Publications by authors named "Idris Nasir Abdullahi"

24 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Retrospective Analysis of the Serovars and Antibiogram of Isolates of the 2017 Ilorin Cholera Outbreak, Nigeria.

Infect Chemother 2021 Jun;53(2):368-373

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria.

In this retrospective study, we determined the incidence, serovars, and antibiogram of isolated from 102 clinical stool samples collected from rice water diarrheic patients during an outbreak (May - July 2017) in Ilorin metropolis, Nigeria. The culture positive rate of the isolates was 41.2%, with 41 and 1 isolates from O1 (Inaba) and non-O1/O139 serogroups, respectively. The isolates were the most susceptible to ciprofloxacin (76.2%) followed by amoxicillin-clavulanate (71.4%). However, all isolates were resistant to ampicillin and tetracycline. In conclusion, O1 was the predominant circulating serogroup exhibiting multi-drug resistance during the outbreak.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3947/ic.2021.0001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8258287PMC
June 2021

Dengue Virus is Hyperendemic in Nigeria from 2009 to 2020: A Contemporary Systematic Review.

Infect Chemother 2021 Jun;53(2):284-299

Department of Nursing Science, Maryam Abacha American university of Niger, Maradi, Niger Republic.

Backround: Data on Dengue virus (DENV) infection prevalence, geographic distribution and risk factors are necessary to direct appropriate utilization of existing and emerging control strategies. This study aimed to determine the pooled prevalence, risk factors of DENV infection and the circulating serotypes within Nigeria from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2020.

Materials And Methods: Twenty-one studies out of 2,215 available articles were eligible and included for this systematic review. Relevant articles were searched, screened and included in this study according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) criteria. The risk of bias in primary studies was assessed by Cochrane's method. Heterogeneity of pooled prevalence was calculated using the chi-square test on Cochrane's Q statistic, which was quantified by I-square values. The random-effects analyses of proportions were used to determine the pooled prevalence of DENV antibodies, antigen and RNA from eligible studies.

Results: Of these, 3 studies reported co-circulation of all the 4 serotypes, while 2 separately reported co-circulation of DENV-1 &2 and DENV-1 to -3. All the antibody-based studies had significantly high heterogeneity (I² >90%, <0.05), while the NS1 and PCR-based studies had low heterogeneity (I² <25%, >0.05). The pooled prevalence of DENV IgM, IgG, RNA, NS1 and neutralizing antibodies were 16.8%, 34.7%, 7.7%, 7.7% and 0.7%, respectively. South-east Nigeria had the highest pooled DENV-IgG seropositivity, 77.1%. Marital status, gender, educational level and occupation status, the proximity of residence to refuse dumpsite, frequent use of trousers and long sleeve shirts were significantly associated with DENV IgG seropositivity ( <0.05).

Conclusion: Based on these findings, it can be inferred that Nigeria is hyperendemic for Dengue fever and needs concerted efforts to control its spread within and outside the country.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3947/ic.2020.0142DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8258289PMC
June 2021

antiplasmodial activity of Phyllanthus amarus against and evaluation of its acute toxicity effect in mouse model.

Trop Parasitol 2021 Jan-Jun;11(1):31-37. Epub 2021 May 14.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria.

Background: The emergence of widespread resistance of Plasmodium species to most antimalarial drugs has led to a more vigorous and concerted research on traditional medicinal plants for the treatment of malaria.

Objective Of Study: The study was aimed to investigate the antiplasmodial activity of crude ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Phyllanthus amarus against clinical isolates of in Northwestern Nigeria.

Materials And Methods: The plant was extracted using two solvents, water and ethanol, where a high yield was obtained from the aqueous extracts (11.9%) as compared to the ethanolic extract (9.64%). The extracts were evaluated at concentrations of 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, and 100 μg/ml, and the level of potency in each case was expressed as the concentration of the extract that exhibited a 50% reduction of the parasites relative to control (100%) parasitemia. Artemether-lumefantrine was used as a positive standard in the assay.

Results: All extracts showed a significant reduction in parasite growth relative to control ( ≤ 0.05). Ethanolic extract exhibited a higher antiplasmodial activity of 76.8%, half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC) of 5.80 μg/ml, and aqueous extract had an activity of 75.3%, IC of 7.94 μg/ml. Both extracts exhibited very active antiplasmodial activity. Oral acute toxicity test in the doses of 500, 1000, and 1500 mg/kg showed no sign of toxicity on albino mice after 48 h.

Conclusion: Although there was an increase in appetite after 24 and 48 h, the findings from this study show that possesses a promising antimalarial activity which can be exploited for malaria therapy and justifies the traditional use of the plant in malaria treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/tp.TP_78_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8213120PMC
May 2021

The pattern of human papillomavirus infection and genotypes among Nigerian women from 1999 to 2019: a systematic review.

