Publications by authors named "Igor B Koncar"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A deep learning oriented method for automated 3D reconstruction of carotid arterial trees from MR imaging.

Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2020 07;2020:2408-2411

The scope of this paper is to present a new carotid vessel segmentation algorithm implementing the U-net based convolutional neural network architecture. With carotid atherosclerosis being the major cause of stroke in Europe, new methods that can provide more accurate image segmentation of the carotid arterial tree and plaque tissue can help improve early diagnosis, prevention and treatment of carotid disease. Herein, we present a novel methodology combining the U-net model and morphological active contours in an iterative framework that accurately segments the carotid lumen and outer wall. The method automatically produces a 3D meshed model of the carotid bifurcation and smaller branches, using multispectral MR image series obtained from two clinical centres of the TAXINOMISIS study. As indicated by a validation study, the algorithm succeeds high accuracy (99.1% for lumen area and 92.6% for the perimeter) for lumen segmentation. The proposed algorithm will be used in the TAXINOMISIS study to obtain more accurate 3D vessel models for improved computational fluid dynamics simulations and the development of models of atherosclerotic plaque progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/EMBC44109.2020.9176532DOI Listing
July 2020

Predictors of in-hospital mortality and complications in acute aortic occlusion: a comparative analysis of patients with embolism and in-situ thrombosis.

J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) 2021 Apr 4;62(2):146-152. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Clinic for Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia.

Background: Acute aortic occlusion (AAO) represents potentially fatal acute vascular emergency that requires prompt diagnosis and intervention. Clinical condition of patients with AAO is frequently severely devastated when surgical intervention is questionable. Our objective was to retrospectively review our institutional experience with AAO and assess predictors of intrahospital mortality and morbidity.

Methods: This is a retrospective single-center cohort study with prospectively collected data between January 1, 2005 and January 1, 2018. The total number of 28 consecutive patients with AAO were included in our analysis. Patients with acute aortic thrombosis manifested by bilateral acute limb ischemia were divided in two groups based on potential caues of AAO (embolism or in-situ thrombosis) differentiated according to condition of aortoilical segment.

Results: We identified 28 patients with AAO. All of them underwent either aortobifemoral bypass (N.=20, 71%) or bilateral trans-femoral thrombectomy (N.=8, 29%). The overall in-hospital mortality was 36%. Factors that influenced in-hospital mortality were: paralysis (OR=4.41, 95% CI: 1.88-21.78) and higher lactate values on admission (OR=1.23, 95% CI: 1.09-1.83), postoperative development of severe acute kidney injury (OR=3.08, 95% CI: 1.42-14.66), hemodialysis (OR=10.74, 95% CI: 1.64-109.78) and bowel ischemia (OR=5.19, 95% CI: 1.58-55.63).

Conclusions: Paralysis, higher lactate values, development of acute kidney injury, hemodialysis and bowel ischemia are predictors of worse outcome and may be used for risk stratification of patients with acute aortic occlusion and improve counseling patients and their families about expected postoperative outcomes. Patients with embolism and malignant disease have worse outcome; however, this should be tested in future studies on larger sample.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0021-9509.20.11247-3DOI Listing
April 2021

The role of fEVAR, chEVAR and open repair in treatment of juxtarenal aneurysms: a systematic review.

J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) 2020 Feb;61(1):24-36

Clinic for Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Serbian Clinical Center, Belgrade, Serbia.

Introduction: Open repair (OR), fenestrated endovascular aneurysm repair (fEVAR) and endovascular exclusion using parallel graft (chEVAR) are complementary procedures used for treatment of juxtarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm (jrAAA). The aim of our study was to assess available literature and analyze dispersion of OR, fEVAR and chEVAR procedures among reported papers related to treatment of jrAAA.

Evidence Acquisition: The PubMed database was systematically searched using predefined strategy and key words related to treatment of jrAAA on September 28th, 2019. Studies were assessed for eligibility using the inclusion and exclusion criteria with at least five patients treated with at least one of the procedures while systematic reviews, meta-analysis, reviews, comments, editorials and letters were excluded as well as studies without clear classification of the location of the aneurysm, studies not specifying the number of patients treated with each of the techniques or not discriminated between aortic pathologies (juxtarenal, paravisceral and thoracoabdominal), hybrid procedures, endoanchors or with branched stent-graft.

