Publications by authors named "Ihab R Kamel"

252 Publications

A Comprehensive Review of Hepatic Hemangioma Management.

J Gastrointest Surg 2022 Jun 15. Epub 2022 Jun 15.

Department of Surgery, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 395 W. 12th Ave., Suite 670, Columbus, OH, USA.

Background: Hepatic hemangiomas (HHs) are benign liver lesions often discovered incidentally on imaging for various unrelated pathologies. We herein review the etiology, classification, diagnostic imaging, and management of HHs.

Methods: A comprehensive systematic review was performed utilizing MEDLINE/PubMed and Web of Science databases, with the end of search date being March 1, 2022, regarding HH diagnosis, imaging, and management.

Results: HHs can be broadly classified as capillary hemangiomas or cavernous hemangiomas. While the exact pathophysiology related to the development of HHs remains largely unknown, hormone exposure has been postulated to cause HH growth. HHs appear homogenously hyperechoic on US with distinct margins and posterior acoustic enhancement. While cavernous hemangiomas appear as well-defined hypodense lesions on pre-contrast CT images with the same density as the vasculature, one of the most reliable imaging features for diagnosing cavernous hemangiomas is high signal intensity on T2 weighted images. While most HHs are asymptomatic, some patients can present with pain or compressive symptoms with bleeding/rupture being very rare. Kasabach-Merritt syndrome is a rare but life-threatening condition associated with thrombocytopenia and microangiopathic hemolytic anemia. When HHs are symptomatic or in the setting of Kasabach Merritt syndrome, surgery is indicated. Enucleation is an attractive surgical option for HH as it spares normal liver tissue. Most patients experience symptom relief following surgical resection.

Conclusion: HHs are very common benign liver lesions. High-quality imaging is imperative to distinguish HHs from other liver lesions. Surgery is generally reserved for patients who present with symptoms such as pain, obstruction, or rarely Kasabach-Merritt syndrome. Surgery can involve either formal resection or, in most instances, simple enucleation. Patients generally have good outcomes following surgery with resolution of their symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11605-022-05382-1DOI Listing
June 2022

A new prediction model for ventricular arrhythmias in arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy.

Eur Heart J 2022 Apr 20. Epub 2022 Apr 20.

Department of Genetics, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Aims: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is characterized by ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) and sudden cardiac death (SCD). We aimed to develop a model for individualized prediction of incident VA/SCD in ARVC patients.

Methods And Results: Five hundred and twenty-eight patients with a definite diagnosis and no history of sustained VAs/SCD at baseline, aged 38.2 ± 15.5 years, 44.7% male, were enrolled from five registries in North America and Europe. Over 4.83 (interquartile range 2.44-9.33) years of follow-up, 146 (27.7%) experienced sustained VA, defined as SCD, aborted SCD, sustained ventricular tachycardia, or appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy. A prediction model estimating annual VA risk was developed using Cox regression with internal validation. Eight potential predictors were pre-specified: age, sex, cardiac syncope in the prior 6 months, non-sustained ventricular tachycardia, number of premature ventricular complexes in 24 h, number of leads with T-wave inversion, and right and left ventricular ejection fractions (LVEFs). All except LVEF were retained in the final model. The model accurately distinguished patients with and without events, with an optimism-corrected C-index of 0.77 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73-0.81] and minimal over-optimism [calibration slope of 0.93 (95% CI 0.92-0.95)]. By decision curve analysis, the clinical benefit of the model was superior to a current consensus-based ICD placement algorithm with a 20.3% reduction of ICD placements with the same proportion of protected patients (P < 0.001).

Conclusion: Using the largest cohort of patients with ARVC and no prior VA, a prediction model using readily available clinical parameters was devised to estimate VA risk and guide decisions regarding primary prevention ICDs (www.arvcrisk.com).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehac180DOI Listing
April 2022

Can Posttransarterial Chemoembolization Volumetric Oil Deposition on Computed Tomography Predict Treatment Response on Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Leiomyosarcoma Metastases to the Liver?

J Comput Assist Tomogr 2022 May-Jun 01;46(3):327-332. Epub 2022 Apr 8.

From the Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences.

Objective: To predict early tumor response to transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) based on volumetric oil deposition on posttreatment computed tomography (CT) in patients with leiomyosarcoma liver metastases.

Methods: This retrospective lesion-by-lesion based study included 32 lesions. The volumetric percent enhancing tumor on pre-TACE and 1-month post-TACE venous phase magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and the percent oil deposition on CT 1 day after TACE were calculated. The predicted post-TACE enhanced percentage was computed by subtracting percent oil deposition from baseline percent enhanced.

Results: Mean percentage of viable tumor on pre-TACE MRI was 90.6% ± 9.3%. Mean oil deposition was calculated as 51.4% ± 26.2%. Mean percentage of measured residual tumor enhancement 1 month after TACE was 58.3% ± 27%, which correlates with predicted enhancement percentage of 43.9% ± 25.1% (r = 0.72, P < 0.001). A threshold of 35.5% for enhancement reduction was determined to predict tumor response with an accuracy of 78.1%.

Conclusion: Volumetric oil deposition on CT can predict residual enhancement on post-TACE MRI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RCT.0000000000001294DOI Listing
May 2022

Development and validation of MRI-based radiomics signatures models for prediction of disease-free survival and overall survival in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

Eur Radiol 2022 Sep 6;32(9):5930-5942. Epub 2022 Apr 6.

Department of Radiology, Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University & Henan Cancer Hospital, No. 127 Dongming Road, Zhengzhou, 450008, Henan, China.

Objectives: To develop and validate an optimal model based on the 1-mm-isotropic-3D contrast-enhanced StarVIBE MRI sequence combined with clinical risk factors for predicting survival in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).

