Publications by authors named "Idomeo Bonetti-Filho"

30 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Physical Properties, Antimicrobial Activity and In Vivo Tissue Response to Apexit Plus.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Mar 5;13(5). Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Laboratory of Histology and Embryology, Dental School - São Paulo State University (UNESP), Araraquara 14801-903, Brazil.

We investigated the physical properties, antimicrobial activity, and tissue reaction to Apexit Plus in comparison to Sealapex. Flow, radiopacity, setting time, and solubility were evaluated in each material. The antimicrobial activity against was performed. Polyethylene tubes containing Apexit Plus or Sealapex, and without material (control group) were implanted into the subcutaneous tissue of rats. At 7, 15, 30, and 60 days of implantation, the specimens were paraffin-embedded and the number of inflammatory cells (ICs) and the amount of birefringent collagen (BC) were quantified. The von Kossa reaction followed by immunohistochemistry for detection of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was also performed. Statistical analysis was performed with ANOVA and Tukey test ( ≤ 0.05). The flow value of Apexit Plus was greater than Sealapex, whereas the radiopacity (3.44 mm Al) was lower than Sealapex (6.82 mm Al). Apexit Plus showed lower solubility and shorter initial and final setting ( 0.0001), whereas the antimicrobial activity was significantly greater than Sealapex. Although the number of ICs was higher in Apexit Plus ( = 0.0009) at 7 days, no significant difference was detected between Apexit Plus and Sealapex at 15, 30, and 60 days. All groups showed higher values for BC in the capsules over time. ALP-immunolabelled cells were observed, mainly around von Kossa-positive structures, either in the capsules of Apexit Plus or Sealapex. Therefore, our results revealed that Apexit Plus exhibited a greater effectiveness against and better physical properties than Sealapex, except for the radiopacity. In vivo findings indicate that Apexit Plus is biocompatible and presents potential bioactivity in the subcutaneous tissue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13051171DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7085033PMC
March 2020

Ytterbium Oxide as Radiopacifier of Calcium Silicate-Based Cements. Physicochemical and Biological Properties.

Braz Dent J 2018 Sep-Oct;29(5):452-458

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Araraquara Dental School, UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

This study evaluated physicochemical properties, cytotoxicity and bioactivity of MTA Angelus (MTA), calcium silicate-based cement (CSC) and CSC with 30% Ytterbium oxide (CSC/Yb2O3). Setting time was evaluated using Gilmore needles. Compressive strength was evaluated in a mechanical machine. Radiopacity was evaluated using radiographs of materials and an aluminum scale. Solubility was evaluated after immersion in water. Cell viability was evaluated by means of MTT assay and neutral red staining, and the mineralization activity by using alkaline phosphatase activity and Alizarin Red staining. The data were submitted to ANOVA, Tukey and Bonferroni tests (5% significance). The bioactive potential was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. The materials presented similar setting time. MTA showed the lowest compressive strength. MTA and CSC/Yb2O3 presented similar radiopacity. CSC/Yb2O3 showed low solubility. Saos-2 cell viability tests showed no cytotoxic effect, except to 1:1 dilution in NR assay which had lower cell viability when compared to the control. ALP at 1 and 7 days was similar to the control. MTA and CSC had greater ALP activity at 3 days when compared to control. All the materials present higher mineralized nodules when compared with the control. SEM analysis showed structures suggesting the presence of calcium phosphate on the surface of materials demonstrating bioactivity. Ytterbium oxide proved to be a properly radiopacifying agent for calcium silicate-based cement since it did not affected the physicochemical and biological properties besides preserving the bioactive potential of this material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0103-6440201802033DOI Listing
April 2019

Radiographic and micro-computed tomography classification of root canal morphology and dentin thickness of mandibular incisors.

J Conserv Dent 2018 Jan-Feb;21(1):57-62

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Araraquara Dental School, São Paulo State University, Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil.

Context: Root canal anatomy is evaluated using different methodologies.

Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate and classify root canal morphology and dentin thicknesses (DT), comparing radiographic and micro-computed tomography (CT) analysis.

Materials And Methods: Canal diameter and DT of mandibular incisors ( = 520) were evaluated using digital radiographs in buccolingual (BL) and mesiodistal (MD) directions. The diameter ratio (DR) BL/MD was classified: flattened (FL, DR >4); oval (OV, 2≤ DR ≥4); rounded (RN, 1.1< DR >2); round (RO, 0.9≤ DR ≥1.1); and with BL flatness (BL, DR <0.9). OV ( = 110) were subjected to micro-CT. DT and DR were evaluated at 3, 6, and 9 mm. ANOVA, Tukey, and paired Wilcoxon tests ( < 0.05) were used.

Results: Radiographic classification was 23.3% FL, 41.3% OV, 27.3% RN, 4.5% RO, and 3.6% BL. DT was similar. Radiographic DT at 3 and 9 mm was greater than micro-CT ( < 0.05) and was similar at 6 mm ( > 0.05). DR differed between the analyses. Oval canals were predominant at all levels radiographically and at 9 and 6 mm in micro-CT analysis, with greater variation at 3 mm.

Conclusion: Oval root canals are predominant in mandibular incisors at 9 mm. Radiographic DT is larger than observed in micro-CT at 3 and 9 mm, and the classification differed in each root level. The classification at 9 mm is indicated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/JCD.JCD_230_16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5852937PMC
April 2018

Cytocompatibility, physical properties, and antibiofilm activity of endodontic sealers with amoxicillin.

