Publications by authors named "Ido Davidesco"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Morning brain: real-world neural evidence that high school class times matter.

Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 2020 12;15(11):1193-1202

Max Planck-NYU Center for Language, Music and Emotion, New York, NY, USA.

Researchers, parents and educators consistently observe a stark mismatch between biologically preferred and socially imposed sleep-wake hours in adolescents, fueling debate about high school start times. We contribute neural evidence to this debate with electroencephalogram data collected from high school students during their regular morning, mid-morning and afternoon classes. Overall, student alpha power was lower when class content was taught via videos than through lectures. Students' resting state alpha brain activity decreased as the day progressed, consistent with adolescents being least attentive early in the morning. During the lessons, students showed consistently worse performance and higher alpha power for early morning classes than for mid-morning classes, while afternoon quiz scores and alpha levels varied. Together, our findings demonstrate that both class activity and class time are reflected in adolescents' brain states in a real-world setting, and corroborate educational research suggesting that mid-morning may be the best time to learn.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/scan/nsaa142DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7745151PMC
December 2020

Attention Matters: How Orchestrating Attention May Relate to Classroom Learning.

CBE Life Sci Educ 2020 09;19(3):fe5

Department of Biology, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA 94132.

Attention is thought to be the gateway between information and learning, yet there is much we do not understand about how students pay attention in the classroom. Leveraging ideas from cognitive neuroscience and psychology, we explore a framework for understanding attention in the classroom, organized along two key dimensions: internal/external attention and on-topic/off-topic attention. This framework helps us to build new theories for why active-learning strategies are effective teaching tools and how synchronized brain activity across students in a classroom may support learning. These ideas suggest new ways of thinking about how attention functions in the classroom and how different approaches to the same active-learning strategy may vary in how effectively they direct students' attention. We hypothesize that some teaching approaches are more effective than others because they leverage natural fluctuations in students' attention. We conclude by discussing implications for teaching and opportunities for future research.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1187/cbe.20-05-0106DOI Listing
September 2020

Brain-to-Brain Synchrony in the STEM Classroom.

Authors:
Ido Davidesco

CBE Life Sci Educ 2020 09;19(3):es8

Department of Educational Psychology, Neag School of Education, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269.

Cognitive neuroscience research is typically conducted in controlled laboratory environments that hold very little resemblance to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics classrooms. Fortunately, recent advances in portable electroencephalography technology now allow researchers to collect brain data from groups of students in real-world classrooms. Even though this line of research is still new, there is growing evidence that students' engagement, memory retention, and social dynamics are reflected in the brain-to-brain synchrony between students and teachers (i.e., the similarity in their brain responses). In this , I will provide an overview of this emerging line of research, discuss how this approach can facilitate new collaborations between neuroscientists and discipline-based education researchers, and propose directions for future research.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1187/cbe.19-11-0258DOI Listing
September 2020

Cross-Disciplinary Research in Biology Education: Challenges and Opportunities.

CBE Life Sci Educ 2020 09;19(3):ed1

Department of Biology, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA 94132.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1187/cbe.20-07-0150DOI Listing
September 2020

Implementing Cognitive Science and Discipline-Based Education Research in the Undergraduate Science Classroom.

CBE Life Sci Educ 2019 09;18(3):es4

Department of Teaching and Learning, New York University, New York, NY 10003.

Cognitive science research on learning and instruction is often not directly connected to discipline-based research. In an effort to narrow this gap, this essay integrates research from both fields on five learning and instruction strategies: active retrieval, distributed (spaced) learning, dual coding, concrete examples, and feedback and assessment. These strategies can significantly enhance the effectiveness of science instruction, but they typically do not find their way into the undergraduate classroom. The implementation of these strategies is illustrated through an undergraduate science course for nonmajors called Science in Our Lives. This course provides students with opportunities to use scientific information to solve real-world problems and view science as part of everyday life.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1187/cbe.18-12-0240DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6755312PMC
September 2019

Brain-to-Brain Synchrony and Learning Outcomes Vary by Student-Teacher Dynamics: Evidence from a Real-world Classroom Electroencephalography Study.

J Cogn Neurosci 2019 03 30;31(3):401-411. Epub 2018 Apr 30.

New York University.

