Publications by authors named "Ibrar Anjum"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Neurohormonal Regulation of Appetite and its Relationship with Stress: A Mini Literature Review.

Cureus 2018 Jul 23;10(7):e3032. Epub 2018 Jul 23.

Medicine, Bassett Medical Center, Cooperstown, USA.

Stress has long been known to affect eating behaviors in humans. Stress-induced hyperphagia is considered a potential cause for the development of obesity. Given the high prevalence of obesity and its association with other cardiovascular and metabolic disorders, the subject of stress-induced eating has become even more important. We reviewed data from past studies to further elucidate the relationship between stress, appetite regulation and eating patterns in humans. Even though it is difficult to say with certainty that a person exposed to stress will undereat or overeat, but certain assumptions can be made. Generally, acute stress results in decreased eating whereas chronic stress results in increased eating. Glucocorticoids, the effector molecules of the stress response, increase the tendency to consume high-calorie, palatable foods. Further studies that can link the biological markers of stress-response with the hormones and neurotransmitters of appetite regulation can broaden our understanding of the subject. These studies can provide a groundwork for the development of effective anti-obesity strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.3032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6150743PMC
July 2018

The Effect of Physical Activity in Parkinson's Disease: A Mini-Review.

Cureus 2018 Jul 18;10(7):e2995. Epub 2018 Jul 18.

Internal Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, USA.

This article will discuss the effects of physical activity in patients with Parkinson's disease. Presently, the motor and non-motor symptoms are difficult to treat with the current treatment of Parkinson's; therefore, as an adjuvant to the current treatment physical activity, has been recommended. Physical activity has been known to improve many symptoms in patients with Parkinson's disease. Some of these symptoms include the physical capacities, physical and cognitive functional capacities. Physical activity also slows the disease process, decreases the pain associated with Parkinson`s disease, prolongs the independent mobility (gait, balance, strength) and improves sleep, mood, memory hence improving the overall quality of life. Furthermore, physical activity has the potential to improve the non-motor symptoms (depression, apathy, fatigue, constipation) and the secondary complications of immobility (cardiovascular, osteoporosis) in Parkinson's disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.2995DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6143369PMC
July 2018

The Role of Vitamin D in Brain Health: A Mini Literature Review.

Cureus 2018 Jul 10;10(7):e2960. Epub 2018 Jul 10.

Medicine, Sherif Medical City Hospital, Lahore, PAK.

Vitamin D is vital for our body as it regulates calcium homeostasis and maintains bone integrity. In this article, we will discuss how vitamin D aids in the function of neuronal and glial tissue and the many health consequences in a person with vitamin D deficiency. Some of the effects of vitamin D deficiency that will be discussed include the development of dementia caused by the increase of cerebral soluble and insoluble amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides and a decrease of its anti-inflammatory/antioxidant properties, the link to depression by a reduction of the buffering of increased calcium in the brain, and vitamin D deficiency in expecting mothers linking to the development of autism and schizophrenic-like disorders, hypoxic brain injury, and other mental illnesses. Lastly, we will discuss how vitamin D deficiency is linked to the development of diabetes mellitus, its role in neuronal development and a decrease of microglial inflammatory function leading to increased brain infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.2960DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6132681PMC
July 2018

Dual or Mono Antiplatelet Therapy for the Prevention of Ischemic Stroke: A Literature Review.

Cureus 2018 Jun 20;10(6):e2847. Epub 2018 Jun 20.

General Surgery, Bronx Lebanon Hospital, New York, USA.

Ischemic stroke is defined as a sudden loss of blood to the brain which results in deprivation of oxygen and other nutrients. It can be either a transient episode called as "transient ischemic attack" (TIA), or it could last longer than 24 hours giving rise to "infarction of tissues" in the central nervous system. Anti-platelet agents are widely used for the secondary prophylaxis of ischemic stroke, and amongst them, aspirin remains the drug of choice. In this literature review, we summarized the existing data regarding the ischemic type of strokes with particular attention to the use of antiplatelet agents for this purpose. The following review highlights the significance of the use of dual antiplatelet (aspirin and clopidogrel) regimen for the stroke prevention. The role of dual antiplatelet (aspirin and clopidogrel) in patients with a recent TIA (within 30 days) or severe stenosis (70%-99%) of a major intracranial artery, for 90 days, might be a beneficial approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.2847DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6103388PMC
June 2018

Sugar Beverages and Dietary Sodas Impact on Brain Health: A Mini Literature Review.