Microsc Res Tech 2017 Sep 26;80(9):1036-1048. Epub 2017 May 26.

Araraquara School of Dentistry, Department of Restorative Dentistry, UNESP - São Paulo State University, Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

The aim was to evaluate the cytocompatibility of the AH Plus and Sealapex associated with amoxicillin (AA) in a quantity of 10% by total weight of the sealers, the flow and setting time of these sealers with 10%-0.25% AA and antibiofilm activity of these sealers associated with AA in a concentration that does not alter their physical properties (1%). Cytocompatibility was assessed by MTT, neutral red and cytoskeletal fluorescence assays. Setting time and flow was evaluated using the specifications of ISO 6876/2012. For the antibiofilm evaluation, materials were placed in direct contact with E. faecalis biofilm induced on dentin blocks. The incorporation of AA into the sealers did not diminish the viability of the fibroblasts and did not cause structural changes in the cytoskeletal. The flow of AH Plus + AA at 1.0; 0.5 and 0.25%, and of Sealapex + AA at 5.5; 2.5; 1.0; 0.5 and 0.25% were within the specifications of the ISO 6876. AH Plus, and AH Plus + AA at 1.0; 0.50 and 0.25% presented a setting time of 730, 439, 455, and 474 min., respectively. Sealapex - pure or associated with AA did not set completely. The addition of 1% AA to the sealers did not increase their antibiofilm activity. It was concluded that the incorporation of 10% AA caused no toxic effects on fibroblasts, but harmed the physical properties. The addition of AA in concentration that does not affect the physical properties of the sealers did not increase their antibiofilm activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jemt.22898DOI Listing
September 2017

A Novel Model for Evaluating the Flow of Endodontic Materials Using Micro-computed Tomography.

J Endod 2017 May 3;43(5):796-800. Epub 2017 Mar 3.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Araraquara Dental School, São Paulo State University, Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil.

Introduction: Flow and filling ability are important properties of endodontic materials. The aim of this study was to propose a new technique for evaluating flow using micro-computed tomographic (μCT) imaging.

Methods: A glass plate was manufactured with a central cavity and 4 grooves extending out horizontally and vertically. The flow of MTA-Angelus (Angelus, Londrina, PR, Brazil), zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE), and Biodentine (BIO) (Septodont, Saint Maur des Fossés, France) was evaluated using International Standards Organization (ISO) 6876/2002 and a new technique as follows: 0.05 ± 0.005 mL of each material was placed in the central cavity, and another glass plate and metal weight with a total mass of 120 g were placed over the material. The plate/material set was scanned using μCT imaging. The flow was calculated by linear measurement (mm) of the material in the grooves. Central cavity filling was calculated in mm in the central cavity. Lateral cavity filling (LCF) was measured by LCF mean values up to 2 mm from the central cavity. Data were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance and Tukey tests with a 5% significance level.

Results: ZOE showed the highest flow rate determined by ISO methodology (P < .05). Analysis performed using μCT imaging showed MTA-Angelus and ZOE had higher linear flow rates in the grooves. Central cavity filling was similar for the materials. However, LCF was higher for BIO versus ZOE.

Conclusions: Although ZOE presented better flow determined by ISO methodology, BIO showed the best filling ability. The model of the technique proposed for evaluating flow using μCT imaging showed proper and reproducible results and could improve flow analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2016.12.002DOI Listing
May 2017

Effect of ProTaper and Reciproc preparation and gutta-percha cone on cold lateral compaction.

J Conserv Dent 2016 Sep-Oct;19(5):410-3

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Araraquara Dental School, UNESP-Univ Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

Context: The effectiveness of cold lateral compaction depends on the root canal preparation and used gutta-percha cone.

Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate finger spreader penetration into root canals prepared with ProTaper (PT) or Reciproc (Rec) systems and filled with gutta-percha cones with different tapers.

Materials And Methods: Twenty-four simulated root canals in resin blocks with 30° curvature were prepared up to PT F2 or Rec R25. They were divided into four experimental groups according to the master gutta-percha cone and preparation (25.02 or F2/PT, and 25.02 or R25/Rec). Cold lateral compaction was performed using a stainless steel finger spreader size B. The set cone-finger spreader-resin block was placed in a universal test machine, and a load up to 1.5 kg was applied on the finger spreader. The final distance between the finger spreader and apical preparation after load application was obtained. For comparison among the groups, data were submitted to ANOVA and Tukey's tests, with a significance level of 5%.

Results: Greater finger spreader penetration was observed for 0.02/Rec and 0.02/PT, followed by F2/PT and R25/Rec.

Conclusion: The use of cones associated with PT and Rec preparations does not allow the finger spreader penetration up to the apical third.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0972-0707.190015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5026098PMC
September 2016

Surface characteristics of reciprocating instruments before and after use--a SEM analysis.

Braz Dent J 2015 Mar-Apr;26(2):121-7. Epub 2015 Apr 1.