Ann Med 2021 12;53(1):944-959

WHO National Polio Reference Laboratory, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Nigeria.

Background: There are no robust national prevalence of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in Nigerian women despite the high burden of cervical cancer morbidity and mortality.

The Objective Of Study: This study aims to determine the pooled prevalence and risk factors of genital HPV infection in Nigeria through a systemic review protocol.

Methods: Databases including PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar and AJOL were searched between 10 April to 28 July 2020. HPV studies on Nigerian females and published from April 1999 to March 2019 were included. GRADE was used to assess the quality of evidence.

Results: The pooled prevalence of cervical HPV was 20.65% (95%CI: 19.7-21.7). Genotypes 31 (70.8%), 35 (69.9%) and 16 (52.9%) were the most predominant HPV in circulation. Of the six geopolitical zones in Nigeria, northeast had the highest pooled prevalence of HPV infection (48.1%), while the least was in the north-west (6.8%). After multivariate logistic regression, duration (years) of sexual exposure (OR = 3.24, 95%CI: 1.78-9.23]), history of other malignancies (OR = 1.93, 95%CI: 1.03-2.97]), history of sexually transmitted infection (OR = 2.45, 95% CI: 1.31-3.55]), coital frequency per week (OR = 5.11, 95%CI: 3.86-14.29), the status of circumcision of the sexual partner (OR = 2.71, 95%CI: 1.62-9.05), and marital status (OR = 1.72, 95%CI: 1.16-4.72), were significant risk factors of HPV infection ( < 0.05). Irregular menstruation, post-coital bleeding and abdominal vaginal discharge were significantly associated with HPV infection ( < 0.05).

Conclusion: HPV prevalence is high in Nigeria and was significantly associated with several associated risk factors. Rapid screening for high-risk HPV genotypes is recommended and multivalent HPV vaccines should be considered for women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07853890.2021.1938201DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8205070PMC
December 2021

Incidence, drivers and global health implications of the 2019/2020 yellow fever sporadic outbreaks in Sub-Saharan Africa.

Pathog Dis 2021 Apr;79(4)

Department of Nursing Science, Maryam Abacha American University of Niger, ADS Avenue, Roi Muhammed VI Du Maroc Maradi, Republique Du Niger.

The 2019 and 2020 sporadic outbreaks of yellow fever (YF) in Sub-Saharan African countries had raised a lot of global health concerns. This article aims to narratively review the vector biology, YF vaccination program, environmental factors and climatic changes, and to understand how they could facilitate the reemergence of YF. This study comprehensively reviewed articles that focused on the interplay and complexity of YF virus (YFV) vector diversity/competence, YF vaccine immunodynamics and climatic change impacts on YFV transmission as they influence the 2019/2020 sporadic outbreaks in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Based on available reports, vectorial migration, climatic changes and YF immunization level could be reasons for the re-mergence of YF at the community and national levels. Essentially, the drivers of YFV infection due to spillover are moderately constant. However, changes in land use and landscape have been shown to influence sylvan-to-urban spillover. Furthermore, increased precipitation and warmer temperatures due to climate change are likely to broaden the range of mosquitoes' habitat. The 2019/2020 YF outbreaks in SSA is basically a result of inadequate vaccination campaigns, YF surveillance and vector control. Consequently, and most importantly, adequate immunization coverage must be implemented and properly achieved under the responsibility of the public health stakeholders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femspd/ftab017DOI Listing
April 2021

Sero-survey of measles virus antibodies among symptomatic children attending Abuja Teaching Hospital, Nigeria.

GMS Hyg Infect Control 2021 26;16:Doc04. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

University Health Center, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, Federal University, Dutse, Nigeria.

Nigeria is one of the countries with a high prevalence of measles outbreak in children under 5 years old, despite a history of vaccination. This study aims to determine the prevalence of anti-measles virus IgM and IgG among children under 5 years attending the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital (UATH), Gwagwalada, FCT Abuja, Nigeria. : Whole blood was collected, centrifuged, and serum anti-IgM and anti-IgG against measles virus was analysed using ELISA. Sociodemographic variables and vaccination history of subjects were obtained by interview-based questionnaires. The overall anti-Measles virus IgG and IgM seroprevalences were 29.2% and 14.6%, respectively. The prevalence of measles IgG was significantly associated with the parent's employment status ( =11.67, p=0.008). However, the prevalence of measles virus IgM was significantly associated with children's age ( =16.62, p=0.002), parents' employment status and children's vaccination status ( =7.72, p=0.02). A majority of study participants were not immunised against measles, and a significant number of participants had serological evidence of acute measles virus infection. There is a need for more concerted and massive measles vaccination of children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3205/dgkh000375DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7894129PMC
January 2021

Humoral immunological kinetics of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection and diagnostic performance of serological assays for coronavirus disease 2019: an analysis of global reports.

