Publications by authors named "Ignace Rakotoarivony"

29 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A library preparation optimized for metagenomics of RNA viruses.

Mol Ecol Resour 2021 Mar 13. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

ASTRE, Cirad, INRAE, University of Montpellier, Montpellier, France.

Our understanding of the viral communities associated to animals has not yet reached the level attained on the bacteriome. This situation is due to, among others, technical challenges in adapting metagenomics using high-throughput sequencing to the study of RNA viromes in animals. Although important developments have been achieved in most steps of viral metagenomics, there is yet a key step that has received little attention: the library preparation. This situation differs from bacteriome studies in which developments in library preparation have largely contributed to the democratisation of metagenomics. Here, we present a library preparation optimized for metagenomics of RNA viruses from insect vectors of viral diseases. The library design allows a simple PCR-based preparation, such as those routinely used in bacterial metabarcoding, that is adapted to shotgun sequencing as required in viral metagenomics. We first optimized our library preparation using mock viral communities and then validated a full metagenomic approach incorporating our preparation in two pilot studies with field-caught insect vectors; one including a comparison with a published metagenomic protocol. Our approach provided a fold increase in virus-like sequences compared to other studies, and nearly-full genomes from new virus species. Moreover, our results suggested conserved trends in virome composition within a population of a mosquito species. Finally, the sensitivity of our approach was compared to a commercial diagnostic PCR for the detection of an arbovirus in field-caught insect vectors. Our approach could facilitate studies on viral communities from animals and the democratization of metagenomics in community ecology of viruses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1755-0998.13378DOI Listing
March 2021

High dispersal capacity of Culicoides obsoletus (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), vector of bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses, revealed by landscape genetic analyses.

Parasit Vectors 2021 Feb 3;14(1):93. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

ASTRE, Univ Montpellier, Cirad, INRAE, Montpellier, France.

Background: In the last two decades, recurrent epizootics of bluetongue virus and Schmallenberg virus have been reported in the western Palearctic region. These viruses affect domestic cattle, sheep, goats and wild ruminants and are transmitted by native hematophagous midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Culicoides dispersal is known to be stratified, i.e. due to a combination of dispersal processes occurring actively at short distances and passively or semi-actively at long distances, allowing individuals to jump hundreds of kilometers.

Methods: Here, we aim to identify the environmental factors that promote or limit gene flow of Culicoides obsoletus, an abundant and widespread vector species in Europe, using an innovative framework integrating spatial, population genetics and statistical approaches. A total of 348 individuals were sampled in 46 sites in France and were genotyped using 13 newly designed microsatellite markers.

Results: We found low genetic differentiation and a weak population structure for C. obsoletus across the country. Using three complementary inter-individual genetic distances, we did not detect any significant isolation by distance, but did detect significant anisotropic isolation by distance on a north-south axis. We employed a multiple regression on distance matrices approach to investigate the correlation between genetic and environmental distances. Among all the environmental factors that were tested, only cattle density seems to have an impact on C. obsoletus gene flow.

Conclusions: The high dispersal capacity of C. obsoletus over land found in the present study calls for a re-evaluation of the impact of Culicoides on virus dispersal, and highlights the urgent need to better integrate molecular, spatial and statistical information to guide vector-borne disease control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04522-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7860033PMC
February 2021

The Genome Segments of Bluetongue Virus Differ in Copy Number in a Host-Specific Manner.

J Virol 2020 12 9;95(1). Epub 2020 Dec 9.

CIRAD, UMR ASTRE, Montpellier, France

Genome segmentation is mainly thought to facilitate reassortment. Here, we show that segmentation can also allow differences in segment abundance in populations of bluetongue virus (BTV). BTV has a genome consisting in 10 segments, and its cycle primarily involves periodic alternation between ruminants and biting midges. We have developed a reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) approach to quantify each segment in wild BTV populations sampled in both ruminants and midges during an epizootic. Segment frequencies deviated from equimolarity in all hosts. Interestingly, segment frequencies were reproducible and distinct between ruminants and biting midges. Beyond a putative regulatory role in virus expression, this phenomenon could lead to different evolution rates between segments. The variation in viral gene frequencies remains a largely unexplored aspect of within-host genetics. This phenomenon is often considered to be specific to multipartite viruses. Multipartite viruses have segmented genomes, but in contrast to segmented viruses, their segments are each encapsidated alone in a virion. A main hypothesis explaining the evolution of multipartism is that, compared to segmented viruses, it facilitates the regulation of segment abundancy, and the genes the segments carry, within a host. These differences in gene frequencies could allow for expression regulation. Here, we show that wild populations of a segmented virus, bluetongue virus (BTV), also present unequal segment frequencies. BTV cycles between ruminants and biting midges. As expected from a role in expression regulation, segment frequencies tended to show specific values that differed between ruminants and midges. Our results expand previous knowledge on gene frequency variation and call for studies on its role and conservation beyond multipartite viruses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01834-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7737730PMC
December 2020

Update of the Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) species checklist from Algeria with 10 new records.

Parasit Vectors 2020 Sep 10;13(1):463. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

ASTRE, University of Montpellier, CIRAD, INRAE, Montpellier, France.

Background: The Culicoides fauna of Algeria has been historically investigated, leading to the description of many new species by Kieffer in the 1920s, Clastrier in the 1950s or Callot in the 1960s and to a comprehensive inventory by Szadziewski in the 1980s. The emergence of bluetongue in the late 1990s enhanced Culicoides collections made in the country over the last two decades, but information remained mostly unpublished. The aim of this study is therefore to provide a comprehensive and updated checklist of Culicoides biting midge species in Algeria.

Methods: The literature (published and grey, in French and in English) from 1920 to date on Culicoides collections in Algeria was collected and analyzed in the light of the current taxonomic and systematic knowledge and methods. Fresh Culicoides material was also analyzed using light/suction trap collections carried out from November 2015 to September 2018 in nine localities of the 'wilayah' of Tiaret (northwestern Algeria). Slide mounted specimens were identified morphologically using the interactive identification key IIKC and original descriptions. Specimens were then compared with non-type material originating from different countries and partly with type material.

