Publications by authors named "Ijaz Ahmad"

87 Publications

Variants in the Gene in Families with Autosomal Recessive Congenital Ichthyosis Reveal Clinical Significance.

Mol Syndromol 2021 Oct 24;12(6):351-361. Epub 2021 Aug 24.

Medical Genomics Research Department, King Abdullah International Medical Research Center (KAIMRC), King Saud bin Abdulaziz University for Health Science, Ministry of National Guard-Health Affairs (MNGHA), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

The term autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) is the subgroup of ichthyosis, which describes a highly heterogeneous group of genetic disorders of the skin characterized by cornification and defective keratinocytes differentiation associated with mutations in at least 14 genes including . To study the molecular basis of the Pakistani kindreds (A and B) affected by ARCI, whole-exome sequencing (WES) in the DNA samples of affected members was performed followed by Sanger sequencing of the candidate gene to hunt down the disease-causing sequence variant/s. WES data analysis led to the identification of a novel nonsense sequence variant (c.892C>T; p.Arg298*, family A) and a recurrent missense variant (c.102C>A; p.Asp34Glu, family B) in mapped to the ARCI locus in chromosome 6p21.31. Validation and cosegregation analysis of the variants in the remaining family members of the respective families were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. The current investigation expands the spectrum of mutations and helps establish the proper clinico-genetic diagnosis and correct genotype-phenotype correlation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000516943DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8613620PMC
October 2021

Novel splicing-site mutation in DCAF17 gene causing Woodhouse-Sakati syndrome in a large consanguineous family.

J Clin Lab Anal 2022 Jan 8;36(1):e24127. Epub 2021 Dec 8.

Basic Science Department, College of Medicine, Princess Nourah Bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Woodhouse-Sakati syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disease with endocrine and neuroectodermal aberrations with heterogeneous phenotypes and disease course. The most common phenotypes of the disease are progressive sensorineural hearing loss and alopecia, mild-to-moderate mental retardation and hypogonadism. The disease results from mutations in the DCAF17 gene.

Method: Here, we reported a large consanguineous pedigree with multiple affected individuals with Woodhouse-Sakati syndrome phenotypes. Laboratory tests confirmed the endocrine perturbance in affected individuals. To find out the underlying genetic change, whole-exome sequencing was carried out.

Result: Analysis of the exome data identified a splicing-site deletion NM_025000.3:c.1423-1_1425delGACA in DCAF17 gene. Sanger sequencing confirmed the co-segregation of the variant with the disease phenotypes in the family.

Conclusion: The variant is predicted to cause aberrant splicing, i.e., exon skipping, resulting in the translation of a truncated functionless protein which results in appearance of typical phenotypic features and clinical laboratory findings of Woodhouse-Sakati syndrome in affected members of the family.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcla.24127DOI Listing
January 2022

Phyto-Extract-Mediated Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Aqueous Extract of , and Characterization, Optimization and Photocatalytic Degradation of Azo Dyes Orange G and Direct Blue-15.

Molecules 2021 Oct 12;26(20). Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Department of Bioorganic Chemistry, Leibniz Institute of Plant Biochemistry, Weinberg 3, D-06120 Halle, Germany.

Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) employing an aqueous plant extract has emerged as a viable eco-friendly method. The aim of the study was to synthesize AgNPs by using plant extract of (creeping zinnia) in which the phytochemicals present in plant extract act as a stabilizing and reducing agent. For the stability of the synthesized AgNPs, different parameters like AgNO concentration, volume ratios of AgNO, temperature, pH, and contact time were studied. Further, AgNPs were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, FT-IR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy), XRD (X-ray Diffraction), SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy), and EDX (Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometer) analysis. FT-IR analysis showed that the plant extract contained essential functional groups like O-H stretching of carboxylic acid, N-H stretching of secondary amides, and C-N stretching of aromatic amines, and C-O indicates the vibration of alcohol, ester, and carboxylic acid that facilitated in the green synthesis of AgNPs. The crystalline nature of synthesized AgNPs was confirmed by XRD, while the elemental composition of AgNPs was detected by energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). SEM studies showed the mean particle diameter of silver nanoparticles. The synthesized AgNPs were used for photocatalytic degradation of Orange G and Direct blue-15 (OG and DB-15), which were analyzed by UV-visible spectroscopy. Maximum degradation percentage of OG and DB-15 azo dyes was observed, without any significant silver leaching, thereby signifying notable photocatalytic properties of AgNPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26206144DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8540290PMC
October 2021

Mitochondrial phylogenetic and diversity analysis in Azi-Kheli buffalo.

Trop Anim Health Prod 2021 Oct 12;53(5):512. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Livestock & Dairy Development Department (Research), Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

Novelty Statement: The present study was conducted for the first time in Pakistan to investigate Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit 1 (CO1) gene and full-length Displacement Loop (D-loop) region of mitochondrial DNA in Azi-Kheli buffalo breed native to northern hilly areas of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province of Pakistan. The present study was designed to investigate phylogeny and diversity in Azi-Kheli buffalo, through two mitochondrial DNA regions, i.e., Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit-I (CO1) and Displacement Loop (D-loop) region. Thirty (30) blood samples were taken from Azi-Kheli pure breed animals from original breeding tract, i.e., Khwazakhela, Swat. Polymerase chain reactions using gene-specific primers were carried out for amplifying 709-bp region of CO1 gene and 1159-bp region of D-Loop for identification, phylogeny, and diversity in Azi-Kheli buffalo, respectively. The sequences of CO1 gene revealed four (04) haplotypes, whereas D-loop sequences revealed five (05) haplotypes. Mean interspecific diversity with related species was 2.56%, and mean intraspecific diversity within Azi-Kheli buffalo was 0.25%, estimated via Kimura-2 parameter. Phylogenetic tree (maximum likelihood) revealed clustering of Azi-Kheli haplotypes with river buffalo and is distinct from swamp buffalo and other related species of genus Bubalus. Mean haplotype and nucleotide diversity of D-loop were Hd = 0.9601 ± SD = 0.096 and π = 0.01208 ± SD = 0.00182, respectively. Phylogenetic tree (neighbor-joining) revealed two main clades, i.e., river buffalo and swamp buffalo clade. The haplotypes of Azi-Kheli clustered with haplotypes of different river buffalo breeds at different positions. The current study suggests that Azi-Kheli has common origin with other river buffalo breeds; hence, it is river buffalo which harbors high genetic diversity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11250-021-02949-zDOI Listing
October 2021

Effective Antiplasmodial and Cytotoxic Activities of Synthesized Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Using Leaf Extract.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 26;2021:5586740. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

IMU Clinical School Kluang, Kluang Johor 86000, Malaysia.

