Publications by authors named "Ibrahim Khan"

63 Publications

Sulfone-containing Conjugated Polyimide 2D Nanosheets for Efficient Water Oxidation.

Chem Asian J 2021 May 31. Epub 2021 May 31.

Center of Research Excellence in Nanotechnology, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals (KFUPM), Dhahran, 31261, Saudi Arabia) (Abuzar Khan.

Water oxidation is a bottleneck in artificial photosynthesis that impedes its practicality for solar energy conversion and utilization. It is highly desired to significantly improve the efficacy of the existing catalysts or to rationally design new catalysts with improved performance. We report a novel conjugated and sulfone containing polyimide as a metal-free photocatalyst synthesized via a two-step method: (i) synthesis of precursor poly(amic acid) (PAA) (ii) solvothermal synthesis of polyimide through thermal imidization. The synthesis of the polyimide photocatalyst was demonstrated by the amide linkage in the FTIR spectrum. The obtained photocatalyst was semicrystalline in nature and possessed sheet-like morphology as illustrated by the diffraction pattern and the electron micrographic images, respectively. The thermogravimetric analysis of the polyimide nanosheets validated a thermally stable structure. The DFT calculations were performed which showed a suitable HOMO band position, favorable for water oxidation. The photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) performance of the polyimide nanosheets evaluated by studying water oxidation reaction without any sacrificial agent under 1-SUN showed enhanced PEC performance and good stability towards water oxidation at 0 V versus SCE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/asia.202100392DOI Listing
May 2021

High-speed solid state fluorination of NbO yields NbOF and NbOF with photocatalytic activity for oxygen evolution from water.

Dalton Trans 2021 May;50(19):6528-6538

Department Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Duesbergweg 10-14, D-55128 Mainz, Germany.

Solid state reactions are slow because the diffusion of atoms or ions through the reactant, intermediate and crystalline product phases is the rate-limiting step. This requires days or even weeks of high temperature treatment, and consumption of large amounts of energy. We employed spark-plasma sintering, an engineering technique that is used for high-speed consolidation of powders with a pulsed electric current passing through the sample to carry out the fluorination of niobium oxide in minute intervals. The approach saves time and large amounts of waste energy. Moreover, it allows the preparation of fluorinated niobium oxides on a gram scale using poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (®Teflon) scrap and without toxic chemicals. The synthesis can be upscaled easily to the kg range with appropriate sintering equipment. Finally, NbO2F and Nb3O7F prepared by spark plasma sintering show significant photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) oxygen evolution from water in terms of photocurrent density and incident photon-to-current efficiency (% IPCE), whereas NbO2F and Nb3O7F prepared by conventional high temperature chemistry show little to no PEC response. Our study is a proof of concept for the quick, clean and energy saving production of valuable photocatalysts from plastic waste.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1dt00533bDOI Listing
May 2021

Oral Administration of Gintonin Protects the Brains of Mice against A-Induced Alzheimer Disease Pathology: Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effects.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 16;2021:6635552. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Division of Life Science and Applied Life Science (BK21 FOUR), College of Natural Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Republic of Korea.

The study was aimed at analyzing the protective effects of gintonin in an amyloid beta- (A-) induced Alzheimer's disease (AD) mouse model. For the development of the A-induced AD mouse model, the amyloid- (A) peptide was stereotaxically injected into the brains of mice. Subsequently, gintonin was administered at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day/per oral (p.o) for four weeks daily, and its effects were evaluated by using western blotting, fluorescence analysis of brain sections, biochemical tests, and memory-related behavioral evaluations. To elucidate the effects of gintonin at the mechanistic level, the activation of endogenous antioxidant mechanisms, as well as the activation of astrocytes, microglia, and proinflammatory mediators such as nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF-2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), was evaluated. In addition, microglial cells (BV-2 cells) were used to analyze the effects of gintonin on microglial activation and signaling mechanisms. Collectively, the results suggested that gintonin reduced elevated oxidative stress by improving the expression of NRF-2 and HO-1 and thereby reducing the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation (LPO). Moreover, gintonin significantly suppressed activated microglial cells and inflammatory mediators in the brains of A-injected mice. Our findings also indicated improved synaptic and memory functions in the brains of A-injected mice after treatment with gintonin. These results suggest that gintonin may be effective for relieving AD symptoms by regulating oxidative stress and inflammatory processes in a mouse model of AD. Collectively, the findings of this preclinical study highlight and endorse the potential, multitargeted protective effects of gintonin against AD-associated oxidative damage, neuroinflammation, cognitive impairment, and neurodegeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6635552DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8068536PMC
May 2021

CRISPR-Cas technology based genome editing for modification of salinity stress tolerance responses in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Apr 5;48(4):3605-3615. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Bioinformatics and Biosciences, Capital University of Science and Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR associated protein (Cas) technology is an effective tool for site-specific genome editing, used to precisely induce mutagenesis in different plant species including rice. Salinity is one of the most stressful environmental constraints affecting agricultural productivity worldwide. As plant adaptation to salinity stress is under polygenic control therefore, 51 rice genes have been identified that play crucial role in response to salinity. This review offers an exclusive overview of genes identified in rice genome for salinity stress tolerance. This will provide an idea to produce rice varieties with enhanced salt tolerance using the potentially efficient CRISPR-Cas technology. Several undesirable off-target effects of CRISPR-Cas technology and their possible solutions have also been highlighted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-021-06375-0DOI Listing
April 2021

Nicotinamide Ameliorates Amyloid Beta-Induced Oxidative Stress-Mediated Neuroinflammation and Neurodegeneration in Adult Mouse Brain.

