Publications by authors named "Ibrahim Abu Tahun"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Effect of freshly placed core buildup composites on setting of silicon impression materials.

J Indian Prosthodont Soc 2021 Apr-Jun;21(2):186-191

Department of Industrial Engineering, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan.

Aim: The aim is to study the effect of freshly placed composite build-ups on setting of additional silicone impression materials.

Settings And Design: In vitro - experimental study.

Materials And Methods: Three composite materials; Build-It™ F. R™, Filtek™ Bulk Fill flow and Filtek™ Z350 and three light-bodied additional silicone impression materials; Elite HD+, Aquasil LV Ultra and Express™ were used. Cylindrical-shaped specimens were made of each material (diameter 15 mm and height 10 mm). The silicone specimens were brought into contact with the composite specimens, which were either freshly cured (9 groups, n = 90) or cured and then stored in normal saline for 1 week (9 groups, n = 90). Shore A hardness (SAH) scores of silicone surfaces were recorded following the ASTM D2240-5 standards for shore A Durometer testing. Six measurements were made per each silicone surface and medians were calculated. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (SPSS v20) were used to check statistical significant differences between all groups and paired comparisons, respectively (P < 0.05).

Statistical Analysis Used: Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests.

Results: The SAH scores of additional silicones in direct contact with freshly placed composites were significantly less than SAH scores of additional silicones in direct contact with composites specimens aged for 1 week in 7 out of 9 combinations (P < 0.05). Only when Express™ and Elite HD+ were applied over freshly placed Filtek™ Bulk Fill flow, the SAH scores difference was not statistically significant to SAH scores of matching combinations applied after 1 week of composite storage.

Conclusions: Freshly placed composite might affect setting of additional silicone impression materials. Dentists should carefully assess final impression on areas of prepared teeth that have received composite fillings recently.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jips.jips_606_20DOI Listing
May 2021

APEC NEWS: Focus on Education.

Aust Endod J 2021 04;47(1)

Asian Pacific Endodontic Confederation.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aej.12500DOI Listing
April 2021

Torsional Resistance of WaveOne Gold and Reciproc Blue according to the Loading Methods.

J Endod 2021 Jan 19;47(1):88-93. Epub 2020 Sep 19.

Department of Conservative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Dental and Life Science Institute, Dental Research Institute, Pusan National University, Yangsan, Korea. Electronic address:

Introduction: This study aimed to compare the torsional resistances and fracture modes of WaveOne Gold (Dentsply Sirona, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and Reciproc Blue (VDW, Munich, Germany) using the repetitive torsional loading (RTL) method and the conventional single-rotation (STL) method.

Methods: A 3-mm file tip was fixed with a brass plate, and a torsional load was applied using a custom device. In the RTL method, the file was driven counterclockwise at 50 rpm until it achieved the preset torque of 0.5 Ncm; thereafter, it was returned to its original position. This recovery of the file to its original position was defined as 1 torsional loading cycle; the number of repetitive load cycles until fracture was counted. In the STL method, the files were rotated at a constant rate of 2 rpm in a counterclockwise direction until file fracture. The fragments fractured by the 2 methods were compared under a scanning electron microscope to examine the topographic features of the fractured surfaces and longitudinal aspects.

Results: With the RTL method, Reciproc Blue showed a higher number of repetitive load cycles until fracture than WaveOne Gold (P < .05). With the STL method, Reciproc Blue also had a higher ultimate strength than WaveOne Gold (P < .05). Scanning electron microscopic findings of the fractured specimens from the 2 test methods showed different features of torsional failure.

Conclusions: Within the study limitations, both the RTL and STL methods conferred similar torsional resistance. Therefore, the clinically relevant RTL method with repetitive and reciprocation motion can be used for testing torsional resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2020.09.011DOI Listing
January 2021

Effect of Shaft Length on the Torsional Resistance of Rotary Nickel-titanium Instruments.

J Endod 2020 Feb 4;46(2):295-300. Epub 2019 Dec 4.

Department of Conservative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Dental Research Institute, Pusan National University, Yangsan, Korea. Electronic address:

Introduction: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of file length on the torsional resistance of nickel-titanium rotary files.