Methods: Patients with ESCC at our institution from 2015 to 2017 participated in this retrospective study based on prospectively acquired data, and were randomly assigned to training and validation groups at a ratio of 7:3. Random survival forest (RSF) and variable hunting methods were used to screen for radiomics features and LASSO-Cox regression analysis was used to build three models, including clinical only, radiomics only and combined clinical and radiomics models, which were evaluated by concordance index (CI) and calibration curve. Nomograms and decision curve analysis (DCA) were used to display intuitive prediction information.

Results: Seven radiomics features were selected from 434 patients, combined with clinical features that were statistically significant to construct the predictive models of disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). The combined model showed the highest performance in both training and validation groups for predicting DFS ([CI], 0.714, 0.729) and OS ([CI], 0.730, 0.712). DCA showed that the net benefit of the combined model and of the clinical model is significantly greater than that of the radiomics model alone at different threshold probabilities.

Conclusions: We demonstrated that a combined predictive model based on MR Rad-S and clinical risk factors had better predictive efficacy than the radiomics models alone for patients with ESCC.

Key Points: • Magnetic resonance-based radiomics features combined with clinical risk factors can predict survival in patients with ESCC. • The radiomics nomogram can be used clinically to predict patient recurrence, DFS, and OS. • Magnetic resonance imaging is highly reproducible in visualizing lesions and contouring the whole tumor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-022-08776-6DOI Listing
September 2022

DCE-MRI radiomics nomogram can predict response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in esophageal cancer.

Discov Oncol 2022 Jan 8;13(1). Epub 2022 Jan 8.

Department of Radiology, Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University and Henan Cancer Hospital, Zhengzhou, 450008, Henan, China.

Objectives: To assess volumetric DCE-MRI radiomics nomogram in predicting response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (nCT) in EC patients.

Methods: This retrospective analysis of a prospective study enrolled EC patients with stage cT1N + M0 or cT2-4aN0-3M0 who received DCE-MRI within 7 days before chemotherapy, followed by surgery. Response assessment was graded from 1 to 5 according to the tumor regression grade (TRG). Patients were stratified into responders (TRG1 + 2) and non-responders (TRG3 + 4 + 5). 72 radiomics features and vascular permeability parameters were extracted from DCE-MRI. The discriminating performance was assessed with ROC. Decision curve analysis (DCA) was used for comparing three different models.

Results: This cohort included 82 patients, and 72 tumor radiomics features and vascular permeability parameters acquired from DCE-MRI. mRMR and LASSO were performed to choose the optimized subset of radiomics features, and 3 features were selected to create the radiomics signature that were significantly associated with response (P < 0.001). AUC of combining radiomics signature and DCE-MRI performance in the training (n = 41) and validation (n = 41) cohort was 0.84 (95% CI 0.57-1) and 0.86 (95% CI 0.74-0.97), respectively. This combined model showed the best discrimination between responders and non-responders, and showed the highest positive and positive predictive value in both training set and test set.

Conclusions: The radiomics features are useful for nCT response prediction in EC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12672-022-00464-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8777517PMC
January 2022

A Scoping Review of the Classification, Diagnosis, and Management of Hepatic Adenomas.

J Gastrointest Surg 2022 04 26;26(4):965-978. Epub 2022 Jan 26.

Department of Surgery, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, 395 W. 12th Ave., Suite, Columbus, OH, 670, USA.

Background: Hepatic adenomas (HA), or hepatocellular adenomas, are benign, solid liver lesions that develop in otherwise normal livers, often in the setting of increased estrogen levels. While considered a benign tumor, there is a risk for substantial complications such as hemorrhage and malignant transformation. We review the diagnosis, classification, and potential therapeutic management options for patients with HA.

Methods: A scoping narrative review was conducted based on recent literature regarding classification, diagnosis, and management of HA.

Results: While HAs are typically considered benign, complications such as hemorrhage and malignant transformation may occur in approximately 25% and 5% of patients, respectively. Recent advances in imaging and molecular profiling have allowed for the classification of HAs into subtypes allowing for patient risk stratification that helps guide management. Surgical resection should be considered in asymptomatic patients who are male, have an adenoma ≥5 cm in diameter, or have the β-catenin-activated subtype due to an increased risk of hemorrhage and/or malignant transformation.

Conclusion: Molecular profiling has aided in the stratification of patients relative to the risk of complications to predict better the potential behavior of HAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11605-022-05246-8DOI Listing
April 2022

Accuracy and Challenges in the Vesical Imaging-Reporting and Data System for Staging Bladder Cancer.

J Magn Reson Imaging 2022 Aug 20;56(2):391-398. Epub 2022 Jan 20.

Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

Background: The Vesical Imaging-Reporting and Data System (VI-RADS) scoring system has been widely used to stage bladder cancer (BCa) since 2018.

Purpose: To describe the characteristics of cases with discordant T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) scores in patients with BCa and further verify the accuracy of the VI-RADS scoring system and the necessity of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) sequence.

Study Type: Retrospective.

Subjects: A total of 106 patients (include 16.5% female) with bladder cancer.

Sequence: T2WI (fast spin echo), DWI (echo planer imaging), and DCE (gradient echo).

Assessment: Some cases are difficult to score according to the system, mainly when the T2WI (category 4) and DWI (category 2) sequence scores are discordant, termed the discordant group below. The complementary group will be termed concordant group. Each MRI sequence was reviewed respectively according to the 5-point VI-RADS scoring system by three observers. The diagnostic ability of sequences for evaluating muscle invasion by BCa was calculated using histopathology as the reference standards.

Statistical Tests: Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, DeLong test, intraclass correlation coefficient. A P value of 0.05 or less was considered statistically significant.