In the present study, zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles were prepared using ZnCl.2HO as a precursor, via green route using leaf extract of as capping and reducing agent. The prepared ZnO nanoparticles were examined using UV-visible spectrophotometer (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction spectrometer (XRD), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The UV-Vis absorption spectrum at 355 nm showed an absorption peak, which indicates the formation of ZnO NPs. The FT-IR spectra analysis was performed to identify the potential biomolecule of the as-prepared ZnO NPs. The FT-IR spectra showed peaks at 3455, 1438, 883, and 671 cm in the region of 4000-500 cm, which indicates -OH, NH, C-H, and M-O groups, respectively. The SEM images showed aggregation of ZnO nanoparticles with an average size of 70-90 nm. The XRD study indicated that the ZnO NPs were crystalline in nature with hexagonal wurtzite structure and broad peaks were observed at 2 theta positions 31.8°, 34.44°, 36.29°, 47.57°, 56.61°, 67.96°, and 69.07°. The synthesized ZnO NPs were found to be good antiplasmodial with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC) value of 3.41 g/mL. It is concluded from the current study that the ZnO NPs exhibited noble antiplasmodial activity, and for the improvement of antiplasmodial medications, it might be used after further studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5586740DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8413033PMC
August 2021

Vertebral Endplate Changes Correlate with Presence of Cartilaginous Endplate in the Herniated Disc Tissue: Factor Predicting Failure of Conservative Treatment.

Asian Spine J 2021 Sep 1. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Anatomy, University of Health Sciences Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan.

Study Design: Cross-sectional comparative.

Purpose: To characterize the scores of disc degeneration, inflammation, and nerve density in herniated disc samples and associate findings with the presence of vertebral endplate (VEP) changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Overview Of Literature: Considering the role of disc composition in spontaneous regression and persistence of pain during conservative management, it is important to identify the influencing factors. VEP changes are highly associated with disc degeneration, but their correlation with herniated disc composition has not yet been reported.

Methods: Fifty-one discs were obtained from patients undergoing surgery for herniated disc. Their ages ranged from 19-65 years, and 31/51 were male. Pre-surgical T1 and T2 weighted lumbar-spine MRIs were analyzed to observe Pfirrmann grade, VEP defects, herniation type, Modic changes, and high-intensity zones (HIZ) at the affected level. Five-micron thick sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Alcian blue periodic acid-Schiff stain; examined for histological degeneration scores (HDS; 0-15), inflammation (0 [absence]-3 [severe]), and presence of cartilaginous endplate (CEP). Three-micron thick sections were stained with protein-gene-product 9.5 and expression was counted/mm2. Data was analyzed, and p<0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance.

Results: VEP defects, Modic changes, and HIZ were respectively observed in 30/51, 16/51, and 6/51 of the samples. CEP was observed in 26/51 samples and in 23/51 with endplate defects. Discs with adjacent VEP defects showed increased HDS (p<0.001) and inflammation (p<0.001). Discs with adjacent Modic changes also revealed increased HDS (p=0.01). Histological sections with CEP showed increased HDS (p<0.001) and inflammation (p<0.001), and nerve density was significantly positively correlated with HDS (r=0.27, p=0.02).

Conclusions: VEP changes can modulate degeneration and inflammation of herniated discs. Presence of these changes is highly predictive of the occurrence of CEP in herniated discs, which leads to slow resorption and persistent clinical symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.31616/asj.2021.0106DOI Listing
September 2021

Antinociceptive, physiologic and biochemical effects of electroacupuncture combined with xylazine in hybrid goats.

Vet Anaesth Analg 2021 Sep 10;48(5):671-678. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

College of Veterinary Sciences, Faculty of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Sciences, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, KP, Pakistan.

Objective: To elucidate the antinociceptive, physiologic and biochemical effects of electroacupuncture (EA) and xylazine in hybrid goats.

Study Design: Prospective experimental study.

Animals: A total of 30 female hybrid goats aged 1-2 years and weighing 25 ± 2.9 kg (mean ± standard deviation).

Methods: The goats were divided into five groups and administered xylazine (0.1 mg kg; group XYL.1), xylazine (0.3 mg kg; group XYL.3), EA (group EA), EA + xylazine (0.1 mg kg; group XYL.1-EA) and 0.9% saline (0.3 mL; control group CON). Nociceptive threshold and serum glucose concentration were measured at time 0 and at 15, 30, 45, 60 minutes and 24 hours after treatment. Nociceptive threshold was measured by passing potassium ions through the skin using potassium iontophoresis. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), respiratory frequency (f) and rectal temperature (RT) were recorded at times 0 and at 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, 60 minutes and 24 hours. Repeated-measures analyses were performed for each response variable; p < 0.05 was considered significant for all analyses.

Results: Antinociceptive effects in groups XYL.1 and XYL.3 were increased significantly at 15-60 minutes compared with group CON. Antinociceptive effect was higher in group XYL.1-EA than groups XYL.1 or EA at 15-60 minutes (p < 0.05). No significant difference in the nociceptive threshold was recorded in groups XYL.1-EA and XYL.3, except at 30 minutes. HR, MAP, f, RT values were higher in group XYL.1-EA than in groups XYL.1 or XYL.3. Serum glucose concentration was higher in group XYL.3 at 15-60 minutes than in CON.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: The XYL.1 and EA combination was effective for antinociception with minimum physiologic alteration, suggesting that the combination may be a new and effective strategy for pain relief during clinical procedures in goats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaa.2021.06.014DOI Listing
September 2021

Malignant teratoma of the thyroid.

BMJ Case Rep 2021 Jul 28;14(7). Epub 2021 Jul 28.

ENT Department, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Birmingham, UK.

Malignant thyroid teratoma in adults is a rare tumour with less than 40 cases reported worldwide. Our case is of a 29-year-old man who presented with a thyroid lump and compressive symptoms. He underwent multiple investigations before being diagnosed with a malignant thyroid teratoma. There are no established guidelines in the management of this tumour yet. In this case report, we discuss the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of the patient and reflect on the published literature on this tumour.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2021-242534DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8319964PMC
July 2021

A Hybrid Deep Learning-Driven SDN Enabled Mechanism for Secure Communication in Internet of Things (IoT).

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Jul 18;21(14). Epub 2021 Jul 18.