How does the human brain support real-world learning? We used wireless electroencephalography to collect neurophysiological data from a group of 12 senior high school students and their teacher during regular biology lessons. Six scheduled classes over the course of the semester were organized such that class materials were presented using different teaching styles (videos and lectures), and students completed a multiple-choice quiz after each class to measure their retention of that lesson's content. Both students' brain-to-brain synchrony and their content retention were higher for videos than lectures across the six classes. Brain-to-brain synchrony between the teacher and students varied as a function of student engagement as well as teacher likeability: Students who reported greater social closeness to the teacher showed higher brain-to-brain synchrony with the teacher, but this was only the case for lectures-that is, when the teacher is an integral part of the content presentation. Furthermore, students' retention of the class content correlated with student-teacher closeness, but not with brain-to-brain synchrony. These findings expand on existing social neuroscience research by showing that social factors such as perceived closeness are reflected in brain-to-brain synchrony in real-world group settings and can predict cognitive outcomes such as students' academic performance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/jocn_a_01274DOI Listing
March 2019

Increasing suppression of saccade-related transients along the human visual hierarchy.

Elife 2017 08 29;6. Epub 2017 Aug 29.

Department of Neurobiology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel.

A key hallmark of visual perceptual awareness is robustness to instabilities arising from unnoticeable eye and eyelid movements. In previous human intracranial (iEEG) work (Golan et al., 2016) we found that excitatory broadband high-frequency activity transients, driven by eye blinks, are suppressed in higher-level but not early visual cortex. Here, we utilized the broad anatomical coverage of iEEG recordings in 12 eye-tracked neurosurgical patients to test whether a similar stabilizing mechanism operates following small saccades. We compared saccades (1.3°-3.7°) initiated during inspection of large individual visual objects with similarly-sized external stimulus displacements. Early visual cortex sites responded with positive transients to both conditions. In contrast, in both dorsal and ventral higher-level sites the response to saccades (but not to external displacements) was suppressed. These findings indicate that early visual cortex is highly unstable compared to higher-level visual regions which apparently constitute the main target of stabilizing extra-retinal oculomotor influences.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.27819DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5576487PMC
August 2017

Brain-to-Brain Synchrony Tracks Real-World Dynamic Group Interactions in the Classroom.

Curr Biol 2017 May 27;27(9):1375-1380. Epub 2017 Apr 27.

Department of Psychology, New York University, 6 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003, USA; Max Planck Institute for Empirical Aesthetics, Grüneburgweg 14, 60322 Frankfurt am Main, Germany. Electronic address:

The human brain has evolved for group living [1]. Yet we know so little about how it supports dynamic group interactions that the study of real-world social exchanges has been dubbed the "dark matter of social neuroscience" [2]. Recently, various studies have begun to approach this question by comparing brain responses of multiple individuals during a variety of (semi-naturalistic) tasks [3-15]. These experiments reveal how stimulus properties [13], individual differences [14], and contextual factors [15] may underpin similarities and differences in neural activity across people. However, most studies to date suffer from various limitations: they often lack direct face-to-face interaction between participants, are typically limited to dyads, do not investigate social dynamics across time, and, crucially, they rarely study social behavior under naturalistic circumstances. Here we extend such experimentation drastically, beyond dyads and beyond laboratory walls, to identify neural markers of group engagement during dynamic real-world group interactions. We used portable electroencephalogram (EEG) to simultaneously record brain activity from a class of 12 high school students over the course of a semester (11 classes) during regular classroom activities (Figures 1A-1C; Supplemental Experimental Procedures, section S1). A novel analysis technique to assess group-based neural coherence demonstrates that the extent to which brain activity is synchronized across students predicts both student class engagement and social dynamics. This suggests that brain-to-brain synchrony is a possible neural marker for dynamic social interactions, likely driven by shared attention mechanisms. This study validates a promising new method to investigate the neuroscience of group interactions in ecologically natural settings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2017.04.002DOI Listing
May 2017

Tuning face perception with electrical stimulation of the fusiform gyrus.

Hum Brain Mapp 2017 06 27;38(6):2830-2842. Epub 2017 Mar 27.

Department of Neurosurgery, Hofstra Northwell School of Medicine, and Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Manhasset, New York.