Evidence Synthesis: Overall, 1533 papers were identified while papers that met inclusion criteria were either representing experience of single institution (87 papers) or from multicenter studies (6 papers), national or international registries (18 papers). In the period between January 1977 and December 2017, treatment of 5664 patients with jrAAA was reported in 87 papers as a single institution report. Out of them 2531 (45%) were treated with OR, 2592 (46%) with fEVAR and 541 (9%) with chEVAR. Out of 29 institutions reporting OR, there were 11 (37.9%) with more than 100 treated patients while 21 (41.1%) out of 51 institutions that reported more than 50 jrAAA treated with fEVAR. Only four institutions reported results of all three treatment modalities.

Conclusions: Based on the results reported in the literature, regardless of its complexity and costs, fEVAR for jrAAA has been accepted in substantial number of hospitals worldwide, while number of reported procedures is reaching OR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0021-9509.19.11187-1DOI Listing
February 2020

Late open conversion after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair: experience of three-high volume centers.

J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) 2020 04 18;61(2):183-190. Epub 2019 Nov 18.

Unit of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, San Martino University Hospital IRCCS, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy.

Background: Accumulated endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) procedures will increase number of patients requiring conversion to open repair of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). In most cases, patients undergo late open surgical conversion (LOSC), many months, or years, after initial EVAR. The aim of this study is to analyze results of LOSC after EVAR in elective and urgent setting, including presenting features, surgical techniques, as well as to review the clinical outcomes and their predictors.

Methods: Retrospective review of all consecutive patients undergoing LOSC after EVAR was performed at three distinct, high volume, vascular centers. Patients that required primary conversion within 30 days after EVAR have not been included in this study. Between January 1st 2010 and January 1st 2017 total of 31 consecutive patients were treated. LOSC were performed either in elective or in urgent setting, thus dividing patients in two groups. Primary outcome was 30-day mortality and secondary postoperative complications.

Results: LOSC rate after EVAR was 4.51%. Most common indication for LOSC was type I endoleak (N.=20, 64.51%). All patients that presented with ruptured AAA had some form of endoleak (type I endoleak was present in five from six cases). Most common site for aortic cross-clamping was infrarenal (51.61%). Stent-graft was removed completely in 18 patients (58.06%) and partially in 13 (41.93%). 30-day mortality rate was 16.12% (5 patients) and most common cause of death was myocardial infarction (60%). Following univariate factors were isolated as predictors for 30-day mortality: preoperative coronary artery disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, urgent LOSC, prolonged time until LOSC, ruptured AAA, supraceliac clamp, higher number of red blood cell transfusion, postoperative myocardial infarction, and prolonged intubation (more than 48 hours).

Conclusions: LOSC seems to be safe and effective procedure when preformed in elective manner. On the other side, urgent LOSC after EVAR is associated with very high postoperative mortality and morbidity. Endoleak remains the main indication for open conversion. Further studies are necessary to standardize timing and treatment options for failing EVAR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0021-9509.19.10972-XDOI Listing
April 2020

Treatment of pediatric vascular injuries: the experience of a single non-pediatric referral center.

Int Angiol 2019 Jun 15;38(3):250-255. Epub 2019 Apr 15.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.

Background: Pediatric peripheral vascular trauma carries significant risk of complications including limb loss and long-term invalidity. Mechanisms and types of morphological lesions are very diverse. The objectives of this study are to present the experience of a single vascular center in the surgical approach to pediatric vascular injuries, and to analyze the main challenges related to this clinical entity.

Methods: Over a period of 25 years, 17 pediatric peripheral vascular injuries were treated in our institution. Patient's age ranged between one day (newborn) and 15 years (mean: 10.7 years). There were five injuries of upper and 12 injuries of the lower extremity. Preoperative diagnosis was established by clinical examination (N.=4), ultrasonography (N.=1) and angiography (N.=12). Blunt trauma mainly caused arterial thrombosis while penetrating trauma caused arterial laceration or complete transection. Five patients had associated orthopedic injuries (29,4%). There were two posttraumatic pseudoaneurysms and two arterio-venous fistulas.

Results: There was no perioperative mortality. Vascular reconstructions included arterial suture (N.=4), thrombectomy + patch angioplasty (N.=1), termino-terminal anastomosis (N.=3), venous anatomic bypass (N.=6), PTFE graft reconstruction (N.=2), and venous extra-anatomic reconstruction (N.=1). Two patients had associated venous injury demanding both arterial and venous reconstruction. In the only case of war trauma treatment ended with limb loss. Other reconstructions presented good early and long-term patency.

