Publications by authors named "Iheanyichukwu Wopara"

4 Publications

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Long-term consumption of -supplemented diet enhanced neurocognition, suppressed oxidative stress, acetylcholinesterase activity and neuronal degeneration in rat's hippocampus.

Drug Metab Pers Ther 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Neurophysiology Unit, Department of Physiology, PAMO University of Medical Sciences, Port-Harcourt, River State, Nigeria.

Objectives: This study investigates protection against oxidative stress and memory enhancing potential of long-term consumption of leaves.

Methods: Male Wistar rat were fed with mixture of -supplemented diets (MOSD) partitioned in 1, 5, 10, and 20% continuously for 12 weeks. Object recognition test (ORT) and Morris water maze (MWM) was used for assessing neurocognition. Changes in body weight, Lipid peroxidation (MDA), Glutathione (GSH), Catalase (CAT) and Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was assayed in the brain tissue. Histomorphometric of the hippocampus was also examined.

Results: The diets progressively increase the body weigh after the 12 weeks, improved spatial (MWM) and non-spatial (ORT) memory performance, protect against oxidative stress, inhibit AChE activity and suppresses neuronal degeneration in the hippocampus when stained with Cresyl violent stain.

Conclusions: Conclusively, long-term consumption of MOSD shows strong protection against oxidative stress and hippocampal degeneration and improves neurocognition with dose dependent effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/dmdi-2020-0189DOI Listing
March 2021

Anxiogenic and memory impairment effect of food color exposure: upregulation of oxido-neuroinflammatory markers and acetyl-cholinestrase activity in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus.

Heliyon 2021 Mar 12;7(3):e06378. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Madonna University, Nigeria.

Erythrosine and tartrazine are one of the synthetic azo dye mostly consumed in food, drugs and other industrial compounds. This study was designed to investigate the adverse effect of combine erythrosine and tartrazine on cognitive and neurobehavioral functions, pro-oxidants, endogenous antioxidants, cholinergic system and pro-inflammatory cytokines in rats. Erythrosine and tartrazine (2 mg/kg, 6 mg/kg, and 10 mg/kg, b.w., p.o, 50:50) was administered to rats (n = 6) for 6 weeks. Memory and neurobehavioral assessment using Novel object recognition test (NORT) and Elevated plus maze (EPM) and biochemical (pro-oxidants and anti-oxidant enzymes) and pro-inflammatory cytokine measurement from the brain sub regions namely, hippocampus and prefrontal cortex were done at the end of treatment. The results showed (p < 0.05) significant decreased memory and neurobehavioral function, increased acetyl-cholinesterase and pro-oxidants activity (Malonaldehyde level and Nitrite), decreased endogenous anti-oxidants (Glutathione and Catalase) and increased pro-inflammatory cytokines (Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, TNF-α). We suggested that the mechanism by which this oxidative and neuro-inflammatory damage and cholinergic system alteration occur might be related to the release of metabolite in fission of the azo dyes of the combined erythrosine and tartrazine administration in the animals. However, we concluded on these findings that erythrosine and tartrazine dyes significantly provoke the release of oxido-nitrergic and neuroinflammatory stress markers and also may incite acetyl-cholinesterase activities in different brain regions leading to memory and neurobehavioral impairment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e06378DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7970276PMC
March 2021

Synthetic Food dyes cause testicular damage via up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and down-regulation of FSH-R and TESK-1 gene expression.

JBRA Assist Reprod 2020 Nov 5. Epub 2020 Nov 5.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Madonna University, Nigeria.

Objective: This study investigated the effects of Tartrazine and Erythrosine (T+E) on the reproductive hormones and expression of some pro-inflammatory cytokines and testicular genes in testis of male Wistar rats.

Methods: 25 male Wistar rats (150-180g) were divided into 5 groups (n=5). Group 1 received distilled water while groups 2, 3, 4 and 5 were treated with T+E (2.5mg/kg, 5mg/kg, 10mg/kg and 20mg/kg) for the period of 23 days. Toxicity studies of the combined dye were investigated by evaluating serum reproductive hormones [Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH), Testosterone], gene expression and profiling, and testes histology.

Results: male Wistar rats (150-180g) were divided into 5 groups (n=5). Group 1 received distilled water while groups 2, 3, 4 and 5 were treated with T+E (2.5mg/kg, 5mg/kg, 10mg/kg and 20mg/kg) for the period of 23 days. Toxicity studies of the combined dye were investigated by evaluating serum reproductive hormones [Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), Luteinizing hormone (LH), Testosterone], gene expression and profiling, and testes histology.

Conclusions: This present study reveals that the dyes could impair testicular function as evident in the up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and down-regulation of TESK-1 gene expression and architecture of the testes leading to Orchitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5935/1518-0557.20200097DOI Listing
November 2020

Combine colorants of tartrazine and erythrosine induce kidney injury: involvement of TNF-α gene, caspase-9 and KIM-1 gene expression and kidney functions indices.

Toxicol Mech Methods 2021 Jan 13;31(1):67-72. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, Madonna University, Okija, Nigeria.

Twenty-five male Wistar rats (140-170 g) were partitioned into 5 groups ( = 5). 2.5 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg of combine Tartrazine and Erythrosine (T+E; 50:50) were administered for 23 days. Serum urea and creatinine, gene expression and profiling of pro-inflammatory cytokine (Tumor Necrosis Factor- α gene), Caspase-9 and Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and histomorphological examination of the kidney were investigated. The fold change of relative gene expression of TNF-α gene showed significantly ( < 0.05) up-regulation in all the treated rats except for the 10 mg/kg T+E treated rats when compared to control rats. Casp-9 and KIM-1 genes were significantly ( < 0.05) up-regulated in low dose treatment (2.5 mg/kg T+E and 5 mg/kg T+E) and down-regulated in high dose treatment (10 mg/kg T+E and 20 mg/kg T+E). However, there was significant ( < 0.05) increase in serum urea concentration in the rats treated with 5 mg/kg T+E and 20 mg/kg T+E while the rats treated with 10 mg/kg T+E indicated a significant ( < 0.05) decrease. Conversely, serum creatinine concentration indicated significant ( < 0.05) increase in10mg/kg T+E and 20 mg/kg T+E treated rats versus the control. From the histomorphological examination of the kidney, there was hypertrophy of the glomeruli in relation to the size of Bowman's capsule in the 10 mg/kg T+E and 20 mg/kg T+E treated rats. Kidney function was impaired as evident in up-regulation of TNF-α gene, KIM-1 gene, and serum urea and creatinine concentration with down-regulation of Casp-9 gene. The combined treatment also tampers with the architecture of the kidney.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15376516.2020.1828523DOI Listing
January 2021