Methods: Forty-five new files with a #25 tip size and variable taper for ProTaper Next (PTN; Dentsply Sirona, York PA), ProTaper Gold (PTG, Dentsply Sirona), and HyFlex CM (HCM; Coltene-Whaledent, Allstetten, Switzerland) were divided into 3 subgroups (n = 15) according to the file length (21, 25, and 31 mm). Torsional tests were performed using a custom-made device (AEndoS; DMJ System, Busan, Korea). The maximum torsional load and distortion angle were measured until file fracture occurred. The toughness was calculated using these data. All data were statistically analyzed using 2-way analysis of variance at a confidence level of 95%. One-way analysis of variance and Duncan post hoc comparison were also conducted to assess the difference among the independent variables, shaft length, and file system.

Results: A statistically significant interaction was observed between the file system and instrument length with respect to the maximum torsional load (P < .05). The 31-mm shaft length of HCM showed higher maximum torsional load than that of the 25- and 21-mm shaft length in the HCM groups (P < .05). Among the instrument systems, PTG showed the significantly highest maximum torsional load followed by PTN and HCM (P < .05). The 31-mm shaft length of PTG showed significantly higher toughness than that of the 21- and 25-mm shaft lengths (P < .05), whereas PTN and HCM did not show any difference in relation to the shaft length.

Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, the instrument with a longer shaft may have higher maximum torsional load or toughness than that with a shorter shaft.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2019.10.019DOI Listing
February 2020

Evaluation of dynamic and static torsional resistances of nickel-titanium rotary instruments.

J Dent Sci 2018 Sep 1;13(3):207-212. Epub 2018 Feb 1.

Department of Conservative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Dental Research Institute, Pusan National University, Yangsan, South Korea.

Background/purpose: This study evaluated the torsional resistances of nickel-titanium rotary instruments by two methods: i) dynamic resistance: repetitive torsional loading (RTL) and ii) static resistance: single torsional loading (STL) based on the International Organization for Standardization.

Materials And Methods: In RTL method, a pre-set rotational loading (0.5 N cm) was applied after fixing the 3-mm tip of the file, and this clockwise loading to the pre-set torque and counter-clockwise unloading to original position was repeated at 50 rpm until the file fractured. The number of repetition cycles until fracture was counted. In STL method, the torsional strength was determined by continuous clockwise rotation (2 rpm) until fracture. Results from both methods were compared after testing the torsional resistances of four instrument systems ( = 15): Hyflex CM, HyFlex EDM, V-Taper2, and V-Taper2H. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to examine the topographic features of the fractured surfaces and longitudinal aspects ( = 5) from both methods.

Results: The RTL and STL methods had similar results: V-Taper2 had the highest resistance and the Hyflex CM had the lowest (P < 0.05). Spearman correlation test showed the results from two methods were strongly correlated (coefficient = 1). Under the SEM, specimens from the RTL showed ruptured aspects on cross-sections with multiple areas of crack propagation, while the STL showed the typical features of torsional failure such as circular abrasion marks and fatigue dimples.

Conclusions: This study suggests the clinically relevant torsional test (RTL) method yield similar results with the STL method, but they have different topographic findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jds.2017.12.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6388867PMC
September 2018

Effective Establishment of Glide-Path to Reduce Torsional Stress during Nickel-Titanium Rotary Instrumentation.

Materials (Basel) 2019 Feb 5;12(3). Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Department of Conservative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Dental Research Institute, Yangsan 50612, Korea.

This study compared the torque generation during canal shaping with a nickel-titanium endodontic instrument according to the extent of glide-path establishment. Seventy-five simulated S-shaped canal blocks were divided into five groups (n = 15) according to the number of repetitive insertions to the working length using a One G glide-path instrument: groups with 5, 10, 15, and 20 insertions as well as group Z without glide-path establishment. When the tip of the One G file reached the working length, the file was moved back and forth repetitively at the working length for the designated number of times for each group. The instrumentation procedure with HyFlex EDM had 15 pecking strokes. During instrumentation, the generated torque was transmitted to a customized data acquisition module and collected using customized software. Data were computed to determine the maximum torque and total stress. The maximum screw-in forces were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc comparison test with a significance level of 95%. While the maximum stress did not have significant differences among the five groups ( > 0.05), groups with more than 10 repetitive insertions generated lower total stress during instrumentation than did the group with 5 insertions and group Z ( < 0.05). Under the limitations of this study, repetitive insertions of glide-path establishment files at the working length reduced stress generation during the shaping using nickel-titanium instruments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma12030493DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6384996PMC
February 2019

Mechanical Properties of Various Glide Path Preparation Nickel-titanium Rotary Instruments.