Results: A total of 13,709 Culicoides, belonging to at least 36 species within 10 subgenera, were examined leading to 10 new records in Algeria, including C. chiopterus, C. dewulfi, C. navaiae, C. grisescens, C. paradoxalis, C. shaklawensis, C. simulator, C. univittatus, C. achrayi and C. picturatus. These new records and all previous records provided by the literature review were discussed.

Conclusions: We propose a Culicoides checklist for the Algerian fauna of 59 valid species, including species mainly with a large Palaearctic distribution and a specific Mediterranean distribution, and only a few species from the Afrotropical region. Among them, several species, mainly of the subgenera Avaritia and Culicoides, are confirmed or probable vectors of arboviruses important in animal health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04335-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7488159PMC
September 2020

The tree that hides the forest: cryptic diversity and phylogenetic relationships in the Palaearctic vector Obsoletus/Scoticus Complex (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) at the European level.

Parasit Vectors 2020 May 20;13(1):265. Epub 2020 May 20.

National Veterinary Research Institute, Puławy, Poland.

Background: Culicoides obsoletus is an abundant and widely distributed Holarctic biting midge species, involved in the transmission of bluetongue virus (BTV) and Schmallenberg virus (SBV) to wild and domestic ruminants. Females of this vector species are often reported jointly with two morphologically very close species, C. scoticus and C. montanus, forming the Obsoletus/Scoticus Complex. Recently, cryptic diversity within C. obsoletus was reported in geographically distant sites. Clear delineation of species and characterization of genetic variability is mandatory to revise their taxonomic status and assess the vector role of each taxonomic entity. Our objectives were to characterize and map the cryptic diversity within the Obsoletus/Scoticus Complex.

Methods: Portion of the cox1 mitochondrial gene of 3763 individuals belonging to the Obsoletus/Scoticus Complex was sequenced. Populations from 20 countries along a Palaearctic Mediterranean transect covering Scandinavia to Canary islands (North to South) and Canary islands to Turkey (West to East) were included. Genetic diversity based on cox1 barcoding was supported by 16S rDNA mitochondrial gene sequences and a gene coding for ribosomal 28S rDNA. Species delimitation using a multi-marker methodology was used to revise the current taxonomic scheme of the Obsoletus/Scoticus Complex.

Results: Our analysis showed the existence of three phylogenetic clades (C. obsoletus clade O2, C. obsoletus clade dark and one not yet named and identified) within C. obsoletus. These analyses also revealed two intra-specific clades within C. scoticus and raised questions about the taxonomic status of C. montanus.

Conclusions: To our knowledge, our study provides the first genetic characterization of the Obsoletus/Scoticus Complex on a large geographical scale and allows a revision of the current taxonomic classification for an important group of vector species of livestock viruses in the Palaearctic region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04114-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7238629PMC
May 2020

Modelling the monthly abundance of Culicoides biting midges in nine European countries using Random Forests machine learning.

Parasit Vectors 2020 Apr 15;13(1):194. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Institute of Parasitology and Tropical Pathology of Strasbourg, UR7292, Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

Background: Culicoides biting midges transmit viruses resulting in disease in ruminants and equids such as bluetongue, Schmallenberg disease and African horse sickness. In the past decades, these diseases have led to important economic losses for farmers in Europe. Vector abundance is a key factor in determining the risk of vector-borne disease spread and it is, therefore, important to predict the abundance of Culicoides species involved in the transmission of these pathogens. The objectives of this study were to model and map the monthly abundances of Culicoides in Europe.

Methods: We obtained entomological data from 904 farms in nine European countries (Spain, France, Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Poland, Denmark, Sweden and Norway) from 2007 to 2013. Using environmental and climatic predictors from satellite imagery and the machine learning technique Random Forests, we predicted the monthly average abundance at a 1 km resolution. We used independent test sets for validation and to assess model performance.

Results: The predictive power of the resulting models varied according to month and the Culicoides species/ensembles predicted. Model performance was lower for winter months. Performance was higher for the Obsoletus ensemble, followed by the Pulicaris ensemble, while the model for Culicoides imicola showed a poor performance. Distribution and abundance patterns corresponded well with the known distributions in Europe. The Random Forests model approach was able to distinguish differences in abundance between countries but was not able to predict vector abundance at individual farm level.

Conclusions: The models and maps presented here represent an initial attempt to capture large scale geographical and temporal variations in Culicoides abundance. The models are a first step towards producing abundance inputs for R modelling of Culicoides-borne infections at a continental scale.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04053-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7161244PMC
April 2020

Modelling temporal dynamics of Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) populations on Reunion Island (Indian Ocean), vectors of viruses of veterinary importance.

Parasit Vectors 2019 Nov 27;12(1):562. Epub 2019 Nov 27.

CIRAD, UMR ASTRE, 97490, Sainte-Clotilde, La Réunion, France.

Background: Reunion Island regularly faces outbreaks of epizootic haemorrhagic disease (EHD) and bluetongue (BT), two viral diseases transmitted by haematophagous midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to ruminants. To date, five species of Culicoides are recorded in Reunion Island in which the first two are proven vector species: Culicoides bolitinos, C. imicola, C. enderleini, C. grahamii and C. kibatiensis. Meteorological and environmental factors can severely constrain Culicoides populations and activities and thereby affect dispersion and intensity of transmission of Culicoides-borne viruses. The aim of this study was to describe and predict the temporal dynamics of all Culicoides species present in Reunion Island.

Methods: Between 2016 and 2018, 55 biweekly Culicoides catches using Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute traps were set up in 11 sites. A hurdle model (i.e. a presence/absence model combined with an abundance model) was developed for each species in order to determine meteorological and environmental drivers of presence and abundance of Culicoides.