Shenzhen Institute of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenzhen 518000, China.

The Internet of Things (IoT) has emerged as a new technological world connecting billions of devices. Despite providing several benefits, the heterogeneous nature and the extensive connectivity of the devices make it a target of different cyberattacks that result in data breach and financial loss. There is a severe need to secure the IoT environment from such attacks. In this paper, an SDN-enabled deep-learning-driven framework is proposed for threats detection in an IoT environment. The state-of-the-art Cuda-deep neural network, gated recurrent unit (Cu- DNNGRU), and Cuda-bidirectional long short-term memory (Cu-BLSTM) classifiers are adopted for effective threat detection. We have performed 10 folds cross-validation to show the unbiasedness of results. The up-to-date publicly available CICIDS2018 data set is introduced to train our hybrid model. The achieved accuracy of the proposed scheme is 99.87%, with a recall of 99.96%. Furthermore, we compare the proposed hybrid model with Cuda-Gated Recurrent Unit, Long short term memory (Cu-GRULSTM) and Cuda-Deep Neural Network, Long short term memory (Cu- DNNLSTM), as well as with existing benchmark classifiers. Our proposed mechanism achieves impressive results in terms of accuracy, F1-score, precision, speed efficiency, and other evaluation metrics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21144884DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8309860PMC
July 2021

Antibacterial efficacy of silver nanoparticles against metallo-β-lactamase (blaNDM, blaVIM, blaOXA) producing clinically isolated Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2021 Jan;34(1(Supplementary)):237-243

Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Jouf University, Al Jouf, Saudi Arabia.

Carbapenem resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major concern in the public health sector, primarily in developing countries such as Pakistan. Therefore, novel approaches such as Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) can be used to address emerging concerns. Clinical isolates (n=200) were reconfirmed using selective media and API 20NE kit. The antibiogram was determined according to the CLSI 2016 guidelines. Molecular detection was carried out by PCR. Antibacterial activity in AgNPs was achieved by dilution method. Of 200 P. aeruginosa, mostly (n=82; 41%) were isolated from pus samples. Of 110 MDR P. aeruginosa, 70 (63%) were carbapenemase and 58 (52%) were MBL producers. Antimicrobial profile of MBL producing P. aeruginosa reported that all isolates were resistant to β-lactams, and 89% to levofloxacin and ciprofloxacin except colistin. Of 25 (35.7%) blaNDM producing P. aeruginosa, 12 isolates (48%) had MIC 16μg/mL to imipenem. Of 23 (32%) blaVIM producing P. aeruginosa, 12 (52%) contained MIC 16μg/mL to imipenem. However, 12 (17.1%) bla producing P. aeruginosa, 4 (33%) contained MIC 16μg/mL to imipenem. In vitro AgNPs activity inhibited and killed MBL producing isolates at 1 mg/mL and 2 mg/mL, respectively. AgNPs may be used as an alternative therapy followed by multiple clinical trials.
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January 2021

Green Synthesis of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles Using Leaf Extract and Their Characterization and Investigation of Antimicrobial Potential and Cytotoxic Activities.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 18;2021:5589703. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Department of Natural Products and Alternative Medicines, College of Clinical Pharmacy, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.

The development of green technology is creating great interest for researchers towards low-cost and environmentally friendly methods for the synthesis of nanoparticles. Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs) attracted many researchers due to their electric, catalytic, optical, textile, photonic, monofluid, and pharmacological activities that depend on the shape and size of the nanoparticles. This investigation aims copper oxide nanoparticles synthesis using plant leaf extract. Characterization of copper oxide nanoparticles synthesized by green route was performed by three different techniques: X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) reveals the crystalline morphology of CuO-NPs and the average crystal size obtained is 15 nm. SEM images showed the spherical nature of the particles and size is lying in the 15-23 nm range. FTIR analysis confirms the functional groups of active components present in the extract which are responsible for reducing and capping agents for the synthesis of CuO-NPs. The synthesized CuO-NPs were studied for their antimicrobial potential against different bacterial as well as fungal pathogens. The results indicated that CuO-NPs show maximum antimicrobial activities against all the selected bacterial and fungal pathogens. Antimicrobial activities of copper oxide nanoparticles were compared with standard drugs Norfloxacin and amphotericin B antibiotics. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of copper oxide nanoparticles were 128 g/mL against all selected bacterial pathogens. MIC of fungus and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of CuO-NPs were 160 g/mL. Thus, CuO-NPs can be utilized as a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent. The cytotoxic activity of the synthesized CuO-NPs suggested that toxicity was negligible at concentrations below 60 g/mL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5589703DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8235967PMC
June 2021

Preoperative management through modified halo-pelvic distraction assembly in a case of severe thoracic spine kyphosis.

Surg Neurol Int 2021 14;12:290. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Orthopedics and Spine Surgery, Ghurki Trust Teaching Hospital, Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.

Background: Halo-traction device has been seen with favorable outcome in managing the patients with severe kyphotic deformities preoperatively, however, associated complications are inevitable. Slight modifications can improve the outcome and clinical efficacy.

Case Description: A 14-year-old boy was presented with severe kyphotic deformity of 141° from T1 to T10 thoracic vertebrae with diffuse paraspinal calcification in thoracic spine and complete loss of power of both lower limbs. A modified halo-pelvic distraction device was applied before the definitive surgery. The device comprised halo and pelvic assembly, the halo ring was connected to the head with 06 pins, while pelvic assembly had Ilizarov half pins connected to the arches. The assembly construct had four threaded rods, two of them were placed anterolateral and the other two were posterolateral. Distraction at the rate of 3 mm/day was started from 1 postoperative day for 35 days. The neurology improved in both lower limbs and kyphotic angle reduced to 56° from 141°. Surgery at this stage was done and a standalone solid titanium cage was placed from T1 to T10 vertebral body after debridement. No peri- or post-operative complications were observed.

Conclusion: The application of halo-pelvic distraction before corrective surgeries can not only reduce the severity of the kyphotic deformity making the definitive surgery easy but neurology can also be improved. The high-risk complications associated with acute correction of deformities can be minimized using our modified halo-pelvic distraction device.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.25259/SNI_254_2021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8247685PMC
June 2021

Antinematode Activity of Abomasum Bacterial Culture Filtrates against in Small Ruminants.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Jun 21;11(6). Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522, Egypt.