Biomedicines 2021 Apr 10;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Division of Life Sciences and Applied Life Science (BK 21 Four), College of Natural Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Korea.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most predominant age-related neurodegenerative disease, pathologically characterized by the accumulation of aggregates of amyloid beta Aβ and tau hyperphosphorylation in the brain. It is considered to be the primary cause of cognitive dysfunction. The aggregation of Aβ leads to neuronal inflammation and apoptosis. Since vitamins are basic dietary nutrients that organisms need for their growth, survival, and other metabolic functions, in this study, the underlying neuroprotective mechanism of nicotinamide (NAM) Vitamin B3 against Aβ -induced neurotoxicity was investigated in mouse brains. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) Aβ injection elicited neuronal dysfunctions that led to memory impairment and neurodegeneration in mouse brains. After 24 h after Aβ injection, the mice were treated with NAM (250 mg/kg intraperitoneally) for 1 week. For biochemical and Western blot studies, the mice were directly sacrificed, while for confocal and "immunohistochemical staining", mice were perfused transcardially with 4% paraformaldehyde. Our biochemical, immunofluorescence, and immunohistochemical results showed that NAM can ameliorate neuronal inflammation and apoptosis by reducing oxidative stress through lowering malondialdehyde and 2,7-dichlorofluorescein levels in an Aβ-injected mouse brains, where the regulation of p-JNK further regulated inflammatory marker proteins (TNF-α, IL-1β, transcription factor NF-kB) and apoptotic marker proteins (Bax, caspase 3, PARP1). Furthermore, NAM + Aβ treatment for 1 week increased the amount of survival neurons and reduced neuronal cell death in Nissl staining. We also analyzed memory dysfunction via behavioral studies and the analysis showed that NAM could prevent Aβ -induced memory deficits. Collectively, the results of this study suggest that NAM may be a potential preventive and therapeutic candidate for Aβ -induced reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, and neurotoxicity in an adult mouse model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9040408DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8070416PMC
April 2021

Genome-wide analysis and functional characterization of the Dof transcription factor family in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

Planta 2021 Apr 15;253(5):101. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences and Technology, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China.

Main Conclusion: Exhaustive searches of the rice genome have revealed 30 different potential OsDof (Oryza sativa DNA binding with One Finger) genes. Their subcellular localization, phylogenetic relationship, conserved motifs identification, chromosomal allocation, expression patterns, and interaction networks were analyzed. The Dof (DNA binding with One Finger) family of transcription factors represents a particular class of plant-specific transcriptional regulators, contain a highly conserved region of 50-52 amino acids (Dof domain) and involved in various plant developmental processes and response to various environmental stresses. Few (Oryza sativa) OsDof genes have been demonstrated previously for their biological functions but there is no comprehensive study on most of the Dof genes of rice. In the current study, exhaustive searches of the rice genome revealed 30 different potential OsDof genes, and then their subcellular localization, phylogenetic relationship, conserved motifs identification, chromosomal allocation, expression patterns, and interaction networks were analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis of Dof proteins in rice showed that they are distributed in 4 groups. By genome-wide observation of gene expression profiles, we found that OsDof genes showed significant variances in expression levels in different tissues across multiple developmental stages. Protein-protein correlation network analysis, shows a statically significant overlap of some OsDofs, suggesting their similar functions and a high degree of co-expression. The Dof family transcription factors have been reported for their involvement in the regulation of various gene expression processes in rice but still, most of the Dof genes are not characterized for their specific physiological functions. This study revealed useful information and clues about predicting the potential roles of OsDofs in rice by combining their genome-wide characterization, expression profiling, protein-protein interactions, and for further studies to develop high-quality rice varieties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00425-021-03627-yDOI Listing
April 2021

A Generalized Method for High-Speed Fluorination of Metal Oxides by Spark Plasma Sintering Yields Ta O F and TaO F with High Photocatalytic Activity for Oxygen Evolution from Water.

Adv Mater 2021 May 10;33(20):e2007434. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Chemistry Department, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Duesbergweg 10-14, Mainz, D-55128, Germany.

A general method to carry out the fluorination of metal oxides with poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE, Teflon) waste by spark plasma sintering (SPS) on a minute scale with Teflon is reported. The potential of this new approach is highlighted by the following results. i) The tantalum oxyfluorides Ta O F and TaO F are obtained from plastic scrap without using toxic or caustic chemicals for fluorination. ii) Short reaction times (minutes rather than days) reduce the process time the energy costs by almost three orders of magnitude. iii) The oxyfluorides Ta O F and TaO F are produced in gram amounts of nanoparticles. Their synthesis can be upscaled to the kg range with industrial sintering equipment. iv) SPS processing changes the catalytic properties: while conventionally prepared Ta O F and TaO F show little catalytic activity, SPS-prepared Ta O F and TaO F exhibit high activity for photocatalytic oxygen evolution, reaching photoconversion efficiencies up to 24.7% and applied bias to photoconversion values of 0.86%. This study shows that the materials properties are dictated by the processing which poses new challenges to understand and predict the underlying factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.202007434DOI Listing
May 2021

Internet of Things (IoT) enabled healthcare helps to take the challenges of COVID-19 Pandemic.

J Oral Biol Craniofac Res 2021 Apr-Jun;11(2):209-214. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

School of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India.

Background/objectives: The Internet of Things (IoT) can create disruptive innovation in healthcare. Thus, during COVID-19 Pandemic, there is a need to study different applications of IoT enabled healthcare. For this, a brief study is required for research directions.