Cureus 2018 Jun 7;10(6):e2756. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

Department of Cardiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA.

Sugar-sweetened beverages containing caffeine are widely used among humans nowadays and can have negative consequences on the overall health. Our study aims to discuss the effects of these sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and how they can impact the health in different ways particularly on the brain. Some of the mechanisms by which soft drinks can exert adverse effects include an increase in glutathione-6-dehydrogenase level, increased levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate and dopamine alteration in brain waves on electroencephalography (EEG) eventually leading to stroke and dementia. They can increase the oxidative stress by a decreasing monoamine oxidase and acetylcholine esterase and antioxidants such as glutathione and catalase. The sleep quality and duration of sleep is also significantly affected by their increased consumption. Also, the consumption of sodium benzoate (found in beverages) on impairing memory, motor coordination, affecting reduced glutathione (GSH), increasing the malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the brain and producing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children is emphasized. Finally, we will highlight how diet drinks can also be harmful and the maternal consumption of chocolate or soft drinks during pregnancy and postnatal period can be linked to cognitive impairment and child obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.2756DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6080735PMC
June 2018

Comparison of Knowledge and Attitudes of Medical and Dental Students towards HIV/AIDS in Pakistan.

Cureus 2018 Apr 4;10(4):e2426. Epub 2018 Apr 4.

Internal Medicine, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, USA.

The number of new human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cases is increasing in Pakistan while it has seen a decline globally. A survey conducted recently has found that 132,000 people in Pakistan suffer from HIV. This study aims to check the levels of knowledge and attitudes about HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) among medical and dental students. This cross-sectional study was designed and conducted at Combined Military Hospital Lahore Medical College and the Institute of Dentistry (CMH LMC) in Lahore, Pakistan in 2016. Students enrolled in the courses of the MBBS and BDS were included in this study. The questionnaire consisted of three sections: demographics, knowledge and attitude. A total of 414 students completed the questionnaire and out of them, 286 were medical students while the rest were dental students. The mean ± standard deviation score for the students was 10.02 ± 4.37 out of 17 for knowledge related to HIV and AIDS. For acceptable attitude towards AIDS and patients afflicted with the disease, an outcome of 1.93 ± 0.75 out of 4 was observed. The results of this study indicate lack of knowledge about HIV, especially about the modes of transmission and prevention techniques. Therefore, regular interactive workshops and seminars, besides teaching sessions, focused lectures on HIV/AIDS, need to be conducted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.2426DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6067834PMC
April 2018

Does Obesity Increase the Risk of Dementia: A Literature Review.

Cureus 2018 May 21;10(5):e2660. Epub 2018 May 21.

Medicine, CMH Lahore Medical College and Institute of Dentistry, Lahore, PAK.

Obesity and dementia are both associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and underlying neurodegenerative changes. Review articles provide evidential support that obesity and dementia result in an early old-age memory crisis. Obesity triggering vascular dementia decreases not only blood supply to the brain, but also increases fat cells that damage the brain white matter leading to loss of cognitive and intellectual behaviour. Adipocyte-secreted proteins and inflammatory cytokines explain the association between obesity and increased risk of dementia. Late-life elevated body mass index (BMI) confers a lower risk of having dementia. The hormone leptin explained the mechanism for the reverse association. Future studies need to reveal the linkage between adiposity and excess risk of dementia and AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.2660DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6054325PMC
May 2018

Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome and Its Unusual Presenting Complaints in Women: A Literature Minireview.

Cureus 2018 Apr 5;10(4):e2435. Epub 2018 Apr 5.

Neurology, Cleveland Clinic, Ohio.

Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a heterogeneous disorder of the autonomic nervous system that is defined by symptoms of orthostatic intolerance. According to the current criteria for adults, currently, POTS is defined as a heart rate increment of 30 beats/minute or more after 10 minutes of standing in the absence of orthostatic hypotension. There is a vast majority that remains misdiagnosed due to the heterogeneity of the disorder. Due to a lack of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved therapy, alternative therapies and over the counter medications are used to alleviate the symptoms. This is an uncommon presentation observed primarily in women, as it is more prevalent in females.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.2435DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5988200PMC
April 2018

Myocardial Infarction Presenting as Ear Fullness and Pain.

J Investig Med High Impact Case Rep 2018 Jan-Dec;6:2324709618761753. Epub 2018 Mar 9.

Columbia University, Mount Sinai Medical Center, Miami Beach, FL, USA.

Acute coronary syndrome usually presents with retrosternal chest pain, nausea, vomiting, sweating, and jaw and arm pain. Some patients only present with neck, epigastric, or ear discomfort. A 47-year-old male with a history of hypertension and coronary artery disease presented to the emergency department complaining of bilateral otalgia. He never felt chest pain, jaw pain, nausea, diaphoresis, or shortness of breath. He had a history of 2 acute coronary events and had a stress test 2 months prior to admission, which was unremarkable. The initial electrocardiography was sinus rhythm with Q-waves in the inferior leads and nonspecific ST changes in the lateral leads. His troponin on admission was normal but subsequently elevated to 20.00 mg/mL after 24 hours. He underwent left heart catheterization, which found significant occlusive disease of the second and fourth obtuse marginal branches and 2 drug-eluting stents were placed. His ear pain resolved soon after cardiac catheterization. The pathophysiology of this referred pain is thought to be related to the neuroanatomy of the nerves innervating the heart and ear. The auricular nerve branch of the vagus nerve supplies the inner portion of the external ear. Only a few cases with the complaint of otalgia have been reported. Patients were older, more frequently women, and with diabetes or heart failure. Clinicians should be aware of the atypical presentation of angina that may be life-threatening cardiac ischemia. Ear pain and fullness could be the sole presenting symptom in a patient with acute coronary syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2324709618761753DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5846929PMC
March 2018

Psychiatric Symptoms as the First Clinical Presentation of Multiple Sclerosis: A Case Report.

Cureus 2017 Jul 15;9(7):e1474. Epub 2017 Jul 15.

Department of Internal Medicine, King Edward Medical University Lahore, Pakistan.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune condition which affects the axon myelination in the brain. There can be multiple ways it can present initially, but physical signs and symptoms are the most common ones. We are reporting a case of MS from Pakistan which presented with neuropsychiatric features and was offered psychiatric care, but the patient declined treatment because of stigma related to psychiatric care. Four months later when her condition worsened, further investigation showed it to be a case of MS. The purpose of this case report is that psychiatric features should be considered for differentials of MS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.1474DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5602275PMC
July 2017

Transradial vs. Transfemoral Approach in Cardiac Catheterization: A Literature Review.

Cureus 2017 Jun 3;9(6):e1309. Epub 2017 Jun 3.

Neurosciences & Psychology, California Institute of Behavioral Neurosciences & Psychology.

The main objective of this review paper is to study the comparison between transradial and transfemoral approach in catheterization. Transradial and transfemoral are two main approaches which are used as a diagnostic and therapeutic purpose in catheterization. The transradial approach in interventional cardiology is safe, effective, and feasible as compared to the transfemoral approach. The aim of this study is to compare pros and cons of transradial vs. transfemoral approach in catheterization. We conducted this systematic review on the role of transradial vs. transfemoral catheterization. The articles included real human data on interventional approaches. Reviews on these strategies were conducted in PubMed, medical literature analysis and retrieval system online (MEDLINE), Cochrane, Medscape and National Institute of Health. To maintain a high standard of review, studies published in all non-famous journals were excluded. Data collected from the studies have suggested that transradial approach has less bleeding complications, cost effective, decreased hospital mortality rate, and less access site complications as compared to transfemoral approach. However, longer procedural duration and radiation exposure are still concerns regarding transradial approach. The findings of the present study show that transradial approach in catheterization is safe, effective, and feasible as compared to the transfemoral approach. However, duration and radiation exposure are higher in the transradial access. Several studies suggest that the modern approach overweight in benefits with the comparison to the classical approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.1309DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5493462PMC
June 2017
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