Publications by authors named "Ibrahim Yakoub-Agha"

308 Publications

Outcomes and toxicity of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in chronic myeloid leukemia patients previously treated with second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors: a prospective non-interventional study from the Chronic Malignancy Working Party of the EBMT.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 Oct 1. Epub 2021 Oct 1.

CHU de Lille, Univ Lille, INSERM U1286, Infinite, 59000, Lille, France.

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) remains a treatment option for patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) who fail to respond to tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). While imatinib seems to have no adverse impact on outcomes after transplant, little is known on the effects of prior use of second-generation TKI (2GTKI). We present the results of a prospective non-interventional study performed by the EBMT on 383 consecutive CML patients previously treated with dasatinib or nilotinib undergoing allo-HCT from 2009 to 2013. The median age was 45 years (18-68). Disease status at transplant was CP1 in 139 patients (38%), AP or >CP1 in 163 (45%), and BC in 59 (16%). The choice of 2GTKI was: 40% dasatinib, 17% nilotinib, and 43% a sequential treatment of dasatinib and nilotinib with or without bosutinib/ponatinib. With a median follow-up of 37 months (1-77), 8% of patients developed either primary or secondary graft failure, 34% acute and 60% chronic GvHD. There were no differences in post-transplant complications between the three different 2GTKI subgroups. Non-relapse mortality was 18% and 24% at 12 months and at 5 years, respectively. Relapse incidence was 36%, overall survival 56% and relapse-free survival 40% at 5 years. No differences in post-transplant outcomes were found between the three different 2GTKI subgroups. This prospective study demonstrates the feasibility of allo-HCT in patients previously treated with 2GTKI with a post-transplant complications rate comparable to that of TKI-naive or imatinib-treated patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01472-xDOI Listing
October 2021

Post-Transplantation Cyclophosphamide for Graft-versus- Host Disease Prophylaxis in Multiple Myeloma Patients Who Underwent Allogeneic Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: First Comparison by Donor Type. A Study from the Chronic Malignancies Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 Sep 17. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), nonrelapse mortality (NRM), and relapse are among major causes of treatment failure in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT). The use of post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy) is now a well-established and widely used method for GVHD prophylaxis after HLA haploidentical HCT. However, the rationale for using PT-Cy in the setting of matched donor transplantation is less apparent, given the lesser degree of bidirectional alloreactivity. In this study, we evaluated the cumulative incidence of acute and chronic GVHD, engraftment, progression-free survival (PFS), GVHD-free/relapse- free survival (GRFS), and overall survival (OS), as well as NRM by 2 years, using PT-Cy as GVHD prophylaxis among recipients of allo-HCT from 4 different donor types. We analyzed PT-Cy as GVHD prophylaxis in 295 patients with MM who underwent allo-HCT using grafts from a matched related donor (MRD; n = 67), matched unrelated donor (MUD; n = 72), mismatched related or unrelated donor (MMRD/MMUD, 1 antigen; n = 27), or haploidentical donor (haplo; n = 129) between 2012 and 2018. In addition to PT-Cy, agents used in GVHD prophylaxis included calcineurin inhibitors in 239 patients (81%), with mycophenolate mofetil in 184 of those 239 (77%). OS and PFS were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier product limit estimation method, and differences in subgroups were assessed by the log-rank test. The cumulative incidences of relapse and NRM were analyzed together in a competing-risks framework. Competing-risks analyses were also used to estimate the incidences of grade II-IV acute GVHD and limited and extensive chronic GVHD by day +100, 1 year, and 2 years post-allo-HCT, respectively. The competing events were relapse and death. Subgroup differences in cumulative incidence were assessed using Gray's test. Multivariable Cox regression was applied to investigate the simultaneous impact of multiple covariates on outcomes, when sufficient numbers of patients and subsequent events were available. The cumulative incidence at day +100 was 30% (95% confidence interval [CI], 25% to 36%) for grade II-IV acute GVHD, 9% (95% CI, 5% to 12%) for grade III-IV acute GVHD, and 27% (95% CI, 21% to 32%) for chronic GVHD (limited, 21%; extensive, 6%), with no differences by donor type. The median time to platelet engraftment was delayed in haploidentical donor graft recipients (27 days versus 21 days; P < .001). Two-year OS, PFS, GRFS, and NRM were 51% (95% CI, 45% to 58%), 26% (95% CI, 20% to 32%), 24% (95% CI, 18% to 30%), and 19% (95% CI, 14% to 24%), respectively, with no significant difference between different donor types. In multivariable analyses, compared with the use of haplo donors, the of MRDs was associated with significantly better OS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.6; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.95; P = .029), and the use of MUDs was associated with a significantly higher GRFS (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.42 to 0.97; P = .034). There was a trend toward improved PFS with use of MUDs (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.46 to 1.04; P = .08). Our data show that PT-Cy in MM patients undergoing allo-HCT resulted in low rates of acute and chronic GVHD and led to favorable survival, especially in the matched donor setting. © 2021 American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.09.008DOI Listing
September 2021

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome using treosulfan based compared to other reduced-intensity or myeloablative conditioning regimens. A report of the chronic malignancies working party of the EBMT.

Br J Haematol 2021 Sep 12. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

CHU de Lille, INSERM U1286, Univ Lille, Lille, France.

