Publications by authors named "Igor Nenadić"

140 Publications

Effects of polygenic risk for major mental disorders and cross-disorder on cortical complexity.

Psychol Med 2021 Apr 8:1-12. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Rudolf-Bultmann-Str. 8, 35039Marburg, Germany.

Background: MRI-derived cortical folding measures are an indicator of largely genetically driven early developmental processes. However, the effects of genetic risk for major mental disorders on early brain development are not well understood.

Methods: We extracted cortical complexity values from structural MRI data of 580 healthy participants using the CAT12 toolbox. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) for schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depression, and cross-disorder (incorporating cumulative genetic risk for depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder) were computed and used in separate general linear models with cortical complexity as the regressand. In brain regions that showed a significant association between polygenic risk for mental disorders and cortical complexity, volume of interest (VOI)/region of interest (ROI) analyses were conducted to investigate additional changes in their volume and cortical thickness.

Results: The PRS for depression was associated with cortical complexity in the right orbitofrontal cortex (right hemisphere: p = 0.006). A subsequent VOI/ROI analysis showed no association between polygenic risk for depression and either grey matter volume or cortical thickness. We found no associations between cortical complexity and polygenic risk for either schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or psychiatric cross-disorder when correcting for multiple testing.

Conclusions: Changes in cortical complexity associated with polygenic risk for depression might facilitate well-established volume changes in orbitofrontal cortices in depression. Despite the absence of psychopathology, changed cortical complexity that parallels polygenic risk for depression might also change reward systems, which are also structurally affected in patients with depressive syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291721001082DOI Listing
April 2021

Genetic factors influencing a neurobiological substrate for psychiatric disorders.

Transl Psychiatry 2021 Mar 29;11(1):192. Epub 2021 Mar 29.

Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine (INM-1, INM-7), Research Centre Jülich, Jülich, Germany.

A retrospective meta-analysis of magnetic resonance imaging voxel-based morphometry studies proposed that reduced gray matter volumes in the dorsal anterior cingulate and the left and right anterior insular cortex-areas that constitute hub nodes of the salience network-represent a common substrate for major psychiatric disorders. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that the common substrate serves as an intermediate phenotype to detect genetic risk variants relevant for psychiatric disease. To this end, after a data reduction step, we conducted genome-wide association studies of a combined common substrate measure in four population-based cohorts (n = 2271), followed by meta-analysis and replication in a fifth cohort (n = 865). After correction for covariates, the heritability of the common substrate was estimated at 0.50 (standard error 0.18). The top single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs17076061 was associated with the common substrate at genome-wide significance and replicated, explaining 1.2% of the common substrate variance. This SNP mapped to a locus on chromosome 5q35.2 harboring genes involved in neuronal development and regeneration. In follow-up analyses, rs17076061 was not robustly associated with psychiatric disease, and no overlap was found between the broader genetic architecture of the common substrate and genetic risk for major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, or schizophrenia. In conclusion, our study identified that common genetic variation indeed influences the common substrate, but that these variants do not directly translate to increased disease risk. Future studies should investigate gene-by-environment interactions and employ functional imaging to understand how salience network structure translates to psychiatric disorder risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-021-01317-7DOI Listing
March 2021

Subclinical schizotypal vs. autistic traits show overlapping and diametrically opposed facets in a non-clinical population.

Schizophr Res 2021 Mar 18;231:32-41. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Cognitive Neuropsychiatry Lab, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Philipps Universität Marburg, Marburg, Germany; Center for Mind, Brain, and Behavior (CMBB), University of Marburg and Justus Liebig University Giessen, Germany; Marburg University Hospital - UKGM, Marburg, Germany.

Background: The overlap of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and psychosis or schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD) has exposed problems central to conceptualising and understanding co-morbidity in psychiatric disorders.

Methods: In the present study, we demonstrate that a deep phenotyping approach aids clarification of both overlapping and diametrically opposed features of ASD and SSD on the level of trait facets.

Results: We first show overlap of negative and disorganised (but not positive) features of schizotypy with autistic traits in a sample of n = 376 German non-clinical subjects using multiple psychometric measures of schizotypy (MSS multidimensional schizotypy scale, OLIFE Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences, and SPQ-B schizotypal personality questionnaire - brief) and the AQ autism spectrum quotient, with control measures for affective spectrum pathology (BDI). Findings were then replicated in a French-Swiss sample (n = 264) using MSS, OLIFE, AQ, and in addition the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences (CAPE). Additional principal component analysis confirmed our finding of the co-existence of both overlapping (loss of function, social communication deficit, and negative schizotypy) as well as diametrically opposed features (AQ attention to detail, positive schizotypy) across the two spectra. Results were validated with Horn's parallel analyses, affirming two component solutions, and PCA using sample-specific, factor-analysis-derived schizotypy scores.

Conclusions: Providing a framework for multi-dimensional transdiagnostic characterisation of ASD vs. SSD phenotypes we point out overlapping vs. discriminating facets. In addition to the use of novel multidimensional schizotypy scales, it also shows transcultural consistency of findings, and highlights a particular role for the attention to detail AQ subscale.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2021.02.018DOI Listing
March 2021

Association between genetic risk for type 2 diabetes and structural brain connectivity in major depressive disorder.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2021 Mar 5. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Muenster, Germany Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1 Gebäude A9, 48149 Münster, Germany.

Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are known to share clinical comorbidity and to have genetic overlap. Besides their shared genetics, both diseases seem to be associated with alterations in brain structural connectivity and impaired cognitive performance, but little is known about the mechanisms by which genetic risk of T2D might affect brain structure and function and if so, how these effects could contribute to the disease course of MDD.

Methods: This study explores the association of polygenic risk for T2D with structural brain connectome topology and cognitive performance in 434 nondiabetic MDD patients and 539 healthy controls.

Results: Polygenic risk score for T2D across MDD patients and healthy controls was found to be associated with reduced global fractional anisotropy, a marker of white matter microstructure, an effect found to be predominantly present in MDD-related fronto-temporo-parietal connections. A mediation analysis further suggests that this FA variation may mediate the association between PGS and cognitive performance.

Conclusions: Our findings provide preliminary evidence of a polygenic risk for T2D to be linked to brain structural connectivity and cognition in MDD patients and healthy controls, even in the absence of a direct T2D diagnosis. This suggests an effect of T2D genetic risk on white matter integrity, which may mediate an association of genetic risk for diabetes and cognitive impairments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2021.02.010DOI Listing
March 2021

Associations of subclinical autistic-like traits with brain structural variation using diffusion tensor imaging and voxel-based morphometry.

Eur Psychiatry 2021 Mar 3;64(1):e27. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Cognitive Neuropsychiatry Lab, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Philipps-University Marburg/Marburg University Hospital-UKGM, Marburg, Germany.

Background: Previous case-control studies of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) have identified altered brain structure such as altered frontal and temporal cortex volumes, or decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) within the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus in patients. It remains unclear whether subclinical autistic-like traits might also be related to variation in these brain structures.

Methods: In this study, we analyzed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of 250 psychiatrically healthy subjects phenotyped for subclinical autistic-like traits using the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ). For data analysis, we used voxel-based morphometry of T1-MRIs (Computational Anatomy Toolbox) and tract-based spatial statistics for diffusion tensor imaging data.