Results: Fourteen cases (13.2%) had discordant VI-RADS scoring system. In the discordant group, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of DCE was 0.875, while the T2WI and DWI showed limited diagnostic performance (AUCs = 0.50). In the concordant group, there was no significant difference in diagnostic efficacy between the overall VI-RADS (AUC: 0.950) and the combination of T2WI and DWI (AUC: 0.946) (P = 0.56). Among all patients, the AUC of overall VIRADS was 0.939 with a 3 or greater cutoff value.

Data Conclusion: The DCE was crucial in the discordant group for evaluating muscle-invasiveness, while DCE may not be necessary for the concordant group. The VI-RADS scoring system performed with overall good diagnostic performance in evaluating muscle-invasiveness in BCa patients.

Evidence Level: 4 TECHNICAL EFFICACY: Stage 3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmri.28064DOI Listing
August 2022

Advancing COVID-19 Diagnosis with Privacy-Preserving Collaboration in Artificial Intelligence.

ArXiv 2021 Nov 18. Epub 2021 Nov 18.

Artificial intelligence (AI) provides a promising substitution for streamlining COVID-19 diagnoses. However, concerns surrounding security and trustworthiness impede the collection of large-scale representative medical data, posing a considerable challenge for training a well-generalised model in clinical practices. To address this, we launch the Unified CT-COVID AI Diagnostic Initiative (UCADI), where the AI model can be distributedly trained and independently executed at each host institution under a federated learning framework (FL) without data sharing. Here we show that our FL model outperformed all the local models by a large yield (test sensitivity /specificity in China: 0.973/0.951, in the UK: 0.730/0.942), achieving comparable performance with a panel of professional radiologists. We further evaluated the model on the hold-out (collected from another two hospitals leaving out the FL) and heterogeneous (acquired with contrast materials) data, provided visual explanations for decisions made by the model, and analysed the trade-offs between the model performance and the communication costs in the federated training process. Our study is based on 9,573 chest computed tomography scans (CTs) from 3,336 patients collected from 23 hospitals located in China and the UK. Collectively, our work advanced the prospects of utilising federated learning for privacy-preserving AI in digital health.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8609899PMC
November 2021

What proportion of LI-RADS 5 observations reported in clinical practice do not meet LI-RADS 5 criteria?

Eur Radiol 2022 May 22;32(5):3327-3333. Epub 2021 Nov 22.

Department of Radiology, Montefiore Medical Center, Bronx, NY, USA.

Objectives: Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (LI-RADS, LR) category 5 (definite hepatocellular carcinoma [HCC]) is assigned based on combinations of major imaging features (MFs): size, arterial-phase hyperenhancement (APHE), washout (WO), enhancing capsule, and threshold growth. The criteria were simplified in v2018 compared to v2017. The goal of this study is to assess the proportion of LR-5 observations reported in clinical practice with LI-RADS v2017 or v2018 that did not meet LR-5 criteria based on reported MFs.

Methods: All MR and CT reports using a standardized LI-RADS template between April 2017 and September 2020 were identified retrospectively. For each reported LR-5 observation, size, MFs, and LI-RADS version (v2017 or v2018) were extracted. Reported MFs were used to determine whether LR-5 criteria were met using the applied version of LI-RADS. The data was summarized descriptively.

Results: Three hundred eight observations in 234 patients (67.6% male, mean age 66.2 years) were reported as LR-5, including 136 (44.2%) with v2017 and 172 (55.8%) with v2018. 8/136 (6%) v2017 LR-5 observations and 6/172 (3%) v2018 LR-5 observations did not meet LR-5 criteria. Of 8 incorrectly categorized v2017 observations, 3 (43%) lacked APHE, 1 (14%) was a 16-mm new observation with APHE only, and 4 (43%) were 10-19 mm with APHE and WO. Of the 6 incorrectly categorized v2018 observations, 5 (83%) lacked APHE and 1 (17%) was < 10 mm.

Conclusions: Depending on the LI-RADS version, 3-6% of LR-5 observations reported in clinical practice do not meet LR-5 criteria based on reported MFs. Key Points • Depending on the LI-RADS version, 3-6% of LR-5 observations in clinical practice do not meet LR-5 criteria based on reported major imaging features. • Assigning LR-5 category to observations without nonrim arterial-phase hyperenhancement was the most common error.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00330-021-08389-5DOI Listing
May 2022

Neoadjuvant Cabozantinib and Nivolumab Converts Locally Advanced HCC into Resectable Disease with Enhanced Antitumor Immunity.

Nat Cancer 2021 09 29;2(9):891-903. Epub 2021 Jul 29.

Department of Oncology, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

A potentially curative hepatic resection is the optimal treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but most patients are not candidates for resection and most resected HCCs eventually recur. Until recently, neoadjuvant systemic therapy for HCC has been limited by a lack of effective systemic agents. Here, in a single arm phase 1b study, we evaluated the feasibility of neoadjuvant cabozantinib and nivolumab in patients with HCC including patients outside of traditional resection criteria (NCT03299946). Of 15 patients enrolled, 12 (80%) underwent successful margin negative resection, and 5/12 (42%) patients had major pathologic responses. In-depth biospecimen profiling demonstrated an enrichment in T effector cells, as well as tertiary lymphoid structures, CD138+ plasma cells, and a distinct spatial arrangement of B cells in responders as compared to non-responders, indicating an orchestrated B-cell contribution to antitumor immunity in HCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s43018-021-00234-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8594857PMC
September 2021

ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Epigastric Pain.

J Am Coll Radiol 2021 11;18(11S):S330-S339

Specialty Chair; and Director, CT and MRI, and Section Chief, Abdominal Imaging, Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center, Richmond, Virginia.