Haemonchosis is a parasitic disease of small ruminants that adversely affects livestock production. is one of the most prevalent nematode parasites that infect the abomasum of small ruminants. This parasite reduces milk production, overall growth and sometimes causes the death of the infected animals. The evaluation of the biocontrol potential of some abomasum bacterial isolates against is investigated in this study. Out of which, three isolates-, , -show significant effect against the nematode L3, adult, and egg hatch inhibition assays. Various concentrations of metabolites from these bacteria are prepared and applied in different treatments compared with control. In the case of adult mortality assay, 50% metabolites of and show 46% adult mortality, whereas shows 40% mortality. It is observed that decreasing the concentration of bacterial metabolite, lowers nematode mortality. The minimum nematode mortality rate is recorded at the lowest filtrates concentration of all the bacterial isolates. The same trend is observed in egg hatch inhibition assay, where the higher concentration of bacterial culture filtrates shows 100% inhibition of egg. It is concluded that the effect of bacterial culture filtrates against is dose-dependent for their activity against nematode L3, adult, and inhibition of egg hatchment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11061843DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8235536PMC
June 2021

Ballodiolic Acid A and B: Two New ROS, (OH), (ONOO) Scavenging and Potent Antimicrobial Constituents Isolated from (L.) Benth.

Pharmaceutics 2021 Mar 17;13(3). Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

Bioassays guided phytochemical investigations on the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of the root material of (L.) Benth. led to the isolation of two new compounds, ballodiolic acid A () and ballodiolic acid B (), along with three known compounds ballodiolic acid (), ballotenic acid (), and β-amyrin (), which were also isolated for the first time from this species by using multiple chromatographic techniques. The structures of the compounds (-) were determined by modern spectroscopic analysis including 1D and 2D NMR techniques and chemical studies. In three separate experiments, the isolated compounds (-) demonstrated potent antioxidant scavenging activity, with values ranging from 07.22-34.10 μM in the hydroxyl radical (OH) inhibitory activity test, 58.10-148.55 μM in the total ROS (reactive oxygen species) inhibitory activity test, and 6.23-69.01 μM in the peroxynitrite (ONOO) scavenging activity test. With values of (07.22 ± 0.03, 58.10 ± 0.07, 6.23 ± 0.04 μM) for OH, total ROS, and scavenge ONOO, respectively, ballodiolic acid B () showed the highest scavenging ability. Antibacterial and antifungal behaviors were also exposed to the pure compounds -. In contrast to compounds and , compounds - were active against all bacterial strains studied, with a good zone of inhibition proving these as a potent antibacterial agent. Similarly, compared to compounds -, compounds and with a 47 percent and 45 percent respective inhibition zone were found to be more active against tested fungal strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13030402DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8002906PMC
March 2021

Isolation, Structure Elucidation and In Silico Prediction of Potential Drug-Like Flavonoids from Targeted towards Functionally Important Proteins of Drug-Resistant Bad Bugs.

Molecules 2021 Apr 2;26(7). Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Basic Science Department, College of Medicine, Princess Nourah bint Abdulrahman University, Riyadh 11671, Saudi Arabia.

Admittedly, the disastrous emergence of drug resistance in prokaryotic and eukaryotic human pathogens has created an urgent need to develop novel chemotherapeutic agents. is a source of traditional medicine with cooling, laxative, and anthelmintic effects. The objective of the current research was to analyze the biological potential of and to isolate and characterize the chemical constituents of the plant. The crude extracts of the plant prepared with different solvents, such as aqueous, hexane, chloroform ethyl acetate, and butanol, were subjected to antimicrobial activities. Results corroborate that crude (methanol), EtoAc, and -CH fractions were more active against bacterial strains. Among these fractions, the EtoAc fraction was found more potent. The EtoAc fraction was the most active against the selected microbes, which was subjected to successive column chromatography, and the resultant compounds to were isolated. Different techniques, such as UV, IR, and NMR, were used to characterize the structures of the isolated compounds . All the isolated pure compounds (-) were tested for their antimicrobial potential. Compounds (4',8-dimethoxy-7-hydroxyisoflavone), (5,3',3-trihydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyflavanone), and (5',7,8-trihydroxy-6,3',4'-trimethoxyflavanone) were found to be more active against and . Compound inhibited and to 10 ± 0.21 mm and 10 ± 0.45 mm, whereas compound showed inhibition to 10 ± 0.77 mm and 9 ± 0.20 mm, respectively. Compound inhibited to 6 ± 0.36 mm. Compounds and showed significant antibacterial potential, and the structure-activity relationship also justifies their binding to the bacterial enzymes, i.e., beta-hydroxyacyl dehydratase (HadAB complex) and tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase. Both bacterial enzymes are potential drug targets. Further, the isolated compounds were found to be active against the tested fungal strains. Whereas docking identified compound , the best binder to the lanosterol 14α-demethylase (an essential fungal cell membrane synthesizing enzyme), reported as an antifungal fluconazole binding enzyme. Based on our isolation-linked preliminary structure-activity relationship (SAR) data, we conclude that can be a good source of natural compounds for drug development against some potential enzyme targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26072048DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8038373PMC
April 2021

Metal accumulation potential, human health risks, and yield attributes of hundred bread wheat genotypes on irrigation with municipal and remediated wastewater.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jul 4;28(26):35023-35037. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Plant Sciences, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, PO, 45320, Pakistan.

This study was carried out to screen historical diversity panel of bread wheat against municipal wastewater (MW) and remediated wastewater (RW) irrigation to find tolerant and sensitive genotypes and their impact on yield attributes. The experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three water treatments, i.e., tap water (TW), RW, and MW. Yield attributes, health risk assessment, water and soil chemistry were recorded. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify tolerant and sensitive genotypes of wheat on the basis of metal accumulation. Metal accumulation in grains increased in pattern K > Fe > Zn in all irrigation treatments. Tolerant genotypes in MW showed lowest hazard quotient (HQ) and hazard index (HI) values (adults 0.62; children 0.67) for Fe and Zn as compared to sensitive genotypes (adults 1.53; children 1.70). However, HI values in sensitive and tolerant genotypes of RW were recorded < 1. Mean values of yield attributes, i.e., plant height, spike length, spikelet per spike, grains per plant, biological yield, grain yield, and thousand kernel weight, were recorded in pattern, i.e., MW > RW > TW. In this study, yield attributes and human health are affected in both cases of higher and lower concentration of Fe and Zn metal. It is suggested that tolerant genotypes can prove useful for cultivation in areas receiving MW and also provide molecular breeding opportunities for seeking tolerance against metal stresses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13085-4DOI Listing
July 2021

Green Synthesis, Characterization, Enzyme Inhibition, Antimicrobial Potential, and Cytotoxic Activity of Plant Mediated Silver Nanoparticle Using Leaf and Root Extracts.