Results: AQ attention switching subscale correlated negatively with FA values in the bilateral uncinate fasciculus as well as the bilateral inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. Higher AQ attention switching subscale scores were associated with increased mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity values in the uncinate fasciculus, while axial diffusivity values within this tract show a negative correlation. AQ attention to detail subscale correlated positively with gray matter volume in the right pre- and postcentral gyrus.

Conclusions: We demonstrate that individuals with higher levels of autism-spectrum-like features show decreased white matter integrity in tracts associated with higher-level visual processing and increased cortical volume in areas linked to movement sequencing and working memory. Our results resemble regional brain structure alterations found in individuals with ASD. This offers opportunities to further understand the etiology and pathogenesis of the disorder and shows a subclinical continuum perspective.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1192/j.eurpsy.2021.15DOI Listing
March 2021

Apolipoprotein E homozygous ε4 allele status: Effects on cortical structure and white matter integrity in a young to mid-age sample.

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2021 Feb 26. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Münster, Münster, Germany.

Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype is the strongest single gene predictor of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and has been frequently associated with AD-related brain structural alterations before the onset of dementia. While previous research has primarily focused on hippocampal morphometry in relation to APOE, sporadic recent findings have questioned the specificity of the hippocampus and instead suggested more global effects on the brain. With the present study we aimed to investigate associations between homozygous APOE ε4 status and cortical gray matter structure as well as white matter microstructure. In our study, we contrasted n = 31 homozygous APOE ε4 carriers (age=34.47 years, including a subsample of n = 12 subjects with depression) with a demographically matched sample without an ε4 allele (resulting total sample: N = 62). Morphometry analyses included a) Freesurfer based cortical segmentations of thickness and surface area measures and b) tract based spatial statistics of DTI measures. We found pronounced and widespread reductions in cortical surface area of ε4 homozygotes in 57 out of 68 cortical brain regions. In contrast, no differences in cortical thickness were observed. Furthermore, APOE ε4 homozygous carriers showed significantly lower fractional anisotropy in the corpus callosum, the right internal and external capsule, the left corona radiata and the right fornix. The present findings support a global rather than regionally specific effect of homozygous APOE ε4 allele status on cortical surface area and white matter microstructure. Future studies should aim to delineate the clinical implications of these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euroneuro.2021.02.006DOI Listing
February 2021

DNA methylation meta-analysis reveals cellular alterations in psychosis and markers of treatment-resistant schizophrenia.

Elife 2021 Feb 26;10. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

University of Exeter Medical School, University of Exeter, Barrack Road, Exeter, United Kingdom.

We performed a systematic analysis of blood DNA methylation profiles from 4483 participants from seven independent cohorts identifying differentially methylated positions (DMPs) associated with psychosis, schizophrenia, and treatment-resistant schizophrenia. Psychosis cases were characterized by significant differences in measures of blood cell proportions and elevated smoking exposure derived from the DNA methylation data, with the largest differences seen in treatment-resistant schizophrenia patients. We implemented a stringent pipeline to meta-analyze epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) results across datasets, identifying 95 DMPs associated with psychosis and 1048 DMPs associated with schizophrenia, with evidence of colocalization to regions nominated by genetic association studies of disease. Many schizophrenia-associated DNA methylation differences were only present in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia, potentially reflecting exposure to the atypical antipsychotic clozapine. Our results highlight how DNA methylation data can be leveraged to identify physiological (e.g., differential cell counts) and environmental (e.g., smoking) factors associated with psychosis and molecular biomarkers of treatment-resistant schizophrenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.58430DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8009672PMC
February 2021

Sexual Regional Dimorphism of Post-Adolescent and Middle Age Brain Maturation. A Multi-center 3T MRI Study.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 5;13:622054. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, University of Milan, Milan, Italy.

Sex-related differences are tied into neurodevelopmental and lifespan processes, beginning early in the perinatal and developmental phases and continue into adulthood. The present study was designed to investigate sexual dimorphism of changes in gray matter (GM) volume in post-adolescence, with a focus on early and middle-adulthood using a structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) dataset of healthy controls from the European Network on Psychosis, Affective disorders and Cognitive Trajectory (ENPACT). Three hundred and seventy three subjects underwent a 3.0 T MRI session across four European Centers. Age by sex effects on GM volumes were investigated using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and the Automated Anatomical Labeling atlas regions (ROI). Females and males showed overlapping and non-overlapping patterns of GM volume changes during aging. Overlapping age-related changes emerged in bilateral frontal and temporal cortices, insula and thalamus. Both VBM and ROI analyses revealed non-overlapping changes in multiple regions, including cerebellum and vermis, bilateral mid frontal, mid occipital cortices, left inferior temporal and precentral gyri. These findings highlight the importance of accounting for sex differences in cross-sectional analyses, not only in the study of normative changes, but particularly in the context of psychiatric and neurologic disorders, wherein sex effects may be confounded with disease-related changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2021.622054DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7892767PMC
February 2021

Distress severity in perceptual anomalies moderates the relationship between prefrontal brain structure and psychosis proneness in nonclinical individuals.

Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2021 Feb 2. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Cognitive Neuropsychiatry Lab, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Rudolf-Bultmann-Str. 8, 35039, Marburg, Germany.

In the general population, psychosis risk phenotypes occur independently of attenuated prodromal syndromes. Neurobiological correlates of vulnerability could help to understand their meaningfulness. Interactions between the occurrence of psychotic-like experiences (PLE) and other psychological factors e.g., distress related to PLE, may distinguish psychosis-prone individuals from those without risk of future psychotic disorder. We aimed to investigate whether (a) correlates of total PLE and distress, and (b) symptom dimension-specific moderation effects exist at the brain structural level in non-help-seeking adults reporting PLE below and above the screening criterion for clinical high-risk (CHR). We obtained T1-weighted whole-brain MRI scans from 104 healthy adults from the community without psychosis CHR states for voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Brain structural associations with PLE and PLE distress were analysed with multiple linear regression models. Moderation of PLE by distress severity of two types of positive symptoms from the Prodromal Questionnaire (PQ-16) screening inventory was explored in regions-of-interest after VBM. Total PQ-16 score was positively associated with grey matter volume (GMV) in prefrontal regions, occipital fusiform and lingual gyri (p < 0.05, FDR peak-level corrected). Overall distress severity and GMV were not associated. Examination of distress severity on the positive symptom dimensions as moderators showed reduced strength of the association between PLE and rSFG volume with increased distress severity for perceptual PLE. In this study, brain structural variation was related to PLE level, but not distress severity, suggesting specificity. In healthy individuals, positive relationships between PLE and prefrontal volumes may indicate protective features, which supports the insufficiency of PLE for the prediction of CHR. Additional indicators of vulnerability, such as distress associated with perceptual PLE, change the positive brain structure relationship. Brain structural findings may strengthen clinical objectives through disentanglement of innocuous and risk-related PLE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00406-020-01229-5DOI Listing
February 2021

Schizotypy in Parkinson's disease predicts dopamine-associated psychosis.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 12;11(1):759. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Psychology School, Fresenius University of Applied Sciences, Frankfurt, Germany.