Araraquara Dental School, UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

The presence of debris, defects and deformations of endodontic reciprocating instruments before and after chemical-mechanical preparation (MCP) was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The following 26 instruments were divided into 2 groups: Waveone (n=13) and Reciproc (n=13) and examined by SEM (150 x magnification) prior to canal preparation at 2 and 4 mm from the tip. The instruments were used in the preparation of mesial root canals of 26 extracted human permanent mandibular molars. The instruments were then washed in ultrasonic bath and subjected to new microscopic analysis of debris and deformation by a score that used the presence or absence of irregular edges, grooves, microcavities and burrs as criteria. After the SEM analysis and with the scores of the examiners, the collected data were subjected to descriptive statistical analysis using the Kruskall-Walis and Mann Whitney test at a 5% significance level. All instruments examined presented debris before and after use. A statistically significant difference was found for defects and deformation between the groups (p<0.05). The presence of defects and deformities was higher in the WaveOne instruments, and Reciproc instruments presented a lower rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0103-6440201300208DOI Listing
December 2016

Comparison of cyclic fatigue and torsional resistance in reciprocating single-file systems and continuous rotary instrumentation systems.

J Oral Sci 2014 Dec;56(4):269-75

Department of Endodontics, Paulista University.

As compared with continuous rotary systems, reciprocating motion is believed to increase the fatigue resistance of NiTi instruments. We compared the cyclic fatigue and torsional resistance of reciprocating single-file systems and continuous rotary instrumentation systems in simulated root canals. Eighty instruments from the ProTaper Universal, WaveOne, MTwo, and Reciproc systems (n = 20) were submitted to dynamic bending testing in stainless-steel simulated curved canals. Axial displacement of the simulated canals was performed with half of the instruments (n = 10), with back-and-forth movements in a range of 1.5 mm. Time until fracture was recorded, and the number of cycles until instrument fracture was calculated. Cyclic fatigue resistance was greater for reciprocating systems than for rotary systems (P < 0.05). Instruments from the Reciproc and WaveOne systems significantly differed only when axial displacement occurred (P < 0.05). Instruments of the ProTaper Universal and MTwo systems did not significantly differ (P > 0.05). Cyclic fatigue and torsional resistance were greater for reciprocating systems than for continuous rotary systems, irrespective of axial displacement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2334/josnusd.56.269DOI Listing
December 2014

Influence of sealer placement technique on the quality of root canal filling by lateral compaction or single cone.

Braz Dent J 2014 ;25(2):117-22

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Araraquara School of Dentistry, Univ Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the sealer placement technique on the quality of root canal filling using Lateral Compaction (LC) or Single Cone (SC). In order to do that, 60 mesial roots of mandibular first molars were prepared and divided into 2 groups (n=30), according to the filling technique: LC and SC. Each group was subdivided into 3 subgroups (n=10), according to the different sealer placement methods: A: Master gutta-percha (GP) cone; B: Lentulo spiral; C: File. The roots were sectioned at 2, 4 and 6 mm from the apex and photographed with the aid of a digital microscope. Then, areas of GP, endodontic sealer and voids were measured, and these data were subjected to statistical analysis. LC technique showed no statistically difference (p>0.05) in the percentage of GP area, sealer and voids between the subgroups at any of the three levels. After use of SC, higher percentages of sealer area were found at all levels (p<0.01) when the sealer was placed with a file. At 2 mm, higher percentage of void areas (p<0.05) was observed when the cone was used, lower percentage with K-file and the lowest percentage with Lentulo. At 4 mm, cone showed higher percentage of void areas (p<0.05). At 6 mm, there were no significant differences (p>0.05) between the three methods. Considering these results, using an instrument for sealer placement was important in the SC technique to reduce voids. Regarding LC, the sealer placement techniques provided similar results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0103-6440201302370DOI Listing
July 2016

The efficacy of the self-adjusting file and ProTaper for removal of calcium hydroxide from root canals.

J Appl Oral Sci 2013 Jul-Aug;21(4):346-50

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Araraquara Dental School, Univ. Estadual Paulista, AraraquaraSP, Brazil.

Objective: The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Self-Adjusting File (SAF) and ProTaper for removing calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] from root canals.

Material And Methods: Thirty-six human mandibular incisors were instrumented with the ProTaper system up to instrument F2 and filled with a Ca(OH)2-based dressing. After 7 days, specimens were distributed in two groups (n=15) according to the method of Ca(OH)2 removal. Group I (SAF) was irrigated with 5 mL of NaOCl and SAF was used for 30 seconds under constant irrigation with 5 mL of NaOCl using the Vatea irrigation device, followed by irrigation with 3 mL of EDTA and 5 mL of NaOCl. Group II (ProTaper) was irrigated with 5 mL of NaOCl, the F2 instrument was used for 30 seconds, followed by irrigation with 5 mL of NaOCl, 3 mL of EDTA, and 5 mL of NaOCl. In 3 teeth Ca(OH)2 was not removed (positive control) and in 3 teeth canals were not filled with Ca(OH)2 (negative control). Teeth were sectioned and prepared for the scanning electron microscopy. The amounts of residual Ca(OH)2 were evaluated in the middle and apical thirds using a 5-score system.

Results: None of the techniques completely removed the Ca(OH)2 dressing. No difference was observed between SAF and ProTaper in removing Ca(OH)2 in the middle (P=0.11) and the apical (P=0.23) thirds.

Conclusion: The SAF system showed similar efficacy to rotary instrument for removal of Ca(OH)2 from mandibular incisor root canals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1678-775720130034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3881888PMC
January 2014

Ex-vivo effect of intracanal medications based on ozone and calcium hydroxide in root canals contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis.