Methods: Research papers on IoT in healthcare and COVID-19 Pandemic are studied to identify this technology's capabilities. This literature-based study may guide professionals in envisaging solutions to related problems and fighting against the COVID-19 type pandemic.

Results: Briefly studied the significant achievements of IoT with the help of a process chart. Then identifies seven major technologies of IoT that seem helpful for healthcare during COVID-19 Pandemic. Finally, the study identifies sixteen basic IoT applications for the medical field during the COVID-19 Pandemic with a brief description of them.

Conclusions: In the current scenario, advanced information technologies have opened a new door to innovation in our daily lives. Out of these information technologies, the Internet of Things is an emerging technology that provides enhancement and better solutions in the medical field, like proper medical record-keeping, sampling, integration of devices, and causes of diseases. IoT's sensor-based technology provides an excellent capability to reduce the risk of surgery during complicated cases and helpful for COVID-19 type pandemic. In the medical field, IoT's focus is to help perform the treatment of different COVID-19 cases precisely. It makes the surgeon job easier by minimising risks and increasing the overall performance. By using this technology, doctors can easily detect changes in critical parameters of the COVID-19 patient. This information-based service opens up new healthcare opportunities as it moves towards the best way of an information system to adapt world-class results as it enables improvement of treatment systems in the hospital. Medical students can now be better trained for disease detection and well guided for the future course of action. IoT's proper usage can help correctly resolve different medical challenges like speed, price, and complexity. It can easily be customised to monitor calorific intake and treatment like asthma, diabetes, and arthritis of the COVID-19 patient. This digitally controlled health management system can improve the overall performance of healthcare during COVID-19 pandemic days.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jobcr.2021.01.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7897999PMC
January 2021

A High-Performance Asymmetric Supercapacitor Based on Tungsten Oxide Nanoplates and Highly Reduced Graphene Oxide Electrodes.

Chemistry 2021 Apr 17;27(23):6973-6984. Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Chemistry Department, King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals, Dharan, 31261, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Tungsten oxide/graphene hybrid materials are attractive semiconductors for energy-related applications. Herein, we report an asymmetric supercapacitor (ASC, HRG//m-WO ASC), fabricated from monoclinic tungsten oxide (m-WO ) nanoplates as a negative electrode and highly reduced graphene oxide (HRG) as a positive electrode material. The supercapacitor performance of the prepared electrodes was evaluated in an aqueous electrolyte (1 m H SO ) using three- and two-electrode systems. The HRG//m-WO ASC exhibits a maximum specific capacitance of 389 F g at a current density of 0.5 A g , with an associated high energy density of 93 Wh kg at a power density of 500 W kg in a wide 1.6 V operating potential window. In addition, the HRG//m-WO ASC displays long-term cycling stability, maintaining 92 % of the original specific capacitance after 5000 galvanostatic charge-discharge cycles. The m-WO nanoplates were prepared hydrothermally while HRG was synthesized by a modified Hummers method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.202005156DOI Listing
April 2021

Docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 n-3)-rich microalgae along with methionine supplementation in broiler chickens: effects on production performance, breast muscle quality attributes, lipid profile, and incidence of white striping and myopathy.

Poult Sci 2021 Feb 19;100(2):865-874. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Department of Animal and Rangeland Sciences, College of Agricultural Sciences, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331, USA. Electronic address:

The effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6 n-3)-rich microalgae and methionine (Met) supplementation on production performance, incidence of breast muscle white striping (WS), and pathology, lipid profile, and meat quality aspects in broiler chickens was investigated. The hypothesis tested was that feeding Met and n-3 fatty acid (FA)-rich diet enhances muscle n-3 FA content and meat quality while attenuating breast muscle WS and myopathy in broiler chickens. One hundred and forty four (n = 144) 10-day-old Cornish cross chicks were fed a corn-soybean meal-based diet containing 0% microalgae (control), 2% microalgae (diet 1), and diet 1 + 100% more National Research Council requirement of Met (diet 2) up to day 42 of growth. All diets were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. The chicks were kept in 6 pens with 8 chicks per replicate pen. Feed consumption and feed efficiency were calculated on day 21 and 42. On day 43, 3 chicks per pen (n = 18/treatment) were euthanized. The breast muscle (pectoralis major) was visually scored for muscle WS (1 = no striping, 2 = mild, 3 = severe) and was subjected to histopathology. Breast muscle lipid profile (total lipids, FA composition, cholesterol, lipid oxidation products), quality (moisture, color, drip loss, shear force, cook loss, pH), and chemical characterization (protein, minerals) were recorded. A one-way analysis of variance was carried out with diet as the main factor and significance was set at P < 0.05. The incidence of muscle WS was lower (P < 0.02) for control vs. diet 2 and a trend for reduction in WS was observed in birds fed diet 1 vs. control (P = 0.09). Histopathological changes consisted of floccular or vacuolar degeneration, fibrosis, lipidosis, interstitial inflammation, and lysis of fibers, and were minimal in diet 2 when compared to control (P < 0.05). The total lipid content was lowest in birds fed diet 1 (P < 0.05). Total n-3 and total long chain (≥20C) n-3 FA were highest in the breast muscle of diet 2 birds (P < 0.05). Muscle drip loss and shear force were highest in diet 2 (P < 0.05). Meat color (a∗, redness) was reduced (P < 0.05) and a trend for reduction in b∗ (yellowness) was observed in diet 2 (P = 0.07). No effect of diet on body weight gain, feed efficiency, breast muscle yield, pH, moisture, lipid oxidation products, cook loss, minerals (Ca, P, Mg, Na), cholesterol, or protein content was observed (P > 0.05). The results demonstrated a significant effect of DHA-rich microalgae along with Met supplementation in reducing the incidence of breast muscle striping and myopathy, while enriching meat with n-3 FA. However, inclusion of Met in microalgae-based diets could influence meat tenderness and color.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2020.10.069DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7858082PMC
February 2021

Plasmonic Gold Nanoparticles (AuNPs): Properties, Synthesis and their Advanced Energy, Environmental and Biomedical Applications.

