Publications by authors named "Ilaria Tarantino"

140 Publications

Methods for Drainage of Distal Malignant Biliary Obstruction after ERCP Failure: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis.

Cancers (Basel) 2022 Jul 5;14(13). Epub 2022 Jul 5.

Digestive Endoscopy Unit, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center-IRCCS, Via Manzoni 56, Rozzano, 20089 Milano, Italy.

There is scarce evidence on the comparison between different methods for the drainage of distal malignant biliary obstruction (DMBO) after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) failure. Therefore, we performed a network meta-analysis to compare the outcomes of these techniques. We searched main databases through September 2021 and identified five randomized controlled trials. The primary outcome was clinical success. The secondary outcomes were technical success, overall and serious adverse event rate. Percutaneous trans-hepatic biliary drainage was found to be inferior to other interventions (PTBD: RR 1.01, 0.88-1.17 with EUS-choledochoduodenostomy (EUS-CD); RR 1.03, 0.86-1.22 with EUS-hepaticogastrostomy (EUS-HG); RR 1.42, 0.90-2.24 with surgical hepaticojejunostomy). The comparison between EUS-HG and EUS-CD was not significant (RR 1.01, 0.87-1.17). Surgery was not superior to other interventions (RR 1.40, 0.91-2.13 with EUS-CD and RR 1.38, 0.88-2.16 with EUS-HG). No difference in any of the comparisons concerning adverse event rate was detected, although PTBD showed a slightly poorer performance on ranking analysis (SUCRA score 0.13). In conclusion, all interventions seem to be effective for the drainage of DMBO, although PTBD showed a trend towards higher rates of adverse events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers14133291DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9266204PMC
July 2022

Nomogram for prediction of adverse events after lumen-apposing metal stent placement for drainage of pancreatic fluid collections.

Dig Endosc 2022 May 23. Epub 2022 May 23.

Gastroenterology and Digestive Endoscopy Unit, Forlì-Cesena Hospitals, AUSL Romagna, Forlì-Cesena, Italy.

Objectives: To generate a prognostic model based on a nomogram for adverse event (AE) prediction after lumen-apposing metal stents (LAMS) placement in patients with pancreatic fluid collections (PFC).

Methods: Data from a large multicenter series of PFCs treated with LAMS placement were retrieved. AE (overall and excluding mild events) prediction was calculated through a logistic regression model and a nomogram was created and internally validated after bootstrapping. Results were expressed in terms of odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Discrimination was assessed by c-statistics and calibrated by comparing deciles of predicted and observed ORs.

Results: Overall, 516 patients were included (males 68%, mean age 61.6 ± 15.2 years). PFCs were predominantly walled-off necrosis (52.1%). Independent predictors of AE occurrence were injury of main pancreatic duct (OR in the case of leak 2.51, 95% CI 1.06-5.97, P = 0.03; OR in the case of complete disruption 2.61, 1.53-4.45, P = 0.01), abnormal vessels (OR in the case of perigastric varices 2.90, 1.31-6.42, P = 0.008; OR in the case of pseudoaneurysm 2.99, 1.75-11.93, P = 0.002), using a multigate technique (OR 3.00, 1.28-5.24; P = 0.05), and need of percutaneous drainage (OR 2.81, 1.03-7.65, P = 0.04). By nomogram, a score beyond 200 points corresponded to a 50% probability of AE occurrence. The model was confirmed even when excluding mild AEs and it showed optimal discrimination (c-index 76.8%, 95% CI 74-79), confirmed after internal validation.

Conclusion: Patients with preprocedural evidence of pancreatic duct leak/disruption, vessel alteration, requiring percutaneous drainage or a multigate technique are at higher risk for AE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/den.14354DOI Listing
May 2022

Digital single-operator cholangioscopy in diagnostic and therapeutic bilio-pancreatic diseases: A prospective, multicenter study.

Dig Liver Dis 2022 May 18. Epub 2022 May 18.

Pancreato-Biliary Endoscopy and Endosonography Division, Pancreas Translational & Clinical Research Center, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy, IRCCS San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Milan, Italy.

Background And Aim: Digital single-operator cholangioscopy (D-SOC) is an endoscopic procedure that is increasingly used for the management of bilio-pancreatic diseases. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of D-SOC for diagnostic and therapeutic indications.

Methods: This is a multicenter, prospective study(January 2016-June 2019) across eighteen tertiary centers. The primary outcome was procedural success of D-SOC. Secondary outcomes were: D-SOC visual assessment and diagnostic yield of SpyBite biopsy in cases of biliary strictures, stone clearance rate in cases of difficult biliary stones, rate of adverse events(AEs) for all indications.

Results: D-SOC was performed in 369 patients (201(54,5%) diagnostic and 168(45,5%)therapeutic). Overall, procedural success rate was achieved in 360(97,6%) patients. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy in biliary strictures were: 88,5%, 77,3%, 83,3%, 84,1% and 83,6% for D-SOC visual impression; 80,2%, 92,6%, 95,1%, 72,5% and 84,7% for the SpyBite biopsy, respectively. For difficult biliary stones, complete duct clearance was obtained in 92,1% patients (82,1% in a single session). Overall, AEs occurred in 37(10%) cases.The grade of AEs was mild or moderate for all cases, except one which was fatal.

Conclusion: D-SOC is effective for diagnostic and therapeutic indications.Most of the AEs were minor and managed conservatively, even though a fatal event has happened that is not negligible and should be considered before using D-SOC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dld.2022.04.019DOI Listing
May 2022

Perceived Feasibility of Endoscopic Ultrasound-Guided Gastroenteric Anastomosis: An Italian Survey.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2022 Apr 12;58(4). Epub 2022 Apr 12.

