Publications by authors named "Ignasi Marco"

64 Publications

NSAIDs detected in Iberian avian scavengers and carrion after diclofenac registration for veterinary use in Spain.

Environ Pollut 2020 Nov 3;266(Pt 2):115157. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Instituto de Investigación en Recursos Cinegéticos (IREC), CSIC-UCLM-JCCM, 13005, Ciudad Real, Spain.

Despite the now well recognised impact of diclofenac on vultures across the Indian subcontinent, this non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) was registered in 2013 for livestock treatment in Spain, Europe's main vulture stronghold. We assessed the risk of exposure to diclofenac and nine other NSAIDs in avian scavengers in the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal) after the onset of diclofenac commercialization. We sampled 228 livestock carcasses from vulture feeding sites, primarily pig (n = 156) and sheep (n = 45). We also sampled tissues of 389 avian scavenger carcasses (306 Eurasian griffon vultures, 15 cinereous vultures, 11 Egyptian vultures, 12 bearded vultures and 45 other facultative scavengers). Samples were analysed by liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (LCMS). Seven livestock carcasses (3.07%) contained NSAID residues: flunixin (1.75%), ketoprofen, diclofenac and meloxicam (0.44% each). NSAID residues were only detected in sheep (4.44%) and pig (3.21%) carcasses. Fourteen dead avian scavengers (3.60%) had NSAID residues in kidney and liver, specifically flunixin (1.03%) and meloxicam (2.57%). Flunixin was associated with visceral gout and/or kidney damage in three (0.98%) dead Eurasian griffons. To date, diclofenac poisoning has not been observed in Spain and Portugal, however, flunixin would appear to pose an immediate and clear risk. This work supports the need for well managed carrion disposal, alongside appropriate risk labelling on veterinary NSAIDs and other pharmaceuticals potentially toxic to avian scavengers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.115157DOI Listing
November 2020

Peste des Petits Ruminants at the Wildlife-Livestock Interface in the Northern Albertine Rift and Nile Basin, East Africa.

Viruses 2020 03 7;12(3). Epub 2020 Mar 7.

Department of Pathobiology and Population Sciences, Royal Veterinary College, London NW1 0TU, UK, (M.B.).

In the recent past, peste des petits ruminants (PPR) emerged in East Africa causing outbreaks in small livestock across different countries, with evidences of spillover to wildlife. In order to understand better PPR at the wildlife-livestock interface, we investigated patterns of peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) exposure, disease outbreaks, and viral sequences in the northern Albertine Rift. PPRV antibodies indicated a widespread exposure in apparently healthy wildlife from South Sudan (2013) and Uganda (2015, 2017). African buffaloes and Uganda kobs <1-year-old from Queen Elizabeth National Park (2015) had antibodies against PPRV N-antigen and local serosurvey captured a subsequent spread of PPRV in livestock. Outbreaks with PPR-like syndrome in sheep and goats were recorded around the Greater Virunga Landscape in Kasese (2016), Kisoro and Kabale (2017) from western Uganda, and in North Kivu (2017) from eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). This landscape would not be considered typical for PPR persistence as it is a mixed forest-savannah ecosystem with mostly sedentary livestock. PPRV sequences from DRC (2017) were identical to strains from Burundi (2018) and confirmed a transboundary spread of PPRV. Our results indicate an epidemiological linkage between epizootic cycles in livestock and exposure in wildlife, denoting the importance of PPR surveillance on wild artiodactyls for both conservation and eradication programs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v12030293DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7150925PMC
March 2020

Factors influencing wild chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) relative abundance in an agriculture-swamp matrix outside protected areas.

PLoS One 2019 16;14(5):e0215545. Epub 2019 May 16.

Durrell Institute of Conservation and Ecology, School of Anthropology and Conservation, University of Kent, Canterbury, United Kingdom.

Human population growth and anthropogenic activities are exacerbating pressures on biodiversity globally. Land conversion is aggravating habitat fragmentation and non-human primates are increasingly compelled to live in forest-agricultural mosaics. In Sierra Leone, more than half of the wild chimpanzee population (Pan troglodytes verus) occurs outside protected areas and competes for resources with farmers. Our study area, in the Moyamba district in south-western Sierra Leone, is practically devoid of forest and is dominated by cultivated and fallow fields, swamps and mangroves. In this region, traditional slash-and-burn agriculture modifies annually the landscape, sparing swamps and mangroves and semi-domesticated oil palms (Elaeis guineensis). This study aimed to explore ecological and anthropogenic factors influencing chimpanzee relative abundance across this highly degraded and human-impacted landscape. Between 2015 and 2016, we deployed 24 camera traps systematically across 27 1.25x1.25 km grid cells. Cameras were operational over a period of 8 months. We used binomial iCAR models to examine to what extent anthropogenic (roads, settlements, abandoned settlements and human presence) and habitat variables (swamps, farmland and mangroves) shape chimpanzee relative abundance. The best model explained 43.16% of the variation with distance to roads and swamps emerging as the best predictors of chimpanzee relative abundance. Our results suggest that chimpanzees avoid roads and prefer to maintain proximity to swamps. There was no significant effect of settlements, abandoned settlements, mangroves or human presence. It appears that chimpanzees do not avoid areas frequented by people; although, our findings suggest temporal avoidance between the two species. We highlight the importance of studying chimpanzee populations living in anthropogenic habitats like agricultural-swamp matrixes to better understand factors influencing their distribution and inform conservation planning outside protected areas.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0215545PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6522039PMC
January 2020

Experimental infection with high- and low-virulence strains of border disease virus (BDV) in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra p. pyrenaica) sheds light on the epidemiological diversity of the disease.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2019 Jul 29;66(4):1619-1630. Epub 2019 Apr 29.

Wildlife Ecology & Health group (WE&H), Servei d' Ecopatologia de Fauna Salvatge (SEFaS), Departament de Medicina i Cirurgia Animals, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), Bellaterra, Spain.