Int Health 2021 Feb 23. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Immunology Unit, Department of Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to rise and second waves are reported in some countries, serological test kits and strips are being considered to scale up an adequate laboratory response. This study provides an update on the kinetics of humoral immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and performance characteristics of serological protocols (lateral flow assay [LFA], chemiluminescence immunoassay [CLIA] and ELISA) used for evaluations of recent and past SARS-CoV-2 infection. A thorough and comprehensive review of suitable and eligible full-text articles was performed on PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Wordometer and medRxiv from 10 January to 16 July 2020. These articles were searched using the Medical Subject Headings terms 'COVID-19', 'Serological assay', 'Laboratory Diagnosis', 'Performance characteristics', 'POCT', 'LFA', 'CLIA', 'ELISA' and 'SARS-CoV-2'. Data from original research articles on SARS-CoV-2 antibody detection ≥second day postinfection were included in this study. In total, there were 7938 published articles on humoral immune response and laboratory diagnosis of COVID-19. Of these, 74 were included in this study. The detection, peak and decline period of blood anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM, IgG and total antibodies for point-of-care testing (POCT), ELISA and CLIA vary widely. The most promising of these assays for POCT detected anti-SARS-CoV-2 at day 3 postinfection and peaked on the 15th day; ELISA products detected anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG at days 2 and 6 then peaked on the eighth day; and the most promising CLIA product detected anti-SARS-CoV-2 at day 1 and peaked on the 30th day. The most promising LFA, ELISA and CLIA that had the best performance characteristics were those targeting total SARS-CoV-2 antibodies followed by those targeting anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG then IgM. Essentially, the CLIA-based SARS-CoV-2 tests had the best performance characteristics, followed by ELISA then POCT. Given the varied performance characteristics of all the serological assays, there is a need to continuously improve their detection thresholds, as well as to monitor and re-evaluate their performances to assure their significance and applicability for COVID-19 clinical and epidemiological purposes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/inthealth/ihab005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7928871PMC
February 2021

Serological detection of human parvovirus B19 infection and associated risk factors among pregnant women in Jigawa State, Nigeria.

J Immunoassay Immunochem 2021 Jul 16;42(4):380-392. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria.

Human Parvovirus B19 (B19 V) infection is hyperendemic in Nigeria. Pregnant women are not classically immunocompromised but maybe physiologically immunosuppressed and susceptible to viral infection. However, there is a paucity of studies on the epidemiology of B19V in Jigawa State, Northwestern Nigeria. This study aims to determine the seroprevalence, sociodemographic, and risk factors of human B19V infection among present women attending antenatal clinics of Jahun General Hospital, Nigeria. Between 2 February and 30 June 2019, blood samples were collected from 200 consented pregnant women and analyzed for anti-B19V IgM and IgG using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Sociodemographic and risk factors of subjects were collated through pre-tested structured questionnaires. Data generated were statistically analyzed for the association of anti-B19V and subjects' variables studied. Overall, the seroprevalence of anti-B19V IgM and IgG among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics of Jahun General Hospital, Nigeria was 6.0% and 22.5%, respectively. There was no significant association between the seroprevalence of anti-B19V IgM and anti-B19V IgG with all the sociodemographic variables and risk factors of pregnant women ( ˃0.05). However, pregnant women with a history of blood transfusion had a significant risk associated with seroprevalence of B19V IgM (OR = 5.95; 95% CI: 1.96-22.76;  = .009). Findings from this study revealed that a high proportion of the pregnant women were susceptible to B19V infection and anti-B19V IgG immunity decreased with age. Given the incidence of acute B19V infection, it is clinically important to continuously monitor their erythrocytes indices and screen their neonates for B19V infection and fetal complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15321819.2021.1880435DOI Listing
July 2021

Sero-epidemiology of human T-cell lymphotropic viruses-1 and -2 infection among pregnant women attending Abuja Teaching Hospital, Nigeria.

Hum Antibodies 2021 ;29(1):101-108

WHO National Polio Laboratory, University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital, Maiduguri, Nigeria.

Background: There is the paucity of HTLV-1/-2 studies on Nigerian pregnant women despite the medical and public health significance of maternal-to-child transmission of HTLV-1/-2.

Objective: This study aims to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors of HTLV-1/-2 infections among pregnant women attending the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital (UATH), Abuja, Nigeria.