Epigastric pain can have multiple etiologies including myocardial infarction, pancreatitis, acute aortic syndromes, gastroesophageal reflux disease, esophagitis, peptic ulcer disease, gastritis, duodenal ulcer disease, gastric cancer, and hiatal hernia. This document focuses on the scenarios in which epigastric pain is accompanied by symptoms such as heartburn, regurgitation, dysphagia, nausea, vomiting, and hematemesis, which raise suspicion for gastroesophageal reflux disease, esophagitis, peptic ulcer disease, gastritis, duodenal ulcer disease, gastric cancer, or hiatal hernia. Although endoscopy may be the test of choice for diagnosing these entities, patients may present with nonspecific or overlapping symptoms, necessitating the use of imaging prior to or instead of endoscopy. The utility of fluoroscopic imaging, CT, MRI, and FDG-PET for these indications are discussed. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacr.2021.08.006DOI Listing
November 2021

Machine intelligence in non-invasive endocrine cancer diagnostics.

Nat Rev Endocrinol 2022 02 9;18(2):81-95. Epub 2021 Nov 9.

Department of Imaging & Imaging Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Artificial intelligence (AI) has illuminated a clear path towards an evolving health-care system replete with enhanced precision and computing capabilities. Medical imaging analysis can be strengthened by machine learning as the multidimensional data generated by imaging naturally lends itself to hierarchical classification. In this Review, we describe the role of machine intelligence in image-based endocrine cancer diagnostics. We first provide a brief overview of AI and consider its intuitive incorporation into the clinical workflow. We then discuss how AI can be applied for the characterization of adrenal, pancreatic, pituitary and thyroid masses in order to support clinicians in their diagnostic interpretations. This Review also puts forth a number of key evaluation criteria for machine learning in medicine that physicians can use in their appraisals of these algorithms. We identify mitigation strategies to address ongoing challenges around data availability and model interpretability in the context of endocrine cancer diagnosis. Finally, we delve into frontiers in systems integration for AI, discussing automated pipelines and evolving computing platforms that leverage distributed, decentralized and quantum techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41574-021-00543-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8576465PMC
February 2022

Noninvasive Risk Stratification for Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Among Living Liver Donor Candidates: A Proposed Algorithm.

Liver Transpl 2022 04 13;28(4):670-677. Epub 2021 Dec 13.

NAFLD Research Center, Department of Medicine, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

To reduce waitlist mortality, living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) has increased over the past decade in the United States, but not at a rate sufficient to completely mitigate organ shortage. As a result, there are ongoing efforts to expand the living liver donor pool. Simultaneously, the prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in the general population has increased, which has significant implications on the pool of potential living liver donors. As such, a clinical assessment algorithm that exhaustively evaluates for NAFLD and fibrosis is critical to the safe expansion of LDLT. An ideal algorithm would employ safe and noninvasive methods, relying on liver biopsy only when necessary. While exclusion of NAFLD and fibrosis by noninvasive means is widely studied within the general population, there are no well-accepted guidelines for evaluation of living donors using these modalities. Here we review the current literature regarding noninvasive NALFD and fibrosis evaluation and propose a potential algorithm to apply these modalities for the selection of living liver donors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lt.26365DOI Listing
April 2022

Imaging of Colorectal Liver Metastasis.

J Gastrointest Surg 2022 01 18;26(1):245-257. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 N Wolfe St, Room 143, Baltimore, MD, 21287, USA.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers in the world. The most important determinant of survival and prognosis is the stage and presence of metastasis. The liver is the most common location for CRC metastasis. The only curative treatment for CRC liver metastasis (CRLM) is resection; however, many patients are ineligible for surgical resection of CRLM. Locoregional treatments such as ablation and intra-arterial therapy are also available for patients with CRLM. Assessment of response after chemotherapy is challenging due to anatomical and functional changes. Antiangiogenic agents such as bevacizumab that are used in the treatment of CRLM may show atypical patterns of response on imaging. It is vital to distinguish patterns of response in addition to toxicities to various treatments. Imaging plays a critical role in evaluating the characteristics of CRLM and the approach to treatment. CT is the modality of choice in the diagnosis and management of CRLM. MRI is best used for indeterminate lesions and to assess response to intra-arterial therapy. PET-CT is often utilized to detect extrahepatic metastasis. State-of-the-art imaging is critical to characterize patterns of response to various treatments. We herein review the imaging characteristics of CRLM with an emphasis on imaging changes following the most common CRLM treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11605-021-05164-1DOI Listing
January 2022

Serum semaphorin4C as an auxiliary diagnostic biomarker for breast cancer.

Clin Transl Med 2021 08;11(8):e480

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ctm2.480DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8351518PMC
August 2021

Partial tear of penile suspensory ligament on magnetic resonance imaging: A case report.

Urol Case Rep 2021 Nov 21;39:101788. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

A 37-year-old man presented with pain and abnormal erectile angle following trauma during sexual intercourse. A diagnosis of partial tear of penile suspensory ligament (PSL) was made on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Conservative management of the tear was failed and the patient remained symptomatic. Persistent abnormal erectile angle and MRI findings necessitated surgical repair which resulted in a favorable outcome and patient satisfaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eucr.2021.101788DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8326348PMC
November 2021

Multisite multivendor validation of a quantitative MRI and CT compatible fat phantom.

Med Phys 2021 Aug 9;48(8):4375-4386. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI, USA.

Purpose: Chemical shift-encoded magnetic resonance imaging enables accurate quantification of liver fat content though estimation of proton density fat-fraction (PDFF). Computed tomography (CT) is capable of quantifying fat, based on decreased attenuation with increased fat concentration. Current quantitative fat phantoms do not accurately mimic the CT number of human liver. The purpose of this work was to develop and validate an optimized phantom that simultaneously mimics the MRI and CT signals of fatty liver.

Methods: An agar-based phantom containing 12 vials doped with iodinated contrast, and with a granular range of fat fractions was designed and constructed within a novel CT and MR compatible spherical housing design. A four-site, three-vendor validation study was performed. MRI (1.5T and 3T) and CT images were obtained using each vendor's PDFF and CT reconstruction, respectively. An ROI centered in each vial was placed to measure MRI-PDFF (%) and CT number (HU). Mixed-effects model, linear regression, and Bland-Altman analysis were used for statistical analysis.