Since 2001, Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) populations have been affected by border disease virus (BDV) causing mortalities of more than 80% in some areas. Field studies carried out in France, Andorra, and Spain have shown different epidemiological scenarios in chamois populations. This study was designed to confirm the presence of BDV strains of a high and low virulence in free-ranging chamois populations from Pyrenees and to understand the implications of these findings to the diverse epidemiological scenarios. An experimental infection of Pyrenean chamois with a high-virulence (Cadí-6) and low-virulence (Freser-5) BDV strains was performed. Pregnant and non-pregnant animals with and without antibodies against BDV were included in each group. Cadí-6 BDV strain was confirmed to be of high virulence for seronegative adults and their foetuses. The antibody negative chamois infected with Freser-5 BDV strain did not show symptoms, presented less viral distribution and RNA load in tissues than Cadí-6 group, and cleared the virus from the serum. However, foetuses died before the end of the experiment and RNA virus was detected in sera and tissues although with lower RNA load than the Cadí-6 group. Chamois from both groups presented lesions in brain but the ones infected with the low-virulence Freser-5 BDV strain were mild and most likely transient. In both groups, seropositive pregnant females and all but one of their foetuses did not present viraemia or viral RNA in tissues. The existence of a low-virulence strain has been confirmed experimentally and related to chamois population infection dynamics in the area where it was isolated. Such strain may persist in the chamois population through PI animals and may induce cross-protection in chamois against high-virulence strains. This study demonstrates that viral strain diversity is a significant factor in the heterogeneity of epidemiological scenarios in Pyrenean chamois populations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13195DOI Listing
July 2019

Seasonal diet composition of Pyrenean chamois is mainly shaped by primary production waves.

PLoS One 2019 23;14(1):e0210819. Epub 2019 Jan 23.

Wildlife Ecology and Health Group (WE&H), and Servei d'Ecopatologia de Fauna Salvatge (SEFaS), Departament de Medicina i Cirurgia Animals, Facultat de Veterinària, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain.

In alpine habitats, the seasonally marked climatic conditions generate seasonal and spatial differences in forage availability for herbivores. Vegetation availability and quality during the growing season are known to drive life history traits of mountain ungulates. However, little effort has been made to understand the association between plant phenology and changes in the foraging strategies of these mountain dwellers. Furthermore, this link can be affected by the seasonal presence of livestock in the same meadows. The objective of this work was to study the seasonal changes in diet composition of Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra p. pyrenaica) and its relationship to primary production trends in a Mediterranean alpine environment. Moreover, diet composition in two populations with contrasting livestock pressure was compared in order to study the effect of sheep flocks on the feeding behaviour of chamois. From 2009 to 2012, monthly diet composition was estimated by cuticle microhistological analysis of chamois faeces collected in the eastern Pyrenees. The primary production cycle was assessed by remote sensing, using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. Additionally, the diet of sheep sharing seasonally the subalpine and alpine meadows with chamois was analysed. Diet selection of chamois and sheep and their overlap was also assessed. Our results show an intra-annual variation in the diet composition of Pyrenean chamois and demonstrate a strong relationship between plant consumption dynamics and phenology in alpine areas. In addition, Calluna vulgaris, Cytisus spp. and Festuca spp., as well as forbs in the summer, are found to be key forage species for Pyrenean chamois. Furthermore, this study couldn't detect differences between both chamois populations despite the presence of sheep flocks in only one area. However, the detection of a shift in the diet of chamois in both areas after the arrival of high densities of multi-specific livestock suggest a general livestock effect. In conclusion, Pyrenean chamois are well adapted to the variations in the seasonal availability of plants in alpine habitats but could be disturbed by the seasonal presence of livestock. Due to the key plants in their diet, we suggest that population management programmes should focus on the preservation of mixed grasslands composed of patches of shrubs and herbs. The effects of climate change and shrub expansion should be studied as they may potentially affect chamois population dynamics through changes in habitat composition and temporal shifts in forage availability.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0210819PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6343923PMC
October 2019

Atypical porcine pestivirus in wild boar (), Spain.

Vet Rec 2018 Nov 10;183(18):569. Epub 2018 Sep 10.

Servei d'Ecopatologia de Fauna Salvatge, Departament de Medicina i Cirurgia Animals, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/vr.104824DOI Listing
November 2018

New insights on pestivirus infections in transhumant sheep and sympatric Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra p. pyrenaica).

Vet Microbiol 2018 Apr 9;217:82-89. Epub 2018 Mar 9.

Wildlife Ecology & Health Group (WE&H) and Servei d'Ecopatologia de Fauna Salvatge (SEFaS), Departament de Medicina i Cirurgia Animals, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), 08193 Bellaterra, Spain.

Border Disease Virus (BDV) causes health and economic impact on livestock and is also of importance in wildlife conservation as it causes high mortality outbreaks in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica). Pastoral practices are known as a main interspecies pathogen transmission. Hence, the presence of pestivirus in transhumant sheep flocks and sympatric chamois was assessed in areas with different epidemiological scenarios of chamois BDV infections. Moreover, the present study had also the goal to identify if inter-specific infections occurred and when they happened. Five sheep flocks grazing in two alpine areas in the Pyrenees with two different BDV epidemiological scenarios in chamois populations were studied during two transhumant seasons. Sheep were sampled before and after transhumance. Pyrenean chamois sera and spleen samples from both areas where also studied during the same period. Antibodies against BDV were assessed by means of ELISA and VNT. A qRT-PCR was used in order to detect the virus. Seroprevalence in sheep ranged between 0 and 91.1% at the flock level. Chamois were found to have high seroprevalences (52.9-77.7%) in both areas, and four new BDV isolates were sequenced. One sheep farm presented persistent BDV circulation and three showed low BDV circulation. The after-transhumance period was identified as the moment when viral transmission occured in the first farm, associated to BDV strains of domestic origin, according to VNT results. However, the BDV isolate was genetical closely related to previous BDV strains from chamois origin. In another farm, antibodies in two of the three positive sera were associated to infection with a chamois-like BDV strain. Altogether indicates that occasional viral transmission from chamois to sheep may occur.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2018.03.003DOI Listing
April 2018

Long-term dynamics of Mycoplasma conjunctivae at the wildlife-livestock interface in the Pyrenees.