Psychosis is the most common neuropsychiatric side-effect of dopaminergic therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD). It is still unknown which factors determine individual proneness to psychotic symptoms. Schizotypy is a multifaceted personality trait related to psychosis-proneness and dopaminergic neurotransmission in healthy subjects. We investigated whether (1) PD patients exhibit lower schizotypy than controls and (2) dopamine-related neuropsychiatric side-effects can be predicted by higher schizotypy. In this cross-sectional study, we used the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences in 56 PD patients (12 women, mean ± sd age: 61 ± 11 years) receiving their usual dopaminergic medication and 32 age-matched healthy controls (n = 32; 18 women, mean ± sd age: 57 ± 6 years). We further compared schizotypy scores of patients with (n = 18, 32.1%) and without previously experienced psychosis. We found that patients exhibited lower schizotypy than controls. Further, patients with a history of psychosis exhibited higher schizotypy than patients without these symptoms. Using an information theoretic measure and a machine learning approach, we show that schizotypy yields the greatest predictive value for dopamine-associated hallucinations compared to other patient characteristics and disease related factors. Our results indicate an overlap between neural networks associated with schizotypy and the pathophysiology of PD and a relationship between schizotypy and psychotic side-effects of dopaminergic medication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-80765-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7804198PMC
January 2021

Brain structural correlates of insomnia severity in 1053 individuals with major depressive disorder: results from the ENIGMA MDD Working Group.

Transl Psychiatry 2020 12 8;10(1):425. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Department of Sleep and Cognition, Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience, an Institute of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

It has been difficult to find robust brain structural correlates of the overall severity of major depressive disorder (MDD). We hypothesized that specific symptoms may better reveal correlates and investigated this for the severity of insomnia, both a key symptom and a modifiable major risk factor of MDD. Cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volumes were assessed from T1-weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of 1053 MDD patients (age range 13-79 years) from 15 cohorts within the ENIGMA MDD Working Group. Insomnia severity was measured by summing the insomnia items of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS). Symptom specificity was evaluated with correlates of overall depression severity. Disease specificity was evaluated in two independent samples comprising 2108 healthy controls, and in 260 clinical controls with bipolar disorder. Results showed that MDD patients with more severe insomnia had a smaller cortical surface area, mostly driven by the right insula, left inferior frontal gyrus pars triangularis, left frontal pole, right superior parietal cortex, right medial orbitofrontal cortex, and right supramarginal gyrus. Associations were specific for insomnia severity, and were not found for overall depression severity. Associations were also specific to MDD; healthy controls and clinical controls showed differential insomnia severity association profiles. The findings indicate that MDD patients with more severe insomnia show smaller surfaces in several frontoparietal cortical areas. While explained variance remains small, symptom-specific associations could bring us closer to clues on underlying biological phenomena of MDD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-020-01109-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7723989PMC
December 2020

Human time perspective and its structural associations with voxel-based morphometry and gyrification.

Brain Imaging Behav 2020 Dec 3. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Philipps-University Marburg / Marburg University Hospital - UKGM, Rudolf-Bultmann-Str. 8, 35039, Marburg, Germany.

Time perspective refers to humans' concept of integrating and evaluating temporal position and evaluation of memories, emotions, and experiences. We tested the hypothesis that different aspects of time perspective, as assessed with the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI) are related to variation of brain structure in non-clinical subjects. Analysing data from n = 177 psychiatrically healthy subjects using voxel-based morphometry with the CAT12 software package, we identified several significant (p < 0.05 FWE, cluster-level corrected) associations. The factors past negative, reflecting a negative attitude towards past events and present fatalistic, measuring a hopeless and fatalistic attitude towards future life, were both negatively associated with grey matter volumes of the anterior insula. The ZTPI factor future was negatively associated with precuneus grey matter. There was no association of ZTPI scores with gyrification using an absolute mean curvature method, a marker of early brain development. These findings provide a link between a general psychological construct of time perspective and brain structural variations in key areas related to time keeping (anterior insula) and the default mode network (precuneus), both of which overlap with variation in behavioral aspects and psychopathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11682-020-00416-1DOI Listing
December 2020

Cortical Complexity in People at Ultra-High-Risk for Psychosis Moderated by Childhood Trauma.

Front Psychiatry 2020 10;11:594466. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Philipps-Universität Marburg and Marburg University Hospital, Marburg, Germany.

Subjects with ultra-high risk (UHR) states for psychosis show brain structural volume changes similar to first-episode psychosis and also elevated incidence of environmental risk factors like childhood trauma. It is unclear, however, whether early neurodevelopmental trajectories are altered in UHR. We screened a total of 12,779 first-year Chinese students to enroll 36 UHR subjects (based on clinical interviews) and 59 non-UHR healthy controls for a case-control study of markers of early neurodevelopment. Subjects underwent 3T MRI scanning and clinical characterization, including the childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ). We then used the CAT12 toolbox to analyse structural brain scans for cortical surface complexity, a spherical harmonics-based marker of early neurodevelopmental changes. While we did not find statistically significant differences between the groups, a trend level finding for reduced cortical complexity (CC) in UHR vs. non-UHR subjects emerged in the left superior temporal cortex (and adjacent insular and transverse temporal cortices), and this trend level association was significantly moderated by childhood trauma (CTQ score). Our findings indicate that UHR subjects tend to show abnormal cortical surface morphometry, in line with recent research; more importantly, however, this association seems to be considerably modulated by early environmental impacts. Hence, our results provide an indication of environmental or gene × environment interactions on early neurodevelopment leading up to elevated psychosis risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.594466DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7685197PMC
November 2020

In vivo hippocampal subfield volumes in bipolar disorder-A mega-analysis from The Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis Bipolar Disorder Working Group.

Authors:
Unn K Haukvik Tiril P Gurholt Stener Nerland Torbjørn Elvsåshagen Theophilus N Akudjedu Martin Alda Dag Alnaes Silvia Alonso-Lana Jochen Bauer Bernhard T Baune Francesco Benedetti Michael Berk Francesco Bettella Erlend Bøen Caterina M Bonnín Paolo Brambilla Erick J Canales-Rodríguez Dara M Cannon Xavier Caseras Orwa Dandash Udo Dannlowski Giuseppe Delvecchio Ana M Díaz-Zuluaga Theo G M van Erp Mar Fatjó-Vilas Sonya F Foley Katharina Förster Janice M Fullerton José M Goikolea Dominik Grotegerd Oliver Gruber Bartholomeus C M Haarman Beathe Haatveit Tomas Hajek Brian Hallahan Mathew Harris Emma L Hawkins Fleur M Howells Carina Hülsmann Neda Jahanshad Kjetil N Jørgensen Tilo Kircher Bernd Krämer Axel Krug Rayus Kuplicki Trine V Lagerberg Thomas M Lancaster Rhoshel K Lenroot Vera Lonning Carlos López-Jaramillo Ulrik F Malt Colm McDonald Andrew M McIntosh Genevieve McPhilemy Dennis van der Meer Ingrid Melle Elisa M T Melloni Philip B Mitchell Leila Nabulsi Igor Nenadić Viola Oertel Lucio Oldani Nils Opel Maria C G Otaduy Bronwyn J Overs Julian A Pineda-Zapata Edith Pomarol-Clotet Joaquim Radua Lisa Rauer Ronny Redlich Jonathan Repple Maria M Rive Gloria Roberts Henricus G Ruhe Lauren E Salminen Raymond Salvador Salvador Sarró Jonathan Savitz Aart H Schene Kang Sim Marcio G Soeiro-de-Souza Michael Stäblein Dan J Stein Frederike Stein Christian K Tamnes Henk S Temmingh Sophia I Thomopoulos Dick J Veltman Eduard Vieta Lena Waltemate Lars T Westlye Heather C Whalley Philipp G Sämann Paul M Thompson Christopher R K Ching Ole A Andreassen Ingrid Agartz