Unità Operativa Complessa di Gastroenterologia ed Endoscopia Digestiva, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided gastroenteric anastomosis (EUS-GEA) using lumen-apposing metal stents (LAMS) is emerging as a minimally invasive alternative to surgery across several indications. The aim of this survey is to investigate the perceived feasibility of this technique nationwide, within a working group skilled in interventional endosonography. Endoscopists were asked to answer to 49 items on a web-based questionnaire about expertise, peri- and intra-procedural aspects in the three main settings of EUS-GEA performance, budget/refund, and future perspectives. Statistical analysis was performed through SPSS (IBM Corp. Released 2017. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 25.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.). : Sixty endosonographers belonging to forty Italian centers were I-EUS app users and were all invited to participate. In total, 29 participants from 24 Italian centers completed the survey. All the participants were endosonographers with a broad range of experience both in the field of EUS (only 10.3% with more than 20 years of experience) and duodenal stenting (only 6.9% placed more than 10 stents in 2020), whereas 86.2% also performed ERCP. A total of 27.6% of participants performed EUS-GEA (3.4% more than 20 during their career); on the other hand, 79.3% of participants routinely performed drainage of peri-pancreatic fluid collections, 62.1% performed biliary drainage, and 62.1% performed gallbladder drainage with LAMS. A total of 89.7% of participants thought that EUS-GEA could be useful in their daily clinical practice, with 100% concluding that this procedure will need to be performed in referral centers in the near future; however, in 55.2% of cases, organizational obstacles may occur and affect the diffusion of the procedure. With regard to indications: 44.8% of participants performed the procedure with palliative intent for malignant indication (96.6% pancreatic adenocarcinoma), and 13.6% also for benign indication. A total of 20.7% of participants experienced adverse events (none severe or fatal, 66.6% moderate). A total of 62.1% of participants considered the procedure technically challenging, although 82.8% considered the risk of adverse events acceptable when considering the benefit. : To our knowledge, this is the first survey assessing the perceived feasibility of EUS-guided anastomoses after its advent. There are currently wide variations in practice nationwide, which demonstrate a need to define technical, qualitative, and peri-procedural requirements to carry out this procedure. Therefore, a standardization of these requirements is needed in order to overcome the technical, economical, and organizational obstacles relative to its diffusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medicina58040532DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9027201PMC
April 2022

Endoscopic ultrasound-guided drainage using lumen-apposing metal stent of malignant afferent limb syndrome in patients with previous Whipple surgery: Multicenter study (with video).

Dig Endosc 2022 Apr 16. Epub 2022 Apr 16.

Department of Gastroenterology, University of Paris, Georges-Pompidou European Hospital, Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France.

Objectives: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided digestive anastomosis (EUS-A) is a new alternative under evaluation in patients presenting with afferent limb syndrome (ALS) after Whipple surgery. The aim of the present study is to analyze the safety and effectiveness of EUS-A in ALS.

Methods: This is an observational multicenter study. All patients ≥18 years old with previous Whipple surgery presenting with ALS who underwent an EUS-A using a lumen-apposing metal stent (LAMS) between 2015 and 2021 were included. The primary outcome was clinical success, defined as resolution of the ALS or ALS-related cholangitis. Furthermore, technical success, adverse event rate, and mortality were evaluated.

Results: Forty-five patients (mean age: 65.5 ± 10.2 years; 44.4% male) were included. The most common underlying disease was pancreatic cancer (68.9%). EUS-A was performed at a median of 6 weeks after local tumor recurrence. The most common approach used was the direct/freehand technique (66.7%). Technical success was achieved in 95.6%, with no differences between large (≥15 mm) and small LAMS (97.4% vs. 100%, P = 0.664). Clinical success was retained in 91.1% of patients. A complementary treatment by dilation of the stent followed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography through the LAMS was performed in three cases (6.7%). There were six recurrent episodes of cholangitis (14.6%) and two procedure-related adverse events (4.4%) after a median follow-up of 4 months. Twenty-six patients (57.8%) died during the follow-up due to disease progression.

Conclusion: EUS-A is a safe and effective technique in the treatment of malignant ALS, achieving high clinical success with an acceptable recurrence rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/den.14330DOI Listing
April 2022

Informed Consent for Endoscopic Biliary Drainage: Time for a New Paradigm.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2022 Feb 22;58(3). Epub 2022 Feb 22.

Digestive Endoscopy Unit, Department of Gastroenterology, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, IRCCS, 20089 Rozzano, Milan, Italy.

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is considered as the first option in the management of malignant biliary obstruction. In case of ERCP failure, percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) has been conventionally considered as the preferred rescue strategy. However, the use of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for biliary drainage (EUS-BD) has proved similarly high rates of technical success, when compared to PTBD. As a matter of fact, biliary drainage is maybe the most evident paradigm of the increasing interconnection between ERCP and EUS, and obtaining an adequate informed consent (IC) is an emerging issue. The aim of this commentary is to discuss the reciprocal roles of ERCP and EUS for malignant biliary obstruction, in order to provide a guide to help in developing an appropriate informed consent reflecting the new biliopancreatic paradigm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medicina58030331DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8951173PMC
February 2022

Use of catheter-based cholangioscopy in the diagnosis of indeterminate stenosis: a multi-centre experience.

Minerva Gastroenterol (Torino) 2022 Mar 8. Epub 2022 Mar 8.

Endoscopy Unit, Fondazione Istituto G. Giglio, Cefalù, Palermo, Italy.

Background: Direct bile ducts visualization through cholangioscopy has gained popularity due to its better diagnostic accuracy than a standard ERCP in indeterminate biliary stricture.

Aim: We aimed to review our catheter-based cholangioscopy interventions in patients with indeterminate biliary stenosis, using the SpyGlass Direct Visualization System (SDVS) and summarize our experience in terms of procedures and results.

Results: we collected 25 consecutive patients with indeterminate biliary stricture over 3 years. The overall procedural success in our cohort amounted to 96% (24/25). If we focus on the diagnostic procedures, the ability to merely visualize the region of interest/lesion and perform biopsy of the lesion was possible in 96 % (24/25) In our cohort localization in the common bile duct (P = 0.03; 95 % CI 0.27-0.96) was found as positive determining factor for diagnosis. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for visual diagnosis by SDVS in our cohort were 100, 83.3 and 96 %, respectively. The use of biopsy or obtaining a histological diagnosis to assist in identifying patients with malignant stenosis, to exclude malignancy and to correctly classify diagnosed patients resulted in a sensitivity of 100 %, a specificity of 73% % with an overall accuracy of 94.4 %. Only a mild adverse event (cholangitis, treated conservatively) occurred.