Results: MRI-PDFF agreed closely with nominal PDFF values across both field strengths and all MRI vendors. A linear relationship (slope = -0.54 ± 0.01%/HU, intercept = 37.15 ± 0.03%) with an R of 0.999 was observed between MRI-PDFF and CT number, replicating established in vivo signal behavior. Excellent test-retest repeatability across vendors (MRI: mean = -0.04%, 95% limits of agreement = [-0.24%, 0.16%]; CT: mean = 0.16 HU, 95% limits of agreement = [-0.15HU, 0.47HU]) and good reproducibility using GE scanners (MRI: mean = -0.21%, 95% limits of agreement = [-1.47%, 1.06%]; CT: mean = -0.18HU, 95% limits of agreement = [-1.96HU, 1.6HU]) were demonstrated.

Conclusions: The proposed fat phantom successfully mimicked quantitative liver signal for both MRI and CT. The proposed fat phantom in this study may facilitate broader application and harmonization of liver fat quantification techniques using MRI and CT across institutions, vendors and imaging platforms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mp.15038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8859818PMC
August 2021

Left ventricular fibro-fatty replacement in arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia/cardiomyopathy: prevalence, patterns, and association with arrhythmias.

J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 2021 05 20;23(1):58. Epub 2021 May 20.

The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 N. Wolfe St.; Halsted B180, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Background: Left ventricular (LV) fibrofatty infiltration in arrhythmogenic right ventricular (RV) dysplasia/cardiomyopathy (ARVD/C) has been reported, however, detailed cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) characteristics and association with outcomes are uncertain. We aim to describe LV findings on CMR in ARVD/C patients and their relationship with arrhythmic outcomes.

Methods: CMR of 73 subjects with ARVD/C according to the 2010 Task Force Criteria (TFC) were analyzed for LV involvement, defined as ≥ 1 of the following features: LV wall motion abnormality, LV late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), LV fat infiltration, or LV ejection fraction (LVEF) < 50%. Ventricular volumes and function, regional wall motion abnormalities, and the presence of ventricular fat or fibrosis were recorded. Findings on CMR were correlated with arrhythmic outcomes.

Results: Of the 73 subjects, 50.7% had CMR evidence for LV involvement. Proband status and advanced RV dysfunction were independently associated with LV abnormalities. The most common pattern of LV involvement was focal fatty infiltration in the sub-epicardium of the apicolateral LV with a "bite-like" pattern. LGE in the LV was found in the same distribution and most often had a linear appearance. LV involvement was more common with non-PKP2 genetic mutation variants, regardless of proband status. Only RV structural disease on CMR (HR 3.47, 95% CI 1.13-10.70) and prior arrhythmia (HR 2.85, 95% CI 1.33-6.10) were independently associated with arrhythmic events.

Conclusion: Among patients with 2010 TFC for ARVD/C, CMR evidence for LV abnormalities are seen in half of patients and typically manifest as fibrofatty infiltration in the subepicardium of the apicolateral wall and are not associated with arrhythmic outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12968-020-00702-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8135158PMC
May 2021

Development, Practice Patterns, and Early Clinical Outcomes of a Multidisciplinary Liver Cancer Clinic.

Cancer Control 2021 Jan-Dec;28:10732748211009945

Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, 1500Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Multidisciplinary care has been associated with improved survival in patients with primary liver cancers. We report the practice patterns and real world clinical outcomes for patients presenting to the Johns Hopkins Hospital (JHH) multidisciplinary liver clinic (MDLC). We analyzed hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, n = 100) and biliary tract cancer (BTC, n = 76) patients evaluated at the JHH MDLC in 2019. We describe the conduct of the clinic, consensus decisions for patient management based on stage categories, and describe treatment approaches and outcomes based on these categories. We describe subclassification of BCLC stage C into 2 parts, and subclassification of cholangiocarcinoma into 4 stages. A treatment consensus was finalized on the day of MDLC for the majority of patients (89% in HCC, 87% in BTC), with high adherence to MDLC recommendations (91% in HCC, 100% in BTC). Among patients presenting for a second opinion regarding management, 28% of HCC and 31% of BTC patients were given new therapeutic recommendations. For HCC patients, at a median follow up of 11.7 months (0.7-19.4 months), median OS was not reached in BCLC A and B patients. In BTC patients, at a median follow up of 14.2 months (0.9-21.1 months) the median OS was not reached in patients with resectable or borderline resectable disease, and was 11.9 months in patients with unresectable or metastatic disease. Coordinated expert multidisciplinary care is feasible for primary liver cancers with high adherence to recommendations and a change in treatment for a sizeable minority of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10732748211009945DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8204642PMC
November 2021

Guidelines on management of pancreatic cysts detected in high-risk individuals: An evaluation of the 2017 Fukuoka guidelines and the 2020 International Cancer of the Pancreas Screening (CAPS) consortium statements.

Pancreatology 2021 Apr 2;21(3):613-621. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Department of Medicine, The Sol Goldman Pancreatic Cancer Research Center, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Objectives: Pancreatic cysts are frequently detected in high-risk individuals (HRI) undergoing surveillance for pancreatic cancer. The International Cancer of the Pancreas Screening (CAPS) Consortium developed consensus recommendations for surgical resection of pancreatic cysts in HRI that are similar to the Fukuoka guidelines used for the management of sporadic cysts. We compared the performance characteristics of CAPS criteria for pancreatic cyst management in HRI with the Fukuoka guidelines originally designed for the management of cysts in non-HRI.