Hum Brain Mapp 2020 Oct 19. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Norwegian Centre for Mental Disorders Research (NORMENT), Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

The hippocampus consists of anatomically and functionally distinct subfields that may be differentially involved in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder (BD). Here we, the Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis Bipolar Disorder workinggroup, study hippocampal subfield volumetry in BD. T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging scans from 4,698 individuals (BD = 1,472, healthy controls [HC] = 3,226) from 23 sites worldwide were processed with FreeSurfer. We used linear mixed-effects models and mega-analysis to investigate differences in hippocampal subfield volumes between BD and HC, followed by analyses of clinical characteristics and medication use. BD showed significantly smaller volumes of the whole hippocampus (Cohen's d = -0.20), cornu ammonis (CA)1 (d = -0.18), CA2/3 (d = -0.11), CA4 (d = -0.19), molecular layer (d = -0.21), granule cell layer of dentate gyrus (d = -0.21), hippocampal tail (d = -0.10), subiculum (d = -0.15), presubiculum (d = -0.18), and hippocampal amygdala transition area (d = -0.17) compared to HC. Lithium users did not show volume differences compared to HC, while non-users did. Antipsychotics or antiepileptic use was associated with smaller volumes. In this largest study of hippocampal subfields in BD to date, we show widespread reductions in nine of 12 subfields studied. The associations were modulated by medication use and specifically the lack of differences between lithium users and HC supports a possible protective role of lithium in BD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25249DOI Listing
October 2020

White matter fiber microstructure is associated with prior hospitalizations rather than acute symptomatology in major depressive disorder.

Psychol Med 2020 Sep 14:1-9. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Münster, Münster, Germany.

Background: Eighty percent of all patients suffering from major depressive disorder (MDD) relapse at least once in their lifetime. Thus, understanding the neurobiological underpinnings of the course of MDD is of utmost importance. A detrimental course of illness in MDD was most consistently associated with superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) fiber integrity. As similar associations were, however, found between SLF fiber integrity and acute symptomatology, this study attempts to disentangle associations attributed to current depression from long-term course of illness.

Methods: A total of 531 patients suffering from acute (N = 250) or remitted (N = 281) MDD from the FOR2107-cohort were analyzed in this cross-sectional study using tract-based spatial statistics for diffusion tensor imaging. First, the effects of disease state (acute v. remitted), current symptom severity (BDI-score) and course of illness (number of hospitalizations) on fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), radial diffusivity (RD), and axial diffusivity were analyzed separately. Second, disease state and BDI-scores were analyzed in conjunction with the number of hospitalizations to disentangle their effects.

Results: Disease state (pFWE < 0.042) and number of hospitalizations (pFWE< 0.032) were associated with decreased FA and increased MD and RD in the bilateral SLF. A trend was found for the BDI-score (pFWE > 0.067). When analyzed simultaneously only the effect of course of illness remained significant (pFWE < 0.040) mapping to the right SLF.

Conclusions: Decreased FA and increased MD and RD values in the SLF are associated with more hospitalizations when controlling for current psychopathology. SLF fiber integrity could reflect cumulative illness burden at a neurobiological level and should be targeted in future longitudinal analyses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291720002950DOI Listing
September 2020

Childhood maltreatment and adult mental disorders - the prevalence of different types of maltreatment and associations with age of onset and severity of symptoms.

Psychiatry Res 2020 11 30;293:113398. Epub 2020 Aug 30.

Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany; Center for Mind, Brain and Behavior, University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany; Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, University of Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany.

Childhood maltreatment (CM) is a risk factor for numerous mental disorders. However, the specificity of CM types in mental disorders is still being discussed. The present study examined the prevalence of five CM types in patients with schizophrenia/schizoaffective disorder (SZ; n = 107), bipolar disorder (BD; n = 103), depression (MDD; n = 604; with the two subgroups Persistent Depressive Disorder (PDD) and non-chronic MDD), and in healthy controls (HC; n = 715). Additionally, associations between CM types, symptom severity, and age of onset were investigated. The prevalence of all CM types was higher in the patient groups compared to HC. Emotional neglect, emotional abuse, and physical neglect were reported most frequently in all groups. Notably, patients with PDD reported more CM of all types than patients with non-chronic MDD. The severity of depression was associated with emotional abuse and neglect; anxiety with emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and sexual abuse; positive SZ symptoms with physical neglect; negative symptoms with emotional and physical neglect; and mania with sexual abuse and physical neglect. CM was associated with a younger age of onset in MDD and BD. The high prevalence of CM in patients with severe mental disorders highlights the importance of considering this issue in the treatment of such patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113398DOI Listing
November 2020

Virtual Histology of Cortical Thickness and Shared Neurobiology in 6 Psychiatric Disorders.