Allogeneic haematopoietic-cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is a potentially curative therapy for high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) is usually associated with lower non-relapse mortality (NRM), higher relapse rate and similar overall-survival (OS) as myeloablative-conditioning (MAC). Fludarabine/treosulfan (FT) is a reduced-toxicity regimen with intense anti-leukaemia activity and a favourable toxicity profile. We investigated post-transplant outcomes in 1722 MDS patients following allo-HCT with FT (n = 367), RIC (n = 687) or MAC (n = 668). FT and RIC recipients were older than MAC recipients, median age 59, 59 and 51 years, respectively (P < 0·001) but other disease characteristics were similar. The median follow-up was 64 months (1-171). Five-year relapse rates were 25% (21-30), 38% (34-42) and 25% (22-29), after FT, RIC and MAC, respectively, (P < 0·001). NRM was 30% (25-35), 27% (23-30) and 34% (31-38, P = 0·008), respectively. Five-year OS was 50% (44-55), 43% (38-47), and 43% (39-47), respectively (P = 0·03). In multivariate analysis, FT was associated with a lower risk of relapse (HR 0·55, P < 0·001) and better OS (HR 0·72, P = 0·01). MAC was associated with higher NRM (HR 1·44, P = 0·001). In conclusion, FT is associated with similar low relapse rates as MAC and similar low NRM as RIC, resulting in improved OS. FT may be the preferred regimen for allo-HCT in MDS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17817DOI Listing
September 2021

Improved outcome in children compared to adolescents and young adults after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant for acute myeloid leukemia: a retrospective study from the Francophone Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cell Therapy (SFGM-TC).

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2021 Sep 4. Epub 2021 Sep 4.

Department of Haematology, Hôpital de Haute-Pierre, 67200, Strasbourg, France.

Background: There are currently few data on the outcome of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in adolescents after allogeneic HSCT. The aim of this study is to describe the outcome and its specific risk factors for children, adolescents and young adults after a first allogeneic HSCT for AML.

Methods: In this retrospective study, we compared the outcome of AML patients receiving a first allogeneic HSCT between 2005 and 2017 according to their age at transplantation's time: children (< 15 years, n = 564), adolescent and post-adolescent (APA) patients (15-25 years, n = 647) and young adults (26-40 years; n = 1434).

Results: With a median follow-up of 4.37 years (min-max 0.18-14.73 years), the probability of 2-year overall survival (OS) was 71.4% in children, 61.1% in APA patients and 62.9% in young adults (p = 0.0009 for intergroup difference). Both relapse and non-relapse mortality (NRM) Cumulative Incidence (CI) estimated at 2 years were different between the age groups (30.8% for children, 35.2% for APA patients and 29.4% for young adults-p = 0.0254, and 7.0% for children, 10.6% for APA patients and 14.2% for young adults, p < 0.0001; respectively). Whilst there was no difference between the three groups for grade I to IV acute GVHD CI at 3 months, the chronic GVHD CI at 2 years was higher in APA patients and young adults (31.4% and 36.4%, respectively) in comparison to the children (17.5%) (p < 0.0001). In multivariable analysis, factors associated with death were AML cytogenetics (HR1.73 [1.29-2.32] for intermediate risk 1, HR 1.50 [1.13-2.01] for intermediate risk 2, HR 2.22 [1.70-2.89] for high cytogenetics risk compared to low risk), use of TBI ≥ 8 Grays (HR 1.33 [1.09-1.61]), disease status at transplant (HR 1.40 [1.10-1.78] for second Complete Remission (CR), HR 2.26 [1.02-4.98] for third CR and HR 3.07 [2.44-3.85] for active disease, compared to first CR), graft source (HR 1.26 [1.05-1.50] for Peripheral Blood Stem Cells compared to Bone Marrow) and donor age (HR 1.01 (1-1.02] by increase of 1 year).

Conclusion: Age is an independent risk factor for NRM and extensive chronic GVHD. This study suggests that APA patients with AML could be beneficially treated with a chemotherapy-based MAC regimen and bone marrow as a stem cells source.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00432-021-03761-wDOI Listing
September 2021

Effective anti-BCMA retreatment in multiple myeloma.

Blood Adv 2021 08;5(15):3016-3020

Department of Hematology, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire (CHU) Lille.

The recent emergence of anti-B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA) therapies holds great promise in multiple myeloma (MM). These include chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells, bispecific antibodies, and antibody-drug conjugates. Their development in clinical trials and further approval are changing the strategy for treating MM. Considering that a cure has not been reached, a central question in the coming years will be the possibility of using these therapies sequentially. Here, we report 2 cases of the serial use of anti-BCMA therapies with parallel monitoring of BCMA expression and anti-CAR antibodies. We further discuss recent data from clinical studies that have informed us about the different mechanisms of resistance to anti-BCMA therapies, including antigen escape, BCMA shedding, anti-drug antibodies, T-cell exhaustion, and the emergence of an immunosuppressive microenvironment. This knowledge will be essential to help guide the strategy of serial treatments with anti-BCMA therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2021004176DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8361465PMC
August 2021

Diverting Enterostomy Improves Overall Survival of Patients With Severe Steroid-refractory Gastrointestinal Acute Graft-Versus-Host Disease.

Ann Surg 2021 11;274(5):773-779

Department of Nutrition, University of Lille Nord de France, Lille, France.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the benefit of diverting enterostomy (DE) in patients with severe steroid-refractory (SR) gastrointestinal acute graft-versus-host-disease (GI-aGVHD) following allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (ASCT).

