Publications by authors named "Igor Novitzky-Basso"

15 Publications

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Target spectrum of the BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase inhibitors in chronic myeloid leukemia.

Int J Hematol 2021 Mar 27. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Medical Oncology and Hematology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University Health Network, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

BCR-ABL1 plays a key role in the pathogenesis of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), and it has been investigated as a druggable target of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) over two decades. Since imatinib, the first TKI for anti-cancer therapy, was successfully applied in CML therapy, further generation TKIs and a novel allosteric inhibitor targeting the myristate binding site have been developed as alternative options for CML management. However, significant concerns regarding toxicity profiles, especially in long-term treatment, have emerged from TKI clinical data. Efforts to reduce adverse events and serious complications are warranted not only for survival, but also quality of life in CML patients. A better understanding of the mechanism of action will help to identify on- and off-target effects of TKIs, and guide personalized TKI drug selection in each individual CML patient. Herein, this review summarizes the biologic mechanism of BCR-ABL1 inhibition and differential target spectra, and related off-target effects of each TKI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12185-021-03126-6DOI Listing
March 2021

Prognostic impact of the adverse molecular-genetic profile on long-term outcomes following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in acute myeloid leukemia.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Medical Oncology & Hematology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, ON, Canada.

The impact of adverse risk genetic profiles on outcomes in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) has not been fully elucidated. Accordingly, we have profiled somatic mutations at diagnosis using next-generation sequencing (NGS) in 178 AML patients who received allogeneic HCT. NGS revealed 598 somatic mutations in 165/178 patients (92.7%). Frequently mutated genes include DNMT3A, TET2, NPM1, RUNX1, IDH2, and FLT3. Commonly detected cytogenetic profiles include normal karyotype, trisomy 8, monosomal karyotype (MK), deletion 5, complex karyotype (CK), and monosomy 7. In univariate analyses, TP53 mutation, MK, CK, and monosomy 7 were associated with decreased overall survival (OS), relapse-free survival (RFS), and a higher relapse incidence (RI). We defined adverse molecular-genetic profile as harboring at least one of the molecular/genetic abnormalities of TP53 mutation, MK, CK, monosomy 7, and deletion 5. The patients harboring adverse molecular-genetic profile (n = 30) showed a lower 2-year OS (24.9% vs. 57.9%; p = 0.003), RFS (23.7% vs. 57.9%; p = 0.002), and higher RI (47.2% and 17.2%; p = 0.001) after HCT when compared to patients without those lesions. Multivariate analysis confirmed adverse molecular-genetic profile as an independent prognostic factor, associated with decreased OS (HR 2.19), RFS (HR 2.23), and higher RI (HR 2.94).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01255-4DOI Listing
March 2021

Refined hepatic grading system in chronic graft-versus-host disease improves prognostic risk stratification of long-term outcomes.

Eur J Haematol 2021 Apr 25;106(4):508-519. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Department of Medical Oncology and Hematology, Hans Messner Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant Program, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, Toronto, ON, Canada.

Objectives: Hepatic grading systems for categorizing severity in chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGvHD) were determined arbitrarily, leading us to initiate the present study to provide objective evidence for the determination of optimal cutoff values and devise a hepatic grading system to predict prognosis.

Methods: Of 842 patients who received allogeneic hematopoietic stem transplant (HCT), 336 patients diagnosed with cGvHD were evaluated for overall survival (OS) and non-relapse mortality (NRM) after cGVHD development. Multiple statistical parameters were evaluated to define optimal cutoff values of liver profile, including negative predictive value (NPV), positive predictive value (PPV), accuracy, and p-values as measures of risk stratification power.

Results: We found that alkaline phosphatase (ALP) ≥ 146 IU/L (NPV: 83.4%; PPV: 32.8%; accuracy: 52.7%) and bilirubin ≥ 14 µmol/L (NPV: 81.8%; PPV: 39.4%; accuracy 68.1%) significantly correlated with OS. We developed a refined hepatic cGvHD grading score (RHS), stratifying patients into a low-RHS group with RHS score 0, OS at 3 years (n = 162) to 80.5%, compared to high-RHS group with score 1-2 (n = 172) 62.7%. Regarding NRM, score 0 segregated NRM at 3 years to 11.9%, compared with score 1-2 19.6%, P = .1.

Conclusions: Refined hepatic score is promising for stratifying patients with cGVHD and liver involvement according to long-term outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejh.13576DOI Listing
April 2021

Allogeneic transplant can abrogate the risk of relapse in the patients of first remission acute myeloid leukemia with detectable measurable residual disease by next-generation sequencing.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 Dec 5. Epub 2020 Dec 5.