Braz Dent J 2013 ;24(2):103-6

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Araraquara Dental School, UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

This ex vivo study evaluated the antibacterial effect of intracanal medications in root canals contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis. Fifty single-rooted human teeth were contaminated with E. faecalis (ATCC 29212) and incubated at 37°C for 21 days. The specimens were randomly divided into 5 groups according to the intracanal medication used: OZ-PG: ozonized propylene glycol; CH/CPMC: calcium hydroxide/camphorated paramonochlorophenol; OZ-PG/CH ozonized PG/CH; PC: positive control group (no medication); and NC: negative control group (no contamination). The samples were collected after 7 days (post-medication) and 14 days (final). Bacterial growth was checked by counting the colony-forming units (CFU). OZ-PG and CH/CPMC reduced significantly the CFU counts compared with PC in the post-medication and final samples, with no statistically significant differences among them. On the other hand, OZ-PG/CH did not reduce significantly the number of bacteria compared with PC. In conclusion, among the evaluated medications OZ-PG and CH/CPMC were the most effective against E. faecalis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0103-6440201301992DOI Listing
June 2014

Effect of the root canal final rinse protocols on the debris and smear layer removal and on the push-out strength of an epoxy-based sealer.

Microsc Res Tech 2013 May 26;76(5):533-7. Epub 2013 Feb 26.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Araraquara Dental School, UNESP-University Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil.

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of QMiX, SmearClear, and 17% EDTA for the debris and smear layer removal from the root canal and its effects on the push-out bond strength of an epoxy-based sealer by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Forty extracted human canines (n = 10) were assigned to the following final rinse protocols: G1-distilled water (control), G2-17% EDTA, G3-SmearClear, and G4-QMiX. The specimens were submitted to a SEM analysis to evaluate the presence of debris and smear layer, respectively, in the apical or cervical segments. In sequence, forty extracted human maxillary canines with the root canals instrumented were divided into four groups (n = 10) similar to the SEM analysis study. After the filling with AH Plus, the roots were transversally sectioned to obtain dentinal slices. The specimens were submitted to a push-out bond strength test using an electromechanical testing machine. The statistical analysis for the SEM and push-out bond strength studies were performed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests (α = 5%). There was no difference among the G2, G3, and G4 efficacy in removing the debris and smear layer (P > 0.05). The efficacy of these groups was superior to the control group. The push-out bond strength values of G2, G3, and G4 were superior to the control group. The ability to remove the debris and smear layer by SmearClear and QMiX was as effective as the 17% EDTA. The final rinse with these solutions promoted similar push-out bond strength values.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jemt.22196DOI Listing
May 2013

Cleaning capacity promoted by motor-driven or manual instrumentation using ProTaper Universal system: Histological analysis.

J Conserv Dent 2013 Jan;16(1):79-82

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Araraquara School of Dentistry, State University of São Paulo, Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the cleaning capacity of the Protaper system using motor-driven or manual instrumentation.

Materials And Methods: Ten mandibular molars were randomly separated into 2 groups (n = 5) according to the type of instrumentation performed, as follows: Group 1 - instrumentation with rotary nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) files using ProTaper Universal System (Dentsply/Maillefer); and, Group 2 - instrumentation with Ni-Ti hand files using ProTaper Universal (Dentsply-Maillefer). Afterwards, the teeth were sectioned transversely and submitted to histotechnical processing to obtain histological sections for microscopic evaluation. The images were analyzed by the Corel Photo-Paint X5 program (Corel Corporation) using an integration grid superimposed on the image.

Results: Statistical analysis (U-Mann-Whitney - P < 0.05) demonstrated that G1 presented higher cleaning capacity when compared to G2.

Conclusions: The rotary technique presented better cleaning results in the apical third of the root canal system when compared to the manual technique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0972-0707.105305DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3548353PMC
January 2013

Biocompatibility of intracanal medications based on calcium hydroxide.

ISRN Dent 2012 18;2012:904963. Epub 2012 Dec 18.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Araraquara Dental School, Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), 14801-903 Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the rat subcutaneous tissue reaction to calcium hydroxide-based intracanal medicaments, UltraCal XS (calcium hydroxide, barium sulphate, aqueous matrix), Hydropast (calcium hydroxide, barium sulphate, and propyleneglycol), and Calen (Calcium hydroxide, zinc oxide, colophony, and polyethyleneglycol), used as a control. Methods. Forty-eight rats (Rattus Norvegicus Holtzman) were distributed in three groups: Calen, UltraCal XS, and Hydropast. Polyethylene tubes filled with one of the medicaments were implanted in the dorsal subcutaneous. After 7 and 30 days, the implants were removed and the specimens were fixed and embedded in paraffin. Morphological and quantitative analyses were carried out in the HE-stained sections. The numerical density of inflammatory cells in the capsule was evaluated and statistical analyses were performed (P ≤ 0.05). Results. At 7 days, all materials induced an inflammatory reaction in the subcutaneous tissue adjacent to the implants. In all groups, a significant reduction in the number of inflammatory cells and giant cells was verified in the period of 30 days. Conclusion. These results indicate that the calcium hydroxide-based medicaments evaluated present biocompatibility similar to Calen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2012/904963DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3535743PMC
January 2013

Physicochemical properties of endodontic sealers of different bases.

J Appl Oral Sci 2012 Jul-Aug;20(4):455-61

School of Dentistry, University of Ribeirão Preto, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.

Objective: To assess the setting time (ST), flow (FL), radiopacity (RD), solubility (SB) and dimensional change following setting (DC) of different sealers (AH Plus®, Polifil, Apexit Plus®, Sealapex®, Endométhasone® and Endofill®) according to American National Standards Institute/American Dental Association (ANSI/ADA) Specification 57.

