Publications by authors named "Ignace Vergote"

473 Publications

Lurbinectedin versus pegylated liposomal doxorubicin or topotecan in patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer: A multicenter, randomized, controlled, open-label phase 3 study (CORAIL).

Gynecol Oncol 2021 Sep 11. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Fondazione IRCCS - Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milano, and Fondazione Policlinico Gemelli IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Objective: The randomized phase 3 CORAIL trial evaluated whether lurbinectedin improved progression-free survival (PFS) compared to pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) or topotecan in patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer.

Methods: Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to lurbinectedin 3.2 mg/m 1-h i.v. infusion q3wk (experimental arm), versus PLD 50 mg/m 1-h i.v. infusion q4wk or topotecan 1.50 mg/m 30-min i.v. infusion Days 1-5 q3wk (control arm). Stratification factors were PS (0 vs. ≥1), prior PFI (1-3 months vs. >3 months), and prior chemotherapy lines (1-2 vs. 3). The primary endpoint was PFS by Independent Review Committee in all randomized patients. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02421588.

Results: 442 patients were randomized: 221 in lurbinectedin arm and 221 in control arm (127 PLD and 94 topotecan). With a median follow-up of 25.6 months, median PFS was 3.5 months (95% CI, 2.1-3.7) in the lurbinectedin arm and 3.6 months (95% CI, 2.7-3.8) in the control arm (stratified log-rank p = 0.6294; HR = 1.057). Grade ≥ 3 treatment-related adverse events (AEs) were most frequent in the control arm: 64.8% vs. 47.9% (p = 0.0005), mainly due to hematological toxicities. The most common grade ≥ 3 AEs were: fatigue (7.3% of patients) and nausea (5.9%) with lurbinectedin; mucosal inflammation (8.5%) and fatigue (8.0%) in the control arm.

Conclusions: The primary endpoint of improvement in PFS was not met. Lurbinectedin showed similar antitumor efficacy and was better tolerated than current standard of care in patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2021.08.032DOI Listing
September 2021

Radiotherapy Versus Inguinofemoral Lymphadenectomy as Treatment for Vulvar Cancer Patients With Micrometastases in the Sentinel Node: Results of GROINSS-V II.

J Clin Oncol 2021 Aug 25:JCO2100006. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

James Cook University Hospital, South Tees NHS Foundation Trust, Middlesbrough, United Kingdom.

Purpose: The Groningen International Study on Sentinel nodes in Vulvar cancer (GROINSS-V)-II investigated whether inguinofemoral radiotherapy is a safe alternative to inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy (IFL) in vulvar cancer patients with a metastatic sentinel node (SN).

Methods: GROINSS-V-II was a prospective multicenter phase-II single-arm treatment trial, including patients with early-stage vulvar cancer (diameter < 4 cm) without signs of lymph node involvement at imaging, who had primary surgical treatment (local excision with SN biopsy). Where the SN was involved (metastasis of any size), inguinofemoral radiotherapy was given (50 Gy). The primary end point was isolated groin recurrence rate at 24 months. Stopping rules were defined for the occurrence of groin recurrences.

Results: From December 2005 until October 2016, 1,535 eligible patients were registered. The SN showed metastasis in 322 (21.0%) patients. In June 2010, with 91 SN-positive patients included, the stopping rule was activated because the isolated groin recurrence rate in this group went above our predefined threshold. Among 10 patients with an isolated groin recurrence, nine had SN metastases > 2 mm and/or extracapsular spread. The protocol was amended so that those with SN macrometastases (> 2 mm) underwent standard of care (IFL), whereas patients with SN micrometastases (≤ 2 mm) continued to receive inguinofemoral radiotherapy. Among 160 patients with SN micrometastases, 126 received inguinofemoral radiotherapy, with an ipsilateral isolated groin recurrence rate at 2 years of 1.6%. Among 162 patients with SN macrometastases, the isolated groin recurrence rate at 2 years was 22% in those who underwent radiotherapy, and 6.9% in those who underwent IFL ( = .011). Treatment-related morbidity after radiotherapy was less frequent compared with IFL.

Conclusion: Inguinofemoral radiotherapy is a safe alternative for IFL in patients with SN micrometastases, with minimal morbidity. For patients with SN macrometastasis, radiotherapy with a total dose of 50 Gy resulted in more isolated groin recurrences compared with IFL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.21.00006DOI Listing
August 2021

Prognostic nomogram for progression-free survival in patients with BRCA mutations and platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer on maintenance olaparib therapy following response to chemotherapy.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Sep 19;154:190-200. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

National Health and Medical Research Council Clinical Trials Centre, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2050, Australia; Department of Medical Oncology, St George Hospital, Kogarah, NSW 2217, Australia; Australia New Zealand Gynecological Oncology Group, Camperdown, New South Wales, Australia.

Background: The impact of maintenance therapy with PARP inhibitors (PARPi) on progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with BRCA mutations and platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian cancer (PSROC) varies widely. Individual prognostic factors do not reliably distinguish patients who progress early from those who have durable benefit. We developed and validated a prognostic nomogram to predict PFS in these patients.

Methods: The nomogram was developed using data from a training patient cohort with BRCA mutations and high-grade serous PSROC on the placebo arm of two maintenance therapy trials, Study 19 and SOLO2/ENGOT-ov21. We performed multivariable Cox regression analysis based on pre-treatment characteristics to develop a nomogram that predicts PFS. We assessed the discrimination and validation of the nomogram in independent validation patient cohorts treated with maintenance olaparib.

Results: The nomogram includes four PFS predictors: CA-125 at randomisation, platinum-free interval, presence of measurable disease and number of prior lines of platinum therapy. In the training (placebo) cohort (internal validation C-index 0.64), median PFS in the model-predicted good, intermediate and poor-risk groups was: 7.7 (95% CI 5.3-11.3), 5.4 (4.8-5.8) and 2.9 (2.8-4.4) months, respectively. In the validation (olaparib) cohort (C-index 0.71), median PFS in the model-predicted good, intermediate and poor-risk groups was: not reached, 16.6 (13.1-22.4) and 8.3 (7.1-10.8) months, respectively. The nomogram showed good calibration in the validation cohort (calibration plot).

Conclusions: This nomogram can be used to predict PFS and counsel patients with BRCA mutations and PSROC prior to maintenance olaparib and for stratification of patients in trials of maintenance therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2021.06.024DOI Listing
September 2021

Radical hysterectomy without adjuvant radiotherapy in patients with cervix carcinoma FIGO 2009 IB1, with or without positive Sedlis criteria.

Gynecol Oncol 2021 Sep 10;162(3):539-545. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Division of Gynaecological Oncology, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Leuven Cancer Institute, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address:

Introduction: Lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI), deep (>1/3) stromal invasion (DSI) and large tumor size (>4 cm) have been identified as predictors for intermediate risk for recurrence according to Sedlis (at least two of the prior risk factors) in FIGO stage I cervical cancer. Adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) has been advocated in these patients(1,2), but remains controversial.