Results: Abundance displayed very strong heterogeneity between sites. Average Culicoides catch per site per night ranged from 4 to 45,875 individuals. Culicoides imicola was dominant at low altitude and C. kibatiensis at high altitude. A marked seasonality was observed for the three other species with annual variations. Twelve groups of variables were tested. It was found that presence and/or abundance of all five Culicoides species were driven by common parameters: rain, temperature, vegetation index, forested environment and host density. Other parameters such as wind speed and farm building opening size governed abundance level of some species. In addition, Culicoides populations were also affected by meteorological parameters and/or vegetation index with different lags of time, suggesting an impact on immature stages. Taking into account all the parameters for the final hurdle model, the error rate by Normalized Root mean Square Error ranged from 4.4 to 8.5%.

Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study to model Culicoides population dynamics in Reunion Island. In the absence of vaccination and vector control strategies, determining periods of high abundance of Culicoides is a crucial first step towards identifying periods at high risk of transmission for the two economically important viruses they transmit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-019-3812-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6880491PMC
November 2019

Update of the species checklist of Culicoides Latreille, 1809 biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) of Morocco.

Parasit Vectors 2019 Sep 24;12(1):459. Epub 2019 Sep 24.

ASTRE, Univ Montpellier, Cirad, INRA, Montpellier, France.

Background: Investigations of Culicoides fauna, including inventories, were carried out in Morocco at different periods after the country had faced major bluetongue and African horse sickness outbreaks. However, no comprehensive reference publication has provided a clear overview of the Culicoides species diversity. This study reviewed available data on Culicoides biting midge species in Morocco from 1968 to 2015 (published and grey literature in French and English) in order to revise the current checklist, in light of state of the art taxonomic and systematic knowledge, and confirmed the checklist with morphological and molecular identifications of specimens collected from the region of Rabat.

Methods: Literature related to Culicoides collections in Morocco was collated. Authors were contacted to obtain raw data and additional information for the collections. Fresh Culicoides material was collected and examined from two sites around Rabat, the capital of Morocco. Each collected individual was examined and morphologically identified, if possible, to the species level. In addition, molecular identification was performed to separate closely related species, to confirm difficult morphological identifications and to confirm new species records.

Results: A total of 6121 individuals of Culicoides spp. were collected and analyzed and at least 17 species were identified: C. cataneii/C. gejgelensis, C. circumscriptus, C. fagineus, C. festivipennis, C. imicola, C. jumineri, C. kingi, C. longipennis, C. montanus, C. newsteadi, C. obsoletus, C. paolae, C. parotti, C. puncticollis, C. sahariensis, C. scoticus and C. subfagineus. Seven species were confirmed using phylogenetic analyses. Two new species records for Morocco are reported: C. paolae and C. subfagineus.

Conclusions: The Moroccan fauna of Culicoides now includes 54 valid species. Further work would certainly increase this total, as one of the clades we identified was not affiliated to any described and valid species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-019-3720-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6757417PMC
September 2019

Author Correction: The Wolbachia mobilome in Culex pipiens includes a putative plasmid.

Nat Commun 2019 Jul 12;10(1):3153. Epub 2019 Jul 12.

Graduate Program in the Biophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, 60637, USA.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-11234-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6626035PMC
July 2019

The Wolbachia mobilome in Culex pipiens includes a putative plasmid.

Nat Commun 2019 03 5;10(1):1051. Epub 2019 Mar 5.

Graduate Program in the Biophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, 60637, USA.

Wolbachia is a genus of obligate intracellular bacteria found in nematodes and arthropods worldwide, including insect vectors that transmit dengue, West Nile, and Zika viruses. Wolbachia's unique ability to alter host reproductive behavior through its temperate bacteriophage WO has enabled the development of new vector control strategies. However, our understanding of Wolbachia's mobilome beyond its bacteriophages is incomplete. Here, we reconstruct near-complete Wolbachia genomes from individual ovary metagenomes of four wild Culex pipiens mosquitoes captured in France. In addition to viral genes missing from the Wolbachia reference genome, we identify a putative plasmid (pWCP), consisting of a 9.23-kbp circular element with 14 genes. We validate its presence in additional Culex pipiens mosquitoes using PCR, long-read sequencing, and screening of existing metagenomes. The discovery of this previously unrecognized extrachromosomal element opens additional possibilities for genetic manipulation of Wolbachia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-08973-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6401122PMC
March 2019

Monthly variation in the probability of presence of adult Culicoides populations in nine European countries and the implications for targeted surveillance.

Parasit Vectors 2018 Nov 29;11(1):608. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Institute of Parasitology and Tropical Pathology of Strasbourg, EA7292, Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

Background: Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are small hematophagous insects responsible for the transmission of bluetongue virus, Schmallenberg virus and African horse sickness virus to wild and domestic ruminants and equids. Outbreaks of these viruses have caused economic damage within the European Union. The spatio-temporal distribution of biting midges is a key factor in identifying areas with the potential for disease spread. The aim of this study was to identify and map areas of neglectable adult activity for each month in an average year. Average monthly risk maps can be used as a tool when allocating resources for surveillance and control programs within Europe.

Methods: We modelled the occurrence of C. imicola and the Obsoletus and Pulicaris ensembles using existing entomological surveillance data from Spain, France, Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Poland. The monthly probability of each vector species and ensembles being present in Europe based on climatic and environmental input variables was estimated with the machine learning technique Random Forest. Subsequently, the monthly probability was classified into three classes: Absence, Presence and Uncertain status. These three classes are useful for mapping areas of no risk, areas of high-risk targeted for animal movement restrictions, and areas with an uncertain status that need active entomological surveillance to determine whether or not vectors are present.

Results: The distribution of Culicoides species ensembles were in agreement with their previously reported distribution in Europe. The Random Forest models were very accurate in predicting the probability of presence for C. imicola (mean AUC = 0.95), less accurate for the Obsoletus ensemble (mean AUC = 0.84), while the lowest accuracy was found for the Pulicaris ensemble (mean AUC = 0.71). The most important environmental variables in the models were related to temperature and precipitation for all three groups.