PLoS One 2017 9;12(10):e0186069. Epub 2017 Oct 9.

Servei d'Ecopatologia de Fauna Salvatge (SEFaS), Departament de Medicina i Cirurgia, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Spain.

Functional roles of domestic and wild host populations in infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) epidemiology have been extensively discussed claiming a domestic reservoir for the more susceptible wild hosts, however, based on limited data. With the aim to better assess IKC epidemiology in complex host-pathogen alpine systems, the long-term infectious dynamics and molecular epidemiology of Mycoplasma conjunctivae was investigated in all host populations from six study areas in the Pyrenees and one in the Cantabrian Mountains (Northern Spain). Detection of M. conjunctivae was performed by qPCR on 3600 eye swabs collected during seven years from hunted wild ungulates and sympatric domestic sheep (n = 1800 animals), and cluster analyses of the strains were performed including previous reported local strains. Mycoplasma conjunctivae was consistently detected in three Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra p. pyrenaica) populations, as well as in sheep flocks (17.0% of sheep) and occasionally in mouflon (Ovis aries musimon) from the Pyrenees (22.2% in one year/area); statistically associated with ocular clinical signs only in chamois. Chamois populations showed different infection dynamics with low but steady prevalence (4.9%) and significant yearly fluctuations (0.0%- 40.0%). Persistence of specific M. conjunctivae strain clusters in wild host populations is demonstrated for six and nine years. Cross-species transmission between chamois and sheep and chamois and mouflon were also sporadically evidenced. Overall, independent M. conjunctivae sylvatic and domestic cycles occurred at the wildlife-livestock interface in the alpine ecosystems from the Pyrenees with sheep and chamois as the key host species for each cycle, and mouflon as a spill-over host. Host population characteristics and M. conjunctivae strains resulted in different epidemiological scenarios in chamois, ranging from the fading out of the mycoplasma to the epidemic and endemic long-term persistence. These findings highlight the capacity of M. conjunctivae to establish diverse interactions and persist in host populations, also with different transmission conditions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0186069PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5633175PMC
October 2017

African swine fever virus infection in Classical swine fever subclinically infected wild boars.

BMC Vet Res 2017 Aug 1;13(1):227. Epub 2017 Aug 1.

IRTA, Centre de Recerca en Sanitat Animal (CReSA, IRTA-UAB), Campus de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193, Bellaterra, Spain.

Background: Recently moderate-virulence classical swine fever virus (CSFV) strains have been proven capable of generating postnatal persistent infection (PI), defined by the maintenance of viremia and the inability to generate CSFV-specific immune responses in animals. These animals also showed a type I interferon blockade in the absence of clinical signs. In this study, we assessed the infection generated in 7-week-old CSFV PI wild boars after infection with the African swine fever virus (ASFV). The wild boars were divided in two groups and were infected with ASFV. Group A comprised boars who were CSFV PI in a subclinical form and Group B comprised pestivirus-free wild boars. Some relevant parameters related to CSFV replication and the immune response of CSFV PI animals were studied. Additionally, serum soluble factors such as IFN-α, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-γ and sCD163 were analysed before and after ASFV infection to assess their role in disease progression.

Results: After ASFV infection, only the CSFV PI wild boars showed progressive acute haemorrhagic disease; however, the survival rates following ASFV infection was similar in both experimental groups. Notwithstanding, the CSFV RNA load of CSFV PI animals remained unaltered over the study; likewise, the ASFV DNA load detected after infection was similar between groups. Interestingly, systemic type I FN-α and IL-10 levels in sera were almost undetectable in CSFV PI animals, yet detectable in Group B, while detectable levels of IFN-γ were found in both groups. Finally, the flow cytometry analysis showed an increase in myelomonocytic cells (CD172a) and a decrease in CD4 T cells in the PBMCs from CSFV PI animals after ASFV infection.

Conclusions: Our results showed that the immune response plays a role in the progression of disease in CSFV subclinically infected wild boars after ASFV infection, and the immune response comprised the systemic type I interferon blockade. ASFV does not produce any interference with CSFV replication, or vice versa. ASFV infection could be a trigger factor for the disease progression in CSFV PI animals, as their survival after ASFV was similar to that of the pestivirus-free ASFV-infected group. This fact suggests a high resistance in CSFV PI animals even against a virus like ASFV; this may mean that there are relevant implications for CSF control in endemic countries. The diagnosis of ASFV and CSFV co-infection in endemic countries cannot be ruled out and need to be studied in greater depth.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12917-017-1150-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5540480PMC
August 2017

EFFECTS OF SEASON AND POSTMORTEM CHANGES ON BLOOD ANALYTES IN PYRENEAN CHAMOIS (RUPICAPRA PYRENAICA PYRENAICA).

J Wildl Dis 2017 10 22;53(4):718-724. Epub 2017 Jun 22.

1   Serveid'Ecopatologia de Fauna Salvatge, Departament de Medicina i Cirurgia Animals, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain.

Our objectives were to evaluate the effects of the 1) season, and 2) postmortem changes on serum biochemistries related with metabolism in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica). Serum samples from 98 animals obtained from 2009 to 2012 were included. To investigate seasonal influences on blood parameters, the Pyrenean chamois were captured in drive-nets during the feed abundant (FA; n=32) and food deficient (FD; n=35) seasons. To evaluate the possible differences in biochemistry analytes when sampling live or dead animals, we used serum samples from 32 captured animals and 31 dead animals (obtained during controlled hunting) in the FA season. Significant increases in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (24%), nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA, 190%), total antioxidant capacity (68%), and haptoglobin (33%) were observed in FD when compared with FA seasons. Albumin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) showed statistically significant decreases of 10% and 11%, respectively, in samples taken in the FD season compared to the FA season. Statistically significant higher concentrations were found in serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (22%), triglycerides (28%), acetylcholinesterase (50%), NEFA (383%), albumin (18%), IGF-1 (53%), cortisol (959%), and paraoxonase-1 (20%) in samples collected from live animals compared to samples collected from dead ones. We demonstrated that season should be taken into account when evaluating serum biochemistries in Pyrenean chamois because, in the FD season, these animals present lipid mobilization, decreased albumin and IGF-1, and increased total antioxidant capacity compared with the FA season. In addition, if samples are taken from dead animals, observed decreases in serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, albumin, paraoxonase-1, acetylcholinesterase, NEFA, cortisol, IGF-1, and an increase in haptoglobin should be expected.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7589/2016-06-126DOI Listing
October 2017

Predicting herbivore faecal nitrogen using a multispecies near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy calibration.