The fusiform gyrus (FG) is an important node in the face processing network, but knowledge of its causal role in face perception is currently limited. Recent work demonstrated that high frequency stimulation applied to the FG distorts the perception of faces in human subjects (Parvizi et al. []: J Neurosci 32:14915-14920). However, the timing of this process in the FG relative to stimulus onset and the spatial extent of FG's role in face perception are unknown. Here, we investigate the causal role of the FG in face perception by applying precise, event-related electrical stimulation (ES) to higher order visual areas including the FG in six human subjects undergoing intracranial monitoring for epilepsy. We compared the effects of single brief (100 μs) electrical pulses to the FG and non-face-selective visual areas on the speed and accuracy of detecting distorted faces. Brief ES applied to face-selective sites did not affect accuracy but significantly increased the reaction time (RT) of detecting face distortions. Importantly, RT was altered only when ES was applied 100ms after visual onset and in face-selective but not place-selective sites. Furthermore, ES applied to face-selective areas decreased the amplitude of visual evoked potentials and high gamma power over this time window. Together, these results suggest that ES of face-selective regions within a critical time window induces a delay in face perception. These findings support a temporally and spatially specific causal role of face-selective areas and signify an important link between electrophysiology and behavior in face perception. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2830-2842, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.23543DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5426961PMC
June 2017

Human intracranial recordings link suppressed transients rather than 'filling-in' to perceptual continuity across blinks.

Elife 2016 09 29;5. Epub 2016 Sep 29.

Department of Neurobiology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel.

We hardly notice our eye blinks, yet an externally generated retinal interruption of a similar duration is perceptually salient. We examined the neural correlates of this perceptual distinction using intracranially measured ECoG signals from the human visual cortex in 14 patients. In early visual areas (V1 and V2), the disappearance of the stimulus due to either invisible blinks or salient blank video frames ('gaps') led to a similar drop in activity level, followed by a positive overshoot beyond baseline, triggered by stimulus reappearance. Ascending the visual hierarchy, the reappearance-related overshoot gradually subsided for blinks but not for gaps. By contrast, the disappearance-related drop did not follow the perceptual distinction - it was actually slightly more pronounced for blinks than for gaps. These findings suggest that blinks' limited visibility compared with gaps is correlated with suppression of blink-related visual activity transients, rather than with "filling-in" of the occluded content during blinks.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17243DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5102580PMC
September 2016

Intracranial recordings reveal transient response dynamics during information maintenance in human cerebral cortex.

Hum Brain Mapp 2015 Oct 3;36(10):3988-4003. Epub 2015 Jul 3.

Department of Neurobiology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel.

Despite an extensive body of work, it is still not clear how short term maintenance of information is implemented in the human brain. Most prior research has focused on "working memory"-typically involving the storage of a number of items, requiring the use of a phonological loop and focused attention during the delay period between encoding and retrieval. These studies largely support a model of enhanced activity in the delay interval as the central mechanism underlying working memory. However, multi-item working memory constitutes only a subset of storage phenomena that may occur during daily life. A common task in naturalistic situations is short term memory of a single item-for example, blindly reaching to a previously placed cup of coffee. Little is known about such single-item, effortless, storage in the human brain. Here, we examined the dynamics of brain responses during a single-item maintenance task, using intracranial recordings implanted for clinical purpose in patients (ECoG). Our results reveal that active electrodes were dominated by transient short latency visual and motor responses, reflected in broadband high frequency power increases in occipito-temporal, frontal, and parietal cortex. Only a very small set of electrodes showed activity during the early part of the delay period. Interestingly, no cortical site displayed a significant activation lasting to the response time. These results suggest that single item encoding is characterized by transient high frequency ECoG responses, while the maintenance of information during the delay period may be mediated by mechanisms necessitating only low-levels of neuronal activations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hbm.22892DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6869725PMC
October 2015

Seeing scenes: topographic visual hallucinations evoked by direct electrical stimulation of the parahippocampal place area.

J Neurosci 2014 Apr;34(16):5399-405

Departments of Neurosurgery, Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, Neurology, and Radiology, Hofstra North Shore-LIJ School of Medicine, Manhasset, New York 11030, and Neuroscience Institute, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540.