Conclusions: The duration periods with low or null adult activity can be derived from the associated monthly distribution maps, and it was also possible to identify and map areas with uncertain predictions. In the absence of ongoing vector surveillance, these maps can be used by veterinary authorities to classify areas as likely vector-free or as likely risk areas from southern Spain to northern Sweden with acceptable precision. The maps can also focus costly entomological surveillance to seasons and areas where the predictions and vector-free status remain uncertain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-018-3182-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6267925PMC
November 2018

An update of the Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) checklist for the Balkans.

Parasit Vectors 2018 Aug 13;11(1):462. Epub 2018 Aug 13.

CIRAD, UMR ASTRE, F-34398, Montpellier, France.

Background: The prime significance of species belonging to the genus Culicoides Latreille, 1809 (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is their ability to transmit viruses such as bluetongue virus (BTV) to wild and domestic ruminants. Prior to 1998, BTV was considered exotic in Europe, but according to recent history of its outbreaks, it has become endemic in southern and eastern European countries circulating beyond its expected historical limits, into the Balkan region. The wind-borne long-distance dispersal of Culicoides spp. over water bodies and local spreading between farms emphasize the necessity of filling in the information gaps regarding vector species distribution. In most Balkan countries, data on Culicoides fauna and species distribution are lacking, or information is old and scarce.

Results: During this study, 8586 specimens belonging to 41 species were collected. We present the first faunistic data on Culicoides species in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM), Kosovo, Montenegro and Serbia. For other countries (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria and Croatia), all historical records were compiled for the first time and then expanded with our findings to various extents. In all countries, confirmed or suspected BTV vector species belonging to the subgenera Avaritia and Culicoides were collected. The total number of species sampled during our field collections was 20 in Bosnia and Herzegovina (15 new records), 10 in Bulgaria (2 new records), 10 in Croatia (5 new records), 13 in FYROM, 9 in Kosovo, 15 in Montenegro, and 28 in Serbia. Of these, 14 species were registered for the first time in this part of the Balkans.

Conclusions: This paper provides the first data about Culicoides fauna in FYROM, Kosovo, Montenegro and Serbia, as well as new records and an update on the checklists for Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria and Croatia. These findings provide preliminary insights into the routes of BTV introduction and spreading within the Balkans, and present a valuable contribution to further research related to Culicoides-borne diseases in Europe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-018-3051-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6088421PMC
August 2018

Spatial distribution modelling of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges, potential vectors of African horse sickness and bluetongue viruses in Senegal.

Parasit Vectors 2018 Jun 8;11(1):341. Epub 2018 Jun 8.

CIRAD, ASTRE, Montpellier, France.

Background: In Senegal, the last epidemic of African horse sickness (AHS) occurred in 2007. The western part of the country (the Niayes area) concentrates modern farms with exotic horses of high value and was highly affected during the 2007 outbreak that has started in the area. Several studies were initiated in the Niayes area in order to better characterize Culicoides diversity, ecology and the impact of environmental and climatic data on dynamics of proven and suspected vectors. The aims of this study are to better understand the spatial distribution and diversity of Culicoides in Senegal and to map their abundance throughout the country.

Methods: Culicoides data were obtained through a nationwide trapping campaign organized in 2012. Two successive collection nights were carried out in 96 sites in 12 (of 14) regions of Senegal at the end of the rainy season (between September and October) using OVI (Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute) light traps. Three different modeling approaches were compared: the first consists in a spatial interpolation by ordinary kriging of Culicoides abundance data. The two others consist in analyzing the relation between Culicoides abundance and environmental and climatic data to model abundance and investigate the environmental suitability; and were carried out by implementing generalized linear models and random forest models.

Results: A total of 1,373,929 specimens of the genus Culicoides belonging to at least 32 different species were collected in 96 sites during the survey. According to the RF (random forest) models which provided better estimates of abundances than Generalized Linear Models (GLM) models, environmental and climatic variables that influence species abundance were identified. Culicoides imicola, C. enderleini and C. miombo were mostly driven by average rainfall and minimum and maximum normalized difference vegetation index. Abundance of C. oxystoma was mostly determined by average rainfall and day temperature. Culicoides bolitinos had a particular trend; the environmental and climatic variables above had a lesser impact on its abundance. RF model prediction maps for the first four species showed high abundance in southern Senegal and in the groundnut basin area, whereas C. bolitinos was present in southern Senegal, but in much lower abundance.

Conclusions: Environmental and climatic variables of importance that influence the spatial distribution of species abundance were identified. It is now crucial to evaluate the vector competence of major species and then combine the vector densities with densities of horses to quantify the risk of transmission of AHS virus across the country.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-018-2920-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5994048PMC
June 2018

Emergence of two Usutu virus lineages in Culex pipiens mosquitoes in the Camargue, France, 2015.

Infect Genet Evol 2018 07 26;61:151-154. Epub 2018 Mar 26.

Institut Pasteur, Biology of Infection Unit, Inserm U1117, Pathogen Discovery Laboratory, Paris, France.

Usutu virus (USUV) was detected in 11 Culex pipiens mosquito pools collected in 2015 in Camargue (France) using quantitative real-time RT-PCR assays. Phylogenetic analysis of recovered virus sequences identified USUV lineages Africa 2 and Africa 3, demonstrating the simultaneous occurrence of different strains within the mosquito population. This is the first report on USUV in mosquitoes from France that concurrently accompanied the emergence of Usutu virus in blackbirds and a human case in France during 2015/2016.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2018.03.020DOI Listing
July 2018

Spatial and temporal variation in the abundance of Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in nine European countries.

Parasit Vectors 2018 02 27;11(1):112. Epub 2018 Feb 27.

EID Méditerranée, Montpellier, France.