Materials And Methods: Blood samples were collected from consented pregnant women and analysed for ant-HTLV-1/-2 total antibodies using a commercial Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) kit. Pretested structured questionnaires were used to collate participants' socio-demographic variables and risk factors of HTLV infection.

Results: Out of the 156 pregnant women tested for HTLV-1/-2 antibodies, 16 (10.3%) were seropositive. There was no significant association between the socio-demographic variables collated and seroprevalence of HTLV-1/-2 infection among pregnant women (p> 0.05). Pregnant women with HIV infection had a lower prevalence of HLTV-1/-2 infection than those without HIV infections (7.5% versus 11.7%). Pregnant women with multiple sexual partners had a higher risk of HTLV-1/-2 infection than those who had single (OR = 2.08, 95% CI: 0.53-8.18). Women with a history of needles injury had a higher risk of HTLV-1/-2 infection than those who do not (OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 0.38-4.08). The history of blood transfusion was significantly associated with HTLV-1/-2 infection (p= 0.027). However, no significant association existed between other risk factors of HTLV-1/-2 infection among pregnant women (p> 0.05).

Conclusion: Considering the 3% pooled national prevalence of HTLV-1/-2 infection in Nigeria, the seroprevalence reported in this study is relatively high. Thus, there is a need for more large cohort studies and routine screening of population at increased risk of infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/HAB-200435DOI Listing
January 2021

Understanding the implications of SARS-CoV-2 re-infections on immune response milieu, laboratory tests and control measures against COVID-19.

Heliyon 2021 Jan 9;7(1):e05951. Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Department of Nursing Sciences, Maryam Abacha American University of Niger, Maradi, Nigeria.

Several months after the emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), cases of re-infection after recovery were reported. The extent and duration of protective immunity after SARS-CoV-2 infection is not fully understood. As such, the possibility of re-infection with SARS-CoV-2. Furthermore, cases of re-infection were mainly due to different variants or mutant SARS-CoV-2. Following the fast and pandemic-scale spread of COVID-19, mutations in SARS-CoV-2 have raised new diagnostic challenges which include the redesign of the oligonucleotide sequences used in RT-PCR assays to avoid potential primer-sample mismatches, and decrease sensitivities. Since the initial wave of the pandemic, some regions had experienced fresh outbreaks, predisposing people to be susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 re-infection. Hence, this article sought to offer detailed biology of SARS-CoV-2 re-infections and their implications on immune response milieu, diagnostic laboratory tests and control measures against COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e05951DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7810769PMC
January 2021

Serological survey and risk factors associated with infection among HIV-infected pregnant women attending Abuja Tertiary Hospital, Nigeria.

Malawi Med J 2020 09;32(3):160-167

Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

Background: Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy could induce miscarriage, congenital anomalies in foetuses and encephalitis in HIV-infected people. Hence, there is a need to determine the prevalence of toxoplasmosis in HIV-infected pregnant women to inform clinicians about the significance of maternal toxoplasmosis in antenatal care.

Aim: This study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection, associated CD4+ T-cell profile and sociodemographic risk factors among pregnant women with or without HIV infection attending the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Abuja, Nigeria.

Methods: This hospital-based cross-sectional study involved blood samples collected from 160 HIV-infected and 160 HIV-seronegative pregnant women. These samples were analysed for anti-T. gondii (IgG and IgM) and CD4+ T-cell count using ELISA and flow cytometry, respectively. Sociodemographic variables of participants were collected using structured questionnaires.

Results: The overall seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM was 28.8% and 3.8%, respectively. The seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM was 29.4% and 4.4%, respectively, among HIV-seropositive pregnant women and 28.1% and 3.1%, respectively, among HIV-seronegative women. There was no significant association between the seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii-IgG and anti-T. gondii-IgM with age, gestational age, education level, parity or place of residence of HIV-infected pregnant women (P > 0.05). However, there was significant association between the seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii-IgG (P = 0.03) and anti-T. gondii-IgM (P = 0.01) with education level. CD4+ T-cell count varied significantly between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected pregnant women (P = 0.035).

Conclusion: In this study, the seroprevalence of anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM did not differ in HIV-seropositive or HIV-seronegative pregnant women. However, women with primary T. gondii and HIV coinfection had lower CD4+ T-cell count than those with toxoplasmosis monoinfection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/mmj.v32i3.9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7812142PMC
September 2020

Prospects of biotechnological production and adoption of COVID-19 serological assays in Nigeria.

Pan Afr Med J 2020 3;37(Suppl 1):31. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Kwara State University, Mellete, Nigeria.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.supp.2020.37.31.25823DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7796842PMC
February 2021

Distribution pattern and prevalence of West Nile virus infection in Nigeria from 1950 to 2020: a systematic review.