Conclusions: Today, the SDVS should be considered essential in diagnosing indeterminate biliary strictures, since the procedure is associated with high procedural success in terms of diagnostic accuracy, alters clinical outcome in over 80 % of considered insolvable cases, with an acceptable safety profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-5985.22.02889-3DOI Listing
March 2022

A surprising case of a biliary tumor-like lesion.

Endoscopy 2022 Mar 7. Epub 2022 Mar 7.

Endoscopy Service, Department of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services, IRCCS-ISMETT, Palermo, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1759-2377DOI Listing
March 2022

EUS-guided choledochoduodenostomy for malignant distal biliary obstruction after failed ERCP: a retrospective nationwide analysis.

Gastrointest Endosc 2022 05 4;95(5):896-904.e1. Epub 2022 Jan 4.

Division of Gastroenterology and Digestive Endoscopy, Humanitas Research Hospital-IRCCS, Milan, Italy.

Background And Aims: EUS-guided choledochoduodenostomy (EUS-CDS) with a lumen-apposing metal stent (LAMS) has been proposed as an alternative procedure in patients with distal malignant biliary obstruction (DMBO) and failed ERCP.

Methods: This multicenter, retrospective analysis included all cases of EUS-CDS with LAMS performed in patients with DMBO and failed ERCP in 23 Italian centers from January 2016 to July 2020. Primary endpoints were technical and clinical success. Secondary endpoints were the assessment of the adverse event (AE) rate and variables associated with technical success.

Results: Two hundred fifty-six patients (44.9% women) with a mean age of 73.9 ± 12.6 years were included in the study. The most common etiology of DMBO was pancreatic adenocarcinoma (75%), followed by ampullary cancer (8.6%) and cholangiocarcinoma (6.6%). The common bile duct median diameter was 17.3 ± 3.9 mm. Technical and clinical success were achieved in 239 of 256 (93.3%), and 230 of 239 (96.2%) patients, respectively. The mean follow-up was 151 ± 162 days. Twenty-seven AEs occurred in 25 of 239 patients (10.5%) (3 mild, 21 moderate, and 3 severe). No fatal AEs occurred. Reinterventions to manage AEs with endoscopic or radiologic procedures occurred in 22 patients (9.2%).

Conclusions: The results of our study show that EUS-CDS with LAMSs in patients with DMBO and failed ERCP represent a viable alternative in terms of effectiveness and safety with acceptable AE rates. (Clinical trial registration number: NCT03903523.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gie.2021.12.032DOI Listing
May 2022

An Unusual Presentation of Crohn's Disease Diagnosed Following Accidental Ingestion of Fruit Pits: Report of Two Cases and Review of the Literature.

Life (Basel) 2021 Dec 16;11(12). Epub 2021 Dec 16.

Department of Surgery, Fondazione Istituto G. Giglio, Contrada Pietra Pollastra Pisciotto, 90015 Cefalù, Italy.

The clinical course of Crohn's disease (CD) is often complicated by intestinal strictures, which can be fibrotic, inflammatory, or mixed, therefore leading to stenosis and eventually symptomatic obstruction. We report two cases of subclinical CD diagnosed after fruit pit ingestion, causing bowel obstruction; additionally, we conducted a narrative review of the scientific literature on cases of intestinal obstruction secondary to impacted bezoars due to fruit pits. Symptoms of gastrointestinal bezoars in CD patients are not diagnostic; and the diagnosis should be based on a combined assessment of history, clinical presentation, imaging examination and endoscopy findings. This report corroborates the concept that CD patients are at a greater risk of bowel obstruction with bezoars generally and shows that accidental ingestion of fruit pits may lead to an unusual presentation of the disease. Therapeutic options in this group of patients differ from the usual approaches implemented in other patients with strictures secondary to CD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/life11121415DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8703957PMC
December 2021

Definition of a hospital volume threshold to optimize outcomes after drainage of pancreatic fluid collections with lumen-apposing metal stents: a nationwide cohort study.

Gastrointest Endosc 2022 06 18;95(6):1158-1172. Epub 2021 Dec 18.

Gastroenterology and Digestive Endoscopy Unit, Forlì-Cesena Hospitals, Forlì-Cesena, Italy.

Background And Aims: There is increasing interest in expanding the use of lumen-apposing metal stents (LAMSs) in patients with pancreatic fluid collections (PFCs). The aim of this study was to determine whether there is a hospital volume threshold for which patient outcomes could be optimized.

Methods: Data from a large multicenter series of patients with PFCs treated with LAMSs were retrieved. Rate of adverse events (AEs) was the primary outcome. Multivariable models with restricted cubic splines were used to identify a hospital volume threshold by plotting hospital volume against the log odds ratio (OR) of AE rate. Propensity score matching was applied to obtain 2 well-balanced groups according to hospital volume, and univariate/multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify significant predictors of AEs.

Results: Overall, 516 patients were included. Increasing hospital volume was associated with a reduced AE rate (P = .03), and the likelihood of experiencing an AE declined as hospital volume increased up to 15 cases. After propensity score matching, 175 patients in the high-volume (>15 cases) and 132 in the low-volume hospital group were compared. Overall, 41 AEs were observed (13.3%), of which 14 (8%) and 27 (20.4%) occurred at high-volume and low-volume centers, respectively (P = .001). Severe and fatal events were observed more frequently in low-volume centers (6% vs 1.7% and 2.2% vs 0%, respectively; P = .05). In multivariate analysis, main pancreatic duct injury (OR, 2.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26-4.67; P = .02), presence of abnormal vessels (OR, 2.93; 95% CI, 1.41-5.02; P = .006), and institutional experience (OR, 2.95; 95% CI, 1.48-5.90; P = .002) were significant predictors of AEs.