Background: Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are vectors of bluetongue virus (BTV), African horse sickness virus and Schmallenberg virus (SBV). Outbreaks of both BTV and SBV have affected large parts of Europe. The spread of these diseases depends largely on vector distribution and abundance. The aim of this analysis was to identify and quantify major spatial patterns and temporal trends in the distribution and seasonal variation of observed Culicoides abundance in nine countries in Europe.

Methods: We gathered existing Culicoides data from Spain, France, Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Poland. In total, 31,429 Culicoides trap collections were available from 904 ruminant farms across these countries between 2007 and 2013.

Results: The Obsoletus ensemble was distributed widely in Europe and accounted for 83% of all 8,842,998 Culicoides specimens in the dataset, with the highest mean monthly abundance recorded in France, Germany and southern Norway. The Pulicaris ensemble accounted for only 12% of the specimens and had a relatively southerly and easterly spatial distribution compared to the Obsoletus ensemble. Culicoides imicola Kieffer was only found in Spain and the southernmost part of France. There was a clear spatial trend in the accumulated annual abundance from southern to northern Europe, with the Obsoletus ensemble steadily increasing from 4000 per year in southern Europe to 500,000 in Scandinavia. The Pulicaris ensemble showed a very different pattern, with an increase in the accumulated annual abundance from 1600 in Spain, peaking at 41,000 in northern Germany and then decreasing again toward northern latitudes. For the two species ensembles and C. imicola, the season began between January and April, with later start dates and increasingly shorter vector seasons at more northerly latitudes.

Conclusion: We present the first maps of seasonal Culicoides abundance in large parts of Europe covering a gradient from southern Spain to northern Scandinavia. The identified temporal trends and spatial patterns are useful for planning the allocation of resources for international prevention and surveillance programmes in the European Union.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-018-2706-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5828119PMC
February 2018

Spatio-temporal genetic variation of the biting midge vector species Culicoides imicola (Ceratopogonidae) Kieffer in France.

Parasit Vectors 2016 Mar 11;9:141. Epub 2016 Mar 11.

Cirad, UMR15 Contrôle des Maladies Animales Exotiques et Emergentes, Campus International de Baillarguet, TA-A15/G, 34398, Montpellier, France.

Background: Introduction of vector species into new areas represents a main driver for the emergence and worldwide spread of vector-borne diseases. This poses a substantial threat to livestock economies and public health. Culicoides imicola Kieffer, a major vector species of economically important animal viruses, is described with an apparent range expansion in Europe where it has been recorded in south-eastern continental France, its known northern distribution edge. This questioned on further C. imicola population extension and establishment into new territories. Studying the spatio-temporal genetic variation of expanding populations can provide valuable information for the design of reliable models of future spread.

Methods: Entomological surveys and population genetic approaches were used to assess the spatio-temporal population dynamics of C. imicola in France. Entomological surveys (2-3 consecutive years) were used to evaluate population abundances and local spread in continental France (28 sites in the Var department) and in Corsica (4 sites). We also genotyped at nine microsatellite loci insects from 3 locations in the Var department over 3 years (2008, 2010 and 2012) and from 6 locations in Corsica over 4 years (2002, 2008, 2010 and 2012).

Results: Entomological surveys confirmed the establishment of C. imicola populations in Var department, but indicated low abundances and no apparent expansion there within the studied period. Higher population abundances were recorded in Corsica. Our genetic data suggested the absence of spatio-temporal genetic changes within each region but a significant increase of the genetic differentiation between Corsican and Var populations through time. The lack of intra-region population structure may result from strong gene flow among populations. We discussed the observed temporal variation between Corsica and Var as being the result of genetic drift following introduction, and/or the genetic characteristics of populations at their range edge.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that local range expansion of C. imicola in continental France may be slowed by the low population abundances and unsuitable climatic and environmental conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-016-1426-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4788842PMC
March 2016

Hyaluronidase Activity in Saliva of European Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

J Med Entomol 2016 Jan 19;53(1):212-6. Epub 2015 Oct 19.

Department of Parasitology, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Science, Czech Republic

Biting midges of the genus Culicoides transmit pathogens of veterinary importance such as bluetongue virus (Reoviridae: Orbivirus). The saliva of Culicoides is known to contain bioactive molecules including peptides and proteins with vasodilatory and immunomodulative properties. In this study, we detected activity of enzyme hyaluronidase in six Culicoides species that commonly occur in Europe and that are putative vectors of arboviruses. Hyaluronidase was present in all species studied, although its molecular size, sensitivity to SDS, and substrate specificity differed between species. Further studies on the potential effect of hyaluronidase activity on the vector competence of Culicoides species for arboviruses would be beneficial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjv147DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4710844PMC
January 2016

How do species, population and active ingredient influence insecticide susceptibility in Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) of veterinary importance?

Parasit Vectors 2015 Aug 28;8:439. Epub 2015 Aug 28.

Cirad, UMR15 CMAEE; INRA, UMR1309 CMAEE, 34398, Montpellier, France.

Background: Culicoides biting midges are biological vectors of internationally important arboviruses of livestock and equines. Insecticides are often employed against Culicoides as a part of vector control measures, but systematic assessments of their efficacy have rarely been attempted. The objective of the present study is to determine baseline susceptibility of multiple Culicoides vector species and populations in Europe and Africa to the most commonly used insecticide active ingredients. Six active ingredients are tested: three that are based on synthetic pyrethroids (alpha-cypermethrin, deltamethrin and permethrin) and three on organophosphates (phoxim, diazinon and chlorpyrifos-methyl).

Methods: Susceptibility tests were conducted on 29,064 field-collected individuals of Culicoides obsoletus Meigen, Culicoides imicola Kieffer and a laboratory-reared Culicoides nubeculosus Meigen strain using a modified World Health Organization assay. Populations of Culicoides were tested from seven locations in four different countries (France, Spain, Senegal and South Africa) and at least four concentrations of laboratory grade active ingredients were assessed for each population.