Chem Asian J 2021 Apr 23;16(7):720-742. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Centre for Integrative Petroleum Research, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran, 31261, Saudi Arabia.

Inducing plasmonic characteristics, primarily localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), in conventional AuNPs through particle size and shape control could lead to a significant enhancement in electrical, electrochemical, and optical properties. Synthetic protocols and versatile fabrication methods play pivotal roles to produced plasmonic gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), which can be employed in multipurpose energy, environmental and biomedical applications. The main focus of this review is to provide a comprehensive and tutorial overview of various synthetic methods to design highly plasmonic AuNPs, along with a brief essay to understand the experimental procedure for each technique. The latter part of the review is dedicated to the most advanced and recent solar-induced energy, environmental and biomedical applications. The synthesis methods are compared to identify the best possible synthetic route, which can be adopted while employing plasmonic AuNPs for a specific application. The tutorial nature of the review would be helpful not only for expert researchers but also for novices in the field of nanomaterial synthesis and utilization of plasmonic nanomaterials in various industries and technologies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/asia.202001202DOI Listing
April 2021

Vanillic Acid, a Bioactive Phenolic Compound, Counteracts LPS-Induced Neurotoxicity by Regulating c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase in Mouse Brain.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Dec 31;22(1). Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Division of Life Sciences and Applied Life Science (BK 21plus), College of Natural Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Korea.

The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), a pattern recognition receptor signaling event, has been associated with several human illnesses, including neurodegenerative diseases, particularly in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Vanillic acid (V.A), a flavoring agent, is a benzoic acid derivative having a broad range of biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of V.A in exerting neuroprotection are not well investigated. The present study aims to explore the neuroprotective effects of V.A against lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation, amyloidogenesis, synaptic/memory dysfunction, and neurodegeneration in mice brain. Behavioral tests and biochemical and immunofluorescence assays were applied. Our results indicated increased expression of RAGE and its downstream phospho-c-Jun n-terminal kinase (p-JNK) in the LPS-alone treated group, which was significantly reduced in the V.A + LPS co-treated group. We also found that systemic administration of LPS-injection induced glial cells (microglia and astrocytes) activation and significantly increased expression level of nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-KB) and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 β (IL1-β), and cyclooxygenase (COX-2). However, V.A + LPS co-treatment significantly inhibited the LPS-induced activation of glial cells and neuroinflammatory mediators. Moreover, we also noted that V.A treatment significantly attenuated LPS-induced increases in the expression of AD markers, such as β-site amyloid precursor protein (APP)-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) and amyloid-β (Aβ). Furthermore, V.A treatment significantly reversed LPS-induced synaptic loss via enhancing the expression level of pre- and post-synaptic markers (PSD-95 and SYP), and improved memory performance in LPS-alone treated group. Taken together; we suggest that neuroprotective effects of V.A against LPS-induced neurotoxicity might be via inhibition of LPS/RAGE mediated JNK signaling pathway; and encourage future studies that V.A would be a potential neuroprotective and neurotherapeutic candidate in various neurological disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22010361DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7795830PMC
December 2020

Visible Light-Driven Photoelectrocatalytic Water Splitting Using Z-Scheme Ag-Decorated MoS/RGO/NiWO Heterostructure.

ACS Omega 2020 Dec 1;5(49):31644-31656. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Center of Research Excellence in Renewable Energy Research Institute, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia.

Herein, we have successfully constructed a solid-state Z-scheme photosystem with enhanced light absorption capacity by combining the optoelectrical properties of AgNPs with those of the MoS/RGO/NiWO (Ag-MRGON) heterostructure. The Ag-MRGON Z-scheme system demonstrates improved photo-electrochemical (PEC) water-splitting performance in terms of applied bias photon-to-current conversion efficiency (ABPE), which is 0.52%, and 17.3- and 4.3-times better than those of pristine MoS and MoS/NiWO photoanodes, respectively. The application of AgNPs as an optical property enhancer and RGO as an electron mediator improved the photocurrent density of Ag-MRGON to 3.5 mA/cm and suppressed the charge recombination to attain the photostability of ∼2 h. Moreover, the photocurrent onset potential of the Ag-MRGON heterojunction ( 0.61 V) is cathodically shifted compared to those of NiWO (0.83 V), MoS (0.80 V), and MoS/NiWO heterojunction (0.73 V). The improved PEC water-splitting performance in terms of ABPE, photocurrent density, and onset potential is attributed to the facilitated charge transfer through the RGO mediator, the plasmonic effect of AgNPs, and the proper energy band alignments with the thermodynamic potentials of hydrogen and oxygen evolution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.0c03985DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7745211PMC
December 2020

Enhancement of photocatalytic potential and recoverability of FeO nanoparticles by decorating over monoclinic zirconia.

J Environ Health Sci Eng 2020 Dec 25;18(2):1473-1489. Epub 2020 Oct 25.