Epidemiol Health 2020 26;42:e2020071. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Solina Center for International Development and Research, Abuja, Nigeria.

Objectives: West Nile virus (WNV) is a re-emerging mosquito-borne viral infection. This study investigated the pooled prevalence pattern and risk factors of WNV infection among humans and animals in Nigeria.

Methods: A systematic review was conducted of eligible studies published in PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science from January 1, 1950 to August 30, 2020. Peer-reviewed cross-sectional studies describing WNV infections in humans and animals were systematically reviewed. Heterogeneity was assessed using the Cochrane Q statistic.

Results: Eighteen out of 432 available search output were eligible and included for this study. Of which 13 and 5 were WNV studies on humans and animals, respectively. Although 61.5% of the human studies had a low risk of bias, they all had high heterogeneity. The South West geopolitical zone of Nigeria had the highest pooled prevalence of anti-WNV immunoglobulin M (IgM; 7.8% in humans). The pooled seroprevalence of anti-WNV IgM and immunoglobulin G (IgG) was 7.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.9 to 8.3) and 76.5% (95% CI, 74.0 to 78.8), respectively. The WNV RNA prevalence was 1.9% (95% CI, 1.4 to 2.9), while 14.3% (95% CI, 12.9 to 15.8) had WNV-neutralizing antibodies. In animals, the pooled seroprevalence of anti-WNV IgM and IgG was 90.3% (95% CI, 84.3 to 94.6) and 3.5% (95% CI, 1.9 to 5.8), respectively, while 20.0% (95% CI, 12.9 to 21.4) had WNV-neutralizing antibodies. Age (odds ratio [OR], 3.73; 95% CI, 1.87 to 7.45; p<0.001) and level of education (no formal education: OR, 4.31; 95% CI, 1.08 to 17.2; p<0.05; primary: OR, 7.29; 95% CI, 1.80 to 29.6; p<0.01) were significant risk factors for WNV IgM seropositivity in humans.

Conclusions: The findings of this study highlight the endemicity of WNV in animals and humans in Nigeria and underscore the need for the One Health prevention and control approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020071DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8137371PMC
February 2021

Leucocytes and Th-associated Cytokine Profile of HIV-Leishmaniasis Co-Infected Persons Attending Abuja Teaching Hospital, Nigeria.

Eurasian J Med 2020 Oct;52(3):271-276

Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria.

Objective: T-helper cells (Th)-1& -2 cytokines homeostasis control or predict clinical outcome of infected persons, especially those with HIV /AIDS. This case-control study evaluated the leucocytes differentials, TNF-alpha, interleukin (IL)-2 and -10 levels among HIV infected persons with serological evidence of leishmaniasis attending University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Nigeria.

Materials And Methods: Blood samples from 28 HIV infected persons who had Leishmania donovani rK39 and Immunoglobulin-G (IgG) positive (group 1), 30 age- & -sex matched HIV infected persons without Leishmania antibodies (group 2) and 30 apparently healthy persons without HIV and Leishmania antibodies (group 3). Full blood counts, TNF alpha, IL-2 and -10 levels were analyzed using automated hematology analyzer and ELISA, respectively. Structured questionnaires were used to collate biodata and clinical presentations of participants.

Results: Ten (35.7%) participants in group 1 were on ART, 15 (50%) in group 2 were on ART, while group 3 were ART naïve. There were significantly higher values in basophil (4.4±2.5%) and eosinophil counts (12.9±3.8%) in HIV/leishmania coinfected persons (p<0.005). However, other white cells subpopulation was significantly lower in HIV/leishmania co-infected participants (p<0.05). There was significantly reduced CD4+ T cell counts ([119±26 versus 348±63 versus 605±116 cells/mm3]), TNF-alpha ([36.82±8.21 versus 64.67±12.54 versus 254.98±65.59 pg/mL]) and IL-2 levels ([142.14±20.91 versus 507.6±84.42 versus 486.62±167.87 pg/mL]) among HIV/Leishmania co-infected participants compared to group 2 and group 3 participants, respectively. However, higher IL-10 level (80.35±14.57 pg/mL) was found in HIV/Leishmania co-infected participants as opposed to the HIV monoinfected (62.2±10.43 pg/mL) and apparently healthy persons (23.97±4.88 pg/mL) (p<0.001).