Department of Medical Oncology and Hematology, Princess Margaret Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada.

In patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) consolidation treatment options are between allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) and chemotherapy, based on disease risk at the time of initial presentation and age. Measurable residual disease (MRD) following induction chemotherapy could be incorporated as a useful parameter for treatment decisions. The present study evaluated treatment outcomes according to the next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based MRD status and the type of consolidation therapy in patients with normal karyotype (NK)-AML. By sequencing 278 paired samples collected at diagnosis and first remission (CR1), we identified 361 mutations in 124 patients at diagnosis and tracked these at CR1. After excluding mutations associated with age-related clonal hematopoiesis, 82 mutations in 50 of the 124 patients (40.3%) were detected at CR1. Survival benefit was observed in favor of allogeneic HCT over chemotherapy consolidation in the MRD subgroup with respect to overall survival (HR 0.294, p = 0.003), relapse-free survival (HR 0.376, p = 0.015) and cumulative incidence of relapse (HR 0.279, p = 0.004) in multivariate analysis, but not in the MRD subgroup. In summary, these data support allogeneic HCT in NK-AML patients with detectable MRD by NGS in CR1. Randomized clinical trials will be required to confirm this observation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-01165-xDOI Listing
December 2020

Molecular MRD status and outcome after transplantation in NPM1-mutated AML.

Blood 2020 02;135(9):680-688

Department of Medical and Molecular Genetics, King's College, London, United Kingdom.

Relapse remains the most common cause of treatment failure for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who undergo allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT), and carries a grave prognosis. Multiple studies have identified the presence of measurable residual disease (MRD) assessed by flow cytometry before alloSCT as a strong predictor of relapse, but it is not clear how these findings apply to patients who test positive in molecular MRD assays, which have far greater sensitivity. We analyzed pretransplant blood and bone marrow samples by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction in 107 patients with NPM1-mutant AML enrolled in the UK National Cancer Research Institute AML17 study. After a median follow-up of 4.9 years, patients with negative, low (<200 copies per 105ABL in the peripheral blood and <1000 copies in the bone marrow aspirate), and high levels of MRD had an estimated 2-year overall survival (2y-OS) of 83%, 63%, and 13%, respectively (P < .0001). Focusing on patients with low-level MRD before alloSCT, those with FLT3 internal tandem duplications(ITDs) had significantly poorer outcome (hazard ratio [HR], 6.14; P = .01). Combining these variables was highly prognostic, dividing patients into 2 groups with 2y-OS of 17% and 82% (HR, 13.2; P < .0001). T-depletion was associated with significantly reduced survival both in the entire cohort (2y-OS, 56% vs 96%; HR, 3.24; P = .0005) and in MRD-positive patients (2y-OS, 34% vs 100%; HR, 3.78; P = .003), but there was no significant effect of either conditioning regimen or donor source on outcome. Registered at ISRCTN (http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN55675535).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood.2019002959DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7059484PMC
February 2020

Children and Adults with Refractory Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease Respond to Treatment with the Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Preparation "MSC-FFM"-Outcome Report of 92 Patients.

Cells 2019 12 5;8(12). Epub 2019 Dec 5.

Department for Children and Adolescents, Division for Stem Cell Transplantation and Immunology, University Hospital Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main, 60590 Frankfurt, Germany.

(1) Background: Refractory acute graft-versus-host disease (R-aGvHD) remains a leading cause of death after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Survival rates of 15% after four years are currently achieved; deaths are only in part due to aGvHD itself, but mostly due to adverse effects of R-aGvHD treatment with immunosuppressive agents as these predispose patients to opportunistic infections and loss of graft-versus-leukemia surveillance resulting in relapse. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) from different tissues and those generated by various protocols have been proposed as a remedy for R-aGvHD but the enthusiasm raised by initial reports has not been ubiquitously reproduced. (2) Methods: We previously reported on a unique MSC product, which was generated from pooled bone marrow mononuclear cells of multiple third-party donors. The products showed dose-to-dose equipotency and greater immunosuppressive capacity than individually expanded MSCs from the same donors. This product, MSC-FFM, has entered clinical routine in Germany where it is licensed with a national hospital exemption authorization. We previously reported satisfying initial clinical outcomes, which we are now updating. The data were collected in our post-approval pharmacovigilance program, i.e., this is not a clinical study and the data is high-level and non-monitored. (3) Results: Follow-up for 92 recipients of MSC-FFM was reported, 88 with GvHD ≥°III, one-third only steroid-refractory and two-thirds therapy resistant (refractory to steroids plus ≥2 additional lines of treatment). A median of three doses of MSC-FFM was administered without apparent toxicity. Overall response rates were 82% and 81% at the first and last evaluation, respectively. At six months, the estimated overall survival was 64%, while the cumulative incidence of death from underlying disease was 3%. (4) Conclusions: MSC-FFM promises to be a safe and efficient treatment for severe R-aGvHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells8121577DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6952775PMC
December 2019