Method: All consecutive patients (1997-2017) with cervical cancer FIGO (2009) stage IB1 (≤4 cm) were included. Primary aim was to analyze the recurrence rate. Secondary aim was to identify the risk factors for disease recurrence and survival.

Results: One-hundred-and-eighty-two patients were included in this retrospective study. Median follow-up was 13 years (range 8-17). Postoperatively, 21 patients received adjuvant therapy due to presence of positive lymph nodes, positive section margins or if a simple hysterectomy was performed (RT: n = 7, concomitant chemo radiotherapy (CCRT): n = 14). None of the patients with a combination of intermediate risk factors according to Sedlis (excluding patients >4 cm) underwent adjuvant RT/CCRT. Disease recurrence was observed in 19 patients (10%). Eleven patients died of disease. LVSI influenced progression-free survival (PFS) (HR 3.950, p = 0.0163) and disease-specific survival (DSS) (HR 4.637, p = 0.0497) significantly. However, the combination of LVSI, tumor size and DSI according to Sedlis did not influence overall survival (OS), DSS or PFS.

Conclusion: Recurrence rate was low (10%), despite the fact that patients with intermediate risk factors according to Sedlis did not receive postoperative RT/CCRT. LVSI was the sole risk factor influencing PFS and DSS. Combinations of risk factors according to Sedlis did not predict worse outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2021.06.026DOI Listing
September 2021

Comprehensive immunomolecular profiling of endometrial carcinoma: A tertiary retrospective study.

Gynecol Oncol 2021 Sep 10;162(3):694-701. Epub 2021 Jul 10.

Department of Human Genetics, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Objective: Combined immunohistochemical and molecular classification using the Proactive Molecular Risk Classifier for Endometrial Cancer (ProMisE) independently predicts prognosis in endometrial carcinoma (EC). As next-generation sequencing (NGS) is entering clinical practice, we evaluated whether more comprehensive immunomolecular profiling (CIMP), including NGS and extended immunohistochemical analysis, could further refine the current ProMisE classification.

Methods: A series of 120 consecutive ECs, classified according to ProMisE, was stained immunohistochemically for CD3, CD8, PD-L1, beta-catenin and L1CAM. An in-house 96 gene NGS panel was performed on a subset of 44 ECs, representing the 4 ProMisE subgroups (DNA polymerase epsilon catalytic subunit exonuclease domain mutated (POLEmut), mismatch repair deficient (MMRd), p53 abnormal (p53 abn) and no specific molecular profile (NSMP) ECs). Cases harboring non-hotspot POLE variants were analyzed with Illumina TruSight Oncology 500 NGS panel (TSO500) as a surrogate for whole-exome sequencing.

Results: Eight cases harbored POLE variants, half of which were hotspots. Using TSO500, non-hotspot POLE variants were classified as pathogenic (3) or variant of unknown significance (1). POLEmut and MMRd ECs typically showed higher numbers of CD3/CD8 tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and higher PD-L1 expression in tumor-infiltrating immune cells. p53 abn ECs showed significantly higher L1CAM immunoreactivity and frequently harbored gene amplifications including HER2 (25%), but typically lacked ARID1A or PTEN variants. Beta-catenin-positivity and FGFR2 variants were predominantly found in NSMP ECs.

Conclusions: Our data show that CIMP adds significant value to EC characterization and may help to determine pathogenicity of non-hotspot POLE variants, encountered more frequently than expected in our series. In addition, CIMP may reveal ECs benefitting from immune checkpoint inhibition and allows upfront identification of targetable alterations, such as HER2 amplification in p53 abn ECs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2021.06.030DOI Listing
September 2021

High-grade serous tubo-ovarian cancer refined with single-cell RNA sequencing: specific cell subtypes influence survival and determine molecular subtype classification.

Genome Med 2021 Jul 9;13(1):111. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Division of Gynaecological Oncology, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Background: High-grade serous tubo-ovarian cancer (HGSTOC) is characterised by extensive inter- and intratumour heterogeneity, resulting in persistent therapeutic resistance and poor disease outcome. Molecular subtype classification based on bulk RNA sequencing facilitates a more accurate characterisation of this heterogeneity, but the lack of strong prognostic or predictive correlations with these subtypes currently hinders their clinical implementation. Stromal admixture profoundly affects the prognostic impact of the molecular subtypes, but the contribution of stromal cells to each subtype has poorly been characterised. Increasing the transcriptomic resolution of the molecular subtypes based on single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) may provide insights in the prognostic and predictive relevance of these subtypes.

Methods: We performed scRNA-seq of 18,403 cells unbiasedly collected from 7 treatment-naive HGSTOC tumours. For each phenotypic cluster of tumour or stromal cells, we identified specific transcriptomic markers. We explored which phenotypic clusters correlated with overall survival based on expression of these transcriptomic markers in microarray data of 1467 tumours. By evaluating molecular subtype signatures in single cells, we assessed to what extent a phenotypic cluster of tumour or stromal cells contributes to each molecular subtype.

Results: We identified 11 cancer and 32 stromal cell phenotypes in HGSTOC tumours. Of these, the relative frequency of myofibroblasts, TGF-β-driven cancer-associated fibroblasts, mesothelial cells and lymphatic endothelial cells predicted poor outcome, while plasma cells correlated with more favourable outcome. Moreover, we identified a clear cell-like transcriptomic signature in cancer cells, which correlated with worse overall survival in HGSTOC patients. Stromal cell phenotypes differed substantially between molecular subtypes. For instance, the mesenchymal, immunoreactive and differentiated signatures were characterised by specific fibroblast, immune cell and myofibroblast/mesothelial cell phenotypes, respectively. Cell phenotypes correlating with poor outcome were enriched in molecular subtypes associated with poor outcome.

Conclusions: We used scRNA-seq to identify stromal cell phenotypes predicting overall survival in HGSTOC patients. These stromal features explain the association of the molecular subtypes with outcome but also the latter's weakness of clinical implementation. Stratifying patients based on marker genes specific for these phenotypes represents a promising approach to predict prognosis or response to therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13073-021-00922-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8268616PMC
July 2021

Immunotherapy in rare ovarian cancer.

Curr Opin Oncol 2021 Sep;33(5):447-456

Division of Gynecological Oncology, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics and Leuven Cancer Institute, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Purpose Of Review: Ovarian cancer (OC) is a heterogeneous disease and a mounting body of evidence shows that a 'one-size-fits-all' approach is obsolete. Differences in epidemiology, tumor biology, genetic profiles and treatment responses of these different types necessitate a tumor and patient-specific approach. Ninety percentage consists of epithelial OC with 70% being high-grade serous OC. The other rarer subtypes are low-grade serous (5%), clear cell (12%), endometrioid (11%) and mucinous carcinoma (3%). The remaining 10% are nonepithelial rare OCs: germ cell (3%) and sex-cord stromal tumors (7%).