Conclusion: Eosinophil, basophil counts and serum IL-10 level were high in HIV/Leishmania coinfected persons, demonstrating parasite-induced hypersensitivity and immunosuppression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5152/eurasianjmed.2020.20008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7651764PMC
October 2020

Leveraging on the genomics and immunopathology of SARS-CoV-2 for vaccines development: prospects and challenges.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 03 16;17(3):620-637. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, College of Medical Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

The incidence and case-fatality rates (CFRs) of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, the etiological agent for Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), have been rising unabated. Even though the entire world has been implementing infection prevention and control measures, the pandemic continues to spread. It has been widely accepted that preventive vaccination strategies are the public health measures for countering this pandemic. This study critically reviews the latest scientific advancement in genomics, replication pattern, pathogenesis, and immunopathology of SARS-CoV-2 infection and how these concepts could be used in the development of vaccines. We also offer a detailed discussion on the anticipated potency, efficacy, safety, and pharmaco-economic issues that are and will be associated with candidate COVID-19 vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2020.1812313DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7993231PMC
March 2021

Mathematical modeling for infectious viral disease: The COVID-19 perspective.

J Public Aff 2020 Aug 17:e2306. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, College of Medical Sciences Ahmadu Bello University Zaria Nigeria.

In this study, we examined various forms of mathematical models that are relevant for the containment, risk analysis, and features of COVID-19. Greater emphasis was laid on the extension of the Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (SIR) models for policy relevance in the time of COVID-19. These mathematical models play a significant role in the understanding of COVID-19 transmission mechanisms, structures, and features. Considering that the disease has spread sporadically around the world, causing large scale socioeconomic disruption unwitnessed in contemporary ages since World War II, researchers, stakeholders, government, and the society at large are actively engaged in finding ways to reduce the rate of infection until a cure or vaccination procedure is established. We advanced argument for the various forms of the mathematical model of epidemics and highlighted their relevance in the containment of COVID-19 at the present time. Mathematical models address the need for understanding the transmission dynamics and other significant factors of the disease that would aid policymakers to make accurate decisions and reduce the rate of transmission of the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pa.2306DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7461001PMC
August 2020

Roles and challenges of coordinated public health laboratory response against COVID-19 pandemic in Africa.

J Infect Dev Ctries 2020 07 31;14(7):691-695. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Department of Medical Laboratory Services, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital, Gwagwalada, Abuja Nigeria.

As the incidence of Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) continues to rise, many countries have been seeking for medical assistance such as donation or procurement of laboratory test kits and strips. These consumables are largely intended for use in the laboratory investigations of COVID-19 cases, suspected contacts, asymptomatic persons and in discharging cured persons. Thus, this article was instigated to update and remind healthcare providers and policymakers (especially those in developing countries) on the principles of sample collections, storage, transportation, laboratory protocols and networks needed for appropriate public health response against COVID-19 pandemic in Africa and other developing countries. In addition, this article presents challenges that hinder adequate COVID-19 laboratory response and discuss some possible solutions that could ameliorate these constrains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3855/jidc.12813DOI Listing
July 2020

Spectrum of pulmonary fungal pathogens, associated risk factors, and anti-fungal susceptibility pattern among persons with presumptive tuberculosis at Gombe, Nigeria.

Int J Mycobacteriol 2020 Apr-Jun;9(2):144-149

Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, Bayero University, Kano, Nigeria.

Background: Pulmonary mycosis (PM) poses a great diagnostic challenge due to the lack of pathognomonic and radiological features, especially in the absence of mycology laboratory tests. This study was aimed to isolate, phenotypically identify, determine the prevalence of pulmonary fungal pathogens and antifungal susceptibility pattern of isolates of presumptive tuberculosis (PTB) patients attending Federal Teaching Hospital (FTH) Gombe, Nigeria.

Methods: After ethical approval, three consecutive early morning sputa were collected from 216 participants with presumptive of PTB attending FTH Gombe, between May 2, 2017 and May 30, 2018. Samples were processed using standard mycological staining, microscopy, sugar biochemistry, and antifungal susceptibility test protocols. Sociodemographic variables and risk factors of pulmonary fungal infection were assessed through structured questionnaires. Pulmonary fungal infection was defined by the positive culture in at least two sputa. PTB was defined by Genexpert nested polymerase chain reaction.

Results: Of the 216 participants, 19.9% had PTB and 73.6% had pulmonary fungal pathogens. Among the isolated pulmonary fungal pathogens, Aspergillus fumigatus made the highest occurrence, while 6.5% had PTB-fungal co-infection. No significant association existed between the prevalence of PM with age and sex of participants (P < 0.05). Cigarette smoking (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 15.9 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.9-268.8]), prolong antibiotic use (aOR = 77.9 [95% CI: 4.7-1283]) and possession of domestic pet (aOR = 77.9 [95% CI: 4.7-1283]) were significant risk factors of PM (P < 0.05). Penicillium citrinum, Mucor spp. and Aspergillus flavus are more susceptible to voriconazole, and Candida albicans was found to be more susceptible to Nystatin. Of the 159 fungal isolates, 92.5% were resistant to fluconazole.