J Endod 2019 Feb;45(2):199-204

Department of Conservative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Dental Research Institute, Pusan National University, Yangsan, Korea. Electronic address:

Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare the cyclic fatigue, torsional resistance, and bending stiffness of single-file glide path preparation nickel-titanium instruments.

Methods: ProGlider (#16/progressive taper; Dentsply Sirona, Ballaigues, Switzerland), One G (#14/.03; Micro-Mega, Besancon, France), and EdgeGlidePath (#16/progressive taper; Edge Endo, Albuquerque, NM) were tested. For the bending stiffness test, the instrument was bent to a 45° angle along the main axis while 3 mm of the tip was secured. Cyclic fatigue resistance was measured during pecking movement, whereas the file was rotated within a reproducible simulated canal with a 3-mm radius and a 90° angle of curvature. The ultimate torsional strength and toughness were evaluated using a custom device. While tightly holding the end of the file at 3 mm, a rotational load of 2 rpm speed was applied until fracture. The results were analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc comparison. A microscopic inspection was performed on the surface of a separate instrument using a scanning electron microscope.

Results: EdgeGlidePath showed superior cyclic fatigue resistance compared with the other systems. One G showed higher maximum torsional strength than the others. One G showed the largest distortion angle and the highest toughness followed by EdgeGlidePath and ProGlider (P < .05). One G also showed larger bending stiffness than the others, whereas EdgeGlidePath showed a larger residual angle than the others (P < .05).

Conclusions: Conventional wire showed higher toughness and torsional resistance than M-Wire and heat-treated nickel-titanium instruments. However, heat-treated wire showed higher cyclic resistance than conventional wire and M-Wire.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2018.10.017DOI Listing
February 2019

Mechanical Properties of Orifice Preflaring Nickel-titanium Rotary Instrument Heat Treated Using T-Wire Technology.

J Endod 2018 Dec 1;44(12):1867-1871. Epub 2018 Nov 1.

Department of Conservative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Dental Research Institute, Pusan National University, Yangsan, Korea. Electronic address:

Introduction: This study examined whether the use of T-Wire heat treatment enhanced the resistance to torsional force, cyclic fatigue, and bending stiffness of orifice preflaring nickel-titanium instruments.

Methods: Ninety heat-treated OneFlare (OFT; Micro-Mega, Besançon, France) and conventional OneFlare (OFC, Micro-Mega) nickel-titanium files of size #25/.09 with identical geometries were selected (n = 15 per group for each test). Torsional resistance was evaluated through the measurement of ultimate torsional strength, distortion angle, and toughness during rotational loading. Cyclic fatigue resistance was evaluated through measurement of the number of cycles to failure for each instrument. Stiffness was evaluated by observation of the bending moment on attaining a 45° bend. Independent t tests were performed for statistical analysis. After torsional and cyclic fatigue tests, all fractured fragments were examined under a field emission scanning electron microscope to observe characteristics of the fractured surfaces.

Results: OFT showed better cyclic fatigue resistance and lower bending stiffness than OFC (P < .05); however, OFT and OFC did not differ significantly in terms of torsional resistance. The fractured cross-sectional surfaces had characteristics typical of cyclic fatigue and torsional fractures.

Conclusions: The OFT instruments made using T-Wire heat treatment had better cyclic fatigue resistance and lower bending stiffness with no decline in torsional strength.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2018.08.016DOI Listing
December 2018

Microscopic Features of Fractured Fragment of Nickel-Titanium Endodontic Instruments by Two Different Modes of Torsional Loading.

Scanning 2018 21;2018:9467059. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

Department of Conservative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Dental Research Institute, Pusan National University, Yangsan, Republic of Korea.