Recent Findings: Over the past few decades, the 5-year survival rates have only improved modestly, therefore novel therapies are urgently needed. Recently, immunotherapy has been introduced into clinical practice in a number of solid tumors. Although preclinical data confirm the presence of an immunogenic microenvironment in a number of ovarian tumor types, no single-agent immune checkpoint inhibitor has been approved hitherto. Identifying suitable treatment combinations, adequate patient selection and thus correct implementation of immunotherapy remain major challenges.

Summary: In this review, we focus on the rationale of incorporating immune therapy in rare OC, we summarize the recent developments with preclinical data and results of clinical trials, with particular focus on rare ovarian histological subtypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCO.0000000000000759DOI Listing
September 2021

Identification of a Locus Near Associated With Progression-Free Survival in Ovarian Cancer.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 Sep 23;30(9):1669-1680. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Gynecologic Oncology Center, Kiel, Germany.

Background: Many loci have been found to be associated with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). However, although there is considerable variation in progression-free survival (PFS), no loci have been found to be associated with outcome at genome-wide levels of significance.

Methods: We carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of PFS in 2,352 women with EOC who had undergone cytoreductive surgery and standard carboplatin/paclitaxel chemotherapy.

Results: We found seven SNPs at 12q24.33 associated with PFS ( < 5 × 10), the top SNP being rs10794418 (HR = 1.24; 95% CI, 1.15-1.34; = 1.47 × 10). High expression of a nearby gene, , is associated with shorter PFS in EOC, and with poor prognosis in other cancers. SNP rs10794418 is also associated with expression of in ovarian tumors, with the allele associated with shorter PFS being associated with higher expression, and chromatin interactions were detected between the promoter and associated SNPs in serous and endometrioid EOC cell lines. ULK1 knockout ovarian cancer cell lines showed significantly increased sensitivity to carboplatin .

Conclusions: The locus at 12q24.33 represents one of the first genome-wide significant loci for survival for any cancer. is a plausible candidate for the target of this association.

Impact: This finding provides insight into genetic markers associated with EOC outcome and potential treatment options..
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-1817DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8419101PMC
September 2021

ESGO/ISUOG/IOTA/ESGE Consensus Statement on pre-operative diagnosis of ovarian tumors.

Int J Gynecol Cancer 2021 07 10;31(7):961-982. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

Gynaecologic Oncology, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College, London, UK.

The European Society of Gynaecological Oncology (ESGO), the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology (ISUOG), the International Ovarian Tumour Analysis (IOTA) group, and the European Society for Gynaecological Endoscopy (ESGE) jointly developed clinically relevant and evidence-based statements on the pre-operative diagnosis of ovarian tumors, including imaging techniques, biomarkers, and prediction models. ESGO/ISUOG/IOTA/ESGE nominated a multidisciplinary international group, including expert practising clinicians and researchers who have demonstrated leadership and expertise in the pre-operative diagnosis of ovarian tumors and management of patients with ovarian cancer (19 experts across Europe). A patient representative was also included in the group. To ensure that the statements were evidence-based, the current literature was reviewed and critically appraised. Preliminary statements were drafted based on the review of the relevant literature. During a conference call, the whole group discussed each preliminary statement and a first round of voting was carried out. Statements were removed when a consensus among group members was not obtained. The voters had the opportunity to provide comments/suggestions with their votes. The statements were then revised accordingly. Another round of voting was carried out according to the same rules to allow the whole group to evaluate the revised version of the statements. The group achieved consensus on 18 statements. This Consensus Statement presents these ESGO/ISUOG/IOTA/ESGE statements on the pre-operative diagnosis of ovarian tumors and the assessment of carcinomatosis, together with a summary of the evidence supporting each statement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ijgc-2021-002565DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8273689PMC
July 2021

The Long-Term Prognostic Significance of Circulating Tumor Cells in Ovarian Cancer-A Study of the OVCAD Consortium.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 May 26;13(11). Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria.

Introduction: We previously reported the prognostic impact of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in a multicenter study on minimal residual disease in primary ovarian cancer. With additional follow-up data, we evaluated the combined CTC approach (CTCs), in particular for the patients who had survived more than five years.

Material And Methods: Blood samples taken at baseline and six months after adjuvant treatment (follow-up) were assessed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) measuring PPIC transcripts and immunofluorescent staining (IF). A positive result with either IF or qPCR was classified as CTC-positive. Further, PPIC was assessed in the primary tumor tissue.

Results: The concordance of IF and qPCR was 65% at baseline and 83% after treatment. Results showed that 50.5% of the baseline and 29.5% of the follow-up samples were CTC-positive. CTCs after treatment were associated with increased mortality after adjusting for FIGO stage (HR 2.574, 95% CI: 1.227-5.398, = 0.012), a higher risk of recurrence after adjusting for peritoneal carcinosis (HR 4.068, 95% CI: 1.948-8.498, < 0.001), and increased mortality after five survived years.

Discussion: The two-sided analytical approach revealed CTC subpopulations associated with ovarian cancer progression and may illuminate a potential treatment-related shift in molecular phenotypes. That approach can identify patients who have elevated risk of recurrence and death due to ovarian cancer and who may require risk-adapted treatment strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13112613DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8198007PMC
May 2021

Lower-Limb Lymphedema after Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Cervical Cancer Patients.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 May 13;13(10). Epub 2021 May 13.

Gynecologic Oncology Center, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University and General University Hospital, 12000 Prague, Czech Republic.

Background: To prospectively assess LLL incidence among cervical cancer patients treated by uterine surgery complemented by SLN biopsy, without PLND.

Methods: A prospective study in 150 patients with stage IA1-IB2 cervical cancer treated by uterine surgery with bilateral SLN biopsy. Objective LLL assessments, based on limb volume increase (LVI) between pre- and postoperative measurements, and subjective patient-perceived swelling were conducted in six-month periods over 24-months post-surgery.

Results: The cumulative incidence of LLL at 24 months was 17.3% for mild LLL (LVI 10-19%), 9.2% for moderate LLL (LVI 20-39%), while only one patient (0.7%) developed severe LLL (LVI > 40%). The median interval to LLL onset was nine months. Transient edema resolving without intervention within six months was reported in an additional 22% of patients. Subjective LLL was reported by 10.7% of patients, though only a weak and partial correlation between subjective-report and objective-LVI was found. No risk factor directly related to LLL development was identified.

Conclusions: The replacement of standard PLND by bilateral SLN biopsy in the surgical treatment of cervical cancer does not eliminate the risk of mild to moderate LLL, which develops irrespective of the number of SLN removed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13102360DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8153612PMC
May 2021

Observational BGOG Study of the Results of Robot-assisted Laparoscopy in 166 Patients with FIGO 2009 Stage IA1-IB1 Cervical Cancer.

