Publications by authors named "Ikeoluwa Ajayi"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Evaluation of a capacity building intervention on malaria treatment for under-fives in rural health facilities in Niger State, Nigeria.

Malar J 2020 Feb 24;19(1):90. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Disease Control Department, London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, WC1E 7HT, UK.

Background: Despite the uptake of parasitological testing into policy and practice, appropriate prescription of anti-malarials and artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in accordance with test results is variable. This study describes a National Malaria Control Programme-led capacity building intervention which was implemented in 10 States of Nigeria. Using the experience of Niger State, this study assessed the effect on malaria diagnosis and prescription practices among febrile under-fives in rural health facilities.

Methods: The multicomponent capacity building intervention consisted of revised case management manuals; cascade training from national to state level carried out at the local government area (LGA) level; and on the job capacity development through supportive supervision. The evaluation was conducted in 28, principally government-owned, health facilities in two rural LGAs of Niger State, one in which the intervention case management of malaria was implemented and the other acted as a comparison area with no implementation of the intervention. Three outcomes were considered in the context of rapid diagnostic testing (RDT) for malaria which were: the prevalence of RDT testing in febrile children; appropriate treatment of RDT-positive children; and appropriate treatment of RDT-negative children. Outcomes were compared post-intervention between intervention and comparison areas using multivariate logistic regression.

Results: The intervention did not improve appropriate management of under-fives in intervention facilities above that seen for under-fives in comparison facilities. Appropriate treatment with artemisinin-based combinations of RDT-positive and RDT-negative under-fives was equally high in both areas. However, appropriate treatment of RDT-negative children, when defined as receipt of no ACT or any other anti-malarials, was better in comparison areas. In both areas, a small number of RDT-positives were not given ACT, but prescribed an alternative anti-malarial, including artesunate monotherapy. Among RDT-negatives, no under-fives were prescribed artesunate as monotherapy.

Conclusion: In a context of significant stock-outs of both ACT medicines and RDTs, under-fives were not more appropriately managed in intervention than comparison areas. The malaria case management intervention implemented through cascade training reached only approximately half of health workers managing febrile under-fives in this setting. Implementation studies on models of cascade training are needed to define what works in what context.
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February 2020

Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Twins Compared With Singleton Children: A Systematic Review.

Twin Res Hum Genet 2018 04 8;21(2):136-145. Epub 2018 Feb 8.

Department of Epidemiology and Public Health,University of Maryland School of Medicine,Baltimore,Maryland,USA.

More than 200 million children aged <5 years fail to reach their full cognitive potential, and children born as twins are particularly at risk. In this article, we review studies that examined differences in the neurodevelopmental outcomes of twins compared to singletons. We searched the Medline database for articles on twins, singletons, neuro, and cognitive development. We also inspected bibliographies of relevant publications to identify related articles from 2011 to 2017. Our search criteria yielded 162 studies, 8 of which met the inclusion criteria. Of the eight studies examined, four were prospective follow-up studies, three were cross-sectional studies, and one was a randomized controlled trial. Five of these studies were carried out in developed countries, and they found no statistically significant difference in neurodevelopmental outcomes among twins and singletons. However, two of the three studies carried out in developing countries found a difference with singletons having significantly higher academic ratings than twins. Studies in which neurodevelopmental outcomes were measured early in life (1-5 years) showed no significant twin-singleton differences, while those in which it was measured later in life showed mixed twin-singleton differences. Overall, these studies may have been underpowered and may not have been optimally designed and implemented. There is need for studies with adequate sample sizes, good design, and optimal measurement of all relevant covariates in order to resolve the conflicting reports in the literature.
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April 2018

Risk factors for chronic kidney disease among patients at Olabisi Onabanjo University Teaching Hospital in Sagamu, Nigeria: A retrospective cohort study.

Malawi Med J 2017 06;29(2):166-170

Department of Epidemiology and Medical Statistics, University of Ibadan. Ibadan, Nigeria.

Background: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common and often goes undetected and undiagnosed until the disease is well advanced and kidney failure is imminent. It is estimated that approximately 36 million Nigerians suffer from different stages of CKD, as one in seven Nigerians has kidney disease.

Methods: This research was a retrospective cohort study of 150 cases and 300 controls. Selection of subjects was by a retrospective review of records of in-patients from 2010-2013 in a state teaching hospital. Data was analyzed using Chi-square at 5% level of significance.

Results: Majority of subjects were between ages 20 - 29 years. The mean (SD) age of the cases was 40.6 (14.4) and controls was 38.6 (15.8). Ninety (60%) of the cases and 212(70.7%) of the controls were males (p= 0.023). Almost 87% of the cases and 42% of the controls ingest herbal concoction. Use of bleaching substances was more among the cases 20(13.4%) compared with the controls 2(0.7%), ( p= 0.001). Eight (5.3%) of the cases had family history of CKD while only 1(0.3%) of the control had similar history (p= 0.001). There were more cases (10.7%) with diabetic mellitus compared with the controls (2.7%), (p= 0.001). The number of cases with high blood pressure was more than the number of controls, (p-value <0.001). Sixty-four percent of the cases had history of chronic use of analgesic compared with 10.3% of the controls (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: CKD is mostly found among men in their productive age, who were either diabetic or hypertensive with history of ingestion of herbal concoction and chronic use of analgesic. Individual should engage in regular medical check, modify their life style while government and health care providers increase awareness and campaign on the causes and risk factors of CKD.
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June 2017