Material And Methods: Five samples of each material were used for each test. For ST, cast rings were filled with sealers and tested with a Gilmore needle. For FL, the sealer was placed on a glass plate. After 180 s, another plate with 20 g and a load of 100 g were applied on the material, and the diameters of the discs formed were measured. In RD, circular molds were filled with the sealers, radiographed and analyzed using Digora software. For SB, circular molds were filled with the sealers, a nylon thread was placed inside the material and another glass plate was positioned on the set, pressed and stored at 37°C. Samples were weighed, placed in water, dried and reweighed. The water used for SB was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. For DC, circular molds were filled with the sealers, covered by glass plates and stored at 37°C. Samples were measured and stored in water for 30 days. After this period, they were dryed and measured again.

Results: Regarding ST, AH Plus®, Apexit® and Endofil® sealers are in accordance with ANSI/ADA standards. Endométhasone's manufacturer did not mention the ST; Polifil is an experimental sealer and Sealapex® did not set. Considering RD, SB and DC, all sealers were in accordance with ANSI/ADA. The spectrometric analysis showed that a significant amount of K+ and Zn2+ ions was released from Apexit Plus® and Endofill®, respectively.

Conclusion: Except for DC, all other physicochemical properties of the tested sealers conformed to ANSI/ADA requirements.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3881818PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s1678-77572012000400011DOI Listing
January 2013

Persistence of epoxy-based sealer residues in dentin treated with different chemical removal protocols.

Scanning 2013 Jan-Feb;35(1):17-21. Epub 2012 Jun 14.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Araraquara Dental School, UNESP-Univ Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

The presence of residual endodontic sealer in the pulp chamber may cause discoloration of the dental crown and interfere with the adhesion of restorative materials. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of different solvents in removing residues of an epoxy resin-based sealer (AH Plus) from the dentin walls of the pulp chamber, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Forty-four bovine incisor dental crown fragments were treated with 17% EDTA and 2.5% NaOCl. Specimens received a coating of AH Plus and were left undisturbed for 5 min. Then, specimens were divided in four groups (n = 10) and cleaned with one of the following solutions: isopropyl alcohol, 95% ethanol, acetone solution, or amyl acetate solution. Negative controls (n = 2) did not receive AH Plus, while in positive controls (n = 2) the sealer was not removed. AH Plus removal was evaluated by SEM, and a score system was applied. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests. None of the solutions tested was able to completely remove AH Plus from the dentin of the pulp chamber. Amyl acetate performed better than 95% ethanol and isopropyl alcohol (p < 0.05), but not better than acetone (p > 0.05) in removing the sealer from dentin. No significant differences were observed between acetone, 95% ethanol, and isopropyl alcohol (p > 0.05). It was concluded that amyl acetate and acetone may be good options for cleaning the pulp chamber after obturation with AH Plus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/sca.21030DOI Listing
July 2013

Percentage of gutta-percha in mesial canals of mandibular molars obturated by lateral compaction or single cone techniques.

Microsc Res Tech 2012 Sep 12;75(9):1229-32. Epub 2012 Apr 12.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Araraquara Dental School, UNESP-Univ Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

The aim of this study was to compare the percentage of gutta-percha (PGP) in mesial root canals of mandibular molars obturated with LC (Lateral Compaction) or SC (Single Cone) ProTaper Universal System techniques at different levels of the root. Mesial root canals of 20 human permanent molars with similar anatomical characteristics were instrumented using the ProTaper Universal rotary system technique until the F2 instrument, with 20 canals filled by SC ProTaper Universal technique and 20 canals by the LC technique. The mesial roots were sectioned transversely to 3, 5, and 7 mm from the root apex. Digital images of specimens were obtained at MIC-D digital microscope in increases of 30 to 35X. The gutta-percha area was measured using ImageTool software. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Bonferroni test (α = 0.05). The SC technique provided greater PGP than the LC technique in the apical third (3 mm) (P < 0.001). In the other thirds (5 and 7 mm) there was no statistical difference between the two techniques regarding the PGP (P > 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between thirds of the root canal for both techniques (P > 0.05). It was concluded that SC technique provided greater PGP than the LC technique in the apical third of mesial root canals of mandibular molars. There was no difference between the two techniques regarding the PGP in the cervical and middle thirds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jemt.22053DOI Listing
September 2012

Fracture strength of incisor crowns after intracoronal bleaching with sodium percarbonate.

Dent Traumatol 2012 Jun 17;28(3):238-42. Epub 2011 Nov 17.

Departments of Restorative Dentistry Dental Materials and Prosthodontics, Araraquara Dental School, University Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil.

Objectives: To compare the fracture resistance of bovine teeth after intracoronal bleaching with sodium percarbonate (SPC) or sodium perborate (SP) mixed with water or 20% hydrogen peroxide (HP).

Materials And Methods: Fifty extracted bovine teeth were divided into four experimental groups (G1-G4) and one control (n = 10) after endodontic treatment. Following root canal obturation, a glass ionomer barrier was placed at the cemento-enamel junction. After that, the pulp chambers were filled with: G1 - SP with water; G2 - SP with 20% HP; G3 - SPC with water; and G4 - SPC with 20% HP. No bleaching agent was used in the control group. Coronal access cavities were sealed with glass ionomer and specimens were immersed in artificial saliva. The bleaching agents were replaced after 7 days, and teeth were kept in artificial saliva for an additional 7 days, after which the pastes were removed and the coronal access cavities were restored with glass ionomer. Crowns were subjected to compressive load at a cross head speed of 0.5 mm min(-1) applied at 135° to the long axis of the root by an EMIC DL2000 testing machine, until coronal fracture. Data were statistically analysed by anova and Tukey test.

