;147:153-161. Epub 2020 May 20.

Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK; Radiation Dosimetry Group, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, UK; Radiotherapy Trials Quality Assurance Group, Mount Vernon Hospital, London, UK; Department of Medical Physics, Royal Surrey County Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Guildford, UK.

Background And Purpose: Assessment of dosimetric accuracy of radiosurgery on different treatment platforms.

Material And Methods: Thirty-three single fraction treatment plans were assessed at thirty centres using an anthropomorphic head phantom with target and brainstem structures. The target being a single irregular shaped target, ~8 cc, 10 mm from the brainstem. The phantom was "immobilised", scanned, planned and treated following the local protocols. EBT-XD films and alanine pellets were used to measure absolute dose, inside both the target and the brainstem, and compared with TPS predicted dose distributions.

Results: PTV alanine measurements from gantry-based linacs showed a median percentage difference to the TPS of 0.65%. Cyberknife (CK) had the highest median difference of 2.3% in comparison to the other platforms. GammaKnife (GK) showed the smallest median of 0.3%. Similar trends were observed in the OAR with alanine measurements showing median percentage differences of1.1%, 2.0% and 0.4%, for gantry-based linacs, CK and GK respectively. All platforms showed comparable gamma passing rates between axial and sagittal films.

Conclusions: This comparison has highlighted the dosimetric variation between measured and TPS calculated dose for each delivery platform. The results suggest that clinically acceptable agreement with the predicted dose distributions is achievable by all treatment delivery systems.
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June 2020

Development and Implementation of an End-To-End Test for Absolute Dose Verification of Small Animal Preclinical Irradiation Research Platforms.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2020 07 10;107(3):587-596. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

Medical Physics Department, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, United Kingdom; Department of Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences. University of Surrey, Guildford, United Kingdom.

Purpose: Lack of standardization and inaccurate dosimetry assessment in preclinical research is hampering translational opportunities for new radiation therapy interventions. The aim of this work was to develop and implement an end-to-end dosimetry test for small animal radiation research platforms to monitor and help improve accuracy of dose delivery and standardization across institutions.

Methods And Materials: The test is based on a bespoke zoomorphic heterogeneous mouse and WT1 Petri dish phantoms with alanine as a reference detector. Alanine measurements within the mouse phantom were validated with Monte Carlo simulations at 0.5 mm Cu x-ray reference beam. Energy dependence of alanine in medium x-ray beam qualities was taken into consideration. For the end-to-end test, treatment plans considering tissue heterogeneities were created in Muriplan treatment planning systems (TPS) and delivered to the phantoms at 5 institutions using Xstrahl's small animal irradiation platforms. Mean calculated dose to the pellets were compared with alanine measured dose.

Results: Monte Carlo simulations and in phantom alanine measurements in NPL's reference beam were in excellent agreement, validating the experimental approach. At 1 institute, initial measurements showed a larger than 12% difference between calculated and measured dose caused by incorrect input data. The physics data used by the calculation engine were corrected, and the TPS was recommissioned. Subsequent end-to-end test measurements showed differences <5%. With an anterior field, 4 of the participating institutes delivered dose within 5% to both phantoms.

Conclusions: An end-to-end dosimetry test was developed and implemented for dose evaluation in preclinical irradiation with small animal irradiation research platforms. The test was capable of detecting treatment planning commissioning errors and highlighted critical elements in dose calculation. Absolute dosimetry with alanine in relevant preclinical irradiation conditions showed reasonable levels of accuracy compared with TPS calculations. This work provides an independent and traceable dosimetric validation in preclinical research involving small animal irradiation.
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July 2020

The influence of lack of reference conditions on dosimetry in pre-clinical radiotherapy with medium energy x-ray beams.

Phys Med Biol 2020 04 23;65(8):085016. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW, United Kingdom. Author to whom any correspondence should be addressed.

Despite well-established dosimetry in clinical radiotherapy, dose measurements in pre-clinical and radiobiology studies are frequently inadequate, thus undermining the reliability and reproducibility of published findings. The lack of suitable dosimetry protocols, coupled with the increasing complexity of pre-clinical irradiation platforms, undermines confidence in preclinical studies and represents a serious obstacle in the translation to clinical practice. To accurately measure output of a pre-clinical radiotherapy unit, appropriate Codes of Practice (CoP) for medium energy x-rays needs to be employed. However, determination of absorbed dose to water (D) relies on application of backscatter factor (B) employing in-air method or carrying out in-phantom measurement at the reference depth of 2 cm in a full backscatter (i.e. 30 × 30 × 30 cm) condition. Both of these methods require thickness of at least 30 cm of underlying material, which are never fulfilled in typical pre-clinical irradiations. This work is focused on evaluation the effects of the lack of recommended reference conditions in dosimetry measurements for pre-clinical settings and is aimed at extending the recommendations of the current CoP to practical experimental conditions and highlighting the potential impact of the lack of correct backscatter considerations on radiobiological studies.
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April 2020

Evaluation of a pixelated large format CMOS sensor for x-ray microbeam radiotherapy.

Med Phys 2020 Mar 6;47(3):1305-1316. Epub 2020 Jan 6.

Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, OX11 0QX, UK.

Purpose: Current techniques and procedures for dosimetry in microbeams typically rely on radiochromic film or small volume ionization chambers for validation and quality assurance in 2D and 1D, respectively. Whilst well characterized for clinical and preclinical radiotherapy, these methods are noninstantaneous and do not provide real time profile information. The objective of this work is to determine the suitability of the newly developed vM1212 detector, a pixelated CMOS (complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor) imaging sensor, for in situ and in vivo verification of x-ray microbeams.

Methods: Experiments were carried out on the vM1212 detector using a 220 kVp small animal radiation research platform (SARRP) at the Helmholtz Centre Munich. A 3 x 3 cm square piece of EBT3 film was placed on top of a marked nonfibrous card overlaying the sensitive silicon of the sensor. One centimeter of water equivalent bolus material was placed on top of the film for build-up. The response of the detector was compared to an Epson Expression 10000XL flatbed scanner using FilmQA Pro with triple channel dosimetry. This was also compared to a separate exposure using 450 µm of silicon as a surrogate for the detector and a Zeiss Axio Imager 2 microscope using an optical microscopy method of dosimetry. Microbeam collimator slits with range of nominal widths of 25, 50, 75, and 100 µm were used to compare beam profiles and determine sensitivity of the detector and both film measurements to different microbeams.

Results: The detector was able to measure peak and valley profiles in real-time, a significant reduction from the 24 hr self-development required by the EBT3 film. Observed full width at half maximum (FWHM) values were larger than the nominal slit widths, ranging from 130 to 190 µm due to divergence. Agreement between the methods was found for peak-to-valley dose ratio (PVDR), peak to peak separation and FWHM, but a difference in relative intensity of the microbeams was observed between the detectors.

Conclusions: The investigation demonstrated that pixelated CMOS sensors could be applied to microbeam radiotherapy for real-time dosimetry in the future, however the relatively large pixel pitch of the vM1212 detector limit the immediate application of the results.
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March 2020