PLoS One 2017 28;12(4):e0176635. Epub 2017 Apr 28.

Ruminant Research Group, Departament de Ciència Animal i dels Aliments, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain.

Optimal management of free-ranging herbivores requires the accurate assessment of an animal's nutritional status. For this purpose 'near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy' (NIRS) is very useful, especially when nutritional assessment is done through faecal indicators such as faecal nitrogen (FN). In order to perform an NIRS calibration, the default protocol recommends starting by generating an initial equation based on at least 50-75 samples from the given species. Although this protocol optimises prediction accuracy, it limits the use of NIRS with rare or endangered species where sample sizes are often small. To overcome this limitation we tested a single NIRS equation (i.e., multispecies calibration) to predict FN in herbivores. Firstly, we used five herbivore species with highly contrasting digestive physiologies to build monospecies and multispecies calibrations, namely horse, sheep, Pyrenean chamois, red deer and European rabbit. Secondly, the equation accuracy was evaluated by two procedures using: (1) an external validation with samples from the same species, which were not used in the calibration process; and (2) samples from different ungulate species, specifically Alpine ibex, domestic goat, European mouflon, roe deer and cattle. The multispecies equation was highly accurate in terms of the coefficient of determination for calibration R2 = 0.98, standard error of validation SECV = 0.10, standard error of external validation SEP = 0.12, ratio of performance to deviation RPD = 5.3, and range error of prediction RER = 28.4. The accuracy of the multispecies equation to predict other herbivore species was also satisfactory (R2 > 0.86, SEP < 0.27, RPD > 2.6, and RER > 8.1). Lastly, the agreement between multi- and monospecies calibrations was also confirmed by the Bland-Altman method. In conclusion, our single multispecies equation can be used as a reliable, cost-effective, easy and powerful analytical method to assess FN in a wide range of herbivore species.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0176635PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5409079PMC
September 2017

Spatial and Temporal Phylogeny of Border Disease Virus in Pyrenean Chamois (Rupicapra p. pyrenaica).

PLoS One 2016 29;11(12):e0168232. Epub 2016 Dec 29.

Centro di Ricerca Coordinata Epidemiologia e Sorveglianza Molecolare delle Infezioni-EpiSoMI, University of Milan, Milano, Italy.

Border disease virus (BDV) affects a wide range of ruminants worldwide, mainly domestic sheep and goat. Since 2001 several outbreaks of disease associated to BDV infection have been described in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) in Spain, France and Andorra. In order to reconstruct the most probable places of origin and pathways of dispersion of BDV among Pyrenean chamois, a phylogenetic analysis of 95 BDV 5'untranslated sequences has been performed on chamois and domestic ungulates, including novel sequences and retrieved from public databases, using a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo method. Discrete and continuous space phylogeography have been applied on chamois sequences dataset, using centroid positions and latitude and longitude coordinates of the animals, respectively. The estimated mean evolutionary rate of BDV sequences was 2.9×10-3 subs/site/year (95% HPD: 1.5-4.6×10-3). All the Pyrenean chamois isolates clustered in a unique highly significant clade, that originated from BDV-4a ovine clade. The introduction from sheep (dated back to the early 90s) generated a founder effect on the chamois population and the most probable place of origin of Pyrenean chamois BDV was estimated at coordinates 42.42 N and 1.9 E. The pathways of virus dispersion showed two main routes: the first started on the early 90s of the past century with a westward direction and the second arise in Central Pyrenees. The virus spread westward for more than 125 km and southward for about 50km and the estimated epidemic diffusion rate was about 13.1 km/year (95% HPD 5.2-21.4 km/year). The strong spatial structure, with strains from a single locality segregating together in homogeneous groups, and the significant pathways of viral dispersion among the areas, allowed to reconstruct both events of infection in a single area and of migrations, occurring between neighboring areas.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0168232PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5199066PMC
July 2017

Absence of antibodies specific to Besnoitia spp. in European sheep and goats from areas in Spain where bovine besnoitiosis is endemic.

Parasitol Res 2017 Jan 4;116(1):445-448. Epub 2016 Nov 4.

SALUVET, Animal Health Department, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Complutense University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040, Madrid, Spain.

Besnoitia besnoiti and B. caprae, which infect bovids (cattle and antelopes) and goats, respectively, are responsible for besnoitiosis, a chronic and debilitating disease. Bovine besnoitiosis is considered to be a reemerging disease in Central and Western Europe. In addition, infection by Besnoitia spp. has been reported in reindeer from Sweden and Finland. Recently, the parasite was also detected in roe deer and red deer from Spain, where an interconnection between the domestic and sylvatic cycles of B. besnoiti has been presumed. In contrast, caprine besnoitiosis seems to be enzootic to Kenya and Iran. The presence of Besnoitia spp. in small domestic ruminants has never been explored in Europe, and the role that these species might play in the epidemiology of bovine besnoitiosis, as intermediate hosts or reservoirs of B. besnoiti, remains unknown. Herein, the first serosurvey conducted in European sheep and goats from areas in Spain where bovine besnoitiosis is endemic is described. Convenience sampling was conducted of 1943 sheep and 342 goats close to cattle from the Pyrenees and Central Spain that were infected with endemic Besnoitia spp. Serum samples were first analyzed by ELISA and then by confirmatory Western blot. Specific antibodies were not found in any sampled animal. Thus, sheep are unlikely to play a role in the epidemiology of bovine besnoitiosis, at least in the sampled areas. A larger serosurvey is necessary to determine whether goats might be a putative reservoir. To confirm the results of this study, sheep and goats should be further studied in other European countries and regions where their numbers are high and where bovine besnoitiosis is spreading.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-016-5311-zDOI Listing
January 2017

Determination of fluoroquinolone antibiotic residues in the plasma of Eurasian griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) in Spain.