J Minim Invasive Gynecol 2021 May 14. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, UZ Leuven, Leuven (Drs. Smulders and Vergote).

Study Objective: Two recent studies (the Laparoscopic Approach to Cervical Cancer [LACC] trial and a cohort study based on the National Cancer Database) raise the question of whether minimally invasive surgery (conventional and robot-assisted laparoscopy) is inferior to open abdominal surgery in early-stage cervical cancer. In the laparotomy group of the LACC trial, the low rates of recurrence and death are notable. The present study wants to elucidate the current situation of patients with early-stage cervical cancer treated with robot-assisted laparoscopy in hospitals of the Belgium and Luxembourg Gynaecological Oncology Group (BGOG).

Design: This is a prospective follow-up study.

Setting: The combined data obtained from different BGOG hospitals were analyzed regarding patients similar to those included in the LACC trial in terms of cervical cancer recurrence and survival.

Patients: We included patients with stage IA1, IA2, or IB1 cervical cancer with a histologic subtype of squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, or adenosquamous carcinoma.

Interventions: All patients were treated with robot-assisted laparoscopy.

Measurements And Main Results: The outcomes were disease-free and overall survival at 3 and 5 years after surgery. A total of 270 patients were included, and 166 were found suitable for analysis. The median age was 45 years. Most patients had International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IB1 cervical cancer (84.9%) and squamous cell carcinoma as the histologic subtype (71.7%). The median follow-up time was 44 months, with a range of between 1 and 131 months. Twenty-one recurrences and 12 deaths were noted. Of the deaths, 8 were related to cervical cancer. Disease-free survival was 86% at 3 years (95% confidence interval [CI], 78.52-90.80) and 85% at 5 years (95% CI, 77.03-89.95). Overall survival was 96% at 3 years (95% CI, 90.11-98.22) and 91% at 5 years (95% CI, 82.54 95.17).

Conclusion: The results of this BGOG study show disease-free and overall survival rates after robot-assisted laparoscopy in early-stage cervical cancer that are at least similar to previous reported recurrence and survival data. We expect that the results of the Robot-assisted Approach to Cervical Cancer trial will elucidate the place of robot-assisted laparoscopy in early-stage cervical cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmig.2021.05.001DOI Listing
May 2021

Combination of weekly paclitaxel-carboplatin plus standard bevacizumab as neoadjuvant treatment in stage IB-IIB cervical cancer.

Int J Gynecol Cancer 2021 06 15;31(6):824-828. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

University Hospital Leuven, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Division of Gynaecological Oncology, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Flanders, Belgium

Objective: In this study we investigated response rates of bevacizumab in addition to weekly paclitaxel and carboplatin in neoadjuvant setting in cervical cancer stage IB-IIB.

Methods: In this retrospective study we included patients with FIGO 2018 stage IB-IIB cervical cancer. Treatment consisted of 9 weeks' neoadjuvant paclitaxel and carboplatin (paclitaxel 60 mg/m, carboplatin AUC 2.7; both weekly) and bevacizumab (15 mg/kg every 3 weeks). The radiologic response rate was analyzed using the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) v1.1 criteria. The definition of optimal pathological response was complete disappearance of tumor (complete response, pCR) or residual disease with less than 3 mm stromal invasion (pPR1). Suboptimal pathologic response (pPR2) was defined as persistent residual disease with more than 3 mm stromal invasion.

Results: A total of 30 patients were included. Six patients had FIGO 2018 stage IB1-IB2 (20%), one had stage IB3 (3%), five had stage IIA (17%), and 18 had stage IIB (60%). After completing the neoadjuvant chemotherapy, all patients showed a RECIST response (seven (23%) complete response; 23 (77%) partial response). Six patients (20%) were judged to be still inoperable. After radical hysterectomy, optimal pathological response was observed in 11 patients (38%) (pCR in nine patients (29%) and pPR1 in two patients (8%)). Six patients (20%) received postoperative adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Hematological toxicity was similar to neoadjuvant weekly paclitaxel and carboplatin, as we reported earlier. Grade IV proteinuria or hypertension was not observed and no administration of bevacizumab was delayed or dose-reduced.

Conclusion: Bevacizumab in addition to weekly paclitaxel and carboplatin showed a 100% radiological RECIST response and an optimal pathological response of 38%. Although bevacizumab has an established role in the treatment of recurrent cervical cancer in combination with paclitaxel and carboplatin, we did not observe a tendency toward superior effect on the pathological response rate of bevacizumab in the neoadjuvant chemotherapy setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ijgc-2021-002432DOI Listing
June 2021

Efficacy and safety of tisotumab vedotin in previously treated recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer (innovaTV 204/GOG-3023/ENGOT-cx6): a multicentre, open-label, single-arm, phase 2 study.

Lancet Oncol 2021 05 9;22(5):609-619. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Belgium and Luxembourg Gynaecological Oncology Group and University of Leuven, Leuven Cancer Institute, Leuven, Belgium.

Background: Few effective second-line treatments exist for women with recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer. Accordingly, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tisotumab vedotin, a tissue factor-directed antibody-drug conjugate, in this patient population.

Methods: This multicentre, open-label, single-arm, phase 2 study was done across 35 academic centres, hospitals, and community practices in Europe and the USA. The study included patients aged 18 years or older who had recurrent or metastatic squamous cell, adenocarcinoma, or adenosquamous cervical cancer; disease progression on or after doublet chemotherapy with bevacizumab (if eligible by local standards); who had received two or fewer previous systemic regimens for recurrent or metastatic disease; had measurable disease based on Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST; version 1.1); and had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0 or 1. Patients received 2·0 mg/kg (up to a maximum of 200 mg) tisotumab vedotin intravenously once every 3 weeks until disease progression (determined by the independent review committee) or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was confirmed objective response rate based on RECIST (version 1.1), as assessed by the independent review committee. Activity and safety analyses were done in patients who received at least one dose of the drug. This study is ongoing with recruitment completed and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03438396.

Findings: 102 patients were enrolled between June 12, 2018, and April 11, 2019; 101 patients received at least one dose of tisotumab vedotin. Median follow-up at the time of analysis was 10·0 months (IQR 6·1-13·0). The confirmed objective response rate was 24% (95% CI 16-33), with seven (7%) complete responses and 17 (17%) partial responses. The most common treatment-related adverse events included alopecia (38 [38%] of 101 patients), epistaxis (30 [30%]), nausea (27 [27%]), conjunctivitis (26 [26%]), fatigue (26 [26%]), and dry eye (23 [23%]). Grade 3 or worse treatment-related adverse events were reported in 28 (28%) patients and included neutropenia (three [3%] patients), fatigue (two [2%]), ulcerative keratitis (two [2%]), and peripheral neuropathies (two [2%] each with sensory, motor, sensorimotor, and neuropathy peripheral). Serious treatment-related adverse events occurred in 13 (13%) patients, the most common of which included peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy (two [2%] patients) and pyrexia (two [2%]). One death due to septic shock was considered by the investigator to be related to therapy. Three deaths unrelated to treatment were reported, including one case of ileus and two unknown causes.