Conclusions: Pediatric vascular injuries are extremely challenging issues. Treatment includes broad spectrum of different types of vascular reconstructions. It should be performed by vascular surgeon trained in open vascular treatment or pediatric surgeon with significant experience in vascular surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0392-9590.19.04124-5DOI Listing
June 2019

Morphological and Biomechanical Features in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm with Long and Short Neck-Case-Control Study in 64 Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms.

Ann Vasc Surg 2017 Nov 28;45:223-230. Epub 2017 Jun 28.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia; Clinic for Vascular and Endovascular surgery, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia.

Background: Both, open and endovascular, procedures are related to higher complication rate in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) with shorter neck. Previous study showed that long-neck AAA might have lower risk of rupture. Estimation of biomechanical forces in AAA improves rupture risk assessment. The aim of this study was to compare morphological features and biomechanical forces in the short- and long-neck AAA with threshold of 15 mm.

Methods: Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine images of 64 aneurysms were prospectively collected and analyzed in a case-control study. Using commercially available software, Peak wall Stress (PWS) and Rupture Risk Equivalent Diameter (RRED) were determined. Difference between the maximal aneurysm diameter (MAD) and RRED was calculated and expressed as an absolute and relative (percentage of the MAD) value. In addition, volume of intraluminal thrombus (ILT) was calculated and expressed relative to AAA volume.

Results: Study included 64 AAA divided in group with long (36, 56.25%), and short (28, 43.75%) neck. There was no correlation between neck length and MAD, PWS, and RRED (P = 0.646, P = 0.421, and P = 0.405, respectively). Relative ILT volume was greater in the short-neck aneurysms (P = 0.033). Relative difference between RRED and MAD was -4% and -14.8% in short- and long-neck aneurysms, respectively (P = 0.029). The difference between RRED and MAD was positive in 14/28 patients (50%) with short neck and in 6/35 patients (17.14%) with long neck (P = 0.011).

Conclusions: Based on our biomechanical analysis, in AAA with neck longer than 15 mm rupture risk might be lower than the risk estimated by its diameter. It might be explained with lower relative volume of ILT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.avsg.2017.06.054DOI Listing
November 2017

Graft replacement as a method in treatment of symptomatic carotid in stent restenosis.

J Cardiovasc Surg (Torino) 2017 Feb;58(1):133-135

Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0021-9509.16.09175-XDOI Listing
February 2017

Aortoesophageal and aortobronchial fistula caused by Candida albicans after thoracic endovascular aortic repair.

Vojnosanit Pregl 2016 Sep;73(9):684-7

Introduction: Endovascular stent-graft placement has emerged as a minimally invasive alternative to open surgery for the treatment of aortic aneurysms and dissections. There are few reports of stent graft infections and aortoenteric fistula after endovascular thoracic aortic aneurysm repair, and the first multicentric study (Italian survey) showed the incidence of about 2%.

Case Report: We presented a 69-year-old male patient admitted to our hospital 9 months after thoracic endovascular aortic repair, due to severe chest pain in the left hemithorax and arm refractory to analgesic therapy. Multislice computed tomography (MSCT) showed a collection between the stent graft and the esophagus with thin layers of gas while gastroendoscopy showed visible blood jet 28 cm from incisive teeth. Surgical treatment was performed in collaboration of two teams (esophageal and vascular surgical team). After explantation of the stent graft and in situ reconstruction by using Dacron graft subsequent esophagectomy and graft omentoplasty were made. After almost four weeks patient developed hemoptisia as a sign of aorto bronchial fistula. Treatment with implantation of another aortic cuff of 26 mm was performed. The patient was discharged to the regional center with negative blood culture, normal inflammatory parameters and respiratory function. Three months later the patient suffered deterioration with the severe weight loss and pneumonia caused by Candida albicans and unfortunately died. The survival time from the surgical treatment of aortoesophageal fistula was 4 months

Conclusion: Even if endovascular repair of thoracic aortic diseases improves early results, risk of infection should not be forgotten. Postoperative respiratory deterioration and finally hemoptisia could be the symptoms of another fistula.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2298/VSP141209074KDOI Listing
September 2016

The role of kinesitherapy and electrotherapeutic procedures in non-operative management of patients with intermittent claudications.

Vascular 2016 Jun 26;24(3):246-53. Epub 2015 Jun 26.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Belgrade, Serbia Clinic for Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Clinical Centre of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia.

Purpose: To examine the effects of physical therapy (kinesitherapy and electrotherapeutic procedures) on the course of peripheral arterial occlusive disease by monitoring the changes in values of claudication distance and ankle-brachial indexes.