Biomolecules 2021 02 2;11(2). Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Pharmacology, College of Pharmacy, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

The need of non-toxic synthesis protocols for nanoparticles arises developing interest in biogenic approaches. The present project was focused on cost effective, environment congenial synthesis of Ag nanoparticles and their biological applications. Leaf and root extracts of were used as a reducing and stabilizing agent in synthesis process. A Proposed mechanism in published literature suggested that Indole-3-acetic acid, l-valine, triethyl citrate, and quercetin-3-0--d-glucopyranoside phytoconstituents of act as reducing and capping agents. The synthesized Ag NPs were characterized with a help X-ray diffractometer, Transmission electron microscopy, UV-Vis spectrophotometry and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The XRD results inveterate the synthesis of pure nano size crystalline silver particles. The FTIR data revealed the possible functional groups of biomolecules involved in bio reduction and capping for efficient stabilization of silver nanoparticles. TEM analysis confirmed the almost spherical morphology of synthesized particles with mean size 29 and 38 nm for R-Ag-NPs (root) and L-Ag-NPs (leaf), respectively. The stability of synthesized nanoparticles was examined against heat and pH. It was observed that synthesized nanoparticles were stable up to 100 °C temperature and also showed stability in neutral, basic and slightly acidic medium (pH 05-06) for several months while below pH 5 were unstable. The synthesized silver nanoparticles had promising inhibition efficiency in multiple applications, including as bactericidal/fungicidal agents and Urease/Xanthine oxidase enzymes inhibitors. The cytotoxicity of synthesized nanoparticles shows that the concentration under 20 μg/mL were biologically compatible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom11020206DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7913007PMC
February 2021

Current status of vaccine research, development, and challenges of vaccines for Mycoplasma gallisepticum.

Poult Sci 2020 Sep 27;99(9):4195-4202. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Heilongjiang Key Laboratory for Animal Disease Control and Pharmaceutical Development, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, P. R. China. Electronic address:

Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is an important avian pathogen that causes significant economic losses in the poultry industry. Surprisingly, the limited protection and adverse reactions caused by the vaccines, including live vaccines, bacterin-based (killed) vaccines, and recombinant viral vaccines is still a major concern. Mycoplasma gallisepticum strains vary in infectivity and virulence and infection may sometimes unapparent and goes undetected. Although extensive research has been carried out on the biology of this pathogen, information is lacking about the type of immune response that confers protection and selection of appropriate protective antigens and adjuvants. Regardless of numerous efforts focused on the development of safe and effective vaccine for the control of MG, the use of modern DNA vaccine technology selected in silico approaches for the use of conserved recombinant proteins may be a better choice for the preparation of novel effective vaccines. More research is needed to characterize and elucidate MG products modulating MG-host interactions. These products could be used as a reference for the preparation and development of vaccines to control MG infections in poultry flocks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2020.06.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7598112PMC
September 2020

Shortening Postoperative Stay after Parathyroidectomy - A District General Hospital Experience.

Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2020 Jul 13;24(3):e313-e318. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Department of General and Vascular Surgery, Colchester Hospital University NHS Foundation Trust, Colchester, Essex, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

 Historically, concerns about complications following parathyroid surgery, such as airway compromise, bleeding and hypocalcemia, have precluded its consideration as a short-stay surgical procedure. Recent advancements in perioperative care have resulted in several publications demonstrating that parathyroidectomy can be safely performed as a short-stay procedure.  The aim of the present study was to describe the process of implementing a short-stay protocol focusing on preoperative patient education and postoperative calcium management for those undergoing surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP).  A retrospective audit of consecutive parathyroidectomies performed for PHP over the period between 2010 and 2013 was performed. A short-stay protocol (SSP) was introduced focusing on postoperative calcium management. Results were reaudited over the period between 2013 and 2015.  Consecutive parathyroidectomies in 76 patients were included in the study. A total of 42 patients underwent parathyroidectomy prior to the introduction of the protocol. A total of 26.2% of these patients were symptomatic from hypercalcemia. A total of 40 out of 42 (95.2%) patients had a biochemical cure. A total of 36 out of 42 (85.7%) cases were due to parathyroid adenomas. A total of 34 patients underwent surgery following the introduction of the protocol. A total of 13 out of 34 (38.2%) of the patients had symptomatic hypercalcemia. A total of 33 out of 34 (97.1%) had a biochemical cure. A total of 32 out of 34 (94.1%) cases were due to parathyroid adenomas. The length of stay decreased from a median of 3 days (range 2-9 days; mean 3.32) preprotocol to a median of 2 days (range 2-3 days; mean 2.16) postprotocol (  < 0.0001) with no difference in the 30-day unplanned readmission rate (4.8 versus 2.9%;  = 0.999).  The postoperative length of stay after parathyroidectomy for PHP can be safely reduced through patient education and by rationalizing postoperative calcium management without adversely affecting outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0039-1698777DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7394659PMC
July 2020

The first isolation and molecular characterization of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae Pakistan strain: A causative agent of contagious caprine pleuropneumonia.

J Microbiol Immunol Infect 2021 Aug 10;54(4):710-717. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

College of Veterinary Sciences, Department of Animal Health, Faculty of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Sciences, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, 25120, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan; Directorate of Livestock and Dairy Development (Research), Peshawar, 25000, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

Purpose: Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae (Mccp) causes a severe, usually fatal disease in goats known as Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia (CCPP). CCPP is listed by OIE as a notifiable animal diseases, causing economic losses in terms of high morbidity and mortality. Thus far, very limited information is available on the molecular characterization of the unique Mccp strains prevalent in Pakistan. The study was aimed to isolate Mccp local strain for the development of diagnostics and vaccines.

Methods: Samples were collected during November 2017-December 2018 at Northern areas of Pakistan from 10 goat flocks each in Gilgit-Baltistan, Chitral, Swat, Buner, and Hazara. 900 samples were collected; nasal swabs (n = 400), tracheal swabs (n = 150) from naturally infected goats showing clinical signs of CCPP, and lungs tissue (n = 200), pleural fluid (n = 150) from goats at necropsy.