Conclusions: With 15 procedures representing the minimum number of cases associated with the lowest risk for postprocedural AEs, hospital volume is associated with improved outcomes. (Clinical trial registration number: NCT03903523.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gie.2021.12.006DOI Listing
June 2022

Novel 15-mm-long lumen-apposing metal stent for endoscopic ultrasound-guided drainage of pancreatic fluid collections located ≥10 mm from the luminal wall.

Endoscopy 2022 Jul 14;54(7):706-711. Epub 2021 Dec 14.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Johns Hopkins Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States.

Background:  Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided drainage of pancreatic fluid collections (PFCs) by cautery-enhanced lumen-apposing metal stents (LAMS) has largely been limited to collections located < 10 mm from the luminal wall. We present outcomes of the use of a novel 15-mm-long cautery-enhanced LAMS for drainage of PFCs located ≥ 10 mm away.

Methods:  This international, multicenter study analyzed all adults with PFCs located ≥ 10 mm from the luminal wall who were treated by EUS-guided drainage using the 15-mm-long cautery-enhanced LAMS. The primary outcome was technical success. Secondary outcomes included clinical success (decrease in PFC size by ≥ 50 % at 30 days and resolution of clinical symptoms without surgical intervention), complications, and recurrence.

Results:  35 patients (median age 57 years; interquartile range [IQR] 47-64 years; 49 % male) underwent novel LAMS placement for drainage of PFCs (26 walled-off necrosis, 9 pseudocysts), measuring 85 mm (IQR 64-117) maximal diameter and located 11.8 mm (IQR 10-12.3; range 10-14) from the gastric/duodenal wall. Technical and clinical success were high (both 97 %), with recurrence in one patient (3 %) at a median follow-up of 123 days (58-236). Three complications occurred (9 %; one mild, two moderate).

Conclusions:  The 15-mm-long cautery-enhanced LAMS was feasible and safe for drainage of PFCs located 10-14 mm from the luminal wall.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1682-7095DOI Listing
July 2022

Common bile duct size in malignant distal obstruction and lumen-apposing metal stents: a multicenter prospective study.

Endosc Int Open 2021 Nov 12;9(11):E1801-E1810. Epub 2021 Nov 12.

Digestive Endoscopy Unit, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Feasibility of EUS-guided choledochoduodenostomy (EUS-CDS) using available lumen-apposing stents (LAMS) is limited by the size of the common bile duct (CBD) (≤ 12 mm, cut-off for experts; 15 mm, cut-off for non-experts). We aimed to assess the prevalence and predictive factors associated with CBD size ≥ 12 and 15 mm in naïve patients with malignant distal biliary obstruction (MDBO). This was a prospective cohort study involving 22 centers with assessment of CBD diameter and subjective feasibility of the EUS-CDS performance in naïve jaundiced patients undergoing EUS evaluation for MDBO. A total of 491 patients (mean age 69 ± 12 years) with mean serum bilirubin of 12.7 ± 6.6 mg/dL entered the final analysis. Dilation of the CBD ≥ 12 and 15 mm was detected in 78.8 % and 51.9 % of cases, respectively. Subjective feasibility of EUS-CDS was expressed by endosonographers in 91.2 % for a CBD ≥ 12 mm and in 96.5 % for a CBD ≥ 15 mm. On multivariate analysis, age (  < 0.01) and bilirubin level (  ≤ 0.001) were the only factors associated with both CBD dilation ≥ 12 and ≥ 15 mm. These variables were poorly associated with the extent of duct dilation; however, based on them a prediction model could be constructed that satisfactorily predicted CBD size ≥ 12 mm in patients at least 70 years and a bilirubin level ≥ 7 mg/dL. Our study showed that at presentation in a large cohort of patients with MDBO, EUS-CDS can be potentially performed in three quarters to half of cases by expert and less experienced endosonographers, respectively. Dedicated stents or devices with different designs able to overcome the limitations of existing electrocautery-enhanced LAMS for EUS-CDS are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1526-1208DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8589552PMC
November 2021

Biliopancreatic Endoscopy in Altered Anatomy.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 Sep 25;57(10). Epub 2021 Sep 25.

Endoscopy Service, Department of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services, IRCCS-ISMETT, 90127 Palermo, Italy.

: Anatomical post-surgical alterations of the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract have always been challenging for performing diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopy, especially when biliopancreatic diseases are involved. Esophagectomy, gastrectomy with various reconstructions and pancreaticoduodenectomy are among the most common surgeries causing upper GI tract alterations. Technological improvements and new methods have increased the endoscopic success rate in these patients, and the literature has been rapidly increasing over the past few years. The aim of this systematic review is to identify evidence on the available biliopancreatic endoscopic techniques performed in the altered post-surgical anatomy of upper GI tract. : We performed a systematic search of PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and SCOPUS databases. Study-level variables extracted were the last name of the first author, publication year, study design, number of patients, type of post-surgical anatomical alteration, endoscopic technique, success rate and endoscopic-related adverse events. : Our primary search identified 221 titles, which was expanded with studies after the citation search. The final full-text review process identified 52 articles (31 retrospective studies, 8 prospective studies and 13 case reports). We found several different techniques developed over the years for biliopancreatic diseases in altered anatomy, in order to perform both endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). They included enteroscopy-assisted ERCP (double and single balloon enteroscopy-ERCP, spiral enteroscopy-ERCP) laparoscopic assisted ERCP, EUS-Directed transgastric ERCP, EUS-directed transgastric intervention, gastric access temporary for endoscopy, and percutaneous assisted trans prosthetic endoscopic therapy. The success rate was high (most of the techniques showed a success rate over 90%) and a low rate of adverse events were reported. : We suggest the considerationof the novel techniques when approaching patients with altered anatomy who require biliopancreatic endoscopy, focusing on the surgery type, success rate and adverse events reported in the literature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medicina57101014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8537222PMC
September 2021

Lumen-apposing metal stents: How far are we from standardization? An Italian survey.