Department of Chemistry, Bacha Khan University, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

Background: Photodegradation of organic pollutants is considered to be the most suitable and cheaper technique to counter the decontamination issues. Metal nanoparticles are considered to be the most effective heterogeneous photocatalysts for photodegradation of organic pollutants. Besides, iron oxide nanoparticles are well-known photocatalysts for degrading organic pollutants.

Methods: We reported the synthesis of neat iron oxide nanoparticles (FeO NPs) and zirconia supported iron oxide nanoparticles (FeO/ZrO NPs) by facile chemical reduction technique for photodegradation ofa toxic azo dye namely methyl red.

Results: The XRD and FTIR analysis has demonstrated a crystalline phase FeO NPs. The morphological features via scanning electronic microscopy (FESEM) suggested agglomerated morphology of neat FeO NPs with 803.54 ± 5.11 nm average particle size and revealed the uniform morphology and homogenous dispersion of FeO NPs over ZrO surface in FeO/ZrO nanocomposite. A polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.47 showed sufficient variations in the particle size of neat FeO NPs, which is also supported by the results obtained from atomic force microscopy (AFM), FESEM and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). FeO/ZrO NPs demonstrated efficient methyl red degradation over a short period of time under simulated light and degraded about ~ 91.0 ± 1.0% and 87.0 ± 1.0% dye in 40 min, under UV and visible light, respectively.

Conclusion: The excellent photodegradation efficacy and sustainability of FeO/ZrO NPs can be attributed to the homogenous distribution of FeO NPs over ZrO, which facilitates the generation of photoexcitons (electrons and holes), enhanced charge transfer and minimize the charge recombination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40201-020-00563-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7721935PMC
December 2020

Holography applications toward medical field: An overview.

Indian J Radiol Imaging 2020 Jul-Sep;30(3):354-361. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

School of Engineering Sciences and Technology, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India.

Purpose: 3D Holography is a commercially available, disruptive innovation, which can be customised as per the requirements and is supporting Industry 4.0. The purpose of this paper is to study the potential applications of 3D holography in the medical field. This paper explores the concept of holography and its significant benefits in the medical field.

Methods: The paper is derived through the study of various research papers on Holography and its applications in the medical field. The study tries to identify the direction of research &development and see how this innovative technology can be used effectively for better treatment of patients.

Results: Holography uses digital imaging inputs and provides an extensive visualisation of the data for training doctors, surgeons and students. Holography converts information about the body into a digital format and has the potential to inform, promote and entertain the medical students and doctors. However, it needs a large amount of space for data storage and extensive software support for analysis and skills for customising. This technology seems good to solve a variety of medical issues by storing and using patient data in developing 3D holograms, which are useful to assist successful treatment and surgery. It seems useful in providing flexible solutions in the area of medical research. Finally, the paper identifies 13 significant applications of this technology in the medical field and discusses them appropriately.

Conclusion: The paper explores holographic applications in medical research due to its extensive capability of image processing. Holographic images are non-contact 3D images having a large field of depth. A physician can now zoom the holographic image for a better view of the medical part. This innovative technology can create advancements in the diagnosis and treatment process, which can improve medical practice. It helps in quick detection of problems in various organs like brain, heart, liver, kidney etc. By using this technology, medical practitioners can see colourful organs at multiple angles with better accuracy. It opens up an innovative way of planning, testing of procedures and diagnosis. With technological developments, compact hardware and software are now available to help medical research and related applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijri.IJRI_39_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7694722PMC
October 2020

Selective Synthesis of Monodisperse CoO Nanooctahedra as Catalysts for Electrochemical Water Oxidation.

Langmuir 2020 Nov 10;36(46):13804-13816. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Department Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Duesbergweg 10-14, 55128 Mainz, Germany.

Thermal decomposition is a promising route for the synthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles because size and morphology can be tuned by minute control of the reaction variables. We synthesized CoO nanooctahedra with diameters of ∼48 nm and a narrow size distribution. Full control over nanoparticle size and morphology could be obtained by controlling the reaction time, surfactant ratio, and reactant concentrations. We show that the particle size does not increase monotonically with time or surfactant concentration but passes through minima or maxima. We unravel the critical role of the surfactants in nucleation and growth and rationalize the observed experimental trends in accordance with simulation experiments. The as-synthesized CoO nanooctahedra exhibit superior electrocatalytic activity with long-term stability during oxygen evolution. The morphology of the CoO particles controls the electrocatalytic reaction through the distinct surface sites involved in the oxygen evolution reaction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.0c02131DOI Listing
November 2020

Virtual reality (VR) applications in dentistry: An innovative technology to embrace.

Indian J Dent Res 2020 Jul-Aug;31(4):666-667

School of Engineering Science and Technology, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijdr.IJDR_501_19DOI Listing
October 2020

Lupeol, a Plant-Derived Triterpenoid, Protects Mice Brains against Aβ-Induced Oxidative Stress and Neurodegeneration.

Biomedicines 2020 09 26;8(10). Epub 2020 Sep 26.

Division of Life Sciences and Applied Life Science (BK 21plus), College of Natural Science, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52828, Korea.