Results: The clinical signs recorded were mucopurulent nasal discharges, cough, abdominal respiration and hyperthermia. The post-mortem revealed, pulmonary consolidation, fibrinous pleuropneumonia, and accumulation pleural fluid. The fried egg like growth was observed on agar in 16 (4%), 11 (7.3%), 38 (19%), and 24 (16%) nasal swab, tracheal swabs, lungs and pleural fluid samples, respectively. PCR targeting 16S rRNA gene revealed isolates, belongs to Mycoplasma mycoides cluster, in 72 (8%) samples. Forty one (4.5%) isolates were Mccp by specie specific PCR generating an amplicon of 316 bp.

Conclusions: We successfully isolated local strain of Mccp for the first time in Pakistan. This Mccp strain could be further utilized for the development of diagnostics and control measures against Mccp infection in goats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmii.2020.06.002DOI Listing
August 2021

Association of Infant and Child Feeding Index with Undernutrition in Children Aged 6-59 Months: A Cross-Sectional Study in the Maldives.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 07 14;103(1):515-519. Epub 2020 May 14.

School of Food Science, Jiangsu Food & Pharmaceutical Science College, Huai'an, Jiangsu, China.

Adequate dietary intake is critically important for child growth and development. This study aimed to analyze the prevalence of undernutrition and its association with infant and child feeding index (ICFI). This cross-sectional study was conducted among children (younger than5 years) and their mothers from Lhaviyani Atoll, Maldives. The data were obtained by interviewing the children's mothers via pretested questionnaires. Infant and child feeding index scores were calculated from the dietary information. Weight-for-age -scores (WAZ), length/height-for-age -scores (LAZ/HAZ), and weight-for-length/height -scores were calculated from anthropometric data taken according to the WHO criterion. Linear regression tests were used to find the association of nutritional status with ICFI scores. A total of 800 children and their mothers participated in this study. The prevalence of underweight, stunting, and wasting was 24.6%, 32.4%, and 16.3%, respectively. The mean ICFI scores (13.0) of children aged 6-8 months were better than those of children in other age-groups. In food groups, the intake of fish was higher among the respondents, whereas the consumption of vegetables and fruits was lower. Infant and child feeding index scores were significantly associated ( < 0.05) with WAZ and LAZ/HAZ after adjustment for confounders. Overall, the findings showed that Maldivian children consumed the limited number of food items that resulted in an inadequate intake of nutrients which further resulted in the high prevalence of malnutrition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0972DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7356416PMC
July 2020

Occupational exposure and respiratory health of workers at small scale industries.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Mar 27;27(3):985-990. Epub 2020 Jan 27.

Department of Environmental Science, Faculty of Meteorology, Environment and Arid Land Agriculture, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80208, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia.

Certain occupations like welding, painting, and vehicle repairing are associated with regular exposure to dust, exhausts, fuels, fumes, PM, and vapors of welding, solvents, and paint. Many studies have proved a reduction in lung functions due to exposure to these agents. The present study aims to assess and compare respiratory symptoms and pulmonary functions among exposed and non-exposed persons as well as suggests controls respectively. A cross-sectional case study was carried out among small scale industry workers having matched demographic and anthropometric parameters. Medical Research Council (MRC) questionnaire and Micro Direct computerized automated spirometer were used for recording respiratory ailments and pulmonary function tests (PFT) respectively. The percentages of mechanics, welders and painters were 40.9, 31.8, and 27.3 respectively. The highest reported respiratory symptom was chest tightness and whistling among exposed (22.7%) and unexposed (10%). Among study exposed cases, the occupational exposure was found as often (22.7%), sometimes (68.2%) and never (9.1%) while the reported use of airway protection (masks) was very low. Overall respiratory health of the exposed versus controls was reported as excellent (54.5% vs 73.4%), good (27.3% vs 23.3%) and average (18.2% vs 3.3%) respectively. The exposed group on contrary to control one has decreased mean values for FEV1 (3.12 vs 3.50), FVC (4.12 vs 4.43), FEV1/ FVC % (79.60 vs 80.79) and PEF (414.77 vs 523.16). The present study reveals that exposed workers are at increased risk of developing respiratory symptoms and decreased pulmonary functions as compared to unexposed. Such exposure research studies are instrumental in health status evaluation of workers. However, this area has been neglected by the researchers in Saudi Arabia. It is, thus, strongly recommended to carry out prospective studies to substantiate the study results including large sample size, background pollutants concentrations and biological monitoring. Control strategies should be adopted to reduce the vapor concentration in the ambient air, protect and promote respiratory health of workers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.01.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7051098PMC
March 2020

Antibacterial activity of cyadox against Clostridium perfringens in broilers and a dosage regimen design based on pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling.

Microb Pathog 2020 Apr 18;141:103981. Epub 2020 Jan 18.

MAO Key Laboratory for Detection of Veterinary Drug Residues, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China; MOA Laboratory for Risk Assessment of Quality and Safety of Livestock and Poultry Products, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China. Electronic address:

Necrotic enteritis is an intestinal disease caused by Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) that results in high economic losses to the poultry industry. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of cyadox against C. perfringens and to formulate its dosage regimen based on pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) modeling in broilers. The PK parameters of cyadox in ileum of healthy and infected broilers following oral administration at 30 mg/kg body weight (BW) were investigated and PD study the MIC, MBC, MPC, and PAE were determined. The time-killing curves were established in vitro and ex vivo to evaluate the antibacterial activity of cyadox against C. perfringens. The results revealed that the MIC of cyadox against C. perfringens was 1-16 μg/mL. After oral administration of cyadox, the peak concentration (C), maximum concentration time (T), and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) in ileum content of broilers were 143.55-161.48 μg/mL, 1.08-1.25 h, and 359.51-405.69 μg h/mL respectively. After Integrating the in vivo PK and ex vivo PD data the AUC/MIC values needed for bacteriostatic, bactericidal and bacterial eradication were 27.71 h, 78.93 h, and 165.14 h, respectively. By model validation, the cure rate was 85.71%. In conclusion, a dosage regimen of 14.02 mg/kg repeated after every 12 h for 3-5days was expected to be therapeutically effective in broilers against C. perfringens with MIC ≤2 μg/mL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2020.103981DOI Listing
April 2020

Antagonistic Effects Of Baicalin On -Induced Inflammation And Apoptosis By Restoring Energy Metabolism In The Chicken Lungs.

Infect Drug Resist 2019 1;12:3075-3089. Epub 2019 Oct 1.

Heilongjiang Key Laboratory for Animal Disease Control and Pharmaceutical Development, College of Veterinary Medicine, Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030, People's Republic of China.

Background: Baicalin possesses potential anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor and anti-oxidant activities. In the present study, we attempted to investigate the preventive effects of baicalin against (MG)-induced inflammation, apoptosis and energy metabolism dysfunction in chicken lungs.