Methods: Using prospectively collected data from CAPS studies, we determined for each patient with resected screen-detected cyst(s) whether Fukuoka guidelines or CAPS consensus statements would have recommended surgery. We compared sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and Receiver Operator Characteristics (ROC) curves of these guidelines at predicting the presence of high-grade dysplasia or invasive cancer in pancreatic cysts.

Results: 356/732 HRI had ≥ one pancreatic cyst detected; 24 had surgery for concerning cystic lesions. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV for the Fukuoka criteria were 40%, 85%, 40%, and 85%, while those of the CAPS criteria were 60%, 85%, 50%, 89%, respectively. ROC curve analyses showed no significant difference between the Fukuoka and CAPS criteria.

Conclusions: In HRI, the CAPS and Fukuoka criteria are moderately specific, but not sufficiently sensitive for detecting advanced neoplasia in cystic lesions. New approaches are needed to guide the surgical management of cystic lesions in HRI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pan.2021.01.017DOI Listing
April 2021

Imaging neuroendocrine tumors: Characterizing the spectrum of radiographic findings.

Surg Oncol 2021 Jun 31;37:101529. Epub 2021 Jan 31.

Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 N Wolfe St, Room 143, Baltimore, MD, 21287, USA. Electronic address:

Neuroendocrine tumors (NET) are a group of neoplasms with neuroendocrine differentiation affecting a wide range of organs. Functional NETs present with symptoms due to the particular hormone produced. Functional NETs are usually small at diagnosis and therefore can be challenging to diagnose. In contrast, non-functioning NETs are generally larger and present with mass effect. Imaging plays an indispensable role in diagnosis, staging and management of patients with NETs. The optimal modality and technique for imaging of NETs depend on the location of primary and metastatic lesions. Regardless of the imaging modality, dynamic contrast-enhanced imaging is essential for evaluation of NETs. In general, CT scan is typically the primary imaging modality for evaluating NETs. MRI is used as a complementary modality, being superior to other modalities to assess liver metastasis. Nuclear medicine imaging is also widely used in NET assessment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.suronc.2021.101529DOI Listing
June 2021

Sudden Cardiac Death Prediction in Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy: A Multinational Collaboration.

Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2021 01 9;14(1):e008509. Epub 2020 Dec 9.

Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology (J.C.-T., W.W., A.B., C.T., B.M., S.C., J.E.C., D.P.J., H.T., H.C., C.A.J.), Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD.

Background: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) is associated with ventricular arrhythmias (VA) and sudden cardiac death (SCD). A model was recently developed to predict incident sustained VA in patients with ARVC. However, since this outcome may overestimate the risk for SCD, we aimed to specifically predict life-threatening VA (LTVA) as a closer surrogate for SCD.

Methods: We assembled a retrospective cohort of definite ARVC cases from 15 centers in North America and Europe. Association of 8 prespecified clinical predictors with LTVA (SCD, aborted SCD, sustained, or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator treated ventricular tachycardia >250 beats per minute) in follow-up was assessed by Cox regression with backward selection. Candidate variables included age, sex, prior sustained VA (≥30s, hemodynamically unstable, or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator treated ventricular tachycardia; or aborted SCD), syncope, 24-hour premature ventricular complexes count, the number of anterior and inferior leads with T-wave inversion, left and right ventricular ejection fraction. The resulting model was internally validated using bootstrapping.

Results: A total of 864 patients with definite ARVC (40±16 years; 53% male) were included. Over 5.75 years (interquartile range, 2.77-10.58) of follow-up, 93 (10.8%) patients experienced LTVA including 15 with SCD/aborted SCD (1.7%). Of the 8 prespecified clinical predictors, only 4 (younger age, male sex, premature ventricular complex count, and number of leads with T-wave inversion) were associated with LTVA. Notably, prior sustained VA did not predict subsequent LTVA (=0.850). A model including only these 4 predictors had an optimism-corrected C-index of 0.74 (95% CI, 0.69-0.80) and calibration slope of 0.95 (95% CI, 0.94-0.98) indicating minimal over-optimism.

Conclusions: LTVA events in patients with ARVC can be predicted by a novel simple prediction model using only 4 clinical predictors. Prior sustained VA and the extent of functional heart disease are not associated with subsequent LTVA events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCEP.120.008509DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7834666PMC
January 2021

Evaluation of hepatic steatosis before liver transplantation in ex vivo by volumetric quantitative PDFF-MRI.

Magn Reson Med 2021 05 16;85(5):2805-2814. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Department of Radiology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Purpose: Over the last two decades, extended criteria have promoted an increased number of donor livers available for liver transplantation. But posttransplant graft loss is still a major concern. Macrovesicular hepatic steatosis (MHS) is recognized as the most significant prognostic histologic parameter in predicting posttransplant graft loss. We aimed to evaluate the utility of ex vivo volumetric quantitative MRI for quantifying MHS before liver transplantation using proton density fat-fraction (PDFF-MRI) histogram analysis.

Methods: PDFF-MRI was performed at 3.0T in 40 livers. We obtained histogram parameters of whole-liver volume of interest, including the mean, median, 5th, 10th, 25th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentile PDFF; skewness; kurtosis; entropy; and volume.

Results: Livers from 40 cadaveric donors were included, and histologic ex vivo fat quantification was available for 33 livers. Ten livers had MHS and 23 had normal fat content. The MHS group had higher mean, median, 5th, 10th, 25th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentile PDFF, and entropy than the group with normal fat content (P < .05). Median PDFF had greater area under the curve value than other parameters. Mean PDFF showed an excellent correlation with entropy and a moderate correlation with MHS quantification on histology.

Conclusions: Ex vivo volumetric quantitative PDFF-MRI histogram analysis is a very useful and noninvasive method to detect MHS before liver transplantation. Median PDFF was the best predictor of the presence of MHS. Entropy is a very promising parameter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrm.28592DOI Listing
May 2021

Role of tumor margin and ADC change in defining the need for additional treatments after the first TACE in patients with unresectable HCC.