Interpretation: Tisotumab vedotin showed clinically meaningful and durable antitumour activity with a manageable and tolerable safety profile in women with previously treated recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer. Given the poor prognosis for this patient population and the low activity of current therapies in this setting, tisotumab vedotin, if approved, would represent a new treatment for women with recurrent or metastatic cervical cancer.

Funding: Genmab, Seagen, Gynaecologic Oncology Group, and European Network of Gynaecological Oncological Trial Groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(21)00056-5DOI Listing
May 2021

Tumor Growth Rate Estimates Are Independently Predictive of Therapy Response and Survival in Recurrent High-Grade Serous Ovarian Cancer Patients.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Mar 3;13(5). Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of General Gynecology and Gynecologic Oncology, Comprehensive Cancer Center, Medical University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria.

This study aimed to assess the predictive value of tumor growth rate estimates based on serial cancer antigen-125 (CA-125) levels on therapy response and survival of patients with recurrent high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC). In total, 301 consecutive patients with advanced HGSOC (exploratory cohort: = 155, treated at the Medical University of Vienna; external validation cohort: = 146, from the Ovarian Cancer Therapy-Innovative Models Prolong Survival (OCTIPS) consortium) were enrolled. Tumor growth estimates were obtained using a validated two-phase equation model involving serial CA-125 levels, and their predictive value with respect to treatment response to the next chemotherapy and the prognostic value with respect to disease-specific survival and overall survival were assessed. Tumor growth estimates were an independent predictor for response to second-line chemotherapy and an independent prognostic factor for second-line chemotherapy use in both univariate and multivariable analyses, outperforming both the predictive (second line: = 0.003, HR 5.19 [1.73-15.58] vs. = 0.453, HR 1.95 [0.34-11.17]) and prognostic values (second line: = 0.042, HR 1.53 [1.02-2.31] vs. = 0.331, HR 1.39 [0.71-2.27]) of a therapy-free interval (TFI) < 6 months. Tumor growth estimates were a predictive factor for response to third- and fourth-line chemotherapy and a prognostic factor for third- and fourth-line chemotherapy use in the univariate analysis. The CA-125-derived tumor growth rate estimate may be a quantifiable and easily assessable surrogate to TFI in treatment decision making for patients with recurrent HGSOC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13051076DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7959281PMC
March 2021

Type of chemotherapy has substantial effects on the immune system in ovarian cancer.

Transl Oncol 2021 Jun 23;14(6):101076. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Department of Oncology, Leuven Cancer Institute, Laboratory of Tumor Immunology and Immunotherapy, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. Electronic address:

Chemotherapy induces a variety of immunological changes. Studying these effects can reveal opportunities for successful combining chemotherapy and immunotherapy. Immuno-chemotherapeutic combinations in ovarian cancer are currently not generating the anticipated positive effects. To date, only scattered and inconsistent information is available about the immune-induced changes by chemotherapy in ovarian cancer. In this study, we compared six common chemotherapeutics used in ovarian cancer patients (carboplatin, paclitaxel, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, gemcitabine, carboplatin-paclitaxel and carboplatin-gemcitabine) and studied their effects on the immune system in an ovarian cancer mouse model. Mice received a single chemotherapy or vehicle injection 21 days after tumor inoculation with ID8-fluc cells. One week after therapy administration, we collected peritoneal washings for flow cytometry, serum for cytokine analysis with cytometric bead array and tumor biopsies for immunohistochemistry. Carboplatin-paclitaxel showed the most favorable profile with a decrease in immunosuppressive cells in the peritoneal cavity and an increase of interferon-gamma in serum. In contrast, carboplatin-gemcitabine seemed to promote a hostile immune environment with an increase in regulatory T-cells in tumor tissue and an increase of macrophage-inflammatory-protein-1-beta in the serum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tranon.2021.101076DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8022256PMC
June 2021

Olaparib tablets as maintenance therapy in patients with platinum-sensitive relapsed ovarian cancer and a BRCA1/2 mutation (SOLO2/ENGOT-Ov21): a final analysis of a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.

Lancet Oncol 2021 05 18;22(5):620-631. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Association de Recherche Contre les Cancers dont Gynécologiques-ARCAGY, Paris, France.

Background: Olaparib, a poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor, has previously been shown to extend progression-free survival versus placebo when given to patients with relapsed high-grade serous or endometrioid ovarian cancer who were platinum sensitive and who had a BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutation, as part of the SOLO2/ENGOT-Ov21 trial. The aim of this final analysis is to investigate the effect of olaparib on overall survival.

Methods: This double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial was done across 123 medical centres in 16 countries. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older, had an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status at baseline of 0-1, had histologically confirmed, relapsed, high-grade serous or high-grade endometrioid ovarian cancer, including primary peritoneal or fallopian tube cancer, and had received two or more previous platinum regimens. Patients were randomly assigned (2:1) to receive olaparib tablets (300 mg in two 150 mg tablets twice daily) or matching placebo tablets using an interactive web or voice-response system. Stratification was by response to previous chemotherapy and length of platinum-free interval. Treatment assignment was masked to patients, treatment providers, and data assessors. The primary endpoint of progression-free survival has been reported previously. Overall survival was a key secondary endpoint and was analysed in all patients as randomly allocated. Safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one treatment dose. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01874353, and is no longer recruiting patients.

Findings: Between Sept 3, 2013 and Nov 21, 2014, 295 patients were enrolled. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either olaparib (n=196 [66%]) or placebo (n=99 [34%]). One patient, randomised in error, did not receive olaparib. Median follow-up was 65·7 months (IQR 63·6-69·3) with olaparib and 64·5 months (63·4-68·7) with placebo. Median overall survival was 51·7 months (95% CI 41·5-59·1) with olaparib and 38·8 months (31·4-48·6) with placebo (hazard ratio 0·74 [95% CI 0·54-1·00]; p=0·054), unadjusted for the 38% of patients in the placebo group who received subsequent PARP inhibitor therapy. The most common grade 3 or worse treatment-emergent adverse event was anaemia (which occurred in 41 [21%] of 195 patients in the olaparib group and two [2%] of 99 patients in the placebo group). Serious treatment-emergent adverse events were reported in 50 (26%) of 195 patients receiving olaparib and eight (8%) of 99 patients receiving placebo. Treatment-emergent adverse events with a fatal outcome occurred in eight (4%) of the 195 patients receiving olaparib, six of which were judged to be treatment-related (attributed to myelodysplastic syndrome [n=3] and acute myeloid leukaemia [n=3]).