Endosc Ultrasound 2022 Jan-Feb;11(1):59-67

The members of iEUS group are listed at the end of the article.

Background And Objectives: EUS-guided transluminal drainage has increasingly developed, especially after the era of lumen-apposing metal stent (LAMS): a fully covered, barbell-shaped, metal stent with anti-migratory properties allowing direct therapeutic interventions through a wide and short channel. The aim of this survey is to investigate the current management of patients undergoing LAMS placement nationwide.

Materials And Methods: Forty-eight questions were submitted to Italian centers about expertise, peri- and intra-procedural aspects, budget/refund, and future perspectives. Statistical analyzer was SPSS®.

Results: Thirty-six centers completed the survey. Indications for LAMS positioning are pancreatic fluid collection drainage (PFCD, 97.2%), biliary drainage (BD, 80.5%), gallbladder drainage (GBD, 75%), and gastroentero-anastomosis (GEA, 19.4%). A total of 77.7% of the endoscopists perform only on-label procedures and 22.2% both on-label and off-label. 38.8% attended a training preliminary course, 27.7% were just supported by an expert, 22.2% had both the opportunities, and 8.3% none of them. Management of antiplatelets and sedation protocol is very heterogeneous. Only 50% involves a multidisciplinary meeting and 30.5% has a specialized clinic for follow-up. Acid suppression is usually continued after PFCD. The type and timing of postprocedural imaging varies widely. 8.3% of the endoscopists work without fluoroscopy. Refund for LAMS is mostly not guaranteed. Main future growing indications appear to be BD, GBD, and GEA (69.4%, 55.5%, and 55.5%, respectively).

Conclusions: This is the first survey assessing the state of the art on LAMS almost 10 years after their advent. There are currently wide variations in practice nationwide, which demonstrates a pressing need to define technical, qualitative, and peri-procedural requirements to carry out this procedure, toward a standardization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/EUS-D-21-00015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8887041PMC
October 2021

The endoscopic ultrasound features of pancreatic fluid collections and their impact on therapeutic decisions: an interobserver agreement study.

Endoscopy 2022 06 31;54(6):555-562. Epub 2022 Mar 31.

Digestive Endoscopy Unit, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Background: A validated classification of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) morphological characteristics and consequent therapeutic intervention(s) in pancreatic and peripancreatic fluid collections (PFCs) is lacking. We performed an interobserver agreement study among expert endosonographers assessing EUS-related PFC features and the therapeutic approaches used.

Methods: 50 EUS videos of PFCs were independently reviewed by 12 experts and evaluated for PFC type, percentage solid component, presence of infection, recognition of and communication with the main pancreatic duct (MPD), stent choice for drainage, and direct endoscopic necrosectomy (DEN) performance and timing. The Gwet's AC1 coefficient was used to assess interobserver agreement.

Results: A moderate agreement was found for lesion type (AC1, 0.59), presence of infection (AC1, 0.41), and need for DEN (AC1, 0.50), while fair or poor agreements were stated for percentage solid component (AC1, 0.15) and MPD recognition (AC1, 0.31). Substantial agreement was rated for ability to assess PFC-MPD communication (AC1, 0.69), decision between placing a plastic versus lumen-apposing metal stent (AC1, 0.62), and timing of DEN (AC1, 0.75).

Conclusions: Interobserver agreement between expert endosonographers regarding morphological features of PFCs appeared suboptimal, while decisions on therapeutic approaches seemed more homogeneous. Studies to achieve standardization of the diagnostic endosonographic criteria and therapeutic approaches to PFCs are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1640-4365DOI Listing
June 2022

Difficult biliary cannulation in patients with distal malignant biliary obstruction: An underestimated problem?

Dig Liver Dis 2022 Apr 4;54(4):529-536. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Digestive Endoscopy Unit, Departement of Gastroenterology, Humanitas Research Hospital-IRCCS, Rozzano, Italy.

Background: Failed biliary cannulation still poses a major challenge in patients undergoing Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). To date, there is a lack of data on rates of Difficult Biliary Cannulation (DBC) in patients with distal malignant biliary obstruction (DMBO).

Materials: This was a retrospective study (09/2015 to 02/2019) of consecutive patients with DMBO that underwent ERCP in four Italian centers. The primary outcome was to evaluate the rate of DBC. Secondary outcomes were: cannulation failure, rate of adverse events (AEs), the predictive factors for DBC as well as for AEs.

Results: A total of 622 patients with DMBO, were included in the study, with 351(56,4%) matching the definition of DBC. One-hundred and two ERCP-related AEs occurred in 97 of 622 patients (15,6%). Subjects with DBC showed a higher risk for AEs (p = 0.02). The lack of pancreatitis prophylaxis (p = 0.03), diagnosis of cholangiocarcinoma (p = 0.02), the use of papillotomy (OR=1.98; 95%CI = 1.14-3.45) and the combination of two or more techniques for cannulation (OR = 2.88; 95%CI = 1.04-7.97) were associated with the occurrence of AEs.

Conclusions: According to the results of this study, patients with DMBO carries a higher rate of DBC thus requiring alternative techniques for biliary drainage. Furthermore, DBC carries a high risk for AEs. Further prospective multicentric studies are needed to confirm these data in this specific subgroup of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dld.2021.07.010DOI Listing
April 2022

Digital single‑operator cholangioscopy in treating difficult biliary stones: results from a multicenter experience.

Minerva Gastroenterol (Torino) 2021 Jul 9. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Endoscopy Unit, AOUP G. Martino, Messina, Italy.

Background: In clinical practice, standard endoscopic treatment of biliary stones fails in up to 10% of patients, and more invasive procedures such as percutaneous trans-hepatic interventions or surgery might become necessary. The aim of this multi-center retrospective study, based on prospectively-collected data, was to evaluate both the efficacy and the safety of Digital-Single Operator Cholangioscopy (D-SOC) to treat difficult biliary stones, in cases with a previous failure of conventional endoscopic methods.

