Publications by authors named "Ilaria Martino"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

First report of causing root and crown rot on maize in Italy.

Plant Dis 2021 Jun 15. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

UNIVERSITA' DI TORINO, AGROINNOVA, VIA L. DA VINCI 44, GRUGLIASCO, Italy, 10095;

Maize (Zea mays L.) is a cereal crop of great economic importance in Italy; production is currently of 62,587,469 t, with an area that covers 628,801 ha, concentrated in northern Italy (ISTAT 2020). Fusarium species are associated with root and crown rot causing failures in crop establishment under high soil moisture. In 2019 maize seedlings collected in a farm located in San Zenone degli Ezzelini (VI, Italy) showed root and crown rot symptoms with browning of the stem tissues, wilting of the seedling, and collapsing due to the rotting tissues at the base of the stem. The incidence of diseased plants was approximately 15%. Seedlings were cleaned thoroughly from soil residues under tap water. Portions (about 3-5 mm) of tissue from roots and crowns of the diseased plants were cut and surface disinfected with a water solution of NaClO at 0.5% for 2 minutes and rinsed in sterile H20. The tissue fragments were plated on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) amended with 50 mg/l of streptomycin sulfate and incubated for 48-72 hours at 25oC. Over the 80 tissue fragments plated, 5% were identified as Fusarium verticillioides, 60% as Fusarium spp., 35% developed saprophytes. Fusarium spp. isolates that showed morphological characteristics not belonging to known pathogenic species on maize were selected and used for further investigation while species belonging to F. oxysporum were discarded. Single conidia of the Fusarium spp. colonies were cultured on PDA and Carnation Leaf Agar (CLA) for pathogenicity tests, morphological and molecular identification. The colonies showed white to pink, abundant, densely floccose to fluffy aerial mycelium. Colony reverse showed light violet pigmentation, in rings on PDA. On CLA the isolates produced slightly curved macronidia with 3 septa 28.1 - 65.5 µm long and 2.8-6.3 µm wide (n=50). Microconidia were cylindrical, aseptate, 4.5 -14.0 µm long and 1.5-3.9 µm wide (n=50). Spherical clamydospores were 8.8 ± 2.5 µm size (n=30), produced singly or in pairs on the mycelium, according to the description by Skovgaard et al. (2003) for F. commune. The identity of two single-conidia strains was confirmed by sequence comparison of the translation elongation factor-1α (tef-1α), and RNA polymerase II subunit (rpb2) gene fragments (O'Donnell et al. 2010). BLASTn searches of GenBank, and Fusarium-ID database, using the partial tef-1α (MW419921, MW419922) and rpb2 (MW419923, MW419924) sequences of representative isolate DB19lug07 and DB19lug20, revealed 99% identity for tef-1α and 100% identity to F. commune NRRL 28387(AF246832, AF250560). Pathogenicity tests were carried out by suspending conidia from a 10-days old culture on PDA in sterile H2O to 5×104 CFU/ml. Fifty seeds were immersed in 50 ml of the conidial suspension of each isolate for 24 hours and in sterile water (Koch et al. 2020). The seeds were drained, dried at room temperature, and sown in trays filled with a steamed mix of white peat and perlite, 80:20 v/v, and maintained at 25°C and RH of 80-85% for 14 days with 12 hours photoperiod. Seedlings were extracted from the substrate, washed under tap water, and observed for the presence of root and crown rots like the symptoms observed on the seedlings collected in the field. Control seedlings were healthy and F. commune was reisolated from the symptomatic ones and identified by resequencing of tef-1α gene. F. commune has been already reported on maize (Xi et al. 2019) and other plant species, like soybean (Ellis et al. 2013), sugarcane (Wang et al. 2018), potato (Osawa et al. 2020), indicating that some attention must be paid in crop rotation and residue management strategies. To our knowledge this is the first report of F. commune as a pathogen of maize in Italy. References Ellis M L et al. 2013. Plant Disease, 97, doi: 10.1094/PDIS-07-12-0644-PDN. ISTAT. 2020. http://dati.istat.it/Index.aspx?QueryId=33702. Accessed December 28, 2020. Koch, E. et al. 2020. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection. 127, 883-893 doi: 10.1007/s41348-020-00350-w O'Donnell K et al. 2010. J. Clin. Microbiol. 48:3708. https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00989-10 Osawa H et al. 2020. Journal of General Plant Pathology, doi.org/10.1007/s10327-020-00969-5. Skovgaard K 2003. Mycologia, 95:4, 630-636, DOI: 10.1080/15572536.2004.11833067. Wang J et al. 2018. Plant Disease, 102, doi/10.1094/PDIS-07-17-1011-PDN Xi K et al. 2019. Plant Disease, 103, doi/10.1094/PDIS-09-18-1674-PDN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-01-21-0075-PDNDOI Listing
June 2021