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that represents 60–70% of all dementia cases. AD is characterized by the formation and accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and neuronal cell loss. Further accumulation of Aβ in the brain induces oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and synaptic and memory dysfunction. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of the natural triterpenoid lupeol in the Aβ mouse model of AD. An Intracerebroventricular injection (i.c.v.) of Aβ (3 µL/5 min/mouse) into the brain of a mouse increased the reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, neuroinflammation, and memory and cognitive dysfunction. The oral administration of lupeol at a dose of 50 mg/kg for two weeks significantly decreased the oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and memory impairments. Lupeol decreased the oxidative stress via the activation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor-2 (Nrf-2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the brain of adult mice. Moreover, lupeol treatment prevented neuroinflammation by suppressing activated glial cells and inflammatory mediators. Additionally, lupeol treatment significantly decreased the accumulation of Aβ and beta-secretase-1 (BACE-1) expression and enhanced the memory and cognitive function in the Aβ-mouse model of AD. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the anti-oxidative and neuroprotective effects of lupeol against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. Our findings suggest that lupeol could serve as a novel, promising, and accessible neuroprotective agent against progressive neurodegenerative diseases such as AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8100380DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7601269PMC
September 2020

Negative Pressure Wound Therapy (NPWT): Our Experience in Pakistan With Locally Made Dressing.

Cureus 2020 Jul 29;12(7):e9464. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, PAK.

Introduction Worldwide numbers of patients suffering from complex wounds appear to increase annually. These patients present with acute, sub-acute and chronic wounds which can be difficult to manage. Management of these patients typically requires a multi-disciplinary approach by a plastic surgeon, orthopaedic surgeon and infectious disease control team. Despite the advent of numerous new techniques and technologies, negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) remains a cornerstone to the management of complex wounds. We present our experience with NPWT in this study. Methods This is a retrospective study of 380 patients who were treated with NPWT in the last 10 years at a single center. We receive hundreds of infected wounds of limbs each year which are either post-traumatic or post-debridement. Frequency of dressing change, C-reactive protein levels, bacterial cultures, complication rate and cost of apparatus in each case were noted. All patients received systemic antibiotics during the treatment. Results We reviewed hospital data of 520 patients in which debridement was performed. Of the 520 patients derided, 380 patients were treated with NPWT, and included in study. Number of NPWT sessions was decided on the basis of wound status (adequate healthy granulation tissue, clinically improved circulation). A single session of NPWT dressing was applied in 84% (n = 320) patients, 8% (n = 31) patients needed two sessions of NPWT dressing, 6% (n = 24) patients had three sessions of NPWT dressing and only 1% (n = 5) patients did not respond to NPWT dressing. 78% (n = 297) patients had reduced levels of C-reactive protein levels and wound cultures were negative in 54% (n = 208) patients after application of NPWT dressing. Minor complications occurred in 0.7% (n = 3) patients due to occult osteomyelitis. In 0.5% (n = 2) patients, NPWT dressing was discontinued due to persistent leakage near a natural orifice. Sinus formation was seen in 6% (n = 23) patients who were treated with curettage and conventional dressings. The mean pain score on the verbal analogue scale was 3 out of 10. The mean cost of an NPWT dressing apparatus was 90 dollars. Conclusion We conclude from this study that NPWT dressing can be easily applied to any region of the body and it can be customized to the needs of patients from different socio-economic status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.9464DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7457887PMC
July 2020

Ultrasonically controlled growth of monodispersed octahedral BiVO microcrystals for improved photoelectrochemical water oxidation.

Ultrason Sonochem 2020 Nov 22;68:105233. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Center of Research Excellence in Nanotechnology, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (KFUPM), Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address:

The synthesis of facet-controlled structures with precise morphology and exposed reactive surface is one of the key research challenges. We effectively endeavoured to obtain the monodisperse octahedral bismuth vanadate microcrystals with exposed {101},{200},{312} and {021} dominant facets through an optimized sonochemical assisted hydrothermal process. A pulse sonication (5-s ON and 2-s OFF cycle, 21 W ultrasonic power and 20 kHz ultrasonic frequency) for 30 mins followed by 1 h hydrothermal treatment was found to yield the preferred octahedral morphology. The microscopic and X-ray analysis suggested a potent role of ultrasonic waves for the initial seed growth and its evolution into a well-defined monodisperse microcrystals. The density functional theory (DFT) calculations revealed strongly localized bandgap states with a bandgap of ~2.47 eV. The PEC measurements for water oxidation demonstrated the efficacy of these microcrystals as photoanode. Notably, the optimized octahedral BiVO microstructure exhibited a superior performance as evident from photocurrent density ~0.9 mAcm at 1.23 V vs. RHE and %IPCE value of ~22% compared to analogous photoanodes under visible light irradiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2020.105233DOI Listing
November 2020

HIV outbreaks among people who inject drugs in Europe, North America, and Israel.

Lancet HIV 2020 06;7(6):e434-e442

European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, Lisbon, Portugal.

During 2011-16, HIV outbreaks occurred among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Canada (southeastern Saskatchewan), Greece (Athens), Ireland (Dublin), Israel (Tel Aviv), Luxembourg, Romania (Bucharest), Scotland (Glasgow), and USA (Scott County, Indiana). Factors common to many of these outbreaks included community economic problems, homelessness, and changes in drug injection patterns. The outbreaks differed in size (from under 100 to over 1000 newly reported HIV cases among PWID) and in the extent to which combined prevention had been implemented before, during, and after the outbreaks. Countries need to ensure high coverage of HIV prevention services and coverage higher than the current UNAIDS recommendation might be needed in areas in which short acting drugs are injected. In addition, monitoring of PWID with special attention for changing drug use patterns, risk behaviours, and susceptible subgroups (eg, PWID experiencing homelessness) needs to be in place to prevent or rapidly detect and contain new HIV outbreaks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-3018(20)30082-5DOI Listing
June 2020

Significant Applications of Big Data in COVID-19 Pandemic.

Indian J Orthop 2020 May 7:1-3. Epub 2020 May 7.