Methods: Experimental chickens were randomly divided into 1) control group, 2) MG infection group, 3) MG-infected group treated with baicalin at a dose of 450 mg/kg and 4) baicalin alone treated group (450 mg/kg). After 7 days of post-treatment, serum and lung tissues were collected for different experimental analyses. The hallmarks of inflammation, apoptosis and energy metabolism dysfunction were detected by histological and ultrastructural examination, qRT-PCR, Western blotting and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick endlabeling (TUNEL) assay.

Results: The level of serum inflammatory markers were increased with MG infection. Histological and ultrastructural analysis showed excessive inflammatory cells infiltrates, alveolar wall thickening, hemorrhages, mitochondrial and nuclear damage, including mitochondrial swelling and condensation of DNA in the lungs of chickens infected with MG. TUNEL assay positive-stained nuclei were significantly increased in MG infection group. In addition, the mRNA and protein expression level of energy metabolism-related genes and ATPase activities were significantly reduced. Meanwhile, MG-induced morphological and ultrastructural changes were partially disappeared with baicalin-treatment, and the level of serum inflammatory markers were significantly reduced. It has been noted that baicalin significantly attenuated MG-induced inflammation and apoptosis in the chicken lungs through the suppression of nuclear factor-kappa B and reduced extensive positive-stained apoptotic nuclei. More importantly, ATPase activities and mRNA and protein expression level of energy metabolism-related genes were significantly improved with baicalin-treatment in the lungs of chickens infected with MG.

Conclusion: Conclusively, it has been suggested from these results that baicalin-treatment efficiently prevented MG-induced inflammation, apoptosis and energy metabolism dysfunction in the chicken lungs and provide basis for new therapeutic targets to control MG infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S223085DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6781171PMC
October 2019

Two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) for high-throughput proteome analyses of Mycoplasma bovis.

Acta Biochim Pol 2019 Jul;66(3):321-327

1The State Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China; 3College of Veterinary Medicine, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.

Expression proteomics approaches do not only directly confirm protein coding genes of sequenced genomes but also facilitate resolution of minute qualitative protein differences and improve the quality of genome annotation. Despite development of many tools, use of 2-DE coupled with MS in proteomics is not uncommon. With an accelerated trend of genome sequencing of microorganisms, proteome analysis of animal pathogens with 2-DE has gained more attention in the last decade. Therefore, in this study primarily the protein extraction, sample preparation and loading, IPG strip rehydration, IEF, and SDS-PAGE conditions were improved for high throughput resolution and reproducible 2-DE map of proteins of Mycoplasma bovis HB0801 (M. bovis HB0801- Chinese Strain), a pneumonia pathogen in feedlot cattle, and its attenuated strains. Literally, higher amount of proteins was extracted exploiting the French pressure cell coupled with TCA precipitation when compared to the sonication method. Total protein concentration was determined using a 2D quant Kit. About 330-380 μg TCA treated protein sample, solubilized in calibrated rehydration solution, loaded on 17 cm IPG gel strip (pH 3-10 NL) followed by active rehydration at 50V and isoelectric focusing at final 10 000 Volt (33 uA/gel strip) for 80kVh had revealed well resolved proteins spots on 10% gel stained by CBB R250 (0.15%), representing 83-89% of the total protein coding genes of M. bovis HB0801, estimated by PD Quest (Bio-Rad, USA). Conclusively, this effort attempted to provide more precise 2-DE platform and suitable conditions, after extensive calibration, for future comprehensive proteome and immunoproteome analyses and future research on the elucidation of factors related to pathogenesis of M. bovis in cattle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18388/abp.2019_2794DOI Listing
July 2019

Assessment of personal protective equipment use and occupational exposures in small industries in Jeddah: Health implications for workers.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2019 May 30;26(4):653-659. Epub 2018 Jun 30.

Centre of Excellence in Environmental Studies (CEES), King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80216, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia.

Small-scale industries account for a large proportion of jobs and play a vital role in most countries' economic growth and prosperity. Due to the very low use of personal protective equipment (PPEs), employees are exposed to numerous physical, chemical, and accidental hazards in small-scale industries. PPEs are very effective in minimizing occupational injuries, accidents, and other hazards which otherwise result in substantial manpower and financial losses. The study objective was to assess the availability and use of PPEs as well as self-reported occupational exposures among workers in surveyed small industries in Jeddah. The study involved 102 workers from 28 small-scale industries (vehicle repair, welding, and paint). A survey was conducted to gather data of socio-demographic characteristics, self-reported occupational exposures, and frequency of PPEs used by workers. The occupational exposures (never exposed, sometimes exposed and always exposed) were reported in percentages including; noise exposure (19.6, 73.5 and 6.9%); dust/smoke exposure (9.8, 69.6 and 20.6%); vapors/fumes exposure (11.8, 60.8 and 27.5%); and direct sunlight (43.1, 56.9 and 0%), respectively. The reported use of different PPEs in descending order was; knee joints mats (50%), welding shields (50%), safety glasses (33.3%), gloves (27.5%), face masks (26.5%), safety shoes (10.8%) and earplugs/ muffs (8.8%). On the basis of this study findings, hand hygiene and general OSH awareness like interventions can be developed which will help in minimizing workplace exposures among small-scale industry workers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2018.06.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6486506PMC
May 2019

Comparison of 3 Days Amoxicillin Versus 5 Days Co-Trimoxazole for Treatment of Fast-breathing Pneumonia by Community Health Workers in Children Aged 2-59 Months in Pakistan: A Cluster-randomized Trial.

Clin Infect Dis 2019 07;69(3):397-404

Independent Consultant, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: Globally, most deaths due to childhood pneumonia occur at the community level. Some countries are still using oral co-trimoxazole, despite a World Health Organization recommendation of oral amoxicillin for the treatment of fast-breathing pneumonia in children at the community level.

Methods: We conducted an unblinded, cluster-randomized, controlled-equivalency trial in Haripur District, Pakistan. Children 2-59 months of age with fast-breathing pneumonia were treated with oral amoxicillin suspension (50 mg/kg/day) for 3 days in 14 intervention clusters and oral co-trimoxazole suspension (8 mg trimethoprim/kg and 40 mg sulfamethoxazole/kg/day) for 5 days in 14 control clusters by lady health workers (LHW). The primary outcome was treatment failure by day 4 for intervention clusters and by day 6 for control clusters. The analysis was per protocol.