Results: No differences in fracture resistance were observed between the experimental groups (P > 0.05). However, all experimental groups presented lower fracture resistance than the control group (P < 0.05).

Conclusion:  SPC and SP led to equal reduction on fracture resistance of dental crowns, regardless of being mixed with water or 20% HP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-9657.2011.01077.xDOI Listing
June 2012

Penetration into dentin of sodium hypochlorite associated with acid solutions.

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2011 Dec 21;112(6):e155-9. Epub 2011 Oct 21.

Araraquara Dental School, São Paulo State University, Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the penetration of 2.5% NaOCl associated with 17.0% EDTA, 1.0% citric acid, and 1.0% peracetic acid into dentin tubules.

Study Design: The roots of 44 bovine incisors were cross-sectioned and 5-mm-long fragments were produced from their middle thirds. The specimens were instrumented with ProTaper hand files, stained in crystal violet, then sectioned mesiodistally. The buccal fragments were divided into 4 groups (n = 9) and subjected to 2 consecutive 10-minute immersion periods in one of the following acid solutions combined with 2.5% NaOCl: 17.0% EDTA (group 1), 1.0% citric acid (group 2), and 1.0% peracetic acid (group 3). Nine fragments were immersed in 2.5% NaOCl (group 4). The analysis of the penetration of NaOCl solutions into dentin was performed by measuring the depth of crystal violet stain that was bleached using a steromicroscope under ×50 magnification. Statistical comparisons were carried out by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests at the 5% significance level.

Results: Group 1 showed less penetration into dentin than group 4 (P < .05). No statistically significant differences were observed among groups 2, 3, and 4 (P > .05).

Conclusions: Association of NaOCl with acid solutions did not increase its penetration depth into root dentin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tripleo.2011.05.040DOI Listing
December 2011

Repair of critical-size defects with autogenous periosteum-derived cells combined with bovine anorganic apatite/collagen: an experimental study in rat calvaria.

Braz Dent J 2011 ;22(4):322-8

Araraquara Dental School, UNESP - Univ. Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the bone repair using autogenous periosteum-derived cells (PDC) and bovine anorganic apatite and collagen (HA-COL). PDC from Wistar rats (n=10) were seeded on HA-COL discs and subjected to osteoinduction during 6 days. Critical-size defects in rat calvarias were treated with blood clot (G1), autogenous bone (G2), HA-COL (G3) and HA-COL combined with PDC (G4) (n=40), and then analyzed 1 and 3 months after surgeries. Radiographic analysis exhibited no significant temporal change. G1 and G2 had discrete new marginal bone, but the radiopacity of graft materials in G2, G3 and G4 impaired the detection of osteogenesis. At 3 months, histopathological analysis showed the presence of ossification islets in G1, which was more evident in G2, homogeneous new bone around HA-COL in G3 and heterogeneous new bone around HA-COL in G4 in addition to moderate presence of foreign body cells in G3 and G4. Histomorphometric analysis showed no change in the volume density of xenograft (p>0.05) and bone volume density in G2 was twice greater than in G1 and G4 after 3 months (p<0.05), but similar to G3. The PDC did not increase bone formation in vivo, although the biomaterial alone showed biocompatibility and osteoconduction capacity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0103-64402011000400011DOI Listing
December 2011

Ozonized oils: a qualitative and quantitative analysis.

Braz Dent J 2011 ;22(1):37-40

Discipline of Endodontics, Department of Restorative Dentistry, Araraquara Dental School, Univ. Estadual Paulista, SP, Brazil.

Most of the problems of endodontic origin have a bacterial etiological agent. Thus, there is a continued interest in seeking more effective chemical substances that can replace the camphorated paramonochiorophenol or antibiotics as intracanal medicaments. Among the possible substances, ozone has some interesting biological characteristics: bactericidal action, debriding effect, angiogenesis stimulation capacity and high oxidizing power. The purpose of this study was to chemically evaluate the presence of ozone in sunflower, castor, olive and almond oil, as well as in propylene glycol and byproducts of ozonation, such as formaldehyde. These compounds were ozonized, inserted into empty and sterile vials, and analyzed by testing the reaction between ozone and indigo, for determining the presence of ozone, and subjected to the chromotropic acid test for determining the presence of formaldehyde. It was observed complete absence of ozone in all samples tested and presence of formaldehyde. The bactericidal and healing action of ozonized oils could be attributed to products formed by the ozonation of mineral oils, such as formaldehyde, not to the ozone itself.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0103-64402011000100006DOI Listing
August 2011

An in vitro evaluation of apicoectomies and retropreparations using different methods.

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2010 Oct 23;110(4):e57-63. Epub 2010 Jun 23.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Araraquara School of Dentistry, São Paulo State University, Araraquara, Brazil.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate: 1) the apical root surface, gutta-percha interface, and preparation time of root-end resections made with burs, ultrasound, or laser; and 2) the thickness of surrounding dentin after laser or ultrasonic root-end cavity preparation.

Study Design: 1) Thirty root-filled teeth were resected as follows: Zekrya bur in group I, Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) ultrasonic tip (9.5107-8) in group II, and ErCr:YSGG (Waterlase) in group III. The preparation time was recorded. Replicas of the resected root-ends were examined under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). 2) Thirty root-filled teeth were submitted to apicectomies and root-end cavities were prepared by using: CVD (6.1107-6) ultrasonic retrotips (group IV), EMS (DT-060) ultrasonic retrotips (group V), and ErCr:YSGG laser tips (group VI). Replicas of the root apices were examined under a SEM.