Methods: Prospective randomized study included 47 patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease manifested by intermittent claudications associated with ankle-brachial indexes values ranging from 0.5 to 0.9. Patients from the first group (25 pts) were treated with medicamentous therapy, walking exercises beyond the pain threshold, dynamic low-burden kinesi exercises and electrotherapeutic ageneses (interference therapy, diadynamic therapy, and electromagnetic field), while the second group of patients (22 pts) was treated with "conventional" non-operative treatment - medicamentous therapy and walking exercises. The values of newly established absolute claudication distance and ankle-brachial indexes were measured.

Findings: Significant increase of absolute claudication distance in both groups of patients was registered, independently of therapeutic protocol applied (p < 0.001), as well as the increase in the claudication distance interval in the physical therapy group. There was no significant increase in ankle-brachial indexes values in both groups of patients.

Conclusion: Methods of physical therapy presented valuable supplement in non-operative treatment of peripheral arterial occlusive disease patients, improving their functional ability and thus postponing surgical treatment. However, further investigations including larger number of patients are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1708538115593651DOI Listing
June 2016

Role of recombinant factor VIIa in the treatment of intractable bleeding in vascular surgery.

J Vasc Surg 2011 Apr 7;53(4):1032-7. Epub 2011 Jan 7.

Clinic for Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Serbian Clinical Center, 8 K. Todorovica St, Belgrade 11000, Republic of Serbia.

Background: Most recent publications have shown that the recombinant form of activated factor VII (rFVIIa; NovoSeven, Novo Nordisk A/S, Bagsværd, Denmark) induces excellent hemostasis in patients with severe intractable bleeding caused by trauma and major surgery. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of rFVIIa on the treatment of intractable perioperative bleeding in vascular surgery when conventional hemostatic measures are inadequate.

Materials And Methods: There were two groups of patients: the NovoSeven group (group N), 10 patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (RAAAs) and 14 patients operated on due to thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (TAAAs); the control group (group C), 14 patients with RAAAs and 17 patients with TAAAs. All patients suffered intractable hemorrhage refractory to conventional hemostatic measures, while patients from group N were additionally treated with rFVIIa.

Results: Postoperative blood loss was significantly lower in group N treated with rFVII (P < .0001). Postoperative administration of packed red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma, and platelets was lower in patients from group N, (P < .0001). Successful hemorrhage arrest was reported in 21 patients (87.5%) treated with rFVIIa, and in 9 patients (29.03%) in group C (P < .001). Thirty-day mortality in these two groups significantly differed. The mortality rate was 12.5% (3 patients) in group N and 80.65% (25 patients) in group C (P < .0001).

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that rFVIIa may play a role in controlling the intractable perioperative and postoperative bleeding in surgical patients undergoing a repair of RAAAs and TAAAs. Certainly, prospective randomized trials are necessary to further confirm the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of rFVIIa in these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jvs.2010.07.075DOI Listing
April 2011

[Recombinant activated factor VII in the treatment of intractable non-surgical bleeding following major vascular procedures].

Srp Arh Celok Lek 2008 Sep;136 Suppl 3:199-203

Introduction: Recombinant form of activated factor VII (rFVIIa) has been approved for use in haemophiliacs with antibodies to factor VIII or factor IX. Recent studies and clinical experiences have showed that rFVIIa gives extreme haemostatic effects in patients with severe "nonhaemophilic" bleeding produced after trauma and major surgery.

Objective: We present our preliminary experience of the use of rFVIIa in vascular surgery where conventional haemostatic measures were inadequate.

Method: There were 17 patients divided into three groups: Group I--6 patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms; Group II--7 patients with thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms and 1 patient with acute complicated dissection of thoracic aorta type III; Group III--3 patients with retroperitoneal tumours involving great abdominal vessels.

Results: Clinical improvement was reported following the treatment in 14 of 17 patients in our study. Bleeding was successfully controlled as evidenced by improved haemodynamic parameters and decreased inotrope and transfusion requirement.

Conclusion: More liberal use of rFVIIa in vascular patients is limited, because there is no randomized controlled trial proving efficacy and safety in vascular patients. We recommend the use of rFVIIa in vascular surgery only during and after operative treatment of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms, ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms and retroperitoneal tumours involving aorta and/or inferior vena cava complicated with "non-surgical" massive uncontrolled bleeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2298/sarh08s3199kDOI Listing
September 2008

Arterial complications of thoracic outlet syndrome.