Interpretation: Olaparib provided a median overall survival benefit of 12·9 months compared with placebo in patients with platinum-sensitive, relapsed ovarian cancer and a BRCA1/2 mutation. Although statistical significance was not reached, these findings are arguably clinically meaningful and support the use of maintenance olaparib in these patients.

Funding: AstraZeneca and Merck.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(21)00073-5DOI Listing
May 2021

ESGO/ESTRO/ESP guidelines for the management of patients with endometrial carcinoma.

Radiother Oncol 2021 01;154:327-353

Department of Radiation Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden Netherlands.

A European consensus conference on endometrial carcinoma was held in 2014 to produce multidisciplinary evidence-based guidelines on selected questions. Given the large body of literature on the management of endometrial carcinoma published since 2014, the European Society of Gynaecological Oncology (ESGO), the European SocieTy for Radiotherapy & Oncology (ESTRO) and the European Society of Pathology (ESP) jointly decided to update these evidence-based guidelines and to cover new topics in order to improve the quality of care for women with endometrial carcinoma across Europe and worldwide. ESGO/ESTRO/ESP nominated an international multidisciplinary development group consisting of practicing clinicians and researchers who have demonstrated leadership and expertise in the care and research of endometrial carcinoma (27 experts across Europe). To ensure that the guidelines are evidence-based, the literature published since 2014, identified from a systematic search was reviewed and critically appraised. In the absence of any clear scientific evidence, judgment was based on the professional experience and consensus of the development group. The guidelines are thus based on the best available evidence and expert agreement. Prior to publication, the guidelines were reviewed by 191 independent international practitioners in cancer care delivery and patient representatives. The guidelines comprehensively cover endometrial carcinoma staging, definition of prognostic risk groups integrating molecular markers, pre- and intra-operative work-up, fertility preservation, management for early, advanced, metastatic, and recurrent disease and palliative treatment. Principles of radiotherapy and pathological evaluation are also defined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2020.11.018DOI Listing
January 2021

ESGO/ESTRO/ESP Guidelines for the management of patients with endometrial carcinoma.

Virchows Arch 2021 Feb;478(2):153-190

Department of Pathology, Hospital Universitari Arnau de Vilanova, University of Lleida, CIBERONC, Irblleida, Spain.

A European consensus conference on endometrial carcinoma was held in 2014 to produce multidisciplinary evidence-based guidelines on selected questions. Given the large body of literature on the management of endometrial carcinoma published since 2014, the European Society of Gynaecological Oncology (ESGO), the European SocieTy for Radiotherapy & Oncology (ESTRO) and the European Society of Pathology (ESP) jointly decided to update these evidence-based guidelines and to cover new topics in order to improve the quality of care for women with endometrial carcinoma across Europe and worldwide. ESGO/ESTRO/ESP nominated an international multidisciplinary development group consisting of practicing clinicians and researchers who have demonstrated leadership and expertise in the care and research of endometrial carcinoma (27 experts across Europe). To ensure that the guidelines are evidence-based, the literature published since 2014, identified from a systematic search was reviewed and critically appraised. In the absence of any clear scientific evidence, judgment was based on the professional experience and consensus of the development group. The guidelines are thus based on the best available evidence and expert agreement. Prior to publication, the guidelines were reviewed by 191 independent international practitioners in cancer care delivery and patient representatives. The guidelines comprehensively cover endometrial carcinoma staging, definition of prognostic risk groups integrating molecular markers, pre- and intra-operative work-up, fertility preservation, management for early, advanced, metastatic, and recurrent disease and palliative treatment. Principles of radiotherapy and pathological evaluation are also defined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00428-020-03007-zDOI Listing
February 2021

Clinical practice guidelines for BRCA1 and BRCA2 genetic testing.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Mar 10;146:30-47. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

BRCA France Association, France. Electronic address:

BRCA1 and BRCA2 gene pathogenic variants account for most hereditary breast cancer and are increasingly used to determine eligibility for PARP inhibitor (PARPi) therapy of BRCA-related cancer. Because issues of BRCA testing in clinical practice now overlap with both preventive and therapeutic management, updated and comprehensive practice guidelines for BRCA genotyping are needed. The integrative recommendations for BRCA testing presented here aim to (1) identify individuals who may benefit from genetic counselling and risk-reducing strategies; (2) update germline and tumour-testing indications for PARPi-approved therapies; (3) provide testing recommendations for personalised management of early and metastatic breast cancer; and (4) address the issues of rapid process and tumour analysis. An international group of experts, including geneticists, medical and surgical oncologists, pathologists, ethicists and patient representatives, was commissioned by the French Society of Predictive and Personalised Medicine (SFMPP). The group followed a methodology based on specific formal guidelines development, including (1) evaluating the likelihood of BRCAm from a combined systematic review of the literature, risk assessment models and expert quotations, and (2) therapeutic values of BRCAm status for PARPi therapy in BRCA-related cancer and for management of early and advanced breast cancer. These international guidelines may help clinicians comprehensively update and standardise BRCA testing practices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2020.12.023DOI Listing
March 2021

Impact of clinical factors and surgical outcome on long-term survival in high-grade serous ovarian cancer: a multicenter analysis.

Int J Gynecol Cancer 2021 05 9;31(5):713-720. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Gynecology, European Competence Center for Ovarian Cancer, Campus Virchow Klinikum, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany

Introduction: Long-term survivors of ovarian cancer are a unique group of patients in whom prognostic factors for long-term survival have been poorly described. Such factors may provide information for a more personalized therapeutic approach. The objective of this study is to determine further characteristics of long-term survivors with high-grade serous ovarian cancer.

Methods: Long-term survivors were defined as patients living longer than 8 years after first diagnosis and were recruited within seven high volume centers across Europe from November 1988 to November 2008. The control group included patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer with less than 5 years' survival identified from the systematic 'Tumorbank ovarian cancer' database. A subanalysis of Charité patients only was performed separately for in-depth analysis of tumor dissemination. Propensity score matching with nearest-neighbor caliper width was used to match long-term survivors and the control group regarding age, FIGO stage, and residual tumor.

Results: A total of 276 patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer were included, divided into 131 long-term survivors and 145 control group patients. After propensity score matching and multivariable adjustment, platinum sensitivity (p=0.002) was an independent favorable prognostic factor whereas recurrence (p<0.001) and ascites (p=0.021) were independent detrimental predictors for long-term survival. Significantly more long-term survivors tested positive for mutation in the BRCA1 gene than the BRCA2 gene (p=0.016). Intraoperatively, these patients had less tumor involvement of the upper abdomen at initial surgery (p=0.024). Complexity of surgery and surgical techniques were similar in both cohorts.

Conclusion: Platinum sensitivity constitutes a favorable factor for long-term survival whereas tumor involvement of the upper abdomen, ascites, and recurrence have a negative impact. Based on clinical estimation, long-term survival is associated with combinations of clinical, surgical, and molecular factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ijgc-2020-002023DOI Listing
May 2021

Experience with PlasmaJet™ in debulking surgery in 87 patients with advanced-stage ovarian cancer.