Authors:
Yash Patel Nadine Parker Jean Shin Derek Howard Leon French Sophia I Thomopoulos Elena Pozzi Yoshinari Abe Christoph Abé Alan Anticevic Martin Alda Andre Aleman Clara Alloza Silvia Alonso-Lana Stephanie H Ameis Evdokia Anagnostou Andrew A McIntosh Celso Arango Paul D Arnold Philip Asherson Francesca Assogna Guillaume Auzias Rosa Ayesa-Arriola Geor Bakker Nerisa Banaj Tobias Banaschewski Cibele E Bandeira Alexandr Baranov Núria Bargalló Claiton H D Bau Sarah Baumeister Bernhard T Baune Mark A Bellgrove Francesco Benedetti Alessandro Bertolino Premika S W Boedhoe Marco Boks Irene Bollettini Caterina Del Mar Bonnin Tiana Borgers Stefan Borgwardt Daniel Brandeis Brian P Brennan Jason M Bruggemann Robin Bülow Geraldo F Busatto Sara Calderoni Vince D Calhoun Rosa Calvo Erick J Canales-Rodríguez Dara M Cannon Vaughan J Carr Nicola Cascella Mara Cercignani Tiffany M Chaim-Avancini Anastasia Christakou David Coghill Annette Conzelmann Benedicto Crespo-Facorro Ana I Cubillo Kathryn R Cullen Renata B Cupertino Eileen Daly Udo Dannlowski Christopher G Davey Damiaan Denys Christine Deruelle Annabella Di Giorgio Erin W Dickie Danai Dima Katharina Dohm Stefan Ehrlich Benjamin A Ely Tracy Erwin-Grabner Thomas Ethofer Damien A Fair Andreas J Fallgatter Stephen V Faraone Mar Fatjó-Vilas Jennifer M Fedor Kate D Fitzgerald Judith M Ford Thomas Frodl Cynthia H Y Fu Janice M Fullerton Matt C Gabel David C Glahn Gloria Roberts Tinatin Gogberashvili Jose M Goikolea Ian H Gotlib Roberto Goya-Maldonado Hans J Grabe Melissa J Green Eugenio H Grevet Nynke A Groenewold Dominik Grotegerd Oliver Gruber Patricia Gruner Amalia Guerrero-Pedraza Raquel E Gur Ruben C Gur Shlomi Haar Bartholomeus C M Haarman Jan Haavik Tim Hahn Tomas Hajek Benjamin J Harrison Neil A Harrison Catharina A Hartman Heather C Whalley Dirk J Heslenfeld Derrek P Hibar Eva Hilland Yoshiyuki Hirano Tiffany C Ho Pieter J Hoekstra Liesbeth Hoekstra Sarah Hohmann L E Hong Cyril Höschl Marie F Høvik Fleur M Howells Igor Nenadic Maria Jalbrzikowski Anthony C James Joost Janssen Fern Jaspers-Fayer Jian Xu Rune Jonassen Georgii Karkashadze Joseph A King Tilo Kircher Matthias Kirschner Kathrin Koch Peter Kochunov Gregor Kohls Kerstin Konrad Bernd Krämer Axel Krug Jonna Kuntsi Jun Soo Kwon Mikael Landén Nils I Landrø Luisa Lazaro Irina S Lebedeva Elisabeth J Leehr Sara Lera-Miguel Klaus-Peter Lesch Christine Lochner Mario R Louza Beatriz Luna Astri J Lundervold Frank P MacMaster Luigi A Maglanoc Charles B Malpas Maria J Portella Rachel Marsh Fiona M Martyn David Mataix-Cols Daniel H Mathalon Hazel McCarthy Colm McDonald Genevieve McPhilemy Susanne Meinert José M Menchón Luciano Minuzzi Philip B Mitchell Carmen Moreno Pedro Morgado Filippo Muratori Clodagh M Murphy Declan Murphy Benson Mwangi Leila Nabulsi Akiko Nakagawa Takashi Nakamae Leyla Namazova Janardhanan Narayanaswamy Neda Jahanshad Danai D Nguyen Rosa Nicolau Ruth L O'Gorman Tuura Kirsten O'Hearn Jaap Oosterlaan Nils Opel Roel A Ophoff Bob Oranje Victor Ortiz García de la Foz Bronwyn J Overs Yannis Paloyelis Christos Pantelis Mara Parellada Paul Pauli Maria Picó-Pérez Felipe A Picon Fabrizio Piras Federica Piras Kerstin J Plessen Edith Pomarol-Clotet Adrian Preda Olga Puig Yann Quidé Joaquim Radua J Antoni Ramos-Quiroga Paul E Rasser Lisa Rauer Janardhan Reddy Ronny Redlich Andreas Reif Liesbeth Reneman Jonathan Repple Alessandra Retico Vanesa Richarte Anja Richter Pedro G P Rosa Katya K Rubia Ryota Hashimoto Matthew D Sacchet Raymond Salvador Javier Santonja Kelvin Sarink Salvador Sarró Theodore D Satterthwaite Akira Sawa Ulrich Schall Peter R Schofield Anouk Schrantee Jochen Seitz Mauricio H Serpa Esther Setién-Suero Philip Shaw Devon Shook Tim J Silk Kang Sim Schmitt Simon Helen Blair Simpson Aditya Singh Antonin Skoch Norbert Skokauskas Jair C Soares Noam Soreni Carles Soriano-Mas Gianfranco Spalletta Filip Spaniel Stephen M Lawrie Emily R Stern S Evelyn Stewart Yoichiro Takayanagi Henk S Temmingh David F Tolin David Tomecek Diana Tordesillas-Gutiérrez Michela Tosetti Anne Uhlmann Therese van Amelsvoort Nic J A van der Wee Steven J A van der Werff Neeltje E M van Haren Guido A van Wingen Alasdair Vance Javier Vázquez-Bourgon Daniela Vecchio Ganesan Venkatasubramanian Eduard Vieta Oscar Vilarroya Yolanda Vives-Gilabert Aristotle N Voineskos Henry Völzke Georg G von Polier Esther Walton Thomas W Weickert Cynthia Shannon Weickert Andrea S Weideman Katharina Wittfeld Daniel H Wolf Mon-Ju Wu T T Yang Kun Yang Yuliya Yoncheva Je-Yeon Yun Yuqi Cheng Marcus V Zanetti Georg C Ziegler Barbara Franke Martine Hoogman Jan K Buitelaar Daan van Rooij Ole A Andreassen Christopher R K Ching Dick J Veltman Lianne Schmaal Dan J Stein Odile A van den Heuvel Jessica A Turner Theo G M van Erp Zdenka Pausova Paul M Thompson Tomáš Paus

JAMA Psychiatry 2021 Jan;78(1):47-63

Institute of Medical Science, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Importance: Large-scale neuroimaging studies have revealed group differences in cortical thickness across many psychiatric disorders. The underlying neurobiology behind these differences is not well understood.

Objective: To determine neurobiologic correlates of group differences in cortical thickness between cases and controls in 6 disorders: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and schizophrenia.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Profiles of group differences in cortical thickness between cases and controls were generated using T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. Similarity between interregional profiles of cell-specific gene expression and those in the group differences in cortical thickness were investigated in each disorder. Next, principal component analysis was used to reveal a shared profile of group difference in thickness across the disorders. Analysis for gene coexpression, clustering, and enrichment for genes associated with these disorders were conducted. Data analysis was conducted between June and December 2019. The analysis included 145 cohorts across 6 psychiatric disorders drawn from the ENIGMA consortium. The numbers of cases and controls in each of the 6 disorders were as follows: ADHD: 1814 and 1602; ASD: 1748 and 1770; BD: 1547 and 3405; MDD: 2658 and 3572; OCD: 2266 and 2007; and schizophrenia: 2688 and 3244.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Interregional profiles of group difference in cortical thickness between cases and controls.

Results: A total of 12 721 cases and 15 600 controls, ranging from ages 2 to 89 years, were included in this study. Interregional profiles of group differences in cortical thickness for each of the 6 psychiatric disorders were associated with profiles of gene expression specific to pyramidal (CA1) cells, astrocytes (except for BD), and microglia (except for OCD); collectively, gene-expression profiles of the 3 cell types explain between 25% and 54% of variance in interregional profiles of group differences in cortical thickness. Principal component analysis revealed a shared profile of difference in cortical thickness across the 6 disorders (48% variance explained); interregional profile of this principal component 1 was associated with that of the pyramidal-cell gene expression (explaining 56% of interregional variation). Coexpression analyses of these genes revealed 2 clusters: (1) a prenatal cluster enriched with genes involved in neurodevelopmental (axon guidance) processes and (2) a postnatal cluster enriched with genes involved in synaptic activity and plasticity-related processes. These clusters were enriched with genes associated with all 6 psychiatric disorders.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this study, shared neurobiologic processes were associated with differences in cortical thickness across multiple psychiatric disorders. These processes implicate a common role of prenatal development and postnatal functioning of the cerebral cortex in these disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2020.2694DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7450410PMC
January 2021

Childhood maltreatment and cognitive functioning: the role of depression, parental education, and polygenic predisposition.

Neuropsychopharmacology 2021 Apr 14;46(5):891-899. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Münster, Münster, Germany.