Atypical chemokine receptor 1 on nucleated erythroid cells regulates hematopoiesis.

Nat Immunol 2017 Jul 29;18(7):753-761. Epub 2017 May 29.

Institute for Cardiovascular Prevention, Ludwig-Maximilians University (LMU), Munich, Germany.

Healthy individuals of African ancestry have neutropenia that has been linked with the variant rs2814778(G) of the gene encoding atypical chemokine receptor 1 (ACKR1). This polymorphism selectively abolishes the expression of ACKR1 in erythroid cells, causing a Duffy-negative phenotype. Here we describe an unexpected fundamental role for ACKR1 in hematopoiesis and provide the mechanism that links its absence with neutropenia. Nucleated erythroid cells had high expression of ACKR1, which facilitated their direct contact with hematopoietic stem cells. The absence of erythroid ACKR1 altered mouse hematopoiesis including stem and progenitor cells, which ultimately gave rise to phenotypically distinct neutrophils that readily left the circulation, causing neutropenia. Individuals with a Duffy-negative phenotype developed a distinct profile of neutrophil effector molecules that closely reflected the one observed in the ACKR1-deficient mice. Thus, alternative physiological patterns of hematopoiesis and bone marrow cell outputs depend on the expression of ACKR1 in the erythroid lineage, findings with major implications for the selection advantages that have resulted in the paramount fixation of the ACKR1 rs2814778(G) polymorphism in Africa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ni.3763DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5480598PMC
July 2017

Differential DARC/ACKR1 expression distinguishes venular from non-venular endothelial cells in murine tissues.

BMC Biol 2017 05 19;15(1):45. Epub 2017 May 19.

Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology & HMS Center for Immune Imaging, Harvard Medical School, 77 Avenue Louis Pasteur, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.

Background: Intravascular leukocyte recruitment in most vertebrate tissues is restricted to postcapillary and collecting venules, whereas capillaries and arterioles usually support little or no leukocyte adhesion. This segmental restriction is thought to be mediated by endothelial, rather than hemodynamic, differences. The underlying mechanisms are largely unknown, in part because effective tools to distinguish, isolate, and analyze venular endothelial cells (V-ECs) and non-venular endothelial cells (NV-ECs) have been unavailable. We hypothesized that the atypical chemokine receptor DARC (Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines, a.k.a. ACKR1 or CD234) may distinguish V-ECs versus NV-ECs in mice.

Methods: We generated a rat-anti-mouse monoclonal antibody (MAb) that specifically recognizes the erythroid and endothelial forms of native, surface-expressed DARC. Using this reagent, we characterized DARC expression and distribution in the microvasculature of murine tissues.

Results: DARC was exquisitely restricted to post-capillary and small collecting venules and completely absent from arteries, arterioles, capillaries, veins, and most lymphatics in every tissue analyzed. Accordingly, intravital microscopy showed that adhesive leukocyte-endothelial interactions were restricted to DARC venules. DARC was detectable over the entire circumference of V-ECs, but was more concentrated at cell-cell junctions. Analysis of single-cell suspensions suggested that the frequency of V-ECs among the total microvascular EC pool varies considerably between different tissues.

Conclusions: Immunostaining of endothelial DARC allows the identification and isolation of intact V-ECs from multiple murine tissues. This strategy may be useful to dissect the mechanisms underlying segmental microvascular specialization in healthy and diseased tissues and to characterize the role of EC subsets in tissue-homeostasis, immune surveillance, infection, inflammation, and malignancies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12915-017-0381-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5438556PMC
May 2017

The atypical chemokine receptor CCRL1 shapes functional CCL21 gradients in lymph nodes.

Nat Immunol 2014 Jul 11;15(7):623-30. Epub 2014 May 11.

MRC Centre for Immune Regulation, School of Immunity and Infection, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.