J Surg Oncol 2021 Mar 26;123(4):1109-1114. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Division of Gynecologic Oncology, University Hospital Leuven, Leuven Cancer Institute, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Objective: The aim was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of PlasmaJet™ in cytoreductive surgery in patients with advanced-stage ovarian cancer.

Methods: All patients between September 2013 and January 2018 undergoing surgical cytoreduction for advanced-stage ovarian cancer with the help of PlasmaJet™ were identified and analyzed retrospectively.

Results: Eighty-seven patients diagnosed with advanced-stage ovarian cancer underwent surgery with PlasmaJet™. Primary debulking surgery was performed in 15 cases. Fifty-seven patients underwent interval debulking after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Secondary and tertiary debulking was done in, respectively, 11 and three patients, and one patient underwent quaternary debulking using PlasmaJet™. In all 87 patients but one, complete resection of all macroscopic disease was obtained. PlasmaJet™ was used to remove carcinomatosis on the peritoneum, bowel serosa, intestinal mesentery, and lesions in the upper abdomen (diaphragm and liver surface). No damage to the bladder or ureter was noted in relation to the use of PlasmaJet™. Three patients developed a bowel leakage postoperatively. In one of these patients, PlasmaJet™ was used to treat tumoral implants in the affected region.

Conclusions: Our series suggests that the use of PlasmaJet™ is efficient and safe in obtaining complete resection of all macroscopic tumoral lesions in advanced-stage ovarian cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jso.26385DOI Listing
March 2021

ESGO/ESTRO/ESP guidelines for the management of patients with endometrial carcinoma.

Int J Gynecol Cancer 2021 01 18;31(1):12-39. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Netherlands.

A European consensus conference on endometrial carcinoma was held in 2014 to produce multi-disciplinary evidence-based guidelines on selected questions. Given the large body of literature on the management of endometrial carcinoma published since 2014, the European Society of Gynaecological Oncology (ESGO), the European SocieTy for Radiotherapy and Oncology (ESTRO), and the European Society of Pathology (ESP) jointly decided to update these evidence-based guidelines and to cover new topics in order to improve the quality of care for women with endometrial carcinoma across Europe and worldwide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ijgc-2020-002230DOI Listing
January 2021

Concordance Between Tumor and Germline BRCA Status in High-Grade Ovarian Carcinoma Patients in the Phase III PAOLA-1/ENGOT-ov25 Trial.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 Jul;113(7):917-923

Medical Oncology Department, Centre Léon Bérard and University, Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Lyon, GINECO, France.

Background: PAOLA1 is a phase III study assessing olaparib maintenance therapy in advanced high-grade ovarian carcinoma patients responding to first-line platinum-taxane-based chemotherapy plus bevacizumab as standard of care. Randomization was stratified by treatment outcome and tumor BRCA1/2 status (tBRCA) at screening.

Methods: tBRCA was tested on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor blocks on 5 French platforms using 2 next-generation sequencing methods based either on hybrid capture or amplicon technology. One of the exploratory objectives was to assess the concordance between germline (gBRCA) and tBRCA testing in French patients. gBRCA testing was performed on blood samples on the same platforms.

Results: From May 2015 to July 2017, tBRCA tests were performed for 1176 screened patients. Only 52 (4.4%) tumor samples were noncontributive. The median interval between reception of the tumor sample and availability of the tBRCA status result was 37 days (range = 8-260). A pathogenic variant was reported in 27.1% tumor samples (319 of 1176 screened patients). tBRCA and gBRCA testing were performed for 451 French patients with negative results for both tests in 306 patients (67.8%) and positive results for both tests in 85 patients (18.8%). Only 1 large genomic rearrangement of BRCA1 was detected, exclusively in the blood sample. Interestingly, tBRCA testing revealed 6.4% of pathogenic variant (29 of 451) not detected by gBRCA testing.

Conclusions: tBRCA testing is an appropriate tool with an acceptable turnaround time for clinical practice and a low failure rate, ensuring reliable identification of patients likely to benefit from poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djaa193DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8246800PMC
July 2021

Body Mass Index and Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2021 02;113(2):146-153

Laboratory for Translational Breast Cancer Research, Department of Oncology, KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium.

Background: High levels of stromal tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (sTIL) are associated with increased pathological complete response (pCR) rate and longer survival after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) patients. Here, we evaluated the value of sTIL in predicting pCR and explored prognosis in TNBC patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy according to body mass index (BMI).

Methods: sTIL were scored centrally on pretreatment biopsies from 2 retrospective series of nonunderweight TNBC patients (n = 445). sTIL and BMI were considered as binary (sTIL: <30.0% vs ≥30.0%; BMI: lean vs overweight and obese) and continuous variables. Associations with pCR (ypT0/isN0) were assessed using logistic regression, and associations with event-free survival and overall survival were assessed using Cox regressions.

Results: 236 (53.0%) patients were lean and 209 (47.0%) overweight and obese. pCR was achieved in 181 of 445 (41.7%) patients. Median sTIL was 11.0%, and 99 of 445 (22.2%) tumors had high sTIL. A statistically significant interaction between sTIL and BMI, considered as categorical or continuous variables, for predicting pCR was observed in the multivariable analysis (Pinteraction = .03 and .04, respectively). High sTIL were statistically significantly associated with pCR in lean (odds ratio [OR] = 4.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.10 to 8.56; P < .001) but not in heavier patients (OR = 1.48, 95% CI = 0.75 to 2.91; P = .26) in the multivariable analysis. High sTIL were further associated with increased event-free survival in lean (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.22, 95% CI = 0.08 to 0.62; P = .004) but not in heavier patients (HR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.26 to 1.08; P = .08). Similar results were obtained for overall survival.

Conclusion: BMI is modifying the effect of sTIL on pCR and prognosis in TNBC patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djaa090DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7850533PMC
February 2021

Cross-Cancer Genome-Wide Association Study of Endometrial Cancer and Epithelial Ovarian Cancer Identifies Genetic Risk Regions Associated with Risk of Both Cancers.

Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 2021 01 3;30(1):217-228. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Background: Accumulating evidence suggests a relationship between endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer. Independent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer have identified 16 and 27 risk regions, respectively, four of which overlap between the two cancers. We aimed to identify joint endometrial and ovarian cancer risk loci by performing a meta-analysis of GWAS summary statistics from these two cancers.

Methods: Using LDScore regression, we explored the genetic correlation between endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer. To identify loci associated with the risk of both cancers, we implemented a pipeline of statistical genetic analyses (i.e., inverse-variance meta-analysis, colocalization, and M-values) and performed analyses stratified by subtype. Candidate target genes were then prioritized using functional genomic data.