Sci Total Environ 2016 07 31;557-558:620-6. Epub 2016 Mar 31.

Department of Animal Science (Division of Wildlife), Faculty of Life Sciences and Engineering, University of Lleida, 25003 Lleida, Spain; Division of Conservation Biology, Institute of Ecology and Evolution. University of Bern, 3012 Bern, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Due to the possible toxicological impact, the accumulation of pharmaceuticals in wildlife as a consequence of human practices is of growing concern. The consumption of carrion at feeding stations - the so-called 'vulture restaurants' - with no management of the veterinary drugs it contains may expose scavengers to pharmaceuticals. To demonstrate this, we analyzed plasma from Eurasian griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) originating from two different areas of Spain for antibiotics such as enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin, its primary metabolite. Quinolone residues were detected in about 65% (n=106) of birds, of which 15.1% (16/106) had quantifiable amounts of enrofloxacin (0.049±0.102μg/mL) and 5.7% (6/106) of ciprofloxacin (0.009±0.007μg/mL). The differences in exposure between the two sampled areas are attributable to different types of carrion management: the vultures that fed in areas with a high density of dead livestock (supplied directly to feeding stations) were more prone to exposure than those that sought food in areas where carcass availability is more unpredictable. Our findings are evidence that vultures have access to medicated livestock and that there are quantifiable levels of livestock antibiotics in vulture plasma. However, the vultures analyzed in this study had maximum antibiotic concentrations of only 0.4μg/mL, much less than the concentrations used in the clinical treatment of scavengers and a level that is probably too small to cause intoxication.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.03.083DOI Listing
July 2016

Classical Swine Fever Virus vs. Classical Swine Fever Virus: The Superinfection Exclusion Phenomenon in Experimentally Infected Wild Boar.

PLoS One 2016 26;11(2):e0149469. Epub 2016 Feb 26.

IRTA, Centre de Recerca en Sanitat Animal (CReSA, IRTA-UAB), Campus de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain.

Two groups with three wild boars each were used: Group A (animals 1 to 3) served as the control, and Group B (animals 4 to 6) was postnatally persistently infected with the Cat01 strain of CSFV (primary virus). The animals, six weeks old and clinically healthy, were inoculated with the virulent strain Margarita (secondary virus). For exclusive detection of the Margarita strain, a specific qRT-PCR assay was designed, which proved not to have cross-reactivity with the Cat01 strain. The wild boars persistently infected with CSFV were protected from superinfection by the virulent CSFV Margarita strain, as evidenced by the absence of clinical signs and the absence of Margarita RNA detection in serum, swabs and tissue samples. Additionally, in PBMCs, a well-known target for CSFV viral replication, only the primary infecting virus RNA (Cat01 strain) could be detected, even after the isolation in ST cells, demonstrating SIE at the tissue level in vivo. Furthermore, the data analysis of the Margarita qRT-PCR, by means of calculated ΔCt values, supported that PBMCs from persistently infected animals were substantially protected from superinfection after in vitro inoculation with the Margarita virus strain, while this virus was able to infect naive PBMCs efficiently. In parallel, IFN-α values were undetectable in the sera from animals in Group B after inoculation with the CSFV Margarita strain. Furthermore, these animals were unable to elicit adaptive humoral (no E2-specific or neutralising antibodies) or cellular immune responses (in terms of IFN-γ-producing cells) after inoculation with the second virus. Finally, a sequence analysis could not detect CSFV Margarita RNA in the samples tested from Group B. Our results suggested that the SIE phenomenon might be involved in the evolution and phylogeny of the virus, as well as in CSFV control by vaccination. To the best of our knowledge, this study was one of the first showing efficient suppression of superinfection in animals, especially in the absence of IFN-α, which might be associated with the lack of innate immune mechanisms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0149469PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4768946PMC
July 2016

Border Disease Virus: An Exceptional Driver of Chamois Populations Among Other Threats.

Front Microbiol 2015 18;6:1307. Epub 2015 Dec 18.

Servei d'Ecopatologia de Fauna Salvatge, Departament de Medicina i Cirurgia Animals, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona Barcelona, Spain.

Though it is accepted that emerging infectious diseases are a threat to planet biodiversity, little information exists about their role as drivers of species extinction. Populations are also affected by natural catastrophes and other pathogens, making it difficult to estimate the particular impact of emerging infectious diseases. Border disease virus genogroup 4 (BDV-4) caused a previously unreported decrease in populations of Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) in Spain. Using a population viability analysis, we compared probabilities of extinction of a virtual chamois population affected by winter conditions, density dependence, keratoconjunctivitis, sarcoptic mange, and BD outbreaks. BD-affected populations showed double risk of becoming extinct in 50 years, confirming the exceptional ability of this virus to drive chamois populations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2015.01307DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4683209PMC
January 2016

Cardiopulmonary helminths in foxes from the Pyrenees.

Acta Parasitol 2015 Dec;60(4):712-5

The present survey was carried out to investigate the prevalence of cardiopulmonary helminths in red foxes in Pyrenees area and to evaluate the role of foxes in the eco-epidemiology of these nematodes. Hearts and entire respiratory tracts were obtained from 87 foxes from Vall d'Aran region, Pyrenees, Catalonia, north-eastern Spain. The cardiopulmonary tracts were dissected, flushed and examined for nematodes using sedimented flushing water. Of the 87 examined foxes, 53 (61%) were positive for cardiopulmonary helminths. The identified nematodes were Crenosoma vulpis (44.8%), Eucoleus aerophilus (29.9%) and Angiostrongylus vasorum (3.4%). Statistical differences were observed only on comparing age and C.vulpis prevalence, with young foxes being more infected than adults. The high prevalence of cardiopulmonary nematodes suggested that red foxes may play an important role in their transmission and maintenance in the studied area.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/ap-2015-0101DOI Listing
December 2015

The two sides of border disease in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica): silent persistence and population collapse.