3Department of Orthopaedics, Indraprastha Apollo Hospital, SaritaVihar, Mathura Road, New Delhi, 110076 India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43465-020-00129-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7204193PMC
May 2020

Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications for COVID-19 pandemic.

Diabetes Metab Syndr 2020 Jul - Aug;14(4):337-339. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi, India. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Healthcare delivery requires the support of new technologies like Artificial Intelligence (AI), Internet of Things (IoT), Big Data and Machine Learning to fight and look ahead against the new diseases. We aim to review the role of AI as a decisive technology to analyze, prepare us for prevention and fight with COVID-19 (Coronavirus) and other pandemics.

Methods: The rapid review of the literature is done on the database of Pubmed, Scopus and Google Scholar using the keyword of COVID-19 or Coronavirus and Artificial Intelligence or AI. Collected the latest information regarding AI for COVID-19, then analyzed the same to identify its possible application for this disease.

Results: We have identified seven significant applications of AI for COVID-19 pandemic. This technology plays an important role to detect the cluster of cases and to predict where this virus will affect in future by collecting and analyzing all previous data.

Conclusions: Healthcare organizations are in an urgent need for decision-making technologies to handle this virus and help them in getting proper suggestions in real-time to avoid its spread. AI works in a proficient way to mimic like human intelligence. It may also play a vital role in understanding and suggesting the development of a vaccine for COVID-19. This result-driven technology is used for proper screening, analyzing, prediction and tracking of current patients and likely future patients. The significant applications are applied to tracks data of confirmed, recovered and death cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2020.04.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7195043PMC
July 2020

Internet of things (IoT) applications in orthopaedics.

J Clin Orthop Trauma 2020 Feb 12;11(Suppl 1):S105-S106. Epub 2019 Jul 12.

Department of Computer Engineering, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcot.2019.07.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6977530PMC
February 2020

Artificial Intelligence (AI) applications in orthopaedics: An innovative technology to embrace.

J Clin Orthop Trauma 2020 Feb 14;11(Suppl 1):S80-S81. Epub 2019 Jun 14.

B. Tech (Computer Engineering), Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcot.2019.06.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6977175PMC
February 2020

Hematite and Magnetite Nanostructures for Green and Sustainable Energy Harnessing and Environmental Pollution Control: A Review.

Chem Res Toxicol 2020 06 22;33(6):1292-1311. Epub 2020 Jan 22.

Department of Chemistry, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia.

The optoelectrical and magnetic characteristics of naturally existing iron-based nanostructures, especially hematite and magnetite nanoparticles (H-NPs and M-NPs), gained significant research interest in various applications, recently. The main purpose of this Review is to provide an overview of the utilization of H-NPs and M-NPs in various environmental remediation. Iron-based NPs are extensively explored to generate green energy from environmental friendly processes such as water splitting and CO conversion to hydrogen and low molecular weight hydrocarbons, respectively. The latter part of the Review provided a critical overview to use H-NPs and M-NPs for the detection and decontamination of inorganic and organic contaminants to counter the environmental pollution and toxicity challenge, which could ensure environmental sustainability and hygiene. Some of the future perspectives are comprehensively presented in the final portion of the script, optimiztically, and it is supported by some relevant literature surveys to predict the possible routes of H-NPs and M-NPs modifications that could enable researchers to use these NPs in more advanced environmental applications. The literature collection and discussion on the critical assessment of reserving the environmental sustainability challenges provided in this Review will be useful not only for experienced researchers but also for novices in the field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.chemrestox.9b00308DOI Listing
June 2020

Liposuction in Gynecomastia: An Assessment of the Suction-assisted Arthroscopic Shaver Versus Open Disc Excision Techniques.

Cureus 2019 Oct 12;11(10):e5897. Epub 2019 Oct 12.

Plastic Surgery, Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, PAK.

Introduction Gynecomastia is a common problem of the male breasts, which imposes a great psychological burden on patients. It is mostly bilateral and frequently asymmetrical. Surgical management of gynecomastia has undergone significant changes over the past few decades. Currently, the predominant mode of treatment includes liposuction of the fibro-fatty tissue either alone or in combination with the removal of the glandular tissue by the open excision technique or arthroscopic shaver. This study aims to compare both techniques in terms of hematoma formation, nipple necrosis, reoperation, contour irregularities, acceptability of scarring, asymmetry, and patient satisfaction. Methods The study has been conducted at Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad, from May 2018 to September 2019. Sixty patients were included in the study. All the patients had bilateral gynecomastia and Simon's Grade II-A or II-B. The study sample was divided into two equal groups. Group A underwent liposuction combined with open disc excision while Group B underwent liposuction coupled with disc excision via suction-assisted arthroscopic shaver. Postoperatively, all the patients received follow-up for a minimum period of six months. Results In a cohort of 60 patients, the mean age was 25.76±5.38 years. There were minor differences noted in terms of hematoma formation, nipple necrosis, rates of re-operation, and contour irregularities between open disc excision and arthroscopic disc excision, respectively (p-value > 0.05). About eight patients reported asymmetry in open disc excision as compared to 10 in arthroscopic disc excision. The acceptability of scarring was reported as equal in both groups. Mean patient satisfaction was based on the visual analog scale (VAS) scale was 8.25 in both groups. No statistical difference regarding patient satisfaction was noted in both groups (p-value 0.126). Conclusion Our study concludes that arthroscopic shaver-assisted disc excision despite being a novel and minimally invasive technique does not hold superiority over conventional open disc excision for the management of gynecomastia. Furthermore, in a developing country like Pakistan, there is a lack of expertise with the procedure and a need for more training among plastic surgeons.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.5897DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6839758PMC
October 2019

Satisfaction in Patients After Rhinoplasty Using the Rhinoplasty Outcome Evaluation Questionnaire.