Afferent lymph-borne dendritic cells essentially rely on the chemokine receptor CCR7 for their transition from the subcapsular lymph node sinus into the parenchyma, a migratory step driven by putative gradients of CCR7 ligands. We found that lymph node fringes indeed contained physiological gradients of the chemokine CCL21, which depended on the expression of CCRL1, the atypical receptor for the CCR7 ligands CCL19 and CCL21. Lymphatic endothelial cells lining the ceiling of the subcapsular sinus, but not those lining the floor, expressed CCRL1, which scavenged chemokines from the sinus lumen. This created chemokine gradients across the sinus floor and enabled the emigration of dendritic cells. In vitro live imaging revealed that spatially confined expression of CCRL1 was necessary and sufficient for the creation of functional chemokine gradients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ni.2889DOI Listing
July 2014

Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines and its involvement in patterning and control of inflammatory chemokines.

Front Immunol 2012 17;3:266. Epub 2012 Aug 17.

MRC Centre for Immune Regulation, Institute of Biomedical Research, School of Infection and Immunity, University of Birmingham Birmingham, UK.

Leukocyte functions are linked to their migratory responses, which, in turn, are largely determined by the expression profile of classical chemokine receptors. Upon binding their cognate chemokines, these G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) initiate signaling cascades and downstream molecular and cellular responses, including integrin activation and cell locomotion. Chemokines also bind to an alternative subset of chemokine receptors, which have serpentine structure characteristic for GPCRs but lack DRYLAIV consensus motive required for coupling to G-proteins. Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) is a member of this atypical receptor subfamily. DARC binds a broad range of inflammatory CXC and CC chemokines and is expressed by erythrocytes, venular endothelial cells, and cerebellar neurons. Erythrocyte DARC serves as blood reservoir of cognate chemokines but also as a chemokine sink, buffering potential surges in plasma chemokine levels. Endothelial cell DARC internalizes chemokines on the basolateral cell surface resulting in subsequent transcytosis of chemokines and their immobilization on the tips of apical microvilli. These DARC-mediated endothelial cell interactions allow chemokines produced in the extravascular tissues to optimally function as arrest chemokines on the luminal endothelial cell surface.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2012.00266DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3421148PMC
August 2012

Induction of a CD8+ T-cell response to the MAGE cancer testis antigen by combined treatment with azacitidine and sodium valproate in patients with acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplasia.

Blood 2010 Sep 8;116(11):1908-18. Epub 2010 Jun 8.

CRUK Institute for Cancer Studies, University of Birmingham, Birmingham.

Epigenetic therapies, including DNA methyltransferase and histone deacetylase inhibitors, represent important new treatment modalities in hematologic malignancies, but their mechanism of action remains unknown. We reasoned that up-regulation of epigenetically silenced tumor antigens may induce an immunologically mediated antitumor response and contribute to their clinical activity. In this study, we demonstrate that azacitidine (AZA) and sodium valproate (VPA) up-regulate expression of melanoma-associated antigens (MAGE antigens) on acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myeloma cell lines. In separate studies, we observed that prior exposure to AZA/VPA increased recognition of myeloma cell lines by a MAGE-specific CD8(+) cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) clone. We therefore measured CTL responses to MAGE antigens in 21 patients with AML or myelodysplasia treated with AZA/VPA. CTL responses to MAGE antigens were documented in only 1 patient before therapy; however, treatment with AZA/VPA induced a CTL response in 10 patients. Eight of the 11 patients with circulating MAGE CTLs achieved a major clinical response after AZA/VPA therapy. This is the first demonstration of a MAGE-specific CTL response in AML. Furthermore, it appears that epigenetic therapies have the capacity to induce a CTL response to MAGE antigens in vivo that may contribute to their clinical activity in AML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2009-11-249474DOI Listing
September 2010

Myocardial infarction following recombinant activated factor VII in a patient with type 2A von Willebrand disease.

Blood Coagul Fibrinolysis 2004 Sep;15(6):503-4

Oxford Haemophilia Centre, Thrombosis Unit, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, UK.

We describe a 50-year-old man with von Willebrand disease type 2A who suffers from angiodysplasia and has required many transfusions for gastro-intestinal haemorrhage. Various investigative modalities have not demonstrated a single source for this. Following a case report of successful use of recombinant activated factor VII (NovoSeven; Novo Nordisk, Copenhagen, Denmark), the patient was treated with it but suffered a large myocardial infarct. As the patient has risk factors for atherosclerotic disease, we presume the recombinant activated factor VII promoted coagulation at a pre-existing atherosclerotic lesion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00001721-200408000-00010DOI Listing
September 2004