Methods: Only patients with a previous failure of endoscopic standard treatment and a DSOC- based biliary stone treatment using electrohydraulic lithotripsy (EHL) or laser lithotripsy (LL) were included. The primary endpoint was to evaluate the stone clearance rate per procedure and per patient. Out of 1258 ERCP performed at our (three?) centers, 31 cholangioscopies in 21 patients were solely performed for the treatment of difficult biliary stones using EHL or LL.

Results: A complete biliary stone removal was achieved in 67.7% (21/31) of all procedures including initial and repeated examinations, while in 35.4% (11/31) of all procedures an incomplete removal was accomplished of which 36.3% had a partial stone removal. In 22 procedures EHL was adopted as techniques to fragment and remove biliary stones, while in 9 procedures LL was used. In both the techniques, the complete stone removal rate and the incomplete stone removal rate were similar (75% vs 77.7%, p>.05). Furthermore, the success rate of digital DSOC to treat difficult biliary stones was assessed per patient: overall, 100% of patients with difficult biliary stones were successfully treated using D-SOC. Only one patient experienced mild cholangitis classified ad mild adverse event following ASGE (American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy) lexicon.

Conclusions: In conclusion, our data indicate that digital D-SOC assisted biliary stone treatment is highly efficient for the treatment of difficult biliary stones even in such patients in whom previous conventional endoscopic methods to treat biliary stones have failed. Therefore, D-SOC might be considered the new standard of care for these patients, being both, effective and safe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-5985.21.02892-8DOI Listing
July 2021

Endoscopic Ultrasound-guided Fine-needle Biopsy With or Without Rapid On-site Evaluation for Diagnosis of Solid Pancreatic Lesions: A Randomized Controlled Non-Inferiority Trial.

Gastroenterology 2021 09 9;161(3):899-909.e5. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Second Department of Internal Medicine, Wakayama Medical University, Wakayama, Japan.

Background And Aims: The benefit of rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) on the diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle biopsy (EUS-FNB) has never been evaluated in a randomized study. This trial aimed to test the hypothesis that in solid pancreatic lesions (SPLs), diagnostic accuracy of EUS-FNB without ROSE was not inferior to that of EUS-FNB with ROSE.

Methods: A noninferiority study (noninferiority margin, 5%) was conducted at 14 centers in 8 countries. Patients with SPLs requiring tissue sampling were randomly assigned (1:1) to undergo EUS-FNB with or without ROSE using new-generation FNB needles. The touch-imprint cytology technique was used to perform ROSE. The primary endpoint was diagnostic accuracy, and secondary endpoints were safety, tissue core procurement, specimen quality, and sampling procedural time.

Results: Eight hundred patients were randomized over an 18-month period, and 771 were analyzed (385 with ROSE and 386 without). Comparable diagnostic accuracies were obtained in both arms (96.4% with ROSE and 97.4% without ROSE, P = .396). Noninferiority of EUS-FNB without ROSE was confirmed with an absolute risk difference of 1.0% (1-sided 90% confidence interval, -1.1% to 3.1%; noninferiority P < .001). Safety and sample quality of histologic specimens were similar in both groups. A significantly higher tissue core rate was obtained by EUS-FNB without ROSE (70.7% vs. 78.0%, P = .021), with a significantly shorter mean sampling procedural time (17.9 ± 8.8 vs 11.7 ± 6.0 minutes, P < .0001).

Conclusions: EUS-FNB demonstrated high diagnostic accuracy in evaluating SPLs independently on execution of ROSE. When new-generation FNB needles are used, ROSE should not be routinely recommended. (ClinicalTrial.gov number NCT03322592.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2021.06.005DOI Listing
September 2021

Macroscopic on-site evaluation (MOSE) of specimens from solid lesions acquired during EUS-FNB: multicenter study and comparison between needle gauges.

Endosc Int Open 2021 Jun 27;9(6):E901-E906. Epub 2021 May 27.

Humamitas Huniversity.

The standard method for obtaining samples during endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is fine-needle aspiration (FNA), the accuracy of which can be affected by the presence of a cytopathologist in endoscopy room (rapid on-site evaluation [ROSE]). With the introduction of fine-needle biopsy (FNB), macroscopic on-site evaluation (MOSE) of a acquired specimen has been proposed. Only a few studies have evaluated the role of MOSE and in all except one, a 19G needle was used. Our primary aim was to evaluate the diagnostic yield and accuracy of MOSE with different needle sizes and the secondary aim was to identify factors influencing the yield of MOSE. Data from patients who underwent EUS-FNB for solid lesions, with MOSE evaluation of the specimen, were collected in six endoscopic referral centers. A total of 378 patients (145 F and 233 M) were enrolled. Needles sizes used during the procedures were 20G (42 %), 22G (45 %), and 25G (13 %). The median number of needle passes was two (IQR 2-3). The overall diagnostic yield of MOSE was of 90 % (confidence interval [CI] 86 %-92 %). On multivariable logistic regression analysis, variables independently associated with the diagnostic yield of MOSE were a larger needle diameter (20G vs. 25G, OR 11.64, 95 %CI 3.5-38.71; 22G vs. 25G, OR 6.20, 95 %CI 2.41-15.90) and three of more needle passes (OR 3.39, 95 %CI 1.38-8.31). MOSE showed high diagnostic yield and accuracy. Its yield was further increased if performed with a large size FNB needles and more than two passes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1395-7129DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8159577PMC
June 2021

Acute Toxicity in Hypofractionated/Stereotactic Prostate Radiotherapy of Elderly Patients: Use of the Image-guided Radio Therapy (IGRT) Clarity System.

In Vivo 2021 May-Jun;35(3):1849-1856

Department of Radiation Oncology, Istituto Nazionale Tumori - IRCCS - Fondazione G. Pascale, Naples, Italy.