Cureus 2019 Jul 30;11(7):e5283. Epub 2019 Jul 30.

Internal Medicine, Khyber Girls Medical College, Peshawar, PAK.

Introduction Rhinoplasty is a challenging procedure. The goal of the surgery is not only to restore the function and youthful appearance of the nose but also to improve quality of life. With the passage of time, the trend has been changing rapidly from more invasive to less invasive procedures. Although the technical aspects of rhinoplasty are important, patient satisfaction is the factor that dictates the success of the procedure. Materials and methods A total of 118 rhinoplasties were performed in our department between 2016 and 2018. The Rhinoplasty Outcome Evaluation (ROE) questionnaire was used to study the patients' satisfaction level. Ninety out of 118 patients took part in this study. Rhinoplasty was done using an open technique in all cases. The ROE questionnaire was filled preoperation and six months postoperation. Data analysis was done using SSPS statistic version 20 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, US). Results The main reasons for rhinoplasty in our patients were: aesthetic 23.3% (n=21), functional 25.5% (n=23), and a combination of both in 51% (n=46) patients. The mean ROE score of all patients preoperation was 30.5 (males: 31.3, females 29.8) and the mean score postoperation was 79.5 (males 78.2, females 80.9) at six months with no statistical differences (CI 17.11 - 12.59, P=0.762). However, both genders showed a statistically significant improvement between the preoperative and postoperative scores (mean difference = 49.3, CI 63.25 - 35.34, P<0.01), indicating an overall good satisfaction level after surgery. The satisfaction level of patients was inversely proportional to their level of understanding and knowledge of the surgical procedure. This difference was statistically significant ( CI 7.36-10.42, P<0.01). Minor corrections or modifications were done in eight patients under local anesthesia, with no significant difference in ROE scores as compared to those who had single surgery (CI 0.7 - 1.6, P=0.92). There was no statistically significant difference in the before and after surgery ROE scores among patients operated by different surgeons as well (P=0.82). Conclusion Our study shows that rhinoplasty, despite being a complex procedure, has proven benefits in terms of functional as well as aesthetic outcomes. The ROE questionnaire proves to be a valid tool for estimating patient satisfaction in our population. There is a need for further training and education of surgeons in Pakistan to improve the functional and aesthetic disabilities of nasal deformities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.5283DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6764642PMC
July 2019

Efficacy Of Phenytoin In Prevention Of Early Posttraumatic Seizures.

J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2019 Apr-Jun;31(2):237-241

Department of Neurosurgery, Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad, Pakistan.

Background: The use of anti-epileptic drugs for prophylaxis of early post-traumatic seizures after traumatic brain injury has been very promising. The objective of this study was to determine the outcome of phenytoin in prevention of early post-traumatic seizures in moderate to severe traumatic brain injuries and to compare the frequency of seizures in moderate to severe traumatic brain injury, with phenytoin started within 12 hours and after 12 hours of injury.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted at Department of Neurosurgery, Ayub Medical Institute, Abbottabad from April to October, 2015. All the patients with moderate to severe head injury presenting within 48 hours of injury were included in this study in consecutive manner. Patients were started on phenytoin and observed for early post-traumatic seizures.

Results: A total of 163 patients were included in this study with a mean age of 24.69±10.186 years. One hundred and twenty-two (74.8%) were males and rest of 41 (25.2%) were females. A total of 26 (16%) patients had early post-traumatic seizures. 9.89% patients in whom phenytoin was started within 12 hours had seizures, while 23.11% patients in whom phenytoin was started after 12 hours of injury had seizures, the difference being statistically significant (p-value .018)..

Conclusions: Frequency of early post-traumatic seizures is high in patients with moderate to severe head injured patients. Anti-epileptics like phenytoin should be started within 12 hours for seizure prophylaxis.
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August 2019

Metabolic Adaptation in Methicillin-Resistant Pneumonia.

Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 2019 08;61(2):185-197

1Department of Pediatrics.

Methicillin-resistant (MRSA) is a versatile human pathogen that is associated with diverse types of infections ranging from benign colonization to sepsis. We postulated that MRSA must undergo specific genotypic and phenotypic changes to cause chronic pulmonary disease. We investigated how MRSA adapts to the human airway to establish chronic infection, as occurs during cystic fibrosis (CF). MRSA isolates from patients with CF that were collected over a 4-year period were analyzed by whole-genome sequencing, transcriptional analysis, and metabolic studies. Persistent MRSA infection was associated with staphylococcal metabolic adaptation, but not changes in immunogenicity. Adaptation was characterized by selective use of the tricarboxylic acid cycle cycle and generation of biofilm, a means of limiting oxidant stress. Increased transcription of specific metabolic genes was conserved in all host-adapted strains, most notably a 10,000-fold increase in , which catalyzes the interconversion of fumarate and malate. Elevated fumarate levels promoted biofilm production in clinical isolates. Host-adapted strains preferred to assimilate glucose polymers and pyruvate, which can be metabolized to generate N-acetylglucosamine polymers that comprise biofilm. MRSA undergoes substantial metabolic adaptation to the human airway to cause chronic pulmonary infection, and selected metabolites may be useful therapeutically to inhibit infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1165/rcmb.2018-0389OCDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6670030PMC
August 2019