Am Surg 2009 Mar;75(3):235-9

Clinic for Vascular Surgery, Institute for Cardiovascular Diseases of the Serbian Clinical Centre, Belgrade, Serbia.

Arterial complications of thoracic outlet compression have serious potential implications; however, these complications rarely appear. Between 1990 and 2006, prospectively collected data on 27 patients with arterial complications of thoracic outlet syndrome were analyzed. The causes of arterial compression were cervical rib (20 [74.1%]), abnormalities of the first thoracic rib (three [11.1%]), soft tissue anomalies (two [7.4%]), and hypertrophic callus after clavicle fracture (two [7.4%]). In all cases, a combined supraclavicular and infraclavicular approach was used. Decompression was achieved by cervical rib excision in 13 (48.1%) patients, combined cervical and first rib excision in seven (26%), and first rib excision in six (22.2%). Associated vascular procedures included resection and replacement of the subclavian artery (26 [97.3%]), one subclavian-axillary and one axillary-brachial bypass as well as 17 (63%) brachial embolectomies. The mean follow-up period was 7 years 4 months (range, 1-16 years). Two pleural entries, two transient brachial plexus injuries, and one subclavian artery rethrombosis were found. Complete resolution of symptoms with a return to full activity was noted in all cases. In surgical treatment, a combined anterior supraclavicular and infraclavicular approach is recommended as well as transbrachial embolectomy in all cases with symptoms of distal embolization.
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March 2009

[Recombinant activated factor VII in the treatment of intractable non-surgical bleeding following major vascular procedures].

Srp Arh Celok Lek 2008 Jul-Aug;136(7-8):367-72

Introduction: A recombinant form of activated factor VII (rFVIIa) is a haemostatic drug that is approved for use in haemophiliacs with antibodies to factor VIII or factor IX. Most recent studies and clinical experience have shown that rFVIIa (NovoSeven, Novo Nordisk A/S, Denmark) gives extreme haemostatic effect in patients with severe "non-haemophilic" bleeding produced after trauma and major surgery.

Objective: We present our preliminary experience of the use of rFVIIa in vascular surgery when conventional haemostatic measures are inadequate.

Method: There were 32 patients divided into five groups: Group I--14 patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms; Group II--10 patients with thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms; Group III--5 patients with retroperitoneal tumours involving great abdominal vessels; Group IV--2 patients with portal hypertension and Group V--one patient with iatrogenic injury of brachial artery and vein during fibrinolytic treatment, because of myocardial infarction.

Results: Clinical improvement was detected following treatment in 29 patients. Bleeding was successfully controlled as evidenced by improved haemodynamic parameters and decreased inotropic and transfusion requirements.

Conclusion: In vascular patients more liberal use of rFVlla is limited, because no randomized controlled trial has proved its efficacy and safety in such patients; while also keeping in mind that the price of a 4.8 mg of rFVIIa is $4080. We recommend the use of rFVIIa in vascular surgery only during and after operative treatment of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms, ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms, retroperitoneal tumours involving the aorta and/or inferior vena cava, as well as portal hypertension, when non-surgical massive uncontrolled bleeding are present.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2298/sarh0808367kDOI Listing
November 2008

False anastomotic aneurysms.

Vascular 2007 May-Jun;15(3):141-8

Department for Vascular Surgery, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, Serbia.

This retrospective study covers the period from 1991 to 2002, during which 3,623 patients were operated on because of aneurysmal or occlusive disease of aortoiliac and femoropopliteal segments. Among them, 87 patients (2.4%) developed a false anastomotic aneurysm in the 12-year follow-up period and were treated operatively. Most frequently, in 53 patients (6.9%), a false anastomotic aneurysm developed after aortobifemoral bypass performed owing to aortoiliac occlusive disease. The cause of false anastomotic aneurysm was infection in 21 cases (24.7%); resection and revascularization were performed with a Dacron graft in 46 cases (52.9%), with a polytetrafluoroethylene graft in 10 cases (11.5%), and with the great saphenous vein in 16 cases (18.4%). Homograft implantation in 4 patients (4.6%) or extra-anatomic bypasses in 11 cases (12.6%) were performed when graft infection was suspected. Of 87 patients who underwent surgery, 74 (85.5%) had good early results without infection, reintervention, limb loss, and mortality. The presence of infection as a cause of false anastomotic aneurysm and comorbidity increased the mortality rate significantly after the reoperation, whereas the type of graft used in treatment had no influence on early results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2310/6670.2007.00026DOI Listing
October 2007

[Preoperative factors influencing the early results of infrainguinal limb salvage procedures].