Conclusion: Findings from this study revealed high level pulmonary fungal pathogens, especially among PTB patients. A majority of fungal isolates were resistant to fluconazole. It's recommended that persons should do away with or minimize risk factors for pulmonary fungal pathogens identified in this study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_46_20DOI Listing
July 2021

Exploring the genetics, ecology of SARS-COV-2 and climatic factors as possible control strategies against COVID-19

Infez Med 2020 Ahead Of Print Jun 1;28(2):166-173

Department of Public Health, University of South Wale, UK.

The world has been thrown into pandemonium due to the recent Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic. Early available clinical data have indicated that geriatric persons cum those with comorbidity such as cardiovascular, metabolic and immunological disorders suffered severe form of COVID-19. All countries and territories of the world are currently exploring available strategies to control the pandemic with the hope to significantly minimize its morbidity and mortality rate. This present study critically reviewed available and latest research progress on the genetics and ecology of SARS-CoV-2, as well as the influence of climatic factors on the spread of COVID-19, and thus, discussed how these concepts could be harnessed for COVID-19 control and further scientific advancements in resolving the pandemic.
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April 2020

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Pathog Glob Health 2020 05 19;114(3):111-116. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, University of Maiduguri, Maiduguri, Nigeria.

Chikungunya (CHIK) is a re-emerging and myo-arthritogenic arboviral infection that has affected significant global population. However, CHIK is a neglected disease in Nigeria. This study aimed to estimate the pooled prevalence pattern of CHIK virus infection in Nigeria. A systematic review of eligible articles was conducted from "PubMed", "Scopus", "Google Scholar" and "Web of Science", between January 1980 to February 2020. Peer-reviewed articles describing CHIKV infection in cross-sectional studies were systematically reviewed. Random-effect model was used to pool the prevalence of CHIKV infection and associated sociodemographic data reported from eligible studies. In total, there were 10 published articles on CHIKV infection. Of these, 7 were cross-sectional studies, which comprised of 1347 pooled participants. The pooled anti-CHIKV IgM and IgG seroprevalence were 26.7% (95% CI: 23.2 - 30.4) and 29.3% (95% CI: 26.2 -32.6), respectively.  Of the pooled studies, there were 3.8% (95% CI: 2.0-6.4) CHIKV RNA positive cases and 46.1% prevalence of CHIKV neutralizing antibodies. Of the 6 geopolitical zones in Nigeria, Northeast had the highest serological evidence of CHIKV infection. There was a significance association between the prevalence of anti-CHIKV and geopolitical zones of Nigeria (= 70.04; p˂0.0001). Sex (p ˂0.0001; OR= 1.87 [1.47 - 2.38]) and level of education (p ˂0.0001; OR= 2.74 [1.89 - 3.95]) were significant risk factors for pooled anti-CHIKV IgM seropositivity. However, no significant association was found with other sociodemographic variables (p ˃0.05). Although there was paucity of data on CHIKV research in Nigeria, this meta-analysis revealed a high prevalence of CHIKV infection in the country.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/20477724.2020.1743087DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7241486PMC
May 2020

Distribution of hepatitis B virus-positive individuals in Zaria, Nigeria, according to risk-associated practices.

Calabar J Health Sci 2019 Jan-Mar;3(1):25-30. Epub 2020 Feb 4.

Department of Medical Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.

Background: An estimated 75% of Nigerians are at risk of hepatitis B virus (HBV) exposure. In an attempt to reduce the menace, the assessment of risk factors associated with HBV infection and general perception of infected individuals is a step in that direction.

Aim Of The Study: This study, therefore, identified exposure to risk factors and general perceptions associated with HBV infection in infected individuals in Zaria, Nigeria.

Methodology: Four milliliters of blood were collected in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid container from each of 165 HBV surface antigen (HBsAg)-positive participants recruited purposively from the gastroenterology clinic of ABUTH Zaria from May to August 2017. Plasma was separated and used to screen for HBsAg with Fastep® rapid strip. Epi Info® questionnaire database was used to collate data on sociodemographics, risk factors, and perception indices. GraphPad Prism 6 was used for statistical analysis.

Results: The median interquartile range age of the participants was 31.0 (25.5-39.0) years with 107 (64.8%) male participants. Sharing hair clippers, commercial pedicure, and body piercing among others were some of the risks that the study participants reported to be exposed to. One-quarter of health workers involved in the study had needlestick injury. Less than half of the study participants (47.7%) knew of hepatitis B before testing HBsAg seropositive. Knowledge of the HBV vaccine before testing and adherence was generally poor (38.6% and 44.6%, respectively). There was a significant linear relationship between the level of education and knowledge of hepatitis B.