Results: There were no fissures or fractures on root-end surfaces. The bur produced the smoothest surface (P < .05). Group I had the lowest preparation time (P < .05). The best adaptation between the filling and the root canals walls was observed in group III, but it was not significantly different from group II (P < .05). No resected root-ends had cracks after preparation. Group VI showed the least minimum dentin thickness (P < .05).

Conclusions: The 3 methods evaluated did not cause any injury to the root-end surface, but they harmed the apical adaptation. Laser tips removed more dentin than ultrasonic retrotips and should be used with care to avoid overpreparation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tripleo.2010.03.004DOI Listing
October 2010

Reliability of assessing dye penetration along root canal fillings using methylene blue.

Aust Endod J 2009 Dec;35(3):158-63

Postgraduation Section, University Center of Maranhão UNICEUMA, São Luis, MA, Brazil.

Methylene blue (MB) remains the most frequently used tracer for dye penetration tests of endodontic fillings, despite its chemical reactions with different materials. This study checked whether dye penetration displayed by MB is comparable to Rhodamine B (RB). One hundred and seventy-two root canals were filled with gutta-percha and six sealers. Samples were covered with nail varnish except for the apical area, and immersed in MB or RB solutions under negative pressure. After 24 h, roots were bisected, photographed and the maximal dye penetration recorded. Dye penetrations displayed by MB and RB were compared (Newman-Keuls test). MB and RB displayed comparable results for groups filled with AH Plus, EndoREZ and Polifil (P > 0.05). For Endofill, Sealer 26 and Sealapex, a significant lower dye penetration was observed when MB was used (P < 0.05). Laboratory tests using MB for measuring dye penetration through filled root canals can result in misleading conclusions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-4477.2009.00161.xDOI Listing
December 2009

Bacterial leakage evaluation of root canals filled with different endodontic sealers.

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2009 Dec;108(6):e56-60

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Araraquara Dental School, São Paulo State University, Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil.

Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the sealing ability of AH Plus, Epiphany, Acroseal, Endofill, and Polifil after active lateral condensation technique, by using a bacterial test, during 64 days.

Study Design: One hundred bovine incisors were cleaned and shaped; then they were filled with the endodontic sealers and adapted into a microcentrifuge tube. The setup root/microcentrifuge tube was added to glass flasks containing Brain Heart Infusion broth. A culture of Enterococcus faecalis was inserted into the upper chamber of each assembly. Daily leakage was evaluated through the broth turbidity.

Results: The results were submitted to statistical analysis (Kaplan-Meier method, Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests).

Conclusions: AH Plus and Endofill had the worst sealing ability when compared with Polifil, which showed the least leakage. Acroseal and Epiphany showed a tendency toward having an intermediate behavior; however, there was no significant difference among Acroseal, Epiphany, and the other sealers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tripleo.2009.08.008DOI Listing
December 2009

In vitro antimicrobial activity of Acroseal, Polifil and Epiphany against Enterococcus faecalis.

Braz Dent J 2009 ;20(2):107-11

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Araraquara Dental School, São Paulo State University, Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

Using the agar diffusion method, this study evaluated the in vitro antimicrobial activity of the commercial endodontic sealers Acroseal and Epiphany, a castor-oil based experimental sealer, Polifil, and a primer agent (Epiphany self-etching primer), against Enterococcus faecalis. Zinc oxide and eugenol cement (ZOE) served as control. Five wells per dish were made at equidistant points and immediately filled with the test and control materials. After incubation of the dishes at 37 degrees C for 24 h and 48 h, the diameter of the zones of microbial growth inhibition produced around the wells was measured (in mm) with a millimeter rule. After 48 h, the diameters of the zones of microbial growth inhibition were the same as those observed at 24 h, only the substances continued to diffuse. Epiphany and Polifil did not show antibacterial activity (no formation of zones of microbial growth inhibition). The primer produced the largest zones of inhibition (17.62 mm) followed by Acroseal (7.25 mm) and ZOE (7.12 mm). E. faecalis was resistant to Epiphany and Polifil, while the primer and Acroseal sealer were effective against this microorganism under the tested conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0103-64402009000200003DOI Listing
November 2009

Cytotoxicity evaluation of four endodontic sealers.

Braz Dent J 2008 ;19(3):228-31

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Dental School of Araraquara, State University of São Paulo, Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

This study evaluated in vitro the cytotoxicity of four root canal sealers (Topseal, EndoRez, TubliSeal and Kerr Pulp Canal Sealer E.W.T.) and their effects on reactive oxygen/nitrogen intermediate induction by mouse peritoneal macrophages. Thioglycollate-induced cells were obtained from Swiss mice by peritoneal lavage with 5 mL 10 mM phosphate-buffered saline, washed twice and resuspended (10(6) cells/mL) in appropriate medium for each test. Cytotoxicity was determined by the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and nitric oxide (NO) by the peroxidase-dependent oxidation of phenol red and Griess reaction, respectively. Sealer suspensions were obtained in two different concentrations from each material: 18 mg/mL and 9 mg/mL, established according to compatibility parameters following MTT assay. Comparing the sealers, H2O2 release at concentrations of 9 mg/mL and 18 mg/mL was similar: Topseal > positive control (medium + cells + 5 mg/mL zimozan solution) > EndoRez > TubliSeal > Kerr Pulp E.W.T. > negative control (medium + cells). NO release at concentration of 9 mg/mL was: positive control (medium + cells + 10 microg/mL LPS solution) > Topseal > Kerr Pulp E.W.T. > TubliSeal = EndoRez > negative control (medium + cells); at concentration of 18 mg/mL was: positive control > Topseal > Kerr Pulp E.W.T > TubliSeal > EndoRez > negative control. Based on the results, it may be concluded that Topseal presented the highest cytotoxicity among the tested sealers, releasing higher concentrations of NO and H2O2 in macrophage culture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s0103-64402008000300010DOI Listing
March 2009