Anim Health Res Rev 2015 Jun;16(1):70-7

Servei d'Ecopatologia de Fauna Salvatge,Departament de Medicina i Cirurgia Animals,Facultat de Veterinària,Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,08193-Bellaterra,Spain.

In 2001, border disease virus (BDV) was identified as the cause of a previously unreported disease in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) in Spain. Since then, the disease has caused a dramatic decrease, and in some cases collapse, of chamois populations and has expanded to nearly the entire distribution area in the Pyrenees. Chamois BDV was characterized as BDV-4 genotype and experimental studies confirmed that it was the primary agent of the disease. The infection has become endemic in the Central and Eastern Pyrenees. However, while most Pyrenean chamois populations have been severely affected by the disease, others have not, despite the circulation of BDV in apparently healthy individuals, suggesting the existence of different viral strategies for persisting in the host population. Changes in the interplay of pathogen, host and environmental factors may lead to the formation of different disease patterns. A key factor influencing disease emergence may be pathogen invasiveness through viral mutation. Host factors, such as behavior, immunity at the population level and genetic variability, may also have driven different epidemiological scenarios. Climatic and other ecological factors may have favored secondary infections, such as pneumonia, that under particular circumstances have been major contributing factors in the high mortality observed in some areas.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1466252315000055DOI Listing
June 2015

Hematologic and biochemical reference intervals for Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) captured by cage trap.

Vet Clin Pathol 2015 Jun 20;44(2):215-22. Epub 2015 Apr 20.

Servei d'Hematologia Clínica Veterinària (SHCV) - Veterinary Clinical Hematology Service, Departament de Medicina i Cirurgia Animals, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Establishing reference intervals (RI) for hematologic and biochemical variables in wild animals presents great challenges because capture stress or anesthesia during sampling can affect blood variables.

Objectives: The aims of this study were to establish RI for hematologic and blood biochemistry variables for Wild Boar (Sus scrofa) caught using cage traps, and provide information on the studied variables for different age groups.

Methods: Blood samples were obtained from 89 Wild Boars captured by cage trap between 2005 and 2013 in northeastern Spain. Piglets were handled without anesthesia, while juvenile and adult animals were anesthetized using a combination of tiletamine and zolazepam. Blood samples were collected from the anterior vena cava and were placed into plain and EDTA tubes. Thirteen hematologic and 21 biochemical variables were determined. Reference intervals for piglets and juvenile and adult groups were determined, and differences between these groups were statistically analyzed.

Results: Adults had higher HGB, PCV, MCH, MCHC, neutrophil count, and total protein, albumin, creatinine, and chloride concentrations than juveniles; in contrast, juveniles had higher values for lymphocyte count, cholesterol concentration, and ALP activity.

Conclusions: Reference intervals determined in this study provide a baseline for interpreting hematologic and biochemical results in Wild Boar at different age stages, and contribute to optimization of the management of this species.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vcp.12250DOI Listing
June 2015

Estimation of cultivable bacterial diversity in the cloacae and pharynx in Eurasian griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus).

Microb Ecol 2015 Apr 12;69(3):597-607. Epub 2014 Nov 12.

Centro de Vigilancia Sanitaria Veterinaria (VISAVET), Universidad Complutense, 28040, Madrid, Spain.

In this work, we describe the biodiversity of cloacal and pharynx culture-based bacteria (commensal and pathogenic), in 75 Eurasian griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) from two geographic areas. We address the question of whether the cultivable microbiota of vultures is organised into assemblages occurring by chance. In addition, we assess bacterial diversity in both anatomic regions and geographic areas. Bacterial diversity was represented by 26 Gram-negative and 20 Gram-positive genera. The most common genera were Escherichia, Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, Clostridium and Lactococcus. Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis were the most common species in cloacal and pharyngeal samples. Staphylococcus and Erysipelothrix were isolated from the pharynx and Salmonella and Corynebacterium from the cloacae, and no Campylobacter was isolated from the cloacal swabs. Ten cloacal swabs were positive for Salmonella, of which five isolates were Salmonella enterica serotype 4,(5),12:i:-, one isolate was S. enterica serotype Derby, three isolates were S. enterica serotype 61:k:1,5,7 and one isolate was S. enterica serotype Infantis. The null modelling approach revealed that the commensal bacteria of vultures are not structured in assemblages. On the other hand, differences in bacterial genus and species richness between cloacal and pharyngeal samples or between geographic areas were clear, with the pharynx in vultures from both geographic areas being richer. The results of this study indicate also that vultures can serve as a reservoir of certain pathogenic zoonotic bacteria. The dissemination of these zoonotic pathogens in wildlife could be prevented by periodic sanitary surveys.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00248-014-0513-3DOI Listing
April 2015

Long-term assessment of wild boar harvesting and cattle removal for bovine tuberculosis control in free ranging populations.

PLoS One 2014 18;9(2):e88824. Epub 2014 Feb 18.

Servei d'Ecopatologia de Fauna Salvatge (SEFaS), Departament de Medicina i Cirurgia Animal, Facultat de Veterinària, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain ; Estadística i Investigació Operativa, Departament de Matemàtica. Universitat de Lleida, Lleida, Spain.

Wild boar is a recognized reservoir of bovine tuberculosis (TB) in the Mediterranean ecosystems, but information is scarce outside of hotspots in southern Spain. We describe the first high-prevalence focus of TB in a non-managed wild boar population in northern Spain and the result of eight years of TB management. Measures implemented for disease control included the control of the local wild boar population through culling and stamping out of a sympatric infected cattle herd. Post-mortem inspection for detection of tuberculosis-like lesions as well as cultures from selected head and cervical lymph nodes was done in 745 wild boar, 355 Iberian ibexes and five cattle between 2004 and 2012. The seasonal prevalence of TB reached 70% amongst adult wild boar and ten different spoligotypes and 13 MIRU-VNTR profiles were detected, although more than half of the isolates were included in the same clonal complex. Only 11% of infected boars had generalized lesions. None of the ibexes were affected, supporting their irrelevance in the epidemiology of TB. An infected cattle herd grazed the zone where 168 of the 197 infected boars were harvested. Cattle removal and wild boar culling together contributed to a decrease in TB prevalence. The need for holistic, sustained over time, intensive and adapted TB control strategies taking into account the multi-host nature of the disease is highlighted. The potential risk for tuberculosis emergence in wildlife scenarios where the risk is assumed to be low should be addressed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0088824PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3928305PMC
December 2014

Effect of perphenazine enanthate in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica).