Results: Out of the 15 749 cases enrolled in the study, 9153 cases in intervention and 6509 cases in control clusters were included in the analysis. Treatment failure rates were 3.6% (326) in intervention clusters and 9.1% (592) in control clusters. After adjusting for clustering, the risk of treatment failure was lower in intervention clusters (risk difference [RD] -5.5%, 95% confidence interval [CI] -7.4--3.7%) than in control clusters. Children with incomplete adherence had a small increase in treatment failure versus those with complete adherence (RD 2.9%, 95% CI 1.6-4.1%). No deaths or serious adverse events occurred.

Conclusions: A 3-day course of oral amoxicillin, administered by LHWs, is an effective and safe treatment for fast-breathing pneumonia in children 2-59 months of age. A shorter course of amoxicillin improves adherence to therapy, is low in cost, and puts less pressure on antimicrobial resistance.

Clinical Trials Registration: ISRCTN10618300.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciy918DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6637273PMC
July 2019

Trends in occupational injuries and diseases among Saudi and non-Saudi insured workers.

East Mediterr Health J 2018 Dec 18;24(10):1010-1017. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, University of Gujrat, Hafiz Hayat Campus, Jalalpur Road, Gujrat, Pakistan.

Background: The ongoing industrial and infrastructural development in Saudi Arabia carries a high risk of occupational injuries/diseases.

Aims: To compare trends in occupational injuries and diseases among Saudi and non-Saudi insured workers.

Methods: We used the index values method and slope (S) calculation to analyse the occupational injuries/diseases trends from data in the annual statistical reports published by the General Organization for Social Insurance between 2004 and 2014. Data for 10 565 993 (18.5%) Saudi insured workers (SIWs) and 46 402 079 (81.5%) non-Saudi insured workers (NSIWs) and 896 627 occupational injuries/diseases were analysed.

Results: The distribution of incidences of occupational injuries/diseases among NSIWs (93.5%) was 14 times higher than that of SIWs (6.5%). Occupational injuries/diseases were more likely to increase among NSIWs than SIWs, particularly in the construction, trade, financing and real estate economic activities, and engineering, technicians and service workers occupations. There was a general decreasing trend in occupational injuries/diseases until 2013.

Conclusions: Non-Saudi insured workers were at high risk of occupational injuries/diseases, therefore, implementation of an effective injury prevention programme is required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.26719/2018.24.10.1010DOI Listing
December 2018

Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic modeling of tylosin against Streptococcus suis in pigs.

BMC Vet Res 2018 Oct 24;14(1):319. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

MOA Laboratory for Risk Assessment of Quality and Safety of Livestock and Poultry Products, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

Background: The aim of this study was to optimize the dosage regimen of tylosin against S.suis in Pigs using pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) modeling. The antibacterial activity of tylosin against S.suis CVCC606 was investigated in Mueller Hinton (MH) broth and serum. The objectives of this investigation were to study the PD data of tylosin against S.suis CVCC606 and the PK data of tylosin in healthy and diseased model of pigs and formulate a rational dosage regimen for the treatment of pig streptococcosis.

Results: The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were 0.25 μg/mL, and the minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC) were 1 μg/mL in MH broth and serum. The killing curve showed time-dependent activity and weak concentration-dependent antibacterial activity. A pig pneumoniae model of S. suis infection was built by inoculating subcutaneously with S. suis CVCC606. Tylosin was (10 mg/kg b.w) administered intramuscularly (IM) to the healthy and S.suis infected pigs, The pharmacokinetic properties, including area under the curve(AUC), peak concentration (C) and time to reach C (T), were determined in plasma using UV-HPLC method. The AUC, C and T in plasma of healthy and infected pigs were 10.80 ± 2.20 and 10.30 ± 3.46 μg.h/mL, 2.06 ± 0.43 and 2.37 ± 0.38 μg/mL, 1.95 ± 0.22 and 1.58 ± 0.49 h, respectively.

Conclusions: The in vivo PK and in vitro PD data were integrated to determine the surrogate marker of antibacterial activity, C/MIC, AUC/MIC and Twere 8.90, 43.21, 8.86 for healthy pigs, and 9.76, 41.18, 7.56 for infected pigs, respectively. Ex vivo AUC/MIC data were integrated with ex vivo bacterial count to calculate the values for bacteriostatic and bactericidal action, which were 10.67 h and 49.66 h for healthy pigs, 11.73 h and 43.03 h for pigs infected with S.suis. A dosage regimen of 5.32-19.50 mg/kg b.w. every 24 h should be sufficient for tylosin against S.suis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-018-1645-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6201559PMC
October 2018

Pathological effects of concurrent administration of aflatoxin B and fowl adenovirus-4 in broiler chicks.

Microb Pathog 2018 Aug 25;121:147-154. Epub 2018 May 25.

Department of Pathology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

The current study was designed to investigate pathological effects of fowl adenovirus in broilers exposed to aflatoxin B. Fowl Adenovirus-4 (FAdV-4) infection is remerging in all types of poultry birds in Pakistan. Poultry feed contamination with mycotoxin (aflatoxin) is another important global issue. A total of 125-day old broiler birds were divided into six equal groups. Group A served as control. B and C groups were administered with aflatoxin B (AFB) 100 and 200 μg/kg feed. Group D was infected with FAdV-4, while groups E and F administered with both AFB (100 & 200 μg/kg) along with FAdV-4. These birds were monitored for clinical signs and mortality. Feed intake, body weight (BW), relative organ weights and gross & histopathological lesions were recorded. The highest mortality was observed in group F (FAdV-4 + AFB 200 μg/kg feed) and the lowest mortality was observed in group B (AFB 100 μg/kg feed). Body weights of all the groups were significantly (p < 0.05) lower as compared with control group. Relative weight of liver and kidneys in groups E and F were significantly higher as compared with control. Grossly, liver was swollen, anemic with round margins in groups D, E and F. Kidneys were also swollen with whitish areas indicating dead tissue. Microscopically intranuclear inclusion bodies were observed in group D-F. The hepatic parenchyma was also indicating necrotic changes along with vacuolar degeneration. In renal parenchyma, acute tubular necrosis was observed in groups C, E and F. It was concluded that AFB intoxication lead to dose dependent changes in liver and kidneys. Severity of the changes was increased in interactive groups of AFB with FAdV-4. Therefore, feed should be regularly monitored for AFB levels and day old chicks for vertically transmitted FAdV-4 to prevent losses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2018.05.021DOI Listing
August 2018
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