Childhood maltreatment is associated with cognitive deficits that in turn have been predictive for therapeutic outcome in psychiatric patients. However, previous studies have either investigated maltreatment associations with single cognitive domains or failed to adequately control for confounders such as depression, socioeconomic environment, and genetic predisposition. We aimed to isolate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and dysfunction in diverse cognitive domains, while estimating the contribution of potential confounders to this relationship, and to investigate gene-environment interactions. We included 547 depressive disorder and 670 healthy control participants (mean age: 34.7 years, SD = 13.2). Cognitive functioning was assessed for the domains of working memory, executive functioning, processing speed, attention, memory, and verbal intelligence using neuropsychological tests. Childhood maltreatment and parental education were assessed using self-reports, and psychiatric diagnosis was based on DSM-IV criteria. Polygenic scores for depression and for educational attainment were calculated. Multivariate analysis of cognitive domains yielded significant associations with childhood maltreatment (η² = 0.083, P < 0.001), depression (η² = 0.097, P < 0.001), parental education (η² = 0.085, P < 0.001), and polygenic scores for depression (η² = 0.021, P = 0.005) and educational attainment (η² = 0.031, P < 0.001). Each of these associations remained significant when including all of the predictors in one model. Univariate tests revealed that maltreatment was associated with poorer performance in all cognitive domains. Thus, environmental, psychopathological, and genetic risk factors each independently affect cognition. The insights of the current study may aid in estimating the potential impact of different loci of interventions for cognitive dysfunction. Future research should investigate if customized interventions, informed by individual risk profiles and related cognitive preconditions, might enhance response to therapeutic treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41386-020-00794-6DOI Listing
April 2021

Polygenic risk for schizophrenia and schizotypal traits in non-clinical subjects.

Psychol Med 2020 Aug 6:1-11. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Philipps-University and University Hospital Marburg, UKGM, Rudolf-Bultmann-Str. 8, 35039Marburg, Germany.

Background: Schizotypy is a putative risk phenotype for psychosis liability, but the overlap of its genetic architecture with schizophrenia is poorly understood.

Methods: We tested the hypothesis that dimensions of schizotypy (assessed with the SPQ-B) are associated with a polygenic risk score (PRS) for schizophrenia in a sample of 623 psychiatrically healthy, non-clinical subjects from the FOR2107 multi-centre study and a second sample of 1133 blood donors.

Results: We did not find correlations of schizophrenia PRS with either overall SPQ or specific dimension scores, nor with adjusted schizotypy scores derived from the SPQ (addressing inter-scale variance). Also, PRS for affective disorders (bipolar disorder and major depression) were not significantly associated with schizotypy.

Conclusions: This important negative finding demonstrates that despite the hypothesised continuum of schizotypy and schizophrenia, schizotypy might share less genetic risk with schizophrenia than previously assumed (and possibly less compared to psychotic-like experiences).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291720002822DOI Listing
August 2020

What we learn about bipolar disorder from large-scale neuroimaging: Findings and future directions from the ENIGMA Bipolar Disorder Working Group.

Authors:
Christopher R K Ching Derrek P Hibar Tiril P Gurholt Abraham Nunes Sophia I Thomopoulos Christoph Abé Ingrid Agartz Rachel M Brouwer Dara M Cannon Sonja M C de Zwarte Lisa T Eyler Pauline Favre Tomas Hajek Unn K Haukvik Josselin Houenou Mikael Landén Tristram A Lett Colm McDonald Leila Nabulsi Yash Patel Melissa E Pauling Tomas Paus Joaquim Radua Marcio G Soeiro-de-Souza Giulia Tronchin Neeltje E M van Haren Eduard Vieta Henrik Walter Ling-Li Zeng Martin Alda Jorge Almeida Dag Alnaes Silvia Alonso-Lana Cara Altimus Michael Bauer Bernhard T Baune Carrie E Bearden Marcella Bellani Francesco Benedetti Michael Berk Amy C Bilderbeck Hilary P Blumberg Erlend Bøen Irene Bollettini Caterina Del Mar Bonnin Paolo Brambilla Erick J Canales-Rodríguez Xavier Caseras Orwa Dandash Udo Dannlowski Giuseppe Delvecchio Ana M Díaz-Zuluaga Danai Dima Édouard Duchesnay Torbjørn Elvsåshagen Scott C Fears Sophia Frangou Janice M Fullerton David C Glahn Jose M Goikolea Melissa J Green Dominik Grotegerd Oliver Gruber Bartholomeus C M Haarman Chantal Henry Fleur M Howells Victoria Ives-Deliperi Andreas Jansen Tilo T J Kircher Christian Knöchel Bernd Kramer Beny Lafer Carlos López-Jaramillo Rodrigo Machado-Vieira Bradley J MacIntosh Elisa M T Melloni Philip B Mitchell Igor Nenadic Fabiano Nery Allison C Nugent Viola Oertel Roel A Ophoff Miho Ota Bronwyn J Overs Daniel L Pham Mary L Phillips Julian A Pineda-Zapata Sara Poletti Mircea Polosan Edith Pomarol-Clotet Arnaud Pouchon Yann Quidé Maria M Rive Gloria Roberts Henricus G Ruhe Raymond Salvador Salvador Sarró Theodore D Satterthwaite Aart H Schene Kang Sim Jair C Soares Michael Stäblein Dan J Stein Christian K Tamnes Georgios V Thomaidis Cristian Vargas Upegui Dick J Veltman Michèle Wessa Lars T Westlye Heather C Whalley Daniel H Wolf Mon-Ju Wu Lakshmi N Yatham Carlos A Zarate Paul M Thompson Ole A Andreassen

Hum Brain Mapp 2020 Jul 29. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Norwegian Centre for Mental Disorders Research (NORMENT), Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

MRI-derived brain measures offer a link between genes, the environment and behavior and have been widely studied in bipolar disorder (BD). However, many neuroimaging studies of BD have been underpowered, leading to varied results and uncertainty regarding effects. The Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Bipolar Disorder Working Group was formed in 2012 to empower discoveries, generate consensus findings and inform future hypothesis-driven studies of BD. Through this effort, over 150 researchers from 20 countries and 55 institutions pool data and resources to produce the largest neuroimaging studies of BD ever conducted. The ENIGMA Bipolar Disorder Working Group applies standardized processing and analysis techniques to empower large-scale meta- and mega-analyses of multimodal brain MRI and improve the replicability of studies relating brain variation to clinical and genetic data. Initial BD Working Group studies reveal widespread patterns of lower cortical thickness, subcortical volume and disrupted white matter integrity associated with BD. Findings also include mapping brain alterations of common medications like lithium, symptom patterns and clinical risk profiles and have provided further insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms of BD. Here we discuss key findings from the BD working group, its ongoing projects and future directions for large-scale, collaborative studies of mental illness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.25098DOI Listing
July 2020

Cortical Gyrification, Psychotic-Like Experiences, and Cognitive Performance in Nonclinical Subjects.

Schizophr Bull 2020 12;46(6):1524-1534

Cognitive Neuropsychiatry Lab, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Marburg, Germany.

Background: Psychotic-like experiences (PLE) are present in nonclinical populations, yet their association with brain structural variation, especially markers of early neurodevelopment, is poorly understood. We tested the hypothesis that cortical surface gyrification, a putative marker of early brain development, is associated with PLE in healthy subjects.

Methods: We analyzed gyrification from 3 Tesla MRI scans (using CAT12 software) and PLE (positive, negative, and depressive symptom dimensions derived from the Community Assessment of Psychic Experiences, CAPE) in 103 healthy participants (49 females, mean age 29.13 ± 9.37 years). A subsample of 63 individuals completed tasks from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and Controlled Oral Word Association Test. Estimated IQ and a composite neuropsychological score were used to explore mediation pathways via cognition.

Results: Positive PLE distress was negatively associated with gyrification of the left precuneus. PLE depression dimension showed a negative association with gyrification in the right supramarginal and temporal region. There was no significant mediating effect of cognition on these associations.