This study compared the microscopic features of the fractured endodontic nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary instruments by two different torsional loadings: repetitive torsional loading (RTL) and single torsional loading (STL) based on the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ProTaper Next, HyFlex EDM, and V-Taper 2 were compared in this study. In the STL method, the torsional load was applied after fixing the 3 mm tip of the file, by continuous clockwise rotation (2 rpm) until fracture. In the RTL method, a preset rotational loading (0.5 N·cm) was applied and the clockwise loading to the preset torque and counterclockwise unloading to original position were repeated at 50 rpm until the file fractured. Fractured fragments by two methods were compared under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to examine the topographic features of the fractured surfaces and longitudinal aspects. SEM examinations showed significantly different features according to the loading methods. Specimens from the RTL method showed ruptured aspects on cross sections, with multiple areas of initiated cracks while the STL method showed the typical features of torsional failure, such as circular abrasion marks and fatigue dimples. This study suggested a new repetitive torsional loading method which is much more clinically relevant and may result in a different fracture feature from STL method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/9467059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5841070PMC
April 2018

Comparison of apical extrusion of intracanal bacteria by various glide-path establishing systems: an study.

Restor Dent Endod 2017 Nov 31;42(4):316-323. Epub 2017 Oct 31.

Department of Conservative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Dental Research Institute, Pusan National University, Yangsan, Korea.

Objectives: This study compared the amount of apically extruded bacteria during the glide-path preparation by using multi-file and single-file glide-path establishing nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary systems.

Materials And Methods: Sixty mandibular first molar teeth were used to prepare the test apparatus. They were decoronated, blocked into glass vials, sterilized in ethylene oxide gas, infected with a pure culture of randomly assigned to 5 experimental groups, and then prepared using manual stainless-steel files (group KF) and glide-path establishing NiTi rotary files (group PF with PathFiles, group GF with G-Files, group PG with ProGlider, and group OG with One G). At the end of canal preparation, 0.01 mL NaCl solution was taken from the experimental vials. The suspension was plated on brain heart infusion agar and colonies of bacteria were counted, and the results were given as number of colony-forming units (CFU).

Results: The manual instrumentation technique tested in group KF extruded the highest number of bacteria compared to the other 4 groups ( < 0.05). The 4 groups using rotary glide-path establishing instruments extruded similar amounts of bacteria.

Conclusions: All glide-path establishment instrument systems tested caused a measurable apical extrusion of bacteria. The manual glide-path preparation showed the highest number of bacteria extruded compared to the other NiTi glide-path establishing instruments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5395/rde.2017.42.4.316DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5682148PMC
November 2017

Effects of Pitch Length and Heat Treatment on the Mechanical Properties of the Glide Path Preparation Instruments.

J Endod 2016 May 10;42(5):788-92. Epub 2016 Mar 10.

Department of Conservative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Dental Research Institute, Pusan National University, Yangsan, Korea. Electronic address:

Introduction: This study aimed to compare the effects of pitch length and heat treatment on the mechanical properties of glide path establishing instruments.

Methods: Prototypes of glide path preparation files (#14/.03 taper) were made to evaluate the effects of different pitch lengths and heat treatments. The files were divided into 4 groups according to the pitch length (pG and OneG) and heat treatment (pGH and OneGH). For the torsional resistance test, ultimate strength and fracture angle were measured, and the file tip was fixed at 3 different levels of 2, 4, and 6 mm from the tip (n = 10 for each level). The toughness was calculated by multiplying the ultimate strength and the fracture angle. The cyclic fatigue resistance was compared by measuring the number of cycles to fracture in a curved metal canal (n = 10). The screw-in forces were measured during instrumentation motions with a sequential increase in the pecking distance of 1 mm until the file reached the end of the simulated resin canal (n = 10).

Results: The heat-treated groups showed lower toughness and higher cyclic fatigue resistance than the non-heat-treated groups. The short pitch groups showed significantly higher torsional strengths than the long pitch groups. The heat-treated groups had significantly lower screw-in forces than the non-heat-treated groups.

Conclusions: Under the limitations of this study, the torsional strength of the experimental file was reduced by heat treatment and increased by the short pitch length. Thus, a non-heat-treated file with a shorter pitch length would be favorable as a rotary glide path instrument.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2016.02.002DOI Listing
May 2016

Satisfaction of undergraduate students at University of Jordan after root canal treatment of posterior teeth using rotary or hand preparation.