Summary And Background Data: Severe GI-aGVHD refractory to the first-line steroid therapy is a rare but dramatic life-threatening complication. Second lines of immunosuppressors have limited effects and increase the risk of sepsis. Data suggest that limiting GI bacterial translocation by DE could restrain severe GI-aGVHD.

Methods: From 2004 to 2018, we retrospectively reviewed all consecutive patients undergoing ASCT for hematologic malignancies who developed severe SR GI-aGVHD. We compared patients in whom a proximal DE was performed (Enterostomy group) with those not subjected to DE (Medical group). The primary endpoint was the 1-year overall survival (OS) measured from the onset of GI-aGVHD. Secondary endpoints were the 2-year OS and causes of death.

Results: Of the 1295 patients who underwent ASCT, 51 patients with severe SR GI-aGVHD were analyzed (13 in Enterostomy group and 38 in Medical group). Characteristics of patients, transplantation modalities, and aGVHD severity were similar in both groups. The 1-year OS was better after DE (54% vs 5%, P = 0.0004). The 2-year OS was also better in "Enterostomy group" (31% vs 2.5%; P = 0.0015), with a trend to lower death by sepsis (30.8% vs 57.9%; P = 0.091).

Conclusion: DE should be considered for severe GI-aGVHD as soon as resistance to the corticosteroid is identified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000005131DOI Listing
November 2021

[Autologous hematopoietic cells for severe autoimmune diseases: Guidelines of the Francophone Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Therapy (SFGM-TC) for immune monitoring and biobanking].

Bull Cancer 2021 Jul 13. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

AP-HP, hôpital Saint-Louis, unité de médecine interne (UF 04): CRMR MATHEC, Maladies auto-immunes et thérapie cellulaire, Centre de Référence des Maladies auto-immunes systémiques Rares d'Ile-de-France MATHEC (FAI2R), 75010 Paris, France; Université de Paris, Institut de recherche Saint-Louis, recherche clinique appliquée à l'hématologie, EA3518, 75010 Paris, France; McGill University, Department of Medicine, H3A 1A1, Montreal, Canada. Electronic address:

Autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (AHCT) is a new treatment option for patients with severe autoimmune diseases (AD), based on the use of intensive or myeloablative chemotherapy to eradicate the pathogenic autoreactive immune cells and to allow the installation of a new and tolerant immune system during immune reconstitution process. Immune reconstitution analysis after AHCT is required for patients clinical follow-up and to further identify biological and immunological markers of the clinical response to develop individualized AHCT protocols. These MATHEC-SFGM-TC good clinical practice guidelines were developed by a multidisciplinary group of experts including members of the french reference center for stem Cell Therapy in Auto-immune Diseases (MATHEC), hematologists from the French speaking Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Therapy (SFGM-TC) and experts in immune monitoring and biobanking. The objectives are to provide practical recommandations for immune monitoring and biobanking of samples in patients with AD undergoing AHCT, for routine care purposes and investigational studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bulcan.2021.03.020DOI Listing
July 2021

[Immunomonitoring of patients treated with CAR-T cells for hematological malignancy: Guidelines from the CARTi group and the Francophone Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Therapy (SFGM-TC)].

Bull Cancer 2021 Jul 9. Epub 2021 Jul 9.

Université de Paris, Hôpital Saint-Louis, AP-HP Nord, Laboratoire d'Immunologie, France.

CAR-T cells represent a new anti-tumor immunotherapy which has shown its clinical efficacy in B-cell malignancies. The results of clinical trials carried out in this context have shown that certain immunological characteristics of patients before (at the time of apheresis) and after the administration of the treatment, or of the CAR-T cells themselves, are correlated with the response to the treatment or to its toxicity. However, to date, there are no recommendations on the immunological monitoring of patients treated in real life. The objectives of this workshop were to determine, based on data from the literature and the experience of the centers, the immunological analyses to be carried out in patients treated with CAR-T cells. The recommendations relate to the characterization of the patient's immune cells at the time of apheresis, the characterization of the injected CAR-T cells, as well as the monitoring of the CAR-T cells and other parameters of immune reconstitution in the patient after administration of the treatment. Harmonization of practices will allow clinical-biological correlation studies to be carried out in patients treated in real life with the aim of identifying factors predictive of response and toxicity. Such data could have a major medico-economic impact by making it possible to identify the patients who will optimally benefit from these expensive treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bulcan.2021.04.008DOI Listing
July 2021

[Establishment of Hematopoietic cell transplantation program in developing countries : Guidelines from the francophone Society of bone marrow transplantation and cellular therapy (SFGM-TC)].

Bull Cancer 2021 Jul 8. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Centre Hospitalier Tanger-Tétouan-Al Hoceima (Tanger), faculté de médecine et de pharmacie, Casablanca, Maroc.

Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is the curative treatment for many malignant and non-malignant blood disorders and some solid cancers. However, transplant procedures are considered tertiary level care requiring a high degree of technicality and expertise and generating very high costs for hospital structures in developing countries as well as for patients without health insurance. During the 11th annual harmonization workshops of the francophone Society of bone marrow transplantation and cellular therapy (SFGM-TC), a designated working group reviewed the literature in order to elaborate unified guidelines, for developing the transplant activity in emerging countries. Access to infrastructure must comply with international standards and therefore requires a hospital system already in place, capable of accommodating and supporting the HCT activity. In addition, the commitment of the state and the establishment for the financing of the project seems essential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bulcan.2021.02.015DOI Listing
July 2021

[How to deal with an unexpected event that could alter the normal activity of cellular therapy? Recommendations of the Francophone Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Therapy (SFGM-TC)].