Background: The use of intra-fractional monitoring and correction of prostate position with the Image Guided Radio Therapy (IGRT) system can increase the spatial accuracy of dose delivery. Clarity is a system used for intrafraction prostate-motion management, it provides a real-time visualization of prostate with a transperineal ultrasound. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of Clarity-IGRT on proper intrafraction alignment and monitoring, its impact on Planning Tumor Volume margin and on urinary and rectal toxicity in elderly patients not eligible for surgery.

Patients And Methods: Twenty-five elderly prostate cancer patients, median age=75 years (range=75-90 years) were treated with Volumetric Radiotherapy and Clarity-IGRT using 3 different schemes: A) 64.5/72 Gray (Gy) in 30 fractions on prostate and seminal vesicles (6 patients); B) 35 Gy in 5 fractions on prostate and seminal vesicles (12 patients); C): 35 Gy in 5 fractions on prostate (7 patients). Ultrasound identification of the overlapped structures to the detected ones during simulation has been used in each session. A specific software calculates direction and entity of necessary shift to obtain the perfect match. The average misalignment in the three-dimensional space has been determined and shown in a box-plot.

Results: All patients completed treatment with mild-moderate toxicity. During treatment, genitourinary toxicity was 32% Grade 1; 4% Grade 2, rectal was 4% Grade 1. At follow-up of 3 months, genitourinary toxicity was 20% Grade 1; 4% Grade 2, rectal toxicity was 4% Grade 2. At follow-up of 6 months, genitourinary toxicity was 4% Grade 1; 4% Grade 2. Rectal toxicity was 4% Grade 2.

Conclusion: Radiotherapy with the Clarity System allows a reduction of PTV margins, the amount of fractions can be reduced increasing the total dose, not exacerbating urinary and rectal toxicity with greater patient's compliance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/invivo.12447DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8193305PMC
June 2021

Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided visceral anastomoses: indications and techniques.

Minerva Gastroenterol (Torino) 2022 Jun 1;68(2):202-209. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Unit of Gastroenterology and Endoscopy, Fondazione Istituto San Raffaele-Giuseppe Giglio, Cefalù, Palermo, Italy.

Technologic advancements in the field of therapeutic endoscopy have led to the development of minimally invasive techniques to create gastrointestinal anastomosis instead of surgical interventions. Examples of the potential clinical applications include bypassing malignant and benign gastric outlet obstruction, providing access to the pancreato-biliary tree in those who have undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, and relieving pancreato-biliary symptoms in afferent loop syndrome. Starting from the available literature, aim of this narrative review is to summarize indications and techniques of endoscopic ultrasonography-guided visceral anastomoses. A critical review of literature on the new EUS-guided anastomoses. Increasing evidence is accumulating demonstrating advantages of EUS guided visceral anastomoses. These new procedures represent a novel, minimally invasive alternative for managing different type of intestinal obstruction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-5985.21.02846-4DOI Listing
June 2022

Does Fellow Participation Increase the Adenoma Detection Rate?

Dig Dis Sci 2022 01 21;67(1):1-2. Epub 2021 Feb 21.

Endoscopy Service, Department of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services, Istituto Mediterraneo Per I Trapianti E Terapie Ad Alta Specializzazione, Palermo, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10620-021-06889-4DOI Listing
January 2022

Endoscopic ultrasound-guided biliary drainage of malignant stenosis, not treatable with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography: a single-center, prospective observational study.

Endosc Int Open 2021 Feb 25;9(2):E110-E115. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Endoscopy Service, Department of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services, IRCCS - ISMETT, Palermo, Italy.

The therapeutic role of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) evolved in recent decade,s opening a new chapter in the field of endoscopic biliary drainage (BD). EUS-BD has emerged as a new mini-invasive technique for neoplastic jaundice not amenable to endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). The primary study aims were to assess the clinical efficacy of EUS-BD using an electrocautery-enhanced lumen apposing metal stent (ECE-LAMS) in patients with malignant biliary obstruction with failed\unfeasible ERCP and the adverse event (AE) rate. The secondary aims were to evaluate the technical success and incidence of jaundice recurrence. Data from All patients referred to our tertiary-care Institute with obstructive jaundice due to unresectable malignant distal biliary stricture and unfeasible\failed ERCP, were prospectively recorded from January 2015 to February 2018. The procedures were performed by a single-step ECE-LAMS (AXIOS-EC, Boston Scientific) placement, from the upper gut lumen to the biliary tree, for definitive biliary decompression. Twenty-one patients were consecutively enrolled. Mean pre-procedure common bile duct diameter was 16 mm and the bilirubin level was 13.9 mg/dL (range 3.8-29.5). LAMS was positioned from the duodenal bulb (n = 19) to gastric antrum (n = 2). We registered a 100 % of technical and clinical success. No AEs occurred. We observed a single case of delayed AE consisting of a buried LAMS, which was successfully resolved endoscopically. Despite the limits of being non-comparative, our study shows outcomes in a homogeneous population in terms of indications and technique. EUS-BD with dedicated ECE-LAMS is associated with extremely good clinical efficacy and safety and can be considered as an alternative in cases of failed/unfeasible ERCP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1313-6850DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7834702PMC
February 2021

Patency of endoscopic ultrasound-guided gastroenterostomy in the treatment of malignant gastric outlet obstruction.