Results: The study revealed that insecticide susceptibility varied at both a species and population level, but that broad conclusions could be drawn regarding the efficacy of active ingredients. Synthetic pyrethroid insecticides were found to inflict greater mortality than organophosphate active ingredients and the colony strain of C. nubeculosus was significantly more susceptible than field populations. Among the synthetic pyrethroids, deltamethrin was found to be the most toxic active ingredient for all species and populations.

Conclusions: The data presented represent the first parallel and systematic assessment of Culicoides insecticide susceptibility across several countries. As such, they are an important baseline reference to monitor the susceptibility status of Culicoides to current insecticides and also to assess the toxicity of new active ingredients with practical implications for vector control strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-015-1042-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4551713PMC
August 2015

Modelling the Abundances of Two Major Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) Species in the Niayes Area of Senegal.

PLoS One 2015 29;10(6):e0131021. Epub 2015 Jun 29.

Cirad, UMR15 CMAEE, F-34398 Montpellier, France; INRA, UMR1309 CMAEE, F-34398 Montpellier, France.

In Senegal, considerable mortality in the equine population and hence major economic losses were caused by the African horse sickness (AHS) epizootic in 2007. Culicoides oxystoma and Culicoides imicola, known or suspected of being vectors of bluetongue and AHS viruses are two predominant species in the vicinity of horses and are present all year-round in Niayes area, Senegal. The aim of this study was to better understand the environmental and climatic drivers of the dynamics of these two species. Culicoides collections were obtained using OVI (Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute) light traps at each of the 5 sites for three nights of consecutive collection per month over one year. Cross Correlation Map analysis was performed to determine the time-lags for which environmental variables and abundance data were the most correlated. C. oxystoma and C. imicola count data were highly variable and overdispersed. Despite modelling large Culicoides counts (over 220,000 Culicoides captured in 354 night-traps), using on-site climate measures, overdispersion persisted in Poisson, negative binomial, Poisson regression mixed-effect with random effect at the site of capture models. The only model able to take into account overdispersion was the Poisson regression mixed-effect model with nested random effects at the site and date of capture levels. According to this model, meteorological variables that contribute to explaining the dynamics of C. oxystoma and C. imicola abundances were: mean temperature and relative humidity of the capture day, mean humidity between 21 and 19 days prior a capture event, density of ruminants, percentage cover of water bodies within a 2 km radius and interaction between temperature and humidity for C. oxystoma; mean rainfall and NDVI of the capture day and percentage cover of water bodies for C. imicola. Other variables such as soil moisture, wind speed, degree days, land cover or landscape metrics could be tested to improve the models. Further work should also assess whether other trapping methods such as host-baited traps help reduce overdispersion.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0131021PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4487250PMC
March 2016

Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) midges, the vectors of African horse sickness virus--a host/vector contact study in the Niayes area of Senegal.

Parasit Vectors 2015 Jan 21;8:39. Epub 2015 Jan 21.

ISRA, Laboratoire National de l'Elevage et de Recherches Vétérinaires, Route Front de Terre, Dakar, Senegal.

Background: African horse sickness (AHS) is an equine disease endemic to Senegal. The African horse sickness virus (AHSV) is transmitted to the mammalian hosts by midges of the Culicoides Latreille genus. During the last epizootic outbreak of AHS in Senegal in 2007, 1,169 horses died from this disease entailing an estimated cost of 1.4 million euros. In spite of the serious animal health and economic implications of AHS, very little is known about determinants involved in transmission such as contact between horses and the Culicoides species suspected of being its vectors.

Methods: The monthly variation in host/vector contact was determined in the Niayes area, Senegal, an area which was severely affected by the 2007 outbreak of AHS. A horse-baited trap and two suction light traps (OVI type) were set up at each of five sites for three consecutive nights every month for one year.

Results: Of 254,338 Culicoides midges collected 209,543 (82.4%) were female and 44,795 (17.6%) male. Nineteen of the 41 species collected were new distribution records for Senegal. This increased the number of described Culicoides species found in Senegal to 53. Only 19 species, of the 41 species found in light trap, were collected in the horse-baited trap (23,669 specimens) largely dominated by Culicoides oxystoma (22,300 specimens, i.e. 94.2%) followed by Culicoides imicola (482 specimens, i.e. 2.0%) and Culicoides kingi (446 specimens, i.e. 1.9%).

Conclusions: Culicoides oxystoma should be considered as a potential vector of AHSV in the Niayes area of Senegal due to its abundance on horses and its role in the transmission of other Culicoides-borne viruses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-014-0624-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4307892PMC
January 2015

Towards the PCR-based identification of Palaearctic Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae): results from an international ring trial targeting four species of the subgenus Avaritia.

Parasit Vectors 2014 May 14;7:223. Epub 2014 May 14.

Cirad, UMR15 CMAEE, 34398 Montpellier, France.

Background: Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are biological vectors of internationally important arboviruses. To understand the role of Culicoides in the transmission of these viruses, it is essential to correctly identify the species involved. Within the western Palaearctic region, the main suspected vector species, C. obsoletus, C. scoticus, C. dewulfi and C. chiopterus, have similar wing patterns, which makes it difficult to separate and identify them correctly.

Methods: In this study, designed as an inter-laboratory ring trial with twelve partners from Europe and North Africa, we assess four PCR-based assays which are used routinely to differentiate the four species of Culicoides listed above. The assays based on mitochondrial or ribosomal DNA or microarray hybridisation were tested using aliquots of Culicoides DNA (extracted using commercial kits), crude lysates of ground specimens and whole Culicoides (265 individuals), and non-Culicoides Ceratopogonidae (13 individuals) collected from across Europe.

Results: A total of 800 molecular assays were implemented. The in-house assays functioned effectively, although specificity and sensitivity varied according to the molecular marker and DNA extraction method used. The Obsoletus group specificity was overall high (95-99%) while the sensitivity varied greatly (59.6-100%). DNA extraction methods impacted the sensitivity of the assays as well as the type of sample used as template for the DNA extraction.