Results: Genetic correlation analysis revealed significant genetic correlation between the two cancers ( = 0.43, = 2.66 × 10). We found seven loci associated with risk for both cancers ( < 2.4 × 10). In addition, four novel subgenome-wide regions at 7p22.2, 7q22.1, 9p12, and 11q13.3 were identified ( < 5 × 10). Promoter-associated HiChIP chromatin loops from immortalized endometrium and ovarian cell lines and expression quantitative trait loci data highlighted candidate target genes for further investigation.

Conclusions: Using cross-cancer GWAS meta-analysis, we have identified several joint endometrial and ovarian cancer risk loci and candidate target genes for future functional analysis.

Impact: Our research highlights the shared genetic relationship between endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer. Further studies in larger sample sets are required to confirm our findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-20-0739DOI Listing
January 2021

Effect of Weekly Paclitaxel With or Without Bevacizumab on Progression-Free Rate Among Patients With Relapsed Ovarian Sex Cord-Stromal Tumors: The ALIENOR/ENGOT-ov7 Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA Oncol 2020 Dec;6(12):1923-1930

GINECO and Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon, France.

Importance: To our knowledge, this is the first randomized trial in sex cord-stromal tumors, and it establishes weekly paclitaxel as standard-of-care therapy after platinum-based therapy in this setting.

Objective: To determine the efficacy of weekly paclitaxel with or without bevacizumab as treatment for relapsed sex cord-stromal tumors and evaluate whether the addition of bevacizumab to weekly paclitaxel improves 6-month progression-free rate.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This open-label, academic, international, randomized phase 2 trial (ALIENOR) was conducted at 28 referral centers in France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and Belgium in collaboration with the Rare Tumor committee of the Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup and used an adaptive bayesian design. It included 60 women with sex cord-stromal tumors that had relapsed after at least 1 platinum-based chemotherapy. Enrollment occurred from 2013 to 2016, and the final analysis database lock was on March 27, 2020 (median follow-up, 38.9 months).

Interventions: Participants were randomized to receive either paclitaxel (80 mg/m2, days 1, 8, and 15 every 4 weeks) alone or paclitaxel with bevacizumab (10 mg/kg, every 2 weeks) for 6 cycles followed by maintenance bevacizumab (15 mg/kg, every 3 weeks) for up to 1 year or until progression or unacceptable toxicity. Crossover to bevacizumab was permitted after progression during or following paclitaxel alone.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Six-month progression-free rate.

Results: Sixty patients (predominantly with granulosa cell tumors) were randomized, 32 to receive single-agent paclitaxel (median [interquartile range] age at inclusion, 60 [53-64] years) and 28 to receive paclitaxel-bevacizumab (median [interquartile range] age at inclusion, 55 [47-61] years; 1 did not receive treatment). The estimated 6-month progression-free rate was 71% (95% credible interval, 55%-84%) with paclitaxel alone and 72% (95% credible interval, 55%-87%) with paclitaxel-bevacizumab. The bayesian estimate for the probability that the 6-month progression-free rate distribution was higher with the combination than with paclitaxel alone was 57%, less than the predefined superiority threshold. The objective response rate increased from 25% (95% CI, 12%-43%) to 44% (95% CI, 26%-65%) with the addition of bevacizumab. One patient discontinued combination therapy within 6 months because of toxicity.

Conclusions And Relevance: Weekly paclitaxel is a new option for relapsed sex cord-stromal tumors. In this international randomized clinical trial of patients with relapsed sex cord-stromal tumors unsuitable for surgery, adding bevacizumab to weekly paclitaxel does not improve clinical benefit.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01770301.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2020.4574DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7545353PMC
December 2020

Concordance between CA-125 and RECIST progression in patients with germline BRCA-mutated platinum-sensitive relapsed ovarian cancer treated in the SOLO2 trial with olaparib as maintenance therapy after response to chemotherapy.

Eur J Cancer 2020 11 23;139:59-67. Epub 2020 Sep 23.

Université Paris Descartes, Paris, France; ARCAGY-GINECO, France.

Background: Limited evidence exists to support CA-125 as a valid surrogate biomarker for progression in patients with ovarian cancer on maintenance PARP inhibitor (PARPi) therapy. We aimed to assess the concordance between CA-125 and Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST) criteria for progression in patients with BRCA mutations on maintenance PARPi or placebo.

Methods: We extracted data on progression as defined by Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup CA-125, investigator- and independent central-assessed RECIST from the SOLO2/ENGOT-ov21(NCT01874353) trial. We excluded those with progression other than by RECIST, progression on date of randomisation, and no repeat CA-125 beyond baseline. We evaluated the concordance between CA-125 progression and RECIST progression, and assessed the negative (NPV) and positive predictive value (PPV).

Results: Of 295 randomised patients, 275 (184 olaparib, 91 placebo) were included. 171 patients had investigator-assessed RECIST progression. Of 80 patients with CA-125 progression, 77 had concordant RECIST progression (PPV 96%, 95% confidence interval 90-99%). Of 195 patients without CA-125 progression, 94 had RECIST progression (NPV 52%, 45-59%). Within treatment arms, PPV was similar (olaparib: 95% [84-99%], placebo: 97% [87-100%]) but NPV was lower in patients on placebo (olaparib: 60% [52-68%], placebo: 30% [20-44%]). Of 94 patients with RECIST but without CA-125 progression, 64 (68%) had CA-125 that remained within normal range. We observed similar findings using independent-assessed RECIST.

Conclusions: Almost half the patients without CA-125 progression had RECIST progression, and most of these had CA-125 within the normal range. Regular computed tomography imaging should be considered as part of surveillance in patients treated with or without maintenance olaparib rather than relying on CA-125 alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2020.08.021DOI Listing
November 2020

Definition and Independent Validation of a Proteomic-Classifier in Ovarian Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Sep 4;12(9). Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Vienna, Molecular Oncology Group, Gynecologic Cancer Unit, Comprehensive Cancer Center, 1090 Vienna, Austria.

Mass-spectrometry-based analyses have identified a variety of candidate protein biomarkers that might be crucial for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) development and therapy response. Comprehensive validation studies of the biological and clinical implications of proteomics are needed to advance them toward clinical use. Using the Deep MALDI method of mass spectrometry, we developed and independently validated (development cohort: = 199, validation cohort: = 135) a blood-based proteomic classifier, stratifying EOC patients into good and poor survival groups. We also determined an age dependency of the prognostic performance of this classifier, and our protein set enrichment analysis showed that the good and poor proteomic phenotypes were associated with, respectively, lower and higher levels of complement activation, inflammatory response, and acute phase reactants. This work highlights that, just like molecular markers of the tumor itself, the systemic condition of a patient (partly reflected in proteomic patterns) also influences survival and therapy response in a subset of ovarian cancer patients and could therefore be integrated into future processes of therapy planning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12092519DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7564837PMC
September 2020
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