Endosc Int Open 2020 Sep 31;8(9):E1194-E1201. Epub 2020 Aug 31.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Endoscopic ultrasound-guided gastroenterostomy (EUS-GE) with a lumen-apposing metal stent (LAMS) is a novel, minimally invasive technique in the palliative treatment of malignant gastric outlet obstruction (GOO). Several studies have demonstrated feasibility and safety of EUS-GE, but evidence on long-term durability is limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate patency of EUS-GE in treatment of malignant GOO. An international multicenter study was performed in seven centers in four European countries. Patients who underwent EUS-GE with a LAMS between March 2015 and March 2019 for palliative treatment of symptomatic malignant GOO were included retrospectively. Our main outcome was recurrent obstruction due to LAMS dysfunction; other outcomes of interest were technical success, clinical success, adverse events (AEs), and survival. A total of 45 patients (mean age 69.9 ± 12.3 years and 48.9 % male) were included. Median duration of follow-up was 59 days (interquartile range [IQR] 41-128). Recurrent obstruction occurred in two patients (6.1 %), after 33 and 283 days of follow-up. Technical success was achieved in 39 patients (86.7 %). Clinical success was achieved in 33 patients (73.3 %). AEs occurred in 12 patients (26.7 %), of which five were fatal. Median overall survival was 57 days (IQR 32-114). EUS-GE showed a low rate of recurrent obstruction. The relatively high number of fatal AEs underscores the importance of careful implementation of EUS-GE in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1214-5659DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7458745PMC
September 2020

Endoscopic drainage in patients with malignant extrahepatic biliary obstruction: when and how.

Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 10;32(10):1279-1283

Humanitas University; Pieve Emanuele (MI); Italy.

The question of when and how to drain a malignant biliary obstruction (MBO), both intrinsic or extrinsic, remains a controversial point among endoscopists. An important factor that influences the decision to drain an MBO or not is if the patient is a surgical candidate or not and, in the former case, if the patients must undergo neoadiuvant chemotherapy or not. Other questions arising during biliary drainage in MBO patients is which type of stent should be chosen, plastic or metal, and if endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy must be performed or not when a stent is placed. The present review attempts to answer these questions and summarizes the optimal approach toward patients with MBO based on the available evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MEG.0000000000001752DOI Listing
October 2020

Multicentric Italian survey on daily practice for autoimmune pancreatitis: Clinical data, diagnosis, treatment, and evolution toward pancreatic insufficiency.

United European Gastroenterol J 2020 07 12;8(6):705-715. Epub 2020 May 12.

Pancreas Unit, Department of Gastroenterology, Sant'Orsola Polyclinic, Bologna, Italy.

Background: Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a rare, and relatively new, form of chronic pancreatitis. The management of AIP can vary considerably among different centres in daily clinical practice.

Objectives: The aim of this study is to present a picture of epidemiological, clinical characteristics, outcomes, and the real-life practice in terms of management in several academic and non-academic centres in Italy.

Methods: Data on the clinical presentation, diagnostic work-up, treatments, frequency of relapses, and long-term outcomes were retrospectively collected in a cohort of AIP patients diagnosed at 14 centres in Italy.

Results: One hundred and six patients were classified as type 1 AIP, 48 as type 2 AIP, and 19 as not otherwise specified. Epidemiological, clinical, radiological, and serological characteristics, and relapses were similar to those previously reported for different types of AIP. Endoscopic cytohistology was available in 46.2% of cases, and diagnostic for AIP in only 35.2%. Steroid trial to aid diagnosis was administered in 43.3% cases, and effective in 93.3%. Steroid therapy was used in 70.5% of cases, and effective in 92.6% of patients. Maintenance therapy with low dose of steroid (MST) was prescribed in 25.4% of cases at a mean dose of 5 (±1.4) mg/die, and median time of MST was 60 days. Immunosuppressive drugs were rarely used (10.9%), and rituximab in 1.7%. Faecal elastase-1 was evaluated in only 31.2% of patients, and was pathological in 59.2%.

Conclusions: In this cohort of AIP patients, diagnosis and classification for subtype was frequently possible, confirming the different characteristics of AIP1 and AIP2 previously reported. Nevertheless, we observed a low use of histology and steroid trial for a diagnosis of AIP. Steroid treatment was the most used therapy in our cohort. Immunosuppressants and rituximab were rarely used. The evaluation of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency is underemployed considering its high prevalence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2050640620924302DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7437084PMC
July 2020

The safety and efficacy of a new 20-mm lumen apposing metal stent (lams) for the endoscopic treatment of pancreatic and peripancreatic fluid collections: a large international, multicenter study.

Surg Endosc 2021 04 22;35(4):1741-1748. Epub 2020 Apr 22.

Department of Surgical Gastroenterology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

Background: Lumen apposing metal stent (LAMS) allows an easy access to peripancreatic fluid collections (PPFCs) and the possibility of performing direct endoscopic necrosectomy (DEN). The aim of our study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a new 20-mm LAMS in the management of PPFCs. This novel stent represents the largest diameter LAMS available on the market to date.

Methods: This is an international, multicenter retrospective study involving 20 centers. Consecutive patients who underwent EUS-guided PPFC drainage using a 20-mm LAMS were included. Primary outcomes were technical and clinical success. Secondary outcomes were rate and the severity of adverse events.

Results: A total 105 patients underwent PPFC drainage using the new 20-mm LAMS and 106 LAMS were placed. Technical success was 100% (106/106). 7/105 patients died due to causes not related to the stent. Clinical success was achieved in 92/98 patients (93.9%). Significant adverse events occurred in 8/98 patients (8.16%): 4 cases (4.08%) of bleeding, 3 cases (3.06%) of suprainfection, 1 case of gastric outlet obstruction.

Conclusions: This multicenter study demonstrated acceptable rates of technical and clinical success using a new 20-mm LAMS for PPFC, including walled-off pancreatic necrosis (WOPN). The results of our study suggest that a new 20-mm LAMS is non-inferior in terms of safety, efficacy, and adverse events as compared to smaller diameter LAMS in the management of PPFCs, including pancreatic psuedocysts (PP) and WOPN. Randomized controlled studies will be needed to determine the ideal size of LAMS need to achieve the greatest clinical benefit with the minimized risk exposure for this high-risk patient population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-020-07567-8DOI Listing
April 2021

Single-step EUS-guided jejunojejunostomy with a lumen-apposing metal stent as treatment for malignant afferent limb syndrome.

VideoGIE 2020 Apr 6;5(4):154-156. Epub 2020 Feb 6.

Endoscopy Service, Department of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Services, Istituto Mediterraneo per i Trapianti e Terapie ad alta Specializzazione, Palermo, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vgie.2019.12.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7125391PMC
April 2020
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