Publications by authors named "Ibrahim A Khalil"

13 Publications

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Life-threatening abdominal compartment syndrome as a complication of supine super mini percutaneous nephrolithotomy, the first case report and literature review.

Urol Case Rep 2021 May 19;36:101578. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Urology, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar.

Abdominal compartment syndrome is a life-threatening complication of conventional percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL), with few cases reported in different positions. We present the first case of abdominal compartment syndrome as a complication of supermini percutaneous nephrolithotomy (SMP) in The Galdakao-modified supine Valdivia position, possibly predisposing factors, diagnosis, and management. Although it is a challenging diagnosis and life-threatening condition, morbidity and mortality can be decreased with early detection and drainage of the intra-peritoneal fluid, causing increased abdominal pressure, which is the most important prognostic factor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eucr.2021.101578DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7840850PMC
May 2021

Oral rehydration therapies in Senegal, Mali, and Sierra Leone: a spatial analysis of changes over time and implications for policy.

BMC Med 2020 12 21;18(1):405. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, 3980 15th Ave. NE, Seattle, WA, 98195, USA.

Background: Oral rehydration solution (ORS) is a simple intervention that can prevent childhood deaths from severe diarrhea and dehydration. In a previous study, we mapped the use of ORS treatment subnationally and found that ORS coverage increased over time, while the use of home-made alternatives or recommended home fluids (RHF) decreased, in many countries. These patterns were particularly striking within Senegal, Mali, and Sierra Leone. It was unclear, however, whether ORS replaced RHF in these locations or if children were left untreated, and if these patterns were associated with health policy changes.

Methods: We used a Bayesian geostatistical model and data from household surveys to map the percentage of children with diarrhea that received (1) any ORS, (2) only RHF, or (3) no oral rehydration treatment between 2000 and 2018. This approach allowed examination of whether RHF was replaced with ORS before and after interventions, policies, and external events that may have impacted healthcare access.

Results: We found that RHF was replaced with ORS in most Sierra Leone districts, except those most impacted by the Ebola outbreak. In addition, RHF was replaced in northern but not in southern Mali, and RHF was not replaced anywhere in Senegal. In Senegal, there was no statistical evidence that a national policy promoting ORS use was associated with increases in coverage. In Sierra Leone, ORS coverage increased following a national policy change that abolished health costs for children.

Conclusions: Children in parts of Mali and Senegal have been left behind during ORS scale-up. Improved messaging on effective diarrhea treatment and/or increased ORS access such as through reducing treatment costs may be needed to prevent child deaths in these areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01857-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7750121PMC
December 2020

Estimating global injuries morbidity and mortality: methods and data used in the Global Burden of Disease 2017 study.

Authors:
Spencer L James Chris D Castle Zachary V Dingels Jack T Fox Erin B Hamilton Zichen Liu Nicholas L S Roberts Dillon O Sylte Gregory J Bertolacci Matthew Cunningham Nathaniel J Henry Kate E LeGrand Ahmed Abdelalim Ibrahim Abdollahpour Rizwan Suliankatchi Abdulkader Aidin Abedi Kedir Hussein Abegaz Akine Eshete Abosetugn Abdelrahman I Abushouk Oladimeji M Adebayo Jose C Adsuar Shailesh M Advani Marcela Agudelo-Botero Tauseef Ahmad Muktar Beshir Ahmed Rushdia Ahmed Miloud Taki Eddine Aichour Fares Alahdab Fahad Mashhour Alanezi Niguse Meles Alema Biresaw Wassihun Alemu Suliman A Alghnam Beriwan Abdulqadir Ali Saqib Ali Cyrus Alinia Vahid Alipour Syed Mohamed Aljunid Amir Almasi-Hashiani Nihad A Almasri Khalid Altirkawi Yasser Sami Abdeldayem Amer Catalina Liliana Andrei Alireza Ansari-Moghaddam Carl Abelardo T Antonio Davood Anvari Seth Christopher Yaw Appiah Jalal Arabloo Morteza Arab-Zozani Zohreh Arefi Olatunde Aremu Filippo Ariani Amit Arora Malke Asaad Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla Getinet Ayano Martin Amogre Ayanore Ghasem Azarian Alaa Badawi Ashish D Badiye Atif Amin Baig Mohan Bairwa Ahad Bakhtiari Arun Balachandran Maciej Banach Srikanta K Banerjee Palash Chandra Banik Amrit Banstola Suzanne Lyn Barker-Collo Till Winfried Bärnighausen Akbar Barzegar Mohsen Bayati Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi Neeraj Bedi Masoud Behzadifar Habte Belete Derrick A Bennett Isabela M Bensenor Kidanemaryam Berhe Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathula Pankaj Bhardwaj Anusha Ganapati Bhat Krittika Bhattacharyya Zulfiqar A Bhutta Sadia Bibi Ali Bijani Archith Boloor Guilherme Borges Rohan Borschmann Antonio Maria Borzì Soufiane Boufous Dejana Braithwaite Nikolay Ivanovich Briko Traolach Brugha Shyam S Budhathoki Josip Car Rosario Cárdenas Félix Carvalho João Mauricio Castaldelli-Maia Carlos A Castañeda-Orjuela Giulio Castelpietra Ferrán Catalá-López Ester Cerin Joht S Chandan Jens Robert Chapman Vijay Kumar Chattu Soosanna Kumary Chattu Irini Chatziralli Neha Chaudhary Daniel Youngwhan Cho Jee-Young J Choi Mohiuddin Ahsanul Kabir Chowdhury Devasahayam J Christopher Dinh-Toi Chu Flavia M Cicuttini João M Coelho Vera M Costa Saad M A Dahlawi Ahmad Daryani Claudio Alberto Dávila-Cervantes Diego De Leo Feleke Mekonnen Demeke Gebre Teklemariam Demoz Desalegn Getnet Demsie Kebede Deribe Rupak Desai Mostafa Dianati Nasab Diana Dias da Silva Zahra Sadat Dibaji Forooshani Hoa Thi Do Kerrie E Doyle Tim Robert Driscoll Eleonora Dubljanin Bereket Duko Adema Arielle Wilder Eagan Demelash Abewa Elemineh Shaimaa I El-Jaafary Ziad El-Khatib Christian Lycke Ellingsen Maysaa El Sayed Zaki Sharareh Eskandarieh Oghenowede Eyawo Pawan Sirwan Faris Andre Faro Farshad Farzadfar Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad Eduarda Fernandes Pietro Ferrara Florian Fischer Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan Artem Alekseevich Fomenkov Masoud Foroutan Joel Msafiri Francis Richard Charles Franklin Takeshi Fukumoto Biniyam Sahiledengle Geberemariyam Hadush Gebremariam Ketema Bizuwork Gebremedhin Leake G Gebremeskel Gebreamlak Gebremedhn Gebremeskel Berhe Gebremichael Getnet Azeze Gedefaw Birhanu Geta Agegnehu Bante Getenet Mansour Ghafourifard Farhad Ghamari Reza Ghanei Gheshlagh Asadollah Gholamian Syed Amir Gilani Tiffany K Gill Amir Hossein Goudarzian Alessandra C Goulart Ayman Grada Michal