J Zoo Wildl Med 2013 Dec;44(4):1083-5

Departament de Ciència Animal i dels Aliments, Facultat de Veterinària, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193-Bellaterra, Spain.

Perphenazine enanthate was used to allow adaptation to captivity in 11 Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica). At the time of capture, all animals received 0.10 mg/kg of acepromazine maleate and 2.5 mg/kg of perphenazine enanthate intramuscularly. The effect was evaluated by means of three behaviors: alertness, defecation, and flight distance. The tranquilization and lack of fear of humans of all animals were determined and the usefulness of this long-acting tranquilizer for chamois adaptation to captivity was confirmed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1638/2012-0272R.1DOI Listing
December 2013

Mineral levels in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica).

Biol Trace Elem Res 2014 Mar 22;157(3):218-23. Epub 2014 Jan 22.

Servei d'Ecopatologia de Fauna Salvatge (SEFaS), Departament de Medicina i Cirurgia Animals. Facultat de Veterinària (Edifici V), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain.

The effects of mineral deficiencies are often sub-clinical, and the importance of mineral status is often underestimated in wildlife populations. To our knowledge, this is the first study that gives reference intervals of hepatic minerals for Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica). We determined macro and trace mineral concentrations in liver samples from 100 animals (44 healthy and 56 sick) collected in the Catalan Pyrenees (NE Spain) from 1995 to 2008. After wet digestion, we determined Na, K, Ca, P, Mg, S, and Fe concentrations by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and Cu, Zn, and Mo concentrations by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). We observed low hepatic concentrations of Cu in a considerable percentage of chamois, without evidences that these low concentrations increased their susceptibility to infectious diseases. The group of sick chamois had very similar percentage of animals (10/56) with low concentration of Cu (<20 ppm DW) than the group of healthy chamois (9/44). On the other hand, we observed that infectious diseases increased significantly the hepatic concentrations of Na, Ca, Mg, Fe and Zn, very likely, as a consequence of processes associated with the acute phase inflammatory response. The obtained values of liver mineral levels and their sources of variation, such as sex, age and disease, mostly fall within the range of those described for other ruminants, but possible deficiencies and differences between individuals and populations require further study.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-014-9894-xDOI Listing
March 2014

Mycoplasma conjunctivae in domestic small ruminants from high mountain habitats in Northern Spain.

BMC Vet Res 2013 Dec 13;9:253. Epub 2013 Dec 13.

Servei d'Ecopatologia de Fauna Salvatge (SEFaS), Departament de Medicina i Cirurgia Animals, Facultat de Veterinària, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain.

Background: Infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) is a clinical condition affecting eyes of domestic and wild Caprinae worldwide, and Mycoplasma conjunctivae is considered the primary causative agent of IKC in sheep, goats and wild Caprinae. Domestic ruminants from high mountain habitats share grazing areas with wild mountain ungulates, such as chamois (Rupicapra spp.), Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) and European mouflon (Ovis aries musimon), and domestic sheep seem to act as M. conjunctivae reservoir. In this study, the presence of M. conjunctivae in domestic sheep and goats from the two main mountain ranges of Northern Spain, the Pyrenees and the Cantabrian Mountains, has been investigated.

Results: Eye swabs were obtained from 439 domestic small ruminants selected from flocks that seasonally graze in alpine meadows during three consecutive years (2011-2012-2013). Seventy-nine out of the 378 domestic sheep (20.9%) tested positive to a M. conjunctivae specific real time-PCR (rt-PCR) in at least one eye, whereas all the 61 sampled domestic goats were negative. Statistically significant higher prevalence and higher proportion of infected flocks (P < 0.001) was observed in the Pyrenees (25.7%; 12 flocks out of 13), where M. conjunctivae is widespread and probably endemic in domestic sheep, than in the Cantabrian Mountains (7.8%; one flock out of six). Twenty-five sheep (three from the Pyrenees and 22 from the Cantabrian Mountains) which showed clinical signs consistent with infectious keratoconjunctivitis (IKC) were negative by rt-PCR. In contrast, 62 out of the 71 (87.3%) M. conjunctivae-positive sheep from the Pyrenees and the eight positive sheep from the Cantabrian Mountains were asymptomatic.

Conclusions: This study provides rt-PCR-based evidences of M. conjunctivae maintenance in domestic sheep, as well as a relationship between prevalence in domestic sheep and previously reported M. conjunctivae and IKC in wild ruminants. Domestic goats do not seem to play an important role in the epidemiology of M. conjunctivae in alpine habitats from Northern Spain.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1746-6148-9-253DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3883482PMC
December 2013

Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) carriage in different free-living wild animal species in Spain.

Vet J 2013 Oct 9;198(1):127-30. Epub 2013 Jul 9.

Centro de Vigilancia Sanitaria Veterinaria (VISAVET), Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a life-threatening pathogen in humans and its presence in animals is a public health concern. The aim of this study was to measure the prevalence of MRSA in free-living wild animals. Samples from red deer (n=273), Iberian ibex (n=212), Eurasian Griffon vulture (n=40) and wild boar (n=817) taken from different areas in Spain between June 2008 and November 2011 were analyzed. Characterization of the isolates was performed by spa typing, multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A low prevalence of MRSA was found with 13 isolates obtained from 12 animals (0.89%; 95% CI: 0.46-1.56). All MRSA sequence types belonged to ST398 (t011 and t1451) and ST1 (t127). Genotypes and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns (tetracycline resistance in ST398 and clindamycin-erythromycin-tetracycline resistance in ST1) suggest that the MRSA found probably originated in livestock (ST398) or humans (ST1). This is the first report of MRSA carriers in free-living wild animals in Europe. Although our data showed that MRSA prevalence is currently low, free-living wild animals might act as reservoir and represent a potential risk for human health.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2013.06.004DOI Listing
October 2013

First serosurvey of Besnoitia spp. infection in wild European ruminants in Spain.