Conclusion: Our results support a neurobiological psychosis spectrum, for the first time linking an early developmental imaging marker (rather than volume) to dimensional subclinical psychotic symptoms. While schizophrenia risk, neurodevelopment, and cognitive function might share genetic risk factors, additional mediation analyses did not confirm a mediating effect of cognition on the gyrification-psychopathology correlation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbaa068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7707080PMC
December 2020

Anterior vs Posterior Hippocampal Subfields in an Extended Psychosis Phenotype of Multidimensional Schizotypy in a Nonclinical Sample.

Schizophr Bull 2021 Jan;47(1):207-218

Cognitive Neuropsychiatry Lab, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Philipps-University Marburg, Marburg, Germany.

Numerous studies have implicated involvement of the hippocampus in the etiology and expression of schizophrenia-spectrum psychopathology, and reduced hippocampal volume is one of the most robust brain abnormalities reported in schizophrenia. Recent studies indicate that early stages of schizophrenia are specifically characterized by reductions in anterior hippocampal volume; however, studies have not examined hippocampal volume reductions in subclinical schizotypy. The present study was the first to examine the associations of positive, negative, and disorganized schizotypy dimensions with hippocampal subfield volumes in a large sample (n = 195) of nonclinically ascertained young adults, phenotyped using the Multidimensional Schizotypy Scale (MSS). Hippocampal subfields were analyzed from high-resolution 3 Tesla structural magnetic resonance imaging scans testing anatomical models, including anterior vs posterior regions and the cornu ammonis (CA), dentate gyrus (DG), and subiculum subfields separately for the left and right hemispheres. We demonstrate differential spatial effects across anterior vs posterior hippocampus segments across different dimensions of the schizotypy risk phenotype. The interaction of negative and disorganized schizotypy robustly predicted left hemisphere volumetric reductions for the anterior and total hippocampus, and anterior CA and DG, and the largest reductions were seen in participants high in negative and disorganized schizotypy. These findings extend previous early psychosis studies and together with behavioral studies of hippocampal-related memory impairments provide the basis for a dimensional neurobiological hippocampal model of schizophrenia risk. Subtle hippocampal subfield volume reductions may be prevalent prior to the onset of detectable prodromal clinical symptoms of psychosis and play a role in the etiology and development of such conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbaa099DOI Listing
January 2021

Long-Term Neuroanatomical Consequences of Childhood Maltreatment: Reduced Amygdala Inhibition by Medial Prefrontal Cortex.

Front Syst Neurosci 2020 3;14:28. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Department of Medicine, University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany.

Similar to patients with Major depressive disorder (MDD), healthy subjects at risk for depression show hyperactivation of the amygdala as a response to negative emotional expressions. The medial prefrontal cortex is responsible for amygdala control. Analyzing a large cohort of healthy subjects, we aimed to delineate malfunction in amygdala regulation by the medial prefrontal cortex in subjects at increased risk for depression, i.e., with a family history of affective disorders or a personal history of childhood maltreatment. We included a total of 342 healthy subjects from the cohort (www.for2107.de). An emotional face-matching task was used to identify the medial prefrontal cortex and right amygdala. Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM) was conducted and neural coupling parameters were obtained for healthy controls with and without particular risk factors for depression. We assigned a if subjects had a first-degree relative with an affective disorder and an if subjects experienced childhood maltreatment. We then compared amygdala inhibition during emotion processing between groups. Amygdala inhibition by the medial prefrontal cortex was present in subjects without those two risk factors, as indicated by negative model parameter estimates. Having a (i.e., a family history) did not result in changes in amygdala inhibition compared to subjects. In contrast, childhood maltreatment as has led to a significant reduction of amygdala inhibition by the medial prefrontal cortex. We propose a mechanistic explanation for the amygdala hyperactivity in subjects with particular risk for depression, in particular childhood maltreatment, caused by a malfunctioned amygdala downregulation via the medial prefrontal cortex. As childhood maltreatment is a major factor for depression, we emphasize the importance of this potential early biomarker.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnsys.2020.00028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7283497PMC
June 2020

Brain structural correlates of schizotypal signs and subclinical schizophrenia nuclear symptoms in healthy individuals.

Psychol Med 2020 Jun 24:1-10. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Rudolf-Bultmann-Str. 8, 35039Marburg, Germany.

Background: Subclinical psychotic-like experiences (PLE), resembling key symptoms of psychotic disorders, are common throughout the general population and possibly associated with psychosis risk. There is evidence that such symptoms are also associated with structural brain changes.

Methods: In 672 healthy individuals, we assessed PLE and associated distress with the symptom-checklist-90R (SCL-90R) scales 'schizotypal signs' (STS) and 'schizophrenia nuclear symptoms' (SNS) and analysed associations with voxel- and surfaced-based brain structural parameters derived from structural magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T with CAT12.

Results: For SNS, we found a positive correlation with the volume in the left superior parietal lobule and the precuneus, and a negative correlation with the volume in the right inferior temporal gyrus [p < 0.05 cluster-level Family Wise Error (FWE-corrected]. For STS, we found a negative correlation with the volume of the left and right precentral gyrus (p < 0.05 cluster-level FWE-corrected). Surface-based analyses did not detect any significant clusters with the chosen statistical threshold of p < 0.05. However, in exploratory analyses (p < 0.001, uncorrected), we found a positive correlation of SNS with gyrification in the left insula and rostral middle frontal gyrus and of STS with the left precuneus and insula, as well as a negative correlation of STS with gyrification in the left temporal pole.

Conclusions: Our results show that brain structures in areas implicated in schizophrenia are also related to PLE and its associated distress in healthy individuals. This pattern supports a dimensional model of the neural correlates of symptoms of the psychotic spectrum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291720002044DOI Listing
June 2020

A multimodal imaging study of brain structural correlates of schizotypy dimensions using the MSS.

Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging 2020 08 25;302:111104. Epub 2020 May 25.

Cognitive Neuropsychiatry lab, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Philipps Universität Marburg, Marburg, Germany; Center for Mind, Brain, and Behavior (CMBB), University of Marburg and Justus Liebig University Giessen, Germany; Marburg University Hospital - UKGM, Marburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Schizotypy is a multidimensional construct of subclinical schizophrenia-like behavioural traits and cognition. The recently developed multidimensional schizotypy scale (MSS) provides an improved psychometric assessment of the three main dimensions (positive, negative, and disorganised). We tested the hypothesis that the three dimensions are related to brain structural variation in the precuneus and fronto-thalamo-striatal system in a new non-clinical healthy cohort to support a dimensional model of the psychosis spectrum. We analysed data from 104 subjects with Multidimensional Schizotypy Scale (MSS) phenotyping and 3 Tesla magnetic resonance images using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) applying CAT12 software, and diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) with TBSS in FSL to test for correlations with MSS scores. MSS subscales and total score were negatively associated with GMV in brain areas including the medial prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, and lateral prefrontal and orbital cortex. MSS schizotypy was associated with white matter integrity in anterior thalamic radiation, uncinate fasciculus, and superior longitudinal fasciculus. Our findings provide first direct evidence for an association of schizotypy (as a psychosis risk phenotype) and the fronto-thalamo-striatal system, in both grey and white matter with regionally diverging effects across single dimensions. This provides new evidence arguing for the fronto-striatal system (rather than precuneus) in schizotypy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pscychresns.2020.111104DOI Listing
August 2020

Diffusion tensor imaging in borderline personality disorder showing prefrontal white matter alterations.