Srp Arh Celok Lek 2007 Jan-Feb;135(1-2):7-14

Introduction: The early results of 59 patients treated surgically for critical limb ischemia at the Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases were analyzed. Research was performed in a prospective manner, as an acute study, lasting for three months.

Objective: Our focus was on primary and secondary patency rate, and graft efficacy (quality accomplished by graft patency, improvement of clinical status of the leg, and quality of life).

Method: The influence of each variable on the outcome was analyzed (descriptive: sex, comorbidity, risk factors, clinical stage of disease, angiographic verification of pedal arch, previous vascular procedures; and numerical: gender, preoperative Doppler index, angiographic score by Bollinger), as well as their predictive value. Inferential statistics was used for establishing the significance of influence, and univariate regression analysis for predictive values.

Results: No influence of variables on the outcome was evident in the first three months, and their predictive value was not important considering the graft patency rates and efficacy (except for preoperative clinical status affecting the graft efficacy, presence of pedal arch, affecting both primary and secondary patency rates and graft efficacy, and finally Doppler index affecting the secondary patency rates).

Conclusion: When the surgeon needs to give an early prediction of graft destiny, he can rely on preoperative clinical status, earlier vascular operative procedures, presence of pedal arch, and values of Doppler index (in case of reintervention).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2298/sarh0702007cDOI Listing
June 2007

[Long-term results after elective and emergency surgery of abdominal aortic aneurysm].

Srp Arh Celok Lek 2004 Sep-Oct;132(9-10):306-12

Introduction: Abdominal aortic aneurysm can be repaired by elective procedure while asymptomatic, or immediately when it is complicated--mostly due to rupture. Treating abdominal aneurysm electively, before it becomes urgent, has medical and economical reason. Today, the first month mortality after elective operations of the abdominal aorta aneurysm is less than 3%; on the other hand, significant mortality (25%-70%) has been recorded in patients operated immediately because of rupture of the abdominal aneurysm. In addition, the costs of elective surgical treatment are significantly lower.

Objective: The objective of this study is to compare long-term survival of patients that underwent elective or immediate repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm (due to rupture), and to find out the factors influencing the long-term survival of these patients.

Material And Methods: Through retrospective review of prospectively collected data of the Institute for Cardiovascular Diseases of Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, 56 patients that had elective surgery and 35 patients that underwent urgent operation due to rupture of abdominal aneurysm were followed up. Only the patients that survived 30 postoperative days were included in this review, and-were followed up (ranging from 2 to 126 months). Electively operated patients were followed during 58.82 months on the average (range 7 to 122), and urgently operated were followed over 52.26 months (range 2 to 126). There was no significant difference of the length of postoperative follow-up between these two groups.

Results: During this period, out of electively operated and immediately operated patients, 27 and 22 cases died, respectively. There was no significant difference (p>0.05a) of long-term survival between these two groups. Obesity and early postoperative complications significantly decreased long-term survival of both electively and immediately operated patients. Graft infection, ventral hernia, aneurysm of peripheral arteries and other vascular reconstructive procedures were the factors that significantly reduced long-term survival of patients operated immediately due to rupture.

Discussion: This comprehensive study has searched for more factors than others had done before. The applied discriminative analysis numerically evaluated the influence of any risk factor of mortality. These factors were divided in three groups as follows: preoperative, operative and postoperative ones. Preoperative factors were sex, age, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, obesity, COPD, and naturally, the indication for operative treatment of ruptured or non-ruptured abdominal aneurysm. Among all these factors, only obesity significantly reduced long-term survival of electively operated patients. It may be said that immediately operated patients who survived the first 30 postoperative days had quite good long-term survival. Operative factors such as type of operative procedure and vascular graft had no influence on long-term survival of patients in both groups. Postoperative risk factors were early postoperative complications, graft infection, symptomatic cerebrovascular disease, carotid endarterectomy, myocardial revascularization, ventral hernias, "other" non vascular operations, malignancy, mental disorders, peripheral aneurysms and occlusive vascular disease, and other vascular operations either due to aneurysm or peripheral occlusive disease. Early postoperative complications (even graft infection) had no significant effect on long-term survival. Ventral hernias and peripheral aneurysms were factors that significantly decreased long-term survival of patients operated for rupture of the abdominal aneurysm.

Conclusion: It is interesting that endarterectomy, myocardial revascularization or malignancy after repair of the abdominal aneurysm (ruptured or non-ruptured) had no effect on long-term survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2298/sarh0410306kDOI Listing
May 2005
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