Vet Parasitol 2013 Nov 30;197(3-4):557-64. Epub 2013 May 30.

SALUVET, Animal Health Department, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences, Complutense University of Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid, Spain.

Besnoitia besnoiti has been reported to affect cattle, wildebeest, kudu and impala, and B. tarandi other wild ruminants (caribou, reindeer, mule deer and musk ox), causing similar characteristic clinical signs and lesions. However, both Besnoitia species have been reported in different geographical areas and the link between the sylvatic and domestic life cycles of Besnoita spp. in wild ruminants and cattle remains unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of specific antibodies against Besnoitia spp. in wild ruminants in Spain. A wide panel of sera from red deer (Cervus elaphus) (n=734), roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) (n=124), chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) (n=170) and mouflon (Ovis musimon) (n=20) collected from different locations of Spain was analyzed. Beef cattle were present in all sampled areas and, interestingly, bovine besnoitiosis has been widely reported in some of them (e.g., Pyrenees and Central Spain). Sera samples were first examined with an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). For red deer and roe deer, the ELISA was standardized with positive and negative control sera from several Cervidae species (100% Se and 98% Sp). Chamois and mouflon sera samples were tested with a previously reported ELISA validated for bovine sera (97% Se and 95% Sp) using protein G as a conjugate. Positive results by ELISA were confirmed a posteriori with a tachyzoite-based Western blot. Sixty-one sera samples from red deer and 17 sera samples from roe-deer were seropositive or doubtful by ELISA. All samples from mouflon were seronegative and 15 sera samples from chamois were considered doubtful. B. besnoiti exposure was only confirmed clearly by Western blot in one red deer and one roe deer from the Spanish Pyrenees where the disease is traditionally endemic. This is the first serological report of Besnoitia spp. infection carried out in European wild ruminants and the results show that specific antibodies are present at least in red deer and roe-deer. Thus, wild ruminants from endemic regions of bovine besnoitiosis should be further studied because they may be putative reservoirs of the parasite.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2013.05.017DOI Listing
November 2013

Experimental infection of pregnant Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) with border disease virus subtype 4.

J Wildl Dis 2013 Jan;49(1):55-68

ANSES, Laboratoire de Sophia-Antipolis, Unité Pathologie des Ruminants, 105 Route des Chappes B.P.111, 06902 Sophia-Antipolis Cedex, France.

Border disease virus (BDV) causes high mortality in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) on the French and Spanish sides of the Pyrenees Mountains. We investigated the pathology induced by BDV in pregnant chamois via experimental infection. Three females were inoculated during the second third of pregnancy with a BDV-4 subgroup strain isolated from a wild Pyrenean chamois during an acute epizootic. A fourth pregnant chamois and one nonpregnant ewe were kept as negative controls. Animals were monitored to assess clinical signs, hematology, viremia, and serology. Postmortem examinations included necropsy, histopathology, and quantification of viral RNA in organs. Pregnancy was unsuccessful in all inoculated animals. One died 24 days postinoculation (dpi) without showing any precursory clinical signs. The second animal had profuse diarrhea from 13 dpi to its death at 51 dpi. The third aborted at 46 dpi and was euthanized at 51 dpi. All animals were viremic from 4 dpi until death. Neutralizing antibodies against BDV-4 were detected from 12 dpi. Necropsies showed generalized lymphadenomegaly, associated in one case with disseminated petechial hemorrhages in the digestive tract. Seventy-eight of 79 organs from inoculated adults and their fetuses had detectable viral RNA. The main histologic lesions in adults were mild lymphohistiocytic encephalitis associated with moderate or moderately severe lymphoid depletion. Control animals remained negative for virus (in blood and organs), antibody, and lesions upon postmortem examination. BDV infection during pregnancy in Pyrenean chamois causes severe disease leading to abortion, then death. Despite 100% fetal death following inoculation, viral RNA was recovered from all organs of infected fetuses, suggesting that persistently infected offspring could be born. Our results may help explain the reported decrease in chamois populations in several areas and suggest that great care must be taken when interpreting infection status for wildlife.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7589/2011-09-260DOI Listing
January 2013

Two different epidemiological scenarios of border disease in the populations of Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra p. pyrenaica) after the first disease outbreaks.

PLoS One 2012 10;7(12):e51031. Epub 2012 Dec 10.

Servei d'Ecopatologia de Fauna Salvatge, Facultat de Veterinària, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain.

Since 2001 several outbreaks of a new disease associated with Border disease virus (BDV) infection have caused important declines in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) populations in the Pyrenees. The goal of this study was to analyze the post-outbreak BDV epidemiology in the first two areas affected by disease with the aim to establish if the infection has become endemic. We also investigated if BDV infected wild and domestic ruminants sharing habitat with chamois. Unexpectedly, we found different epidemiological scenarios in each population. Since the disease outbreaks, some chamois populations recuperated quickly, while others did not recover as expected. In chamois from the first areas, prevalence was high (73.47%) and constant throughout the whole study period and did not differ between chamois born before and after the BDV outbreak; in all, BDV was detected by RT-PCR in six chamois. In the other areas, prevalence was lower (52.79%) and decreased during the study period; as well, prevalence was significantly lower in chamois born after the disease outbreak. No BDV were detected in this population. A comparative virus neutralisation test performed with four BDV strains and one Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) strain showed that all the chamois had BDV-specific antibodies. Pestivirus antibodies were detected in all the rest of analyzed species, with low prevalence values in wild ruminants and moderate values in domestic ruminants. No viruses were detected in these species. These results confirm the hypothesis that outbreaks of BDV infection only affect the Pyrenean chamois, although other wild ruminants can occasionally be infected. In conclusion, two different scenarios have appeared since the first border disease outbreaks in Pyrenean chamois: on the one hand frequent BDV circulation with possible negative impact on population dynamics in some areas and on the other, lack of virus circulation and quick recovery of the chamois population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0051031PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3519488PMC
June 2013