YAP contributes to DNA methylation remodeling upon mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation.

J Biol Chem 2021 Jan-Jun;296:100138. Epub 2020 Dec 6.

Department of Molecular Medicine and Medical Biotechnology, University of Napoli Federico II, Italy. Electronic address:

The Yes-associated protein (YAP), one of the major effectors of the Hippo pathway together with its related protein WW-domain-containing transcription regulator 1 (WWTR1; also known as TAZ), mediates a range of cellular processes from proliferation and death to morphogenesis. YAP and WW-domain-containing transcription regulator 1 (WWTR1; also known as TAZ) regulate a large number of target genes, acting as coactivators of DNA-binding transcription factors or as negative regulators of transcription by interacting with the nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylase complexes. YAP is expressed in self-renewing embryonic stem cells (ESCs), although it is still debated whether it plays any crucial roles in the control of either stemness or differentiation. Here we show that the transient downregulation of YAP in mouse ESCs perturbs cellular homeostasis, leading to the inability to differentiate properly. Bisulfite genomic sequencing revealed that this transient knockdown caused a genome-wide alteration of the DNA methylation remodeling that takes place during the early steps of differentiation, suggesting that the phenotype we observed might be due to the dysregulation of some of the mechanisms involved in regulation of ESC exit from pluripotency. By gene expression analysis, we identified two molecules that could have a role in the altered genome-wide methylation profile: the long noncoding RNA ephemeron, whose rapid upregulation is crucial for the transition of ESCs into epiblast, and the methyltransferase-like protein Dnmt3l, which, during the embryo development, cooperates with Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b to contribute to the de novo DNA methylation that governs early steps of ESC differentiation. These data suggest a new role for YAP in the governance of the epigenetic dynamics of exit from pluripotency.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA120.015896DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7948423PMC
December 2020

A novel member of Prame family, Gm12794c, counteracts retinoic acid differentiation through the methyltransferase activity of PRC2.

Cell Death Differ 2020 01 11;27(1):345-362. Epub 2019 Jun 11.

Department of Biology, University of Naples 'Federico II', Naples, Italy.

Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) fluctuate among different levels of pluripotency defined as metastates. Sporadically, metastable cellular populations convert to a highly pluripotent metastate that resembles the preimplantation two-cell embryos stage (defined as 2C stage) in terms of transcriptome, DNA methylation, and chromatin structure. Recently, we found that the retinoic acid (RA) signaling leads to a robust increase of cells specifically expressing 2C genes, such as members of the Prame family. Here, we show that Gm12794c, one of the most highly upregulated Prame members, and previously identified as a key player for the maintenance of pluripotency, has a functional role in conferring ESCs resistance to RA signaling. In particular, RA-dependent expression of Gm12794c induces a ground state-like metastate, as evaluated by activation of 2C-specific genes, global DNA hypomethylation and rearrangement of chromatin similar to that observed in naive totipotent preimplantation epiblast cells and 2C-like cells. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that Gm12794c inhibits Cdkn1A gene expression through the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) histone methyltransferase activity. Collectively, our data highlight a molecular mechanism employed by ESCs to counteract retinoic acid differentiation stimuli and contribute to shed light on the molecular mechanisms at grounds of ESCs naive pluripotency-state maintenance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41418-019-0359-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7206114PMC
January 2020

The role of qSOFA compared to other prognostic scores in septic patients upon admission to the emergency department.

Eur J Intern Med 2018 07 5;53:e11-e13. Epub 2018 Jun 5.

Clinica Medica II, Fondazione IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo, Pavia, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2018.05.022DOI Listing
July 2018
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