Conclusions: The results are discussed in terms of current use of species diagnostic assays and the future development of molecular tools for the rapid differentiation of cryptic Culicoides species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-7-223DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4024274PMC
May 2014

Seasonal dynamics of Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) biting midges, potential vectors of African horse sickness and bluetongue viruses in the Niayes area of Senegal.

Parasit Vectors 2014 Mar 31;7:147. Epub 2014 Mar 31.

Institut Sénégalais de Recherches Agricoles, Laboratoire National de l'Elevage et de Recherches Vétérinaires, Dakar, Sénégal.

Background: The African horse sickness epizootic in Senegal in 2007 caused considerable mortality in the equine population and hence major economic losses. The vectors involved in the transmission of this arbovirus have never been studied specifically in Senegal. This first study of the spatial and temporal dynamics of the Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) species, potential vectors of African horse sickness in Senegal, was conducted at five sites (Mbao, Parc Hann, Niague, Pout and Thies) in the Niayes area, which was affected by the outbreak.

Methods: Two Onderstepoort light traps were used at each site for three nights of consecutive collection per month over one year to measure the apparent abundance of the Culicoides midges.

Results: In total, 224,665 specimens belonging to at least 24 different species (distributed among 11 groups of species) of the Culicoides genus were captured in 354 individual collections. Culicoides oxystoma, Culicoides kingi, Culicoides imicola, Culicoides enderleini and Culicoides nivosus were the most abundant and most frequent species at the collection sites. Peaks of abundance coincide with the rainy season in September and October.

Conclusions: In addition to C. imicola, considered a major vector for the African horse sickness virus, C. oxystoma may also be involved in the transmission of this virus in Senegal given its abundance in the vicinity of horses and its suspected competence for other arboviruses including bluetongue virus. This study depicted a site-dependent spatial variability in the dynamics of the populations of the five major species in relation to the eco-climatic conditions at each site.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-7-147DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3973751PMC
March 2014

Host-seeking activity of bluetongue virus vectors: endo/exophagy and circadian rhythm of Culicoides in Western Europe.

PLoS One 2012 29;7(10):e48120. Epub 2012 Oct 29.

CIRAD, UMR Contrôle des Maladies, Montpellier, France.

Feeding success of free-living hematophagous insects depends on their ability to be active when hosts are available and to reach places where hosts are accessible. When the hematophagous insect is a vector of pathogens, determining the components of host-seeking behavior is of primary interest for the assessment of transmission risk. Our aim was to describe endo/exophagy and circadian host-seeking activity of Palaearctic Culicoides species, which are major biting pests and arbovirus vectors, using drop traps and suction traps baited with four sheep, as bluetongue virus hosts. Collections were carried out in the field, a largely-open stable and an enclosed stable during six collection periods of 24 hours in April/May, in late June and in September/October 2010 in western France. A total of 986 Culicoides belonging to 13 species, mainly C. brunnicans and C. obsoletus, was collected on animal baits. Culicoides brunnicans was clearly exophagic, whereas C. obsoletus was able to enter stables. Culicoides brunnicans exhibited a bimodal pattern of host-seeking activity with peaks just after sunrise and sunset. Culicoides obsoletus was active before sunset in spring and autumn and after sunset in summer, thus illustrating influence of other parameters than light, especially temperature. Description of host-seeking behaviors allowed us to discuss control strategies for transmission of Culicoides-borne pathogens, such as bluetongue virus. However, practical vector-control recommendations are difficult to provide because of the variation in the degree of endophagy and time of host-seeking activity.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0048120PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3483221PMC
August 2014

Assessment of vector/host contact: comparison of animal-baited traps and UV-light/suction trap for collecting Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), vectors of Orbiviruses.

Parasit Vectors 2011 Jun 27;4:119. Epub 2011 Jun 27.

CIRAD, UMR Contrôle des maladies, F-34398 Montpellier, France.

Background: The emergence and massive spread of bluetongue in Western Europe during 2006-2008 had disastrous consequences for sheep and cattle production and confirmed the ability of Palaearctic Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) to transmit the virus. Some aspects of Culicoides ecology, especially host-seeking and feeding behaviors, remain insufficiently described due to the difficulty of collecting them directly on a bait animal, the most reliable method to evaluate biting rates.Our aim was to compare typical animal-baited traps (drop trap and direct aspiration) to both a new sticky cover trap and a UV-light/suction trap (the most commonly used method to collect Culicoides).

Methods/results: Collections were made from 1.45 hours before sunset to 1.45 hours after sunset in June/July 2009 at an experimental sheep farm (INRA, Nouzilly, Western France), with 3 replicates of a 4 sites×4 traps randomized Latin square using one sheep per site. Collected Culicoides individuals were sorted morphologically to species, sex and physiological stages for females. Sibling species were identified using a molecular assay. A total of 534 Culicoides belonging to 17 species was collected. Abundance was maximal in the drop trap (232 females and 4 males from 10 species) whereas the diversity was the highest in the UV-light/suction trap (136 females and 5 males from 15 species). Significant between-trap differences abundance and parity rates were observed.

Conclusions: Only the direct aspiration collected exclusively host-seeking females, despite a concern that human manipulation may influence estimation of the biting rate. The sticky cover trap assessed accurately the biting rate of abundant species even if it might act as an interception trap. The drop trap collected the highest abundance of Culicoides and may have caught individuals not attracted by sheep but by its structure. Finally, abundances obtained using the UV-light/suction trap did not estimate accurately Culicoides biting rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-4-119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3145584PMC
June 2011

Adaptation of a species-specific multiplex PCR assay for the identification of blood meal source in Culicoides (Ceratopogonidae: Diptera): applications on Palaearctic biting midge species, vectors of Orbiviruses.

Infect Genet Evol 2011 Jul 12;11(5):1103-10. Epub 2011 Apr 12.