Conclusion: Considering the myriads of already established risks of HBV seen in Zaria, massive enlightenment campaigns need to be embarked on continuously through all available media, including social media.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.25259/cjhs_7_2019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7039646PMC
February 2020

Evaluation of apoptotic protease-activating Factor-1 and cluster of Differentiation-4 T-Cell counts in patients-infected with mycobacterium tuberculosis in Bauchi, Nigeria.

Int J Mycobacteriol 2019 Apr-Jun;8(2):146-152

Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

Background: This cross-sectional study evaluated Apoptotic Protease Activating Factor and cluster of differentiation-4 (CD4) T-cell counts in patients infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in Bauchi, Nigeria.

Methods: This involved 180 blood samples from 90 tuberculosis (TB)-infected patients and 90 of their close contacts at home or attending Federal Medical Center Azare and Infectious Disease Hospital Bayara, Bauchi, Nigeria. The blood samples were analyzed for Apoptotic Protease Activating Factor (Apaf-1) expression using ELISA and CD4 T cells using cyflow counter. Structured questionnaires were also used to collect the sociodemographic and clinical data of the study participants.

Results: Eighty-six of the TB-infected patients had pulmonary TB (PTB), two had spine TB, and two had pleural TB. No statistically significant difference was recorded in CD4 T-cell counts (P = 0.2935) between participants with PTB (mean ± standard deviation [SD]: 680.4 ± 235 cells/mm) and those with extra-PTB (mean ± SD: 553.0 ± 130.5 cells/mm). Similarly, there was no significant difference in Apaf-1 concentration (P = 0.1432) between participants with PTB (mean ± standard error of the mean [SEM]: 320.3 ± 35.4 pg/ml), and participants with extra-PTB (mean ± SEM: 143.7 ± 7.8 pg/ml). No significant difference was recorded in CD4 T-cell counts (P = 0.4299) between the participants on treatment (mean ± SD: 758.6 ± 358.6 cells/mm) and those who are treatment naïve (mean ± SD: 637.7 ± 208.4 cells/mm). Similarly, there was no significant difference in Apaf-1 concentration (P = 0.6829) between the study participants on treatment (mean ± SEM: 336.3 ± 34.7 pg/ml) and those who are not on treatment (mean ± SEM: 381.2 ± 176.8 pg/ml). The CD4 T-cells count was significantly higher in the controls (866.7 ± 288.4 cells/mm) compared to the TB (675.0 ± 232.7 cells/mm) patients (P < 0.0001). However, there was no significant difference in Apaf-1 expression between the control (312.4 ± 34.6 pg/ml) and the TB patients (329.1 ± 44.0 pg/ml) (P = 0.7658).

Conclusion: Findings from this study showed a lower T-cell immune function during TB infection. However, Apaf-1 has no relevance on TB progression and control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijmy.ijmy_66_19DOI Listing
November 2019

Pattern of prevalent Hepatitis B virus genotypes in Zaria, Nigeria.

Niger Postgrad Med J 2019 Apr-Jun;26(2):80-86

Department of Medical Microbiology, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria.

Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is hyperendemic in Nigeria. Available literature reveal genotype E as being predominant in West Africa. This study aimed at identifying the current pattern and prevalent genotypes of HBV in Zaria, Nigeria.

Materials And Methods: Four millilitre of blood was collected in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-container from each of 165 HBV surface antigen-positive participants recruited purposively from the gastroenterology clinic from May to August, 2017. Plasma was separated and frozen at -20°C till analysis. Multiplex-nested polymerase chain reaction using type-specific primers was used to identify the various HBV genotypes.

Results: Median (and interquartile range) age of the participants was 31.0 (25.5-39.0) years, with males constituting 107 (64.8%). Majority (83.6%) of the samples analysed were HBV-DNA-positive with 82.6% of the HBV-DNA-positive samples being mixed genotype infections. Irrespective of mode of occurrence, five HBV genotypes were identified with HBV/E (97.1%) being the most predominant, followed by HBV/B (82.6%), HBV/A (24.6%), then HBV/C (17.4%), while HBV/D (0.7%) was the least prevalent.

Conclusion: In most (99.1%) of the mixed-infection were a combination of genotype E, the predominant genotype, with other genotypes predominantly genotype B. HBV genotypes E, B, A, C and D are the prevalent genotypes in Zaria, Nigeria, as they occur in single genotype and in mixed-genotypes pattern.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/npmj.npmj_59_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6626198PMC
June 2019
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