In recent years, functional neuroimaging has disclosed a network of cortical areas in the basal temporal lobe that selectively respond to visual scenes, including the parahippocampal place area (PPA). Beyond the observation that lesions involving the PPA cause topographic disorientation, there is little causal evidence linking neural activity in that area to the perception of places. Here, we combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and intracranial EEG (iEEG) recordings to delineate place-selective cortex in a patient implanted with stereo-EEG electrodes for presurgical evaluation of drug-resistant epilepsy. Bipolar direct electrical stimulation of a cortical area in the collateral sulcus and medial fusiform gyrus, which was place-selective according to both fMRI and iEEG, induced a topographic visual hallucination: the patient described seeing indoor and outdoor scenes that included views of the neighborhood he lives in. By contrast, stimulating the more lateral aspect of the basal temporal lobe caused distortion of the patient's perception of faces, as recently reported (Parvizi et al., 2012). Our results support the causal role of the PPA in the perception of visual scenes, demonstrate that electrical stimulation of higher order visual areas can induce complex hallucinations, and also reaffirm direct electrical brain stimulation as a tool to assess the function of the human cerebral cortex.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5202-13.2014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6608225PMC
April 2014

Emergence of sensory patterns during sleep highlights differential dynamics of REM and non-REM sleep stages.

J Neurosci 2013 Sep;33(37):14715-28

Interdisciplinary Center for Neural Computation, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904, Israel, Department of Neurobiology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100, Israel, EEG and Epilepsy Unit, Department of Neurology, and Functional Neurosurgery Unit, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv 64239, Israel, Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 69978, Israel, and Department of Neurosurgery, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095.

Despite the profound reduction in conscious awareness associated with sleep, sensory cortex remains highly active during the different sleep stages, exhibiting complex interactions between different cortical sites. The potential functional significance of such spatial patterns and how they change between different sleep stages is presently unknown. In this electrocorticography study of human patients, we examined this question by studying spatial patterns of activity (broadband gamma power) that emerge during sleep (sleep patterns) and comparing them to the functional organization of sensory cortex that is activated by naturalistic stimuli during the awake state. Our results show a high correlation (p < 10(-4), permutation test) between the sleep spatial patterns and the functional organization found during wakefulness. Examining how the sleep patterns changed through the night highlighted a stage-specific difference, whereby the repertoire of such patterns was significantly larger during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep compared with non-REM stages. These results reveal that intricate spatial patterns of sensory functional organization emerge in a stage-specific manner during sleep.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0232-13.2013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6705160PMC
September 2013

Exemplar selectivity reflects perceptual similarities in the human fusiform cortex.

Cereb Cortex 2014 Jul 25;24(7):1879-93. Epub 2013 Feb 25.

Department of Neurobiology, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel.

While brain imaging studies emphasized the category selectivity of face-related areas, the underlying mechanisms of our remarkable ability to discriminate between different faces are less understood. Here, we recorded intracranial local field potentials from face-related areas in patients presented with images of faces and objects. A highly significant exemplar tuning within the category of faces was observed in high-Gamma (80-150 Hz) responses. The robustness of this effect was supported by single-trial decoding of face exemplars using a minimal (n = 5) training set. Importantly, exemplar tuning reflected the psychophysical distance between faces but not their low-level features. Our results reveal a neuronal substrate for the establishment of perceptual distance among faces in the human brain. They further imply that face neurons are anatomically grouped according to well-defined functional principles, such as perceptual similarity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bht038DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4051894PMC
July 2014

Spatial and object-based attention modulates broadband high-frequency responses across the human visual cortical hierarchy.

J Neurosci 2013 Jan;33(3):1228-40

Interdisciplinary Center for Neural Computation, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904, Israel.

One of the puzzling aspects in the visual attention literature is the discrepancy between electrophysiological and fMRI findings: whereas fMRI studies reveal strong attentional modulation in the earliest visual areas, single-unit and local field potential studies yielded mixed results. In addition, it is not clear to what extent spatial attention effects extend from early to high-order visual areas. Here we addressed these issues using electrocorticography recordings in epileptic patients. The patients performed a task that allowed simultaneous manipulation of both spatial and object-based attention. They were presented with composite stimuli, consisting of a small object (face or house) superimposed on a large one, and in separate blocks, were instructed to attend one of the objects. We found a consistent increase in broadband high-frequency (30-90 Hz) power, but not in visual evoked potentials, associated with spatial attention starting with V1/V2 and continuing throughout the visual hierarchy. The magnitude of the attentional modulation was correlated with the spatial selectivity of each electrode and its distance from the occipital pole. Interestingly, the latency of the attentional modulation showed a significant decrease along the visual hierarchy. In addition, electrodes placed over high-order visual areas (e.g., fusiform gyrus) showed both effects of spatial and object-based attention. Overall, our results help to reconcile previous observations of discrepancy between fMRI and electrophysiology. They also imply that spatial attention effects can be found both in early and high-order visual cortical areas, in parallel with their stimulus tuning properties.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3181-12.2013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6704891PMC
January 2013
-->