Cirad, UMR Contrôle des maladies, F-34398 Montpellier Cedex 5, France.

Culicoides are small biting midges involved worldwide in the transmission of bluetongue and African horse sickness viruses. Feeding behaviours of Palaearctic biting midge species and their spatio-temporal dynamics remain unclear at the specific level. Three multiplex species-specific PCR-based assays were developed and used to identify blood meal source of engorged females of Palaearctic midge species of veterinary interest. Species-specific primers of potential hosts from livestock, domestic animals and wildlife (cattle, goat, sheep, red deer, roe deer, chamois, dog, pig, cat, horse) were designed and multiplexed from the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. The assays also make possible to identify whether multiple blood meals have been taken. The first results from several Culicoides populations sampled in France highlight the utility of this valuable diagnostic tool combined with species identification assays, and suggest that most of the Culicoides species may have an opportunistic feeding behaviour regarding the host distribution and density. Noteworthy is the peculiar trophic behaviour of Culicoides chiopterus showing clear trends to cattle. Information on host preference and feeding behaviours are crucial for a better understanding of vector-host interactions and disease epidemiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2011.04.002DOI Listing
July 2011

High susceptibility to Chikungunya virus of Aedes aegypti from the French West Indies and French Guiana.

Trop Med Int Health 2011 Jan 17;16(1):134-9. Epub 2010 Aug 17.

Unité d'entomologie médicale, Institut Pasteur de Guyane, Cayenne, Guyane française.

Objectives: To estimate the vector competence of Aedes aegypti populations sampled from distinct anthropogenic environments in French Guiana, Guadeloupe and Martinique for the strain CHIKV 06.21.

Methods: F(1)/F(2) females were orally infected at titres of 10(6) and 10(7.5) pfu/ml in blood-meals. Disseminated infection rates (DIR) of mosquitoes were estimated using indirect fluorescent antibody assay on heads' squashes, 7 or 14 days post-infection (pi).

Results: At a titre of 10(7.5) pfu/ml, DIR ranged from 88.9% to 100.0% and were not significantly different whether assessed at day 7 or 14 pi. At a titre of 10(6) pfu/ml, DIR observed 7 days pi ranged from 37.6 to 62.0%.

Conclusions: Ae. aegypti from French Guiana and French West Indies are highly competent to transmit CHIKV. An evaluation of DIR 7 days rather than 14 days pi is adequate to estimate vector competence. The titre of 10(6) pfu/ml allows us to distinguish Ae. aegypti populations originating from distinct environments (dense or diffuse housing) by their vector competence. This assessment is a prerequisite to better evaluate the potential risk of Chikungunya outbreaks once the virus is introduced from endemic regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3156.2010.02613.xDOI Listing
January 2011

SHV-12-like extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing strains of Salmonella enterica serotypes Babelsberg and Enteritidis isolated in France among infants adopted from Mali.

J Clin Microbiol 2004 Jun;42(6):2432-7

Centre National de Référence des Salmonella, Unité de Biodiversité des Bactéries Pathogènes Emergentes, Institut Pasteur, 28 rue du Docteur Roux, 75724 Paris cedex 15, France.

From December 2002 to June 2003, 14 cultures of Salmonella enterica serotype Babelsberg and 6 cultures of serotype Enteritidis, isolated in France from internationally adopted children, were identified at the French National Reference Center for Salmonella. All serotype Babelsberg isolates were related, as determined by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, and all serotype Enteritidis strains displayed the same phage type. All serotype Enteritidis and seven serotype Babelsberg isolates produced an SHV-12-like extended-spectrum beta-lactamase as determined by sequencing of PCR products and by isoelectrofocusing. Some serotype Enteritidis isolates exhibited additional antimicrobial resistance (aminoglycosides, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, sulfonamides, and trimethoprim). Our investigation indicated that these Salmonella isolates were certainly acquired in the same orphanage in Bamako, Mali, before the children were adopted by French families. An inappropriate use of ceftriaxone was probably the cause of the emergence of such strains. There is an urgent need to determine the origin of the contamination and to introduce adequate antibiotic protocols into this orphanage to prevent further transmission and dissemination. Screening for infections and follow-up, adapted to the origin of the internationally adopted children, should be recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.42.6.2432-2437.2004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC427894PMC
June 2004

Bionomics of Anopheles gambiae Giles, An. arabiensis Patton, An. funestus Giles and An. nili (Theobald) (Diptera: Culicidae) and transmission of Plasmodium falciparum in a Sudano-Guinean zone (Ngari, Senegal).

J Med Entomol 2003 May;40(3):279-83

Laboratoire IRD d'entomologie médicale à l'Institut Pasteur, Dakar, Sénégal.

An entomological study was conducted in a village of Sudano-Guinean savanna in Senegal, during the rainy season from July to November 2001, to investigate the biology and the involvement of each anopheline species in malaria transmission. Mosquitoes were captured when landing on human volunteers and by pyrethrum spray catches. Twelve anopheline species were captured. Four species amounted to 97% of human-bait sampling: Anopheles gambiae molecular form S, An. arabiensis, An. funestus, and An. nili s.s. All An. gambiae and An. nili females were fed on human, whereas the anthropophilic rate was 94.5% for An. funestus and 88.9% for An. arabiensis. Plasmodium falciparum was the only malaria parasite found, and infecting only An. gambiae, An. arabiensis, An. funestus, and An. nili. The circumsporozoite rate was 4.5% for An. gambiae, 1.6% for An. arabiensis, 3.9% for An. funestus, and 2.1% for An. nili. During the period of study, the entomological inoculation rate was estimated to 264 infected bites. An. gambiae, An. arabiensis, An. funestus, and An. nili were responsible respectively of 56, 3, 20, and 21% of malaria transmission. This study shows for the first time the implication of An. nili in malaria transmission in this area and the complexity of the malaria vectorial system that should be taken into account for any malaria control strategy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/0022-2585-40.3.279DOI Listing
May 2003