Eur J Radiol 2020 Dec 2;133:109389. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

The Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. Electronic address:

Purpose: To define the number of TACE sessions needed to improve patients' overall survival (OS) in different subgroups of unresectable HCC.

Methods: This retrospective cohort included 180 patients who got TACE between 2005-2016 as the initial treatment for unresectable HCC. Tumor margin (well- vs. ill-defined) was determined by two radiologists at baseline. Well-defined group was divided into two groups (ADC-responders vs. ADC-nonresponders) based on %ADC change (ΔADC-cutoff = 25 %). Accordingly, patients were categorized into three groups, ill-defined, well-defined ADC-responders, or well-defined ADC-nonresponders. Cox-analysis was used to compare the survival benefit of multiple TACE in different groups.

Results: Ill-defined HCC (n = 108) was associated with worse survival (HR = 1.95,p < 0.001). Multiple TACE were associated with increased OS (HR = 0.88,p = 0.033) in these patients, with significant survival improvement after ≥4TACE. ΔADC was not related to OS in ill-defined group. In well-defined group (n = 72), multiple TACE were not associated with improved OS (HR = 0.181,p = 0.090). These patients were categorized into two groups based on ΔADC-cutoff. ADC-responders (ΔADC≥25 %) had the longest survival than other groups(p = 0.015). Multiple TACE sessions were not associated with better OS in this group (HR = 1.004,p = 0.982). By contrast, incremental number of TACE were associated with significantly longer OS in ADC-nonresponders (ΔADC<25 %) (HR = 0.79,p = 0.034). These patients' OS significantly improved after ≥3TACE.

Conclusion: The survival benefit of sequential TACE sessions varies for different HCC subgroups. There was no significant survival benefit associated with multiple TACE in well-defined lesions responding to the first TACE. The most survival benefit was for ADC-nonresponder well-defined group and it was least for ill-defined HCC group, regardless of ADC-response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2020.109389DOI Listing
December 2020

Clinical Features and Temporal Changes of RT-PCR and Chest CT in COVID-19 Pediatric Patients.

Front Pediatr 2020 9;8:579512. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Johns Hopkins Med Institute, Baltimore, MD, United States.

This work aims to investigate the clinical features and the temporal changes of RT-PCR and CT in COVID-19 pediatric patients. The clinical, RT-PCR, and CT features of 114 COVID-19 pediatric in-patients were retrospectively reviewed from January 21 to March 14, 2020. All patients had chest CT on admission and were identified as positive by pharyngeal swab nucleic acid test. The clinical features were analyzed, as well as the features and the temporal changes of RT-PCR and CT. Fever (62, 54%) and cough (61, 54%) were the most common symptoms. There were 34 (30%) cases of concurrent infections. The most common imaging features on CT were ground-glass opacities (46, 40%) and consolidation (46, 40%). The bilateral lower lobes were the most common pattern of involvement, with 63 cases (55%) involving one to two lobes, and in 32 (28%) cases CT was normal. Throughout the whole duration of COVID-19 in children, the diagnostic positive rate of RT-PCR has been far higher than that of CT (all < 0.05). For RT-PCR follow-up, reliable negative results were obtained only 7 days after the onset of symptoms. Though lung involvement on chest CT progressed rapidly in several cases, lung involvement in children with COVID-19 is mild, with a median value of 2 on CT score. RT-PCR is more reliable than CT in the initial diagnosis of pediatric patients with COVID-19. On follow-up, reliable negative RT-PCR results are available 7 days after the initial symptoms. The use of CT should be considered for follow-up purposes only if necessary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2020.579512DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7581798PMC
October 2020

ACR Appropriateness Criteria® Liver Lesion-Initial Characterization.

J Am Coll Radiol 2020 Nov;17(11S):S429-S446

Specialty Chair, Virginia Commonwealth University Medical Center, Richmond, Virginia.

Incidental liver masses are commonly identified on imaging performed for other indications. Since the prevalence of benign focal liver lesions in adults is high, even in patients with primary malignancy, accurate characterization of incidentally detected lesions is of paramount clinical importance. This document reviews utilization of various imaging modalities for characterization of incidentally detected liver lesions, discussed in the context of several clinical scenarios. For each clinical scenario, a summary of current evidence supporting the use of a given diagnostic modality is reported. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacr.2020.09.005DOI Listing
November 2020

Response to Crizotinib in Fusion-Positive Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma.

JCO Precis Oncol 2020 Nov;4:825-828

Bloomberg-Kimmel Institute for Cancer Immunotherapy, Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/PO.20.00116DOI Listing
November 2020

Cross-sectional imaging in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis: Single time-point liver or spleen volume is associated with survival.

Eur J Radiol 2020 Nov 4;132:109331. Epub 2020 Oct 4.

Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 N Wolfe St, Room 143, Baltimore, MD 21287, USA. Electronic address:

Aim: To evaluate the association between single time-point quantitative liver and spleen volumes in patients with PSC and transplant-free survival, independent of Mayo risk score.

Materials And Methods: This HIPAA-compliant retrospective study included 165 PSC patients in a hospital. Total (T), and lobar (right [R], left [L], and caudate [C]) liver volumes and spleen volume (S) were measured. Adverse outcome was identified as being on liver transplantation list, transplantation or death (outcome 1), and transplantation or death (outcome 2). Cox-regression was performed to assess the predictive value of volumetric parameters to predict transplant-free survival with and without Mayo risk score. Stratified analysis by Mayo risk score categories was performed to assess the discriminative value of volumes in the model. Prediction models were developed dependent of Mayo score, based on patients demographics, lab values and volumetric measures for both defined outcomes. Kaplan-Meier curves were depicted for different liver and spleen volumes. P value <0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: In this cohort (age 43 ± 17 years; 59 % men) 51 % of patients had adverse outcome. Cox-regression analysis demonstrated statistically significant association between values of T, L, R, C, S, L/T, and C/T and outcome 1; and also statistically significant association between values C, S, and C/T and outcome 2. Prediction models included age, INR, total bilirubin, AST, variceal bleeding, S, and C for outcome 1 and age, INR, total bilirubin, AST, variceal bleeding, and S for outcome 2.