Bull Cancer 2021 Jun 29. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Hôpitaux Universitaires de Genève et Faculté de Médecine, Université de Genève, Service d'hématologie, département d'oncologie, Genève, Suisse.

The SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic has rapidly impacted cell therapy activities across the globe. Not only was this, unexpected event, a threat to patients who had previously received hematopoietic cell transplantation or other cell therapy such as CAR-T cells, but also, it was responsible for a disruption of cell therapy activities due to the danger of the virus and to the lack of solid scientific data on the management of patients and donors. The Francophone Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Therapy (SFGM-TC) devoted a workshop to issue useful recommendations in such an unexpected event in order to harmonize the actions of all the actors involved in cellular therapy programs so that we can collectively face, in the future, the challenges that could threaten our patients. This work is not specifically dedicated to the SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, but the latter has been used as a concrete example of an unexpected event to build up our recommendations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bulcan.2021.05.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8242103PMC
June 2021

[Palliative care in hematopoietic stem-cell transplanted patients: Guidelines from the Francophone Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Therapy (SFGM-TC)].

Bull Cancer 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

Institut universitaire du cancer de Toulouse, service d'hématologie, 1, avenue Irène Joliot-Curie, 31059 Toulouse cedex, France.

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT), the only curative therapy for numerous hematological malignancies, carries a significant risk of morbidity and mortality. The patients and families' expectations regarding the procedure, the prognosis uncertainties, as well as the existence of potential new therapeutic possibilities, lead to frequent use of intensive care. Even though the transplant physicians are highly skilled in acute care, their knowledge of palliative approach is limited, making the use of palliative care insufficient and often late. By promoting reflection on the proportionality of care and the patients' quality of life, palliative care may contribute to the allo-HCT patients management. Nevertheless, obstacles to this approach remain. The objective of this work is to propose recommendations to promote the implementation of palliative care into transplant units.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bulcan.2021.01.019DOI Listing
June 2021

Improved outcome of patients with graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for hematologic malignancies over time: an EBMT mega-file study.

Haematologica 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

University Hospital Eppendorf, Hamburg.

Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) remains a major threat to successful outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Advances in prophylaxis and supportive care have taken place over the years. The aim of this study is to test whether incidence and mortality of aGvHD have been reduced over time. 102 557 patients with a median age of 47.6 years with malignancies after first allogeneic sibling or unrelated donor (URD) transplant were studied in the following periods: 1990-1995, 1996-2000, 2001-2005, 2006-2010, 2011-2015. Findings: 100-day-incidences of aGvHD grades II-IV decreased from 40%, to 38%, 32%, 29% and 28% over calendar time (p.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2020.265769DOI Listing
June 2021

IgD Subtype But Not IgM or Non-Secretory Is a Prognostic Marker for Poor Survival Following Autologous Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in Multiple Myeloma. Results From the EBMT CALM (Collaboration to Collect Autologous Transplant Outcomes in Lymphomas and Myeloma) Study.

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk 2021 Oct 24;21(10):686-693. Epub 2021 May 24.

Hospital Pitié Salpêtrière, Paris, France.

Background: The Collaboration to Collect Autologous Transplant Outcomes in Lymphoma and Myeloma (CALM) study has provided an opportunity to evaluate the real-world outcomes of patients with myeloma. The aim of this study was to compare the outcome according to the different subtypes of myeloma using CALM data.

Patients: This study compared overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and complete remission (CR) and the impact of novel versus non-novel drug containing induction regimens prior to autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) of 2802 patients with "usual" and "rare" myelomas.

Results: Our data suggest that IgM and non-secretory myeloma have superior PFS and OS compared with IgD myeloma and outcomes comparable to those for usual myeloma. Patients who received novel agent induction had higher rates of CR prior to transplant. Non-novel induction regimens were associated with inferior PFS but no difference in OS. Although not the primary focus of this study, we show that poor mobilization status is associated with reduced PFS and OS, but these differences disappear in multivariate analysis suggesting that poor mobilization status is a surrogate for other indicators of poor prognosis.

Conclusion: We confirm that IgD myeloma is associated with the worst prognosis and inferior outcomes compared with the other isotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clml.2021.05.012DOI Listing
October 2021

Droplet digital PCR allows vector copy number assessment and monitoring of experimental CAR T cells in murine xenograft models or approved CD19 CAR T cell-treated patients.

J Transl Med 2021 06 21;19(1):265. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

INSERM UMR1098, Right, EFSBFC, UFC, Laboratoire de Thérapeutique Immuno-Moléculaire Et Cellulaire Des Cancers, 8 rue du Dr Jean François Xavier Girod, 25020, Besançon, France.

Background: Genetically engineered chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T lymphocytes are promising therapeutic tools for cancer. Four CAR T cell drugs, including tisagenlecleucel (tisa-cel) and axicabtagene-ciloleucel (axi-cel), all targeting CD19, are currently approved for treating B cell malignancies. Flow cytometry (FC) remains the standard for monitoring CAR T cells using a recombinant biotinylated target protein. Nevertheless, there is a need for additional tools, and the challenge is to develop an easy, relevant, highly sensitive, reproducible, and inexpensive detection method. Molecular tools can meet this need to specifically monitor long-term persistent CAR T cells.