Aust Endod J 2016 Aug 23;42(2):66-72. Epub 2015 Oct 23.

Department of Conservative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan.

The aim of this study was to report the satisfaction of fifth year undergraduate students on the clinical use of rotary endodontic preparation compared with stainless steel standard technique and to evaluate the impact of rotary nickel-titanium instruments on undergraduate teaching. This study was carried out by the fifth year undergraduate students attending peer review sessions as a part of their training program using a questionnaire to assess their satisfaction with these two techniques. The overall results indicated a statistically significant satisfaction of the undergraduate students with the use of the nickel-titanium system (P < 0.001) compared to stainless steel standard technique. Under the conditions of this study, the results showed a positive acceptance and consensus among novice dental students regarding the use of ProTaper rotary files and the need for undergraduate teaching of rotary nickel-titanium systems in Jordan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aej.12128DOI Listing
August 2016

The 18th APEC Conference, 9-10 April 2015, Amman-Jordan.

Aust Endod J 2015 Aug;41(2):97-8

APEC.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aej.12119DOI Listing
August 2015

Technical quality of root canal treatment of posterior teeth after rotary or hand preparation by fifth year undergraduate students, The University of Jordan.

Aust Endod J 2014 Dec 4;40(3):123-30. Epub 2014 Sep 4.

Department of Conservative Dentistry and Fixed Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan.

The aim of this study was to investigate the technical quality of root canal treatment provided by the undergraduate students as their first experience in molar endodontics using nickel-titanium (NiTi) files in a crown-down approach compared with stainless steel standard technique. This study was carried out by the fifth year undergraduate students attending peer review sessions as a part of their training programme, using two different questionnaires to assess the overall technical quality and potential problems regarding endodontic complications after root canal preparation with these two techniques. The overall results indicated a statistically significant difference in the performance of the two instrument techniques in difficult cases showing better performance of the NiTi system and mean rotary preparation time (P < 0.001). Under the conditions of this study, novice dental students, using NiTi ProTaper rotary files, were able to prepare root canals faster with more preparation accuracy compared with canals of same teeth prepared with hand instruments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aej.12069DOI Listing
December 2014

Multiple lingual cusps trait on mandibular premolars and hypoconulid reduction trait on mandibular first molar in living Jordanian population. Intra- and inter-trait interactions.

Coll Antropol 2013 Sep;37(3):885-94

University of Jordan, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Conservative Dentistry and Fixed Prosthodontics, Amman, Jordan.

The objective was to determine the expression and fluctuating asymmetry of two dental morphological traits in the living Jordanians: The lingual cusp number on the lower premolars (LP1 and LP2) and the hypoconulid (distal cusp) reduction on the lower first molar (LM1). In addition, both intra- trait and inter- trait interactions were analyzed. Three hundred school children (15.5 +/- 0.4 years) were involved. Impressions for the mandibular dental arches were taken, and dental casts were reproduced. The above-mentioned traits were observed. Paired sample t test and nonparametric correlation analysis were used for data analysis. Three-cusped LP1 was found in 11.40 % of the examined students, while the two-cusped LP1 was found in 88.60%. In comparison, the Three-cusped LP2 was found in 61.40% while the two-cusped LP2 was found in 38.60% of the observed subjects. The frequencies of the 4-cusped and 5-cusped LM1 were found to be 8.65% and 91.35%, respectively. Nonparametric correlation analysis revealed positive and statistically significant association between the expression of two lingual cusps on LP1 and on LP2 in both genders (p < 0.01), while there was no significant correlation between expression of two lingual cusps on either LP1 or LP2 and the hypoconulid loss on LM1 in both genders (p > 0.05). Bilateralism was highly significant in the tested traits in both genders (p < 0.001). This finding might be a sign of relatively low environmental stresses experienced by the living Jordanians and/or great ability of its individuals to buffer the adverse effects of such stresses on dental development. This study is a useful addition to the existing literature in that it examines a previously poorly characterized population and assists in placing the contemporary Jordanian population within the current framework of human population groups globally.
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September 2013