Compr Psychiatry 2020 08 1;101:152172. Epub 2020 May 1.

Medical Physics Group, Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (IDIR), Jena University Hospital, Jena, Germany.

Borderline personality disorder (BPD) has repeatedly been linked to alterations in fronto-limbic dysfunction. In this study, we tested the hypothesis of disturbed structural connectivity in underlying fibre tracts and their relation to symptom profiles. We analysed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data from 18 female BPD patients and 38 female healthy controls. Group comparisons showed significant (p < .05, FDR adjusted) increase of radial diffusivity (RD) in the right frontal lobe, including the uncinate fasciculus, anterior thalamic radiation, and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, as well as overall apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) increases in the anterior and posterior internal capsule. Symptom correlations, based on the BSL-95 questionnaires, within the BPD sample showed significant negative correlations of dysphoria with ADC the left and right anterior thalamic radiation, and positive correlations of fractional anisotropy with self-perception scores in the right superior corona radiata. While our findings add to the fronto-limbic dysfunction model of BPD, they provide additional evidence of links to its affective core pathology, particularly frontotemporal and fronto-thalamic systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.comppsych.2020.152172DOI Listing
August 2020

ENIGMA MDD: seven years of global neuroimaging studies of major depression through worldwide data sharing.

Transl Psychiatry 2020 05 29;10(1):172. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Psychiatry, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

A key objective in the field of translational psychiatry over the past few decades has been to identify the brain correlates of major depressive disorder (MDD). Identifying measurable indicators of brain processes associated with MDD could facilitate the detection of individuals at risk, and the development of novel treatments, the monitoring of treatment effects, and predicting who might benefit most from treatments that target specific brain mechanisms. However, despite intensive neuroimaging research towards this effort, underpowered studies and a lack of reproducible findings have hindered progress. Here, we discuss the work of the ENIGMA Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) Consortium, which was established to address issues of poor replication, unreliable results, and overestimation of effect sizes in previous studies. The ENIGMA MDD Consortium currently includes data from 45 MDD study cohorts from 14 countries across six continents. The primary aim of ENIGMA MDD is to identify structural and functional brain alterations associated with MDD that can be reliably detected and replicated across cohorts worldwide. A secondary goal is to investigate how demographic, genetic, clinical, psychological, and environmental factors affect these associations. In this review, we summarize findings of the ENIGMA MDD disease working group to date and discuss future directions. We also highlight the challenges and benefits of large-scale data sharing for mental health research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41398-020-0842-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7260219PMC
May 2020

Increased power by harmonizing structural MRI site differences with the ComBat batch adjustment method in ENIGMA.

Neuroimage 2020 09 26;218:116956. Epub 2020 May 26.

Clinical Translational Neuroscience Laboratory, Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA, USA; Center for the Neurobiology of Learning and Memory, University of California Irvine, 309 Qureshey Research Lab, Irvine, CA, 92697, USA.

A common limitation of neuroimaging studies is their small sample sizes. To overcome this hurdle, the Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium combines neuroimaging data from many institutions worldwide. However, this introduces heterogeneity due to different scanning devices and sequences. ENIGMA projects commonly address this heterogeneity with random-effects meta-analysis or mixed-effects mega-analysis. Here we tested whether the batch adjustment method, ComBat, can further reduce site-related heterogeneity and thus increase statistical power. We conducted random-effects meta-analyses, mixed-effects mega-analyses and ComBat mega-analyses to compare cortical thickness, surface area and subcortical volumes between 2897 individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and 3141 healthy controls from 33 sites. Specifically, we compared the imaging data between individuals with schizophrenia and healthy controls, covarying for age and sex. The use of ComBat substantially increased the statistical significance of the findings as compared to random-effects meta-analyses. The findings were more similar when comparing ComBat with mixed-effects mega-analysis, although ComBat still slightly increased the statistical significance. ComBat also showed increased statistical power when we repeated the analyses with fewer sites. Results were nearly identical when we applied the ComBat harmonization separately for cortical thickness, cortical surface area and subcortical volumes. Therefore, we recommend applying the ComBat function to attenuate potential effects of site in ENIGMA projects and other multi-site structural imaging work. We provide easy-to-use functions in R that work even if imaging data are partially missing in some brain regions, and they can be trained with one data set and then applied to another (a requirement for some analyses such as machine learning).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2020.116956DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7524039PMC
September 2020

Brain structural abnormalities in obesity: relation to age, genetic risk, and common psychiatric disorders : Evidence through univariate and multivariate mega-analysis including 6420 participants from the ENIGMA MDD working group.

Mol Psychiatry 2020 May 28. Epub 2020 May 28.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Münster, Münster, Germany.

Emerging evidence suggests that obesity impacts brain physiology at multiple levels. Here we aimed to clarify the relationship between obesity and brain structure using structural MRI (n = 6420) and genetic data (n = 3907) from the ENIGMA Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) working group. Obesity (BMI > 30) was significantly associated with cortical and subcortical abnormalities in both mass-univariate and multivariate pattern recognition analyses independent of MDD diagnosis. The most pronounced effects were found for associations between obesity and lower temporo-frontal cortical thickness (maximum Cohen´s d (left fusiform gyrus) = -0.33). The observed regional distribution and effect size of cortical thickness reductions in obesity revealed considerable similarities with corresponding patterns of lower cortical thickness in previously published studies of neuropsychiatric disorders. A higher polygenic risk score for obesity significantly correlated with lower occipital surface area. In addition, a significant age-by-obesity interaction on cortical thickness emerged driven by lower thickness in older participants. Our findings suggest a neurobiological interaction between obesity and brain structure under physiological and pathological brain conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41380-020-0774-9DOI Listing
May 2020

Replication of a hippocampus specific effect of the tescalcin regulating variant rs7294919 on gray matter structure.

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 2020 07 23;36:10-17. Epub 2020 May 23.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Münster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, Building A9, 48149 Münster, Germany. Electronic address:

While the hippocampus remains a region of high interest for neuropsychiatric research, the precise contributors to hippocampal morphometry are still not well understood. We and others previously reported a hippocampus specific effect of a tescalcin gene (TESC) regulating single nucleotide polymorphism (rs7294919) on gray matter volume. Here we aimed to replicate and extend these findings. Two complementary morphometric approaches (voxel based morphometry (VBM) and automated volumetric segmentation) were applied in a well-powered cohort from the Marburg-Münster Affective Disorder Cohort Study (MACS) including N=1137 participants (n=636 healthy controls, n=501 depressed patients). rs7294919 homozygous T-allele genotype was significantly associated with lower hippocampal gray matter density as well as with reduced hippocampal volume. Exploratory whole brain VBM analyses revealed no further associations with gray matter volume outside the hippocampus. No interaction effects of rs7294919 with depression nor with childhood trauma on hippocampal morphometry could be detected. Hippocampal subfield analyses revealed similar effects of rs7294919 in all hippocampal subfields. In sum, our results replicate a hippocampus specific effect of rs7294919 on brain structure. Due to the robust evidence for a pronounced association between the reported polymorphism and hippocampal morphometry, future research should consider investigating the potential clinical and functional relevance of the reported association.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.euroneuro.2020.03.021DOI Listing
July 2020