Conclusions: Based on our observational study, quantitative liver and spleen volumes may be associated with transplant-free survival in patients with PSC and may have the potential for predicting the outcome but this should be validated by randomized clinical trial studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2020.109331DOI Listing
November 2020

Role of volumetric multiparametric MRI in distinguishing between intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms and serous cystadenoma.

Abdom Radiol (NY) 2021 04 9;46(4):1629-1639. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, 600 N Wolfe St, Room 143, Baltimore, MD, 21287, USA.

Purpose: To evaluate the use of volumetric multiparametric MRI in differentiating pancreatic intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) from serous cystadenomas (SCAs) METHODS: Included patients (123 patients with pancreatic cystic neoplasms (PCNs) measuring ≥ 10 mm) were stratified into two groups based on cyst type. Axial cyst size, region of interest (ROI)-based apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and volumetric data, including cyst volume, volumetric apparent diffusion coefficient (vADC), and volumetric venous enhancement (vVE) were extracted and compared between the two groups. Univariate and multiple logistic regression was used to develop models for distinguishing between IPMNs and SCAs.

Results: Volume and size of the cysts, vVE and vADC and ROI-ADC were significantly different between the two groups. Cyst volume was significantly larger in SCAs (median = 14.1cm, IQR 3.5-42.5) than in IPMNs (median = 2.5 cm, IQR 1.1-6) (p < 0.001). IPMNs had a higher volumetric ADC value in comparison to SCAs (2925 ± 294 × 10 mm/s vs 2521 ± 202 × 10 mm/s, p < 0.001). However, IPMNs had lower vVE values compared to SCAs (37 signal intensity (SI) vs 86 SI, p < 0.001). Area under the ROC Curve (AUC) of the model that included vADC and cyst volume had 95% accuracy in distinguishing between the two groups. In comparison, the AUC of the model that included ROI-ADC and axial cyst size had 84% accuracy in distinguishing between the two groups. A threshold of 2615 × 10 mm/s for volumetric ADC resulted in the identification of IPMNs from SCAs with sensitivity and specificity of 90.8% and 73.5%, respectively.

Conclusion: IPMNs had smaller cyst volume, higher volumetric ADC and lower volumetric VE values compared to SCAs. Volumetric multiparametric MRI could be useful in differentiating between the IPMN and SCA groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00261-020-02792-0DOI Listing
April 2021

A prospective analysis of the diagnostic accuracy of 3 T MRI, CT and endoscopic ultrasound for preoperative T staging of potentially resectable esophageal cancer.

Cancer Imaging 2020 Sep 10;20(1):64. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Department of Radiology, Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Henan Cancer Hospital, Zhengzhou, 450008, China.

Background: Patients with esophageal cancer (EC) undergo endoscopic ultrasound and CT based cancer staging. Recent technical developments allow improved MRI quality with diminished motion artifact that may allow MRI to compare favorable to CT for noninvasive staging. Hence the purpose of the study was to assess image quality and diagnostic accuracy of 3 T MRI versus CT and EUS for preoperative T-staging of potentially resectable esophageal cancer.

Methods: Between October-2014 and December-2017, esophageal cancer patients with T-staging by EUS were enrolled in this prospective study. Post-operative histopathologic T-staging was the reference standard. All participants underwent MRI [T2- multi-shot turbo spin echo sequence (msTSE), diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), and 3D gradient-echo based sequence (3D-GRE)] and CT [non-contrast and multiphase contrast-enhanced CT scanning] 5.6 + 3.6 days after endoscopy. Surgery was performed within 3.6 + 3.5 days after imaging. Two blinded endoscopists (reader 1 and 2) and radiologists (reader 3 and 4) independently evaluated EUS and CT/MRI, respectively. Considering the clinical relevance, patients were dichotomized into early (T1 and T2) vs late (T3 and T4) stage cancer before assessment. For statistical purpose, the binary decision was defined as the ability of the imaging technique to diagnose early stage/not early stage esophageal cancer. Diagnostic performance of EUS, MRI and CT was compared using McNemar's test with Bonferroni correction; kappa values were assessed for reader performance.

Results: 74 study participants (60 ± 8 yrs.; 56 men) with esophageal cancer were evaluated, of whom 85%(63/74) had squamous cell carcinoma, 61%(45/74) were at early stage and 39%(29/74) were at late stage cancer, as determined by histopathology. Intra- and Inter-reader agreement for pre-operative vs post-operative T-staging was excellent for all imaging modalities. Compared to CT, MRI showed significantly higher accuracy for both the readers (reader3: 96% vs 82%, p = 0.0038, reader4: 95% vs 80%, p = 0.0076, for MRI vs CT, respectively). Further, MRI outperformed EUS with higher specificity (reader 1 vs 3: 59% vs 93%, p = 0.0015, reader 2 vs 4: 66% vs 93%, p = 0.0081, for EUS vs MRI respectively), and accuracy (reader 1 vs 3: 81% vs 96%, p = 0.0022, reader 2 vs 4: 85% vs 95%, p = 0.057, for EUS vs MRI, respectively).

Conclusion: For resectable esophageal cancer, MRI had better diagnostic performance for tumor staging compared to CT and EUS.

Trial Registration: ChiCTR, ChiCTR-DOD, Registered 2nd October 2014, http://www.chictr.org.cn/showproj.aspx?proj=9620.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40644-020-00343-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7488416PMC
September 2020
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