In vitro evaluation of the obturation ability, adaptation and compaction of gutta-percha in the root canal system employing different filling techniques.

Acta Odontol Latinoam 2008 ;21(1):3-9

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry of Araraquara, National University of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro obturation quality of four filling methods: active lateral condensation, a modification of Tagger's hybrid technique, ENAC ultrasound technique and the Microseal technique. The study was performed on one hundred and sixteen single-rooted human teeth, divided into four groups of twenty nine teeth, embedded in resin, longitudinally sectioned and placed together on a wooden device with screws. After instrumentation, a cavity was made with a bur in the cervical, medium and apical thirds of the root canal in order to simulate lateral canals. The teeth were filled with the different techniques. Obturation quality was evaluated employing photographs and radiographs. The statistical analysis using the Chi square (chi2) test revealed that the Microseal technique reached the best results followed by the modified Tagger's hybrid technique, the ENAC ultrasound technique and the active lateral condensation technique.
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December 2008

pH changes after manual or ultrasonic instrumentation and smear layer removal with EDTA or ultrasonic.

Dent Traumatol 2008 Oct;24(5):542-5

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Discipline of Endodontics, Dental School of Araraquara, São Paulo State University-UNESP, Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the influence of instrumentation techniques associated with the smear layer removal, in the pH changes of the root surface. Thirty mandibular humans premolars were divided into three groups: Group I - instrumentation by Ohio technique and final cleaning with EDTA (3 minutes); Group II - instrumentation by Ohio technique and final cleaning with ultrasonic (1 minute); Group III - instrumentation by the ultrasonic technique and final cleaning with ultrasonic (1 minute). The pH was measured in the cavities prepared in the cervical, middle and apical thirds of the lateral wall of each root. The teeth were evaluated at the initiation of the experiment, and 3, 7, 14, 21, 30 days after of the intracanal dressing of the calcium hydroxide with camphorated p-monochlorophenol (Calen/PMCC). All the groups presented increasing pH values; group III presented the highest average pH, followed by groups II and I; the values for the apical third were lower than those of the middle and cervical thirds (anova and Tukey test). The results showed that the biomechanical preparation by the ultrasonic technique and smear layer removal with ultrasonic showing the highest diffusion of the calcium and hydroxyl ions from the intracanal dressing (P < 0.05).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-9657.2008.00663.xDOI Listing
October 2008

Comparability of results from two leakage models.

Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2008 Aug 11;106(2):309-13. Epub 2008 Jun 11.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Araraquara Dental School, São Paulo State University, São Paulo, Brazil.

Objective: The goal of this study was to check whether leakage results of the same specimens measured by 2 different leakage models are similar.

Study Design: Canine root canals were prepared and filled with cold gutta-percha cones and 1 of 4 sealers (20 canals for each sealer). The 80 specimens were first connected to a fluid transport model where air-bubble movement was measured. The same specimens were later connected to a glucose penetration model where the concentration of glucose was measured. In both models, a headspace pressure of 30 kPa was used to accelerate leakage.

Results: In both models, 4 sealers ranked the same regarding the leakage they allowed, and a significant correlation between the results of the 2 models was confined (Spearman test coefficient = 0.65; P = .000001).

Conclusion: Under the conditions of this study, leakage results of 80 specimens recorded in the fluid transport model and glucose penetration model were similar.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tripleo.2008.02.025DOI Listing
August 2008

Secretion of tumor necrosis factor-alpha by mouse peritoneal macrophages in the presence of dental sealers, sealapex and endomethasone.

J Endod 2004 Jul;30(7):534-7

Endodontics and Integrated Clinical Medicine I, Dental School of Lins, (UNIMEP), Lins, SP, Brazil.

After filling root canals, the healing process depends on the chemical composition or physical-chemical properties of the material used, among other factors. All root canal sealers, whether solid or plastic, are foreign matter for the body if they remain in permanent contact with apical and periapical tissues. As a result, the first organic reaction that occurs is an attempt to phagocytize the material. During phagocytosis, macrophages release a large number of cell mediators into the area, among which are cytokines that are essential in intercellular communication and in many physiological and pathophysiological processes. One of these cytokines is tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), which acts through links to specific receptors on the cell membrane initiating a cascade of events leading to induction, activation, or inhibition of numerous cytokine-regulated genes in the cell nucleus. The release of TNF-alpha in a cell culture of mouse peritoneal macrophages incubated with three concentrations (25, 50, and 100 mg/ml) of two endodontic sealers was measured. The solutions containing the calcium hydroxide-based root canal sealer (Sealapex) released fewer units of TNF-alpha than solutions containing the zinc oxide and eugenol-based sealer (Endomethasone).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00004770-200407000-00017DOI Listing
July 2004
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