Methods: Based on 2 experimental CAR T cell constructs, IL-1RAP and CS1, we designed 2 quantitative digital droplet (ddPCR) PCR assays. By targeting the 4.1BB/CD3z (28BBz) or 28/CD3z (28z) junction area, we demonstrated that PCR assays can be applied to approved CD19 CAR T drugs. Both 28z and 28BBz ddPCR assays allow determination of the average vector copy number (VCN) per cell. We confirmed that the VCN is dependent on the multiplicity of infection and verified that the VCN of our experimental or GMP-like IL-1RAP CAR T cells met the requirement (< 5 VCN/cell) for delivery to the clinical department, similar to approved axi-cel or tisa-cel drugs.

Results: 28BBz and 28z ddPCR assays applied to 2 tumoral (acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or multiple myeloma (MM) xenograft humanized NSG mouse models allowed us to quantify the early expansion (up to day 30) of CAR T cells after injection. Interestingly, following initial expansion, when circulating CAR T cells were challenged with the tumor, we noted a second expansion phase. Investigation of the bone marrow, spleen and lung showed that CAR T cells disseminated more within these tissues in mice previously injected with leukemic cell lines. Finally, circulating CAR T cell ddPCR monitoring of R/R acute lymphoid leukemia or diffuse large B cell lymphoma (n = 10 for tisa-cel and n = 7 for axi-cel) patients treated with both approved CAR T cells allowed detection of early expansion, which was highly correlated with FC, as well as long-term persistence (up to 450 days), while FC failed to detect these events.

Conclusion: Overall, we designed and validated 2 ddPCR assays allowing routine or preclinical monitoring of early- and long-term circulating approved or experimental CAR T cells, including our own IL-1RAP CAR T cells, which will be evaluated in an upcoming phase I clinical trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-021-02925-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8215786PMC
June 2021

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation in older myelofibrosis patients: A study of the chronic malignancies working party of EBMT and the Spanish Myelofibrosis Registry.

Am J Hematol 2021 10 8;96(10):1186-1194. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Hematology Department, CHU de Lille, Université de Lille, INSERM U1286, Lille, France.

Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) is increasingly used in older myelofibrosis (MF) patients, but its risk/benefit ratio compared to non-transplant approaches has not been evaluated in this population. We analyzed the outcomes of allo-HCT in 556 MF patients aged ≥65 years from the EBMT registry, and determined the excess mortality over the matched general population of MF patients ≥65 years managed with allo-HCT (n = 556) or conventional drug treatment (n = 176). The non-transplant cohort included patients with intermediate-2 or high risk DIPSS from the Spanish Myelofibrosis Registry. After a median follow-up of 3.4 years, the estimated 5-year survival rate, non-relapse mortality (NRM), and relapse incidence after transplantation was 40%, 37%, and 25%, respectively. Busulfan-based conditioning was associated with decreased mortality (HR: 0.7, 95% CI: 0.5-0.9) whereas the recipient CMV+/donor CMV- combination (HR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.2-2.4) and the JAK2 mutated genotype (HR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.1-3.5) predicted higher mortality. Busulfan-based conditioning correlated with improved survival due to less NRM, despite its higher relapse rate when compared with melphalan-based regimens. Excess mortality was higher in transplanted patients than in the non-HCT cohort in the first year of follow-up (ratio: 1.93, 95% CI: 1.13-2.80), whereas the opposite occurred between the fourth and eighth follow-up years (ratio: 0.31, 95% CI: 0.18-0.53). Comparing the excess mortality of the two treatments, male patients seemed to benefit more than females from allo-HCT, mainly due to their worse prognosis with non-transplant approaches. These findings could potentially enhance counseling and treatment decision-making in elderly transplant-eligible MF patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.26279DOI Listing
October 2021

A phase 2a randomized clinical trial of intravenous vedolizumab for the treatment of steroid-refractory intestinal acute graft-versus-host disease.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 10 9;56(10):2477-2488. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Hematopoietic Cell Transplant and Cellular Therapy Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Steroid-refractory (SR) acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) remains a significant complication after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Systemic corticosteroids are first-line therapy for aGvHD, but apart from ruxolitinib, there are no approved treatments for SR aGvHD. Vedolizumab is approved for treatment of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, and may be effective for treatment of SR intestinal aGvHD. We conducted a phase 2a trial (NCT02993783) to evaluate the clinical efficacy, tolerability, and safety of vedolizumab 300 and 600 mg for SR intestinal aGvHD. This study was terminated before full enrollment was completed because early results failed to demonstrate positive proof-of-concept in efficacy. Before termination, 17 participants had enrolled and an early response in intestinal aGvHD was observed in 11 and eight participants at days 15 and 28, respectively. All adverse events observed were consistent with those expected in a population with SR intestinal aGvHD. Overall, vedolizumab did not meet the primary efficacy endpoint (overall response at day 28), likely owing to premature study drug discontinuation, lack of efficacy, and the competing risks inherent with a population with advanced SR intestinal aGvHD. Nevertheless, this study provides valuable insights into the considerations needed when conducting studies in patients with SR intestinal aGvHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01356-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8486663PMC
October 2021

Allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation for myelofibrosis: proposed definitions and management strategies for graft failure, poor graft function and relapse: best practice recommendations of the EBMT Chronic Malignancies Working Party.

Leukemia 2021 09 26;35(9):2445-2459. Epub 2021 May 26.

CHU de Lille, Univ Lille, INSERM U1286, Infinite, Lille, France.

Allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) remains the only curative approach in myelofibrosis (MF). Despite advances over recent decades, relapse and non-relapse mortality rates remain significant. Relapse rates vary between 15 and 25% across retrospective studies and management strategies vary widely, ranging from palliation to adoptive immunotherapy and, in some cases, a second allo-HCT. Moreover, in allo-HCT, there is a higher incidence of poor graft function and graft failure due to splenomegaly and a hostile "pro-inflammatory" marrow niche. The Practice Harmonisation and Guidelines subcommittee of the Chronic Malignancies Working Party (CMWP) of EBMT convened an international panel consisting of transplant haematologists, histopathologists and molecular biologists to propose practical, clinically relevant definitions of graft failure, poor graft function and relapse as well as management strategies following allo-HCT. A systematic approach to molecular monitoring, histopathological assessment and chimerism testing is proposed. These proposed recommendations aim to increase the accuracy and uniformity of reporting and to thereby facilitate the development of more consistent approaches to these challenging issues. In addition, we propose management strategies for these complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-021-01294-2DOI Listing
September 2021

Impact of prior JAK-inhibitor therapy with ruxolitinib on outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for myelofibrosis: a study of the CMWP of EBMT.

Leukemia 2021 May 22. Epub 2021 May 22.

CHU de Lille, Univ Lille, INSERM U1286, Infinite, Lille, France.

JAK1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib (RUX) is approved in patients with myelofibrosis but the impact of pretreatment with RUX on outcome after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains to be determined. We evaluated the impact of RUX on outcome in 551 myelofibrosis patients who received HSCT without (n = 274) or with (n = 277) RUX pretreatment. The overall leukocyte engraftment on day 45 was 92% and significantly higher in RUX responsive patients than those who had no or lost response to RUX (94% vs. 85%, p = 0.05). The 1-year non-relapse mortality was 22% without significant difference between the arms. In a multivariate analysis (MVA) RUX pretreated patients with ongoing spleen response at transplant had a significantly lower risk of relapse (8.1% vs. 19.1%; p = 0.04)] and better 2-year event-free survival (68.9% vs. 53.7%; p = 0.02) in comparison to patients without RUX pretreatment. For overall survival the only significant factors were age > 58 years (p = 0.03) and HLA mismatch donor (p = 0.001). RUX prior to HSCT did not negatively impact outcome after transplantation and patients with ongoing spleen response at time of transplantation had best outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41375-021-01276-4DOI Listing
May 2021

[Follow-up logbook of patients receiving CAR T-cell therapy: Guidelines from the Francophone Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Therapy (SFGM-TC)].

Bull Cancer 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Université Lille, CHU Lille, Inserm, Infinite, U1286, 59000 Lille, France. Electronic address:

In the attempt to harmonize practices and to create a national CAR T-cells patient follow-up care logbook, the Francophone Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Therapy (SFGM-TC) worked on the design of a common national care logbook during the eleventh annual workshops of practice harmonization. The purpose of this logbook was to explain the different phases of the treatment with CAR T-cells and to allow useful monitoring for the patient. This logbook can be also helpful for the different healthcare professionals involved in the patient care. This national logbook will provide important information to the patients undergoing CAR T-cell therapy. In addition to the information booklets already in use, the national logbook simplifies patient follow-up by recording various medical appointments and possible adverse events. This work has been based on tools that had already been put in place by different CAR T-cell centers. This national logbook represents a common "base" and is prepared in the form of index cards to be classified using dividers in a binder. Therefore, the national care logbook will be adaptable for local procedures and guidelines of each center.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bulcan.2021.02.012DOI Listing
May 2021

Measurable residual disease status and outcome of transplant in acute myeloid leukemia in second complete remission: a study by the acute leukemia working party of the EBMT.

Blood Cancer J 2021 05 12;11(5):88. Epub 2021 May 12.

Hematology Division, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Israel.

Measurable residual disease (MRD) prior to hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete morphological remission (CR1) is an independent predictor of outcome, but few studies address CR2. This analysis by the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation registry assessed HCT outcomes by declared MRD status in a cohort of 1042 adult patients with AML CR2 at HCT. Patients were transplanted 2006-2016 from human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matched siblings (n = 719) or HLA 10/10 matched unrelated donors (n = 293). Conditioning was myeloablative (n = 610) or reduced-intensity (n = 432) and 566 patients (54%) had in-vivo T cell depletion. At HCT, 749 patients (72%) were MRD negative (MRD NEG) and 293 (28%) were MRD positive (MRD POS). Time from diagnosis to HCT was longer in MRD NEG than MRD POS patients (18 vs. 16 months (P < 0.001). Two-year relapse rates were 24% (95% CI, 21-28) and 40% (95% CI, 34-46) in MRD NEG and MRD POS groups (P < 0.001), respectively. Leukemia-free survival (LFS) was 57% (53-61) and 46% (40-52%), respectively (P = 0.001), but there was no difference in terms of overall survival. Prognostic factors for relapse and LFS were MRD NEG status, good risk cytogenetics, and longer time from diagnosis to HCT. In-vivo T cell depletion predicted relapse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41408-021-00479-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8116335PMC
May 2021

Second allogeneic transplants for multiple myeloma: a report from the EBMT Chronic Malignancies Working Party.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 10 11;56(10):2367-2381. Epub 2021 May 11.

Univ. Lille, CHU Lille, INSERM, Infinite, U1286, Lille, France.

The EBMT Chronic Malignancies Working Party performed a retrospective analysis of 215 patients who underwent a second allo-HCT for myeloma between 1994 and 2017, 159 for relapse and 56 for graft failure. In the relapse group, overall survival (OS) was 38% (30-46%) at 2 years and 25% (17-32%) at 5 years. Patients who had a HLA-identical sibling (HLAid-Sib) donor for their first and second transplants had superior OS (5 year OS: HLAid-Sib/HLAid-Sib: 35% (24-46%); Others 9% (0-17%), p < 0.001). There was a significantly higher incidence of acute grade II-IV GvHD in those patients who had also developed GvHD following their initial HLA-identical sibling allo-HCT (HLAid-Sib/HLAid-Sib: 50% (33-67%); Other 22% (8-36%), p = 0.03). More as opposed to fewer than 2 years between transplants was associated with superior 5-yr OS (31% (21-40%) vs. 10% (1-20%), P = 0.005). On multivariate analysis, consecutive HLA-identical sibling donor transplants conferred a significant OS advantage (0.4 (0.24-0.67), p < 0.001). In the graft failure group, OS was 41% at 2 years. In summary, a second allo-HCT using a HLA-identical sibling donor, if available, provides the best transplant outcomes for relapsed myeloma in this setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01286-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8486670PMC
October 2021

[Management of patients developing acute gastro-intestinal graft-versus-host-disease: Guidelines from the Francophone Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Therapy (SFGM-TC)].

Bull Cancer 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Université de Lille, CHU de Lille, Inserm U1286, Infinite, 59000 Lille, France.

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is the most common complication after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) with a frequency range of 30% to 50%. GVH is the leading cause of non-relapse-related deaths and a cause early mortality. Gastro-intestinal (GI) GVH results in digestive manifestations that involve the small intestine and the colon. The patient may then have diarrhea, intestinal bleeding, abdominal pain but also clinical signs such as nausea and vomiting may lead to anorexia. GI-GVHD promotes undernutrition as well as significant losses of vitamins and trace elements. In the case of post-transplant diarrhea, differential diagnosis can include GI-GVHD, infection and drug toxicity. Although, corticosteroids w/wo calcineurin inhibitors represent the standard of care in first line treatment, there is no consensus regarding salvage therapy in case of corticoresistant GI-GVH. In addition, assessment of early nutritional status would help combating undernutrition, which is an independent risk factor for mortality in patients with GI-GVHD. In this workshop of the Fancophone Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Therapy (SFGM-TC) we focused on the management of patients developing GI-GVHD following allo-HCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bulcan.2021.01.013DOI Listing
May 2021

[Definition and standardization of histocompatibility requests depending on patient course and donor type: Guidelines from the Francophone Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Therapy (SFGM-TC) and the Francophone Society of Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics (SFHI)].

Bull Cancer 2021 May 6. Epub 2021 May 6.

Direction prélèvements et greffes de CSH, Direction médicale et scientifique, Agence de la biomédecine, 93212 St-Denis, La Plaine.

Standardization of histocompatibility tests for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplants, harmonization of information transmitted to clinicians are part of quality improvement and optimization of human and economic resources. New HLA typing technologies provide high-resolution information within a reasonable time frame. Knowledge of high-resolution HLA typing for the patient and their relatives is essential for a better interpretation of compatibilities. HLA-DPB1 typing must be considered in transplant field regardless of the donor type. The benefits of using search and match programs are considerable. It saves time and reduces additional typing costs by providing rapid information about the likelihood to identify a matched unrelated donor. A backup therapy considering alternative cell sources or treatment can therefore be quickly implemented. The importance of knowledge and consideration of patient immunization for donor choice was explored in previous workshops of the SFGM-TC (2018 and 2019). The published recommendations remain applicable. The routine follow-up protocol and in case of desensitization will be detailed here. This harmonization must be accompanied by the standardization of information to be returned to the clinician regarding the donor finding possibilities for the patient. This will guarantee a similar quality level in every center.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bulcan.2021.01.024DOI Listing
May 2021

[A standardized medical report template for CAR T-Cell therapy patients: Guidelines of the Francophone Society of Bone Marrow Transplantation and Cellular Therapy (SFGM-TC)].

Bull Cancer 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Hôpital Lyon Sud, service d'hématologie, société francophone de greffe de moelle et de thérapie cellulaire, 165, chemin du grand Revoyet, 69310 Pierre- Bénite, France. Electronic address:

Tisagenlecleucel (Kymriah™) and axicabtagene ciloleucel (Yescarta™) are the first representatives of a new class of gene therapies produced by ex-vivo genetic modification of human autologous T lymphocytes, now using viral vectors. In 2020, there are three independent CAR-T cell databases in France: DESCAR-T (database supported by LYSARC, GRAALL and the IFM), ProMISe (EBMT database) and ATIH (database of the Agence Technique de l'Information sur l'Hospitalisation). Only the EBMT database is common to France and the French-speaking countries that are members of the SFGM-TC. In 2019, a workshop was held to draft a manual for entering data specific to CAR-T cells in the EBMT ProMISe database. As a follow-up to this article, we present a medical report template containing all the data required to enter the data of patients treated with CAR-T in the EBMT registry, in the CRF of the DESCAR-T registry and in the ATIH registry. This document aims to improve the completeness and quality of the data while optimizing data entry time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bulcan.2021.01.023DOI Listing
April 2021

Outcome after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in patients with extranodal natural killer/T-Cell lymphoma, nasal type: A French study from the Société Francophone de Greffe de Moelle et de Thérapie Cellulaire (SFGM-TC).

Am J Hematol 2021 07 3;96(7):834-845. Epub 2021 May 3.

Department of Hematology, Inserm U1163, IMAGINE Institute, Paris University, Necker Hospital, Paris, France.

We evaluated the outcome of 65 French patients with Extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTL) undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) (19 allogeneic and 46 autologous). Fifty-four patients (83%), most of which receiving L-asparaginase (L-aspa) containing regimens (81%), achieved complete or partial response at time of HCST. After a median follow-up of 79.9 months, 4-years progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were similar in both autologous and allogeneic groups (PFS: 34% vs. 26%, p = .12 and OS: 52% vs. 53%, p = .74). Response status at HSCT was the major independent prognostic factor on survival (OS: HR: 4.013 [1.137; 14.16], p = .031 and PFS: HR: 5.231 [1.625; 16.838], p = .006). As compared to control patients receiving chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy containing regimens only, upfront HSCT did not improve the outcome of responder patients, including those treated by L-aspa. However, it tends to provide survival benefit for relapsed patients with initial high-risk clinical features who achieved second remission. Whereas the place of HSCT in upfront therapy has still to be clarified, these data confirm that HSCT should be considered for consolidation in selected patients with relapsed ENKTL. Based on a large non Asian ENKTL cohort since the L-aspa era, this study provides some insight into the survival patterns of ENKTL patients with HSCT in the Western hemisphere and may give future direction for the next clinical trial design.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.26200DOI Listing
July 2021

Outcomes following second allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation in patients with myelofibrosis: a retrospective study of the Chronic Malignancies Working Party of EBMT.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 08 6;56(8):1944-1952. Epub 2021 Apr 6.

CHU de Lille, univ Lille, INSERM U1286, INFINITE, 59000, Lille, France.

Therapeutic management of patients with primary or secondary myelofibrosis (MF) who experience relapse or graft failure following allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) remains heterogeneous. We retrospectively analyzed 216 patients undergoing a second allo-HCT for either relapse (56%) or graft failure (31%) between 2010 and 2017. Median age was 57.3 years (range 51-63). The same donor as for the first allo-HCT was chosen in 66 patients (31%) of whom 19 received an HLA-identical sibling donor, whereas a different donor was chosen for 116 patients (54%). Median follow-up was 40 months. Three-year overall survival (OS) and relapse-free survival (RFS) were 42% and 39%, respectively. Three-year non-relapse mortality (NRM) and relapse rates were 36% and 25%, respectively. Grade II-IV and III-IV acute GVHD occurred in 25% and 11% of patients, respectively, and the 3-year incidence of chronic GVHD was 33% including 14% for extensive grade. Graft-failure incidence at 1 year was 14%. In conclusion, our data suggest that a second allo-HCT is a potential option for patients failing first allo-HCT for MF albeit careful patient assessment is fundamental to identify individual patients who could benefit from this approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01271-4DOI Listing
August 2021

Ruxolitinib before allogeneic hematopoietic transplantation in patients with myelofibrosis on behalf SFGM-TC and FIM groups.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2021 08 25;56(8):1888-1899. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Hôpital Saint-Louis, APHP, Centre d'investigation clinique, Paris, France.

This multicenter prospective phase 2 trial analyzed disease-free survival (DFS) in myelofibrosis patients receiving ruxolitinib for 6 months before transplantation. Seventy-six patients were recruited. Age-adjusted dynamic international prognostic scoring system was intermediate-1, intermediate-2, and high in 27 (36%), 31 (41%), and 18 (24%) patients. All patients received ruxolitinib from inclusion to conditioning regimen (fludarabine-melphalan) or to progression. A donor was found in 64 patients: 18 HLA-matched sibling donor (MSD), 32 HLA-matched unrelated (UD10/10), and 14 HLA mismatched unrelated donor (UD9/10. Among 64 patients with a donor, 20 (31%) achieved a partial response before transplantation and 59 (92%) could be transplanted after ruxolitinib therapy (18/18 MSD, 30/21 UD10/10, 11/34 UD9/10), of whom 19 (32%) were splenectomized. Overall survival from inclusion was 68% at 12 months. One-year DFS after transplantation was 55%: 83%, 40%, and 34% after MSD, UD10/10 or UD9/10, respectively. Cumulative incidence of grade 2-4 acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was 66% and non-relapse-mortality was 42% at 12 months. Short course of ruxolitinib before transplantation is followed by a high rate of transplantation. With the platform used in this protocol, outcome was much better in patients transplanted with HLA-matched sibling donor as compared to unrelated donor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-021-01252-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7992510PMC
August 2021

Potential role of tocilizumab in severe gastrointestinal barrier damage after CAR T-cell therapy.

J Microbiol Immunol Infect 2021 Apr 27;54(2):327-330. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Univ. Lille, Inserm U1285, CNRS UMR 8576 - UGSF - Unité de Glycobiologie Structurale et Fonctionnelle, F-59000 Lille, France; CHU Lille, Service de Parasitologie Mycologie, F-59037 Lille, France.

We report a septicemia and disseminated candidiasis due to delayed gastrointestinal mucosae repair in a patient treated with tocilizumab after anti-CD19 CAR T-cell therapy. Tocilizumab could have inhibited intestinal tissue repair and furthered bacteria translocation leading to the invasion of intestinal mucosa by yeasts as IL-6 is known to be involved in mucosal wound healing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmii.2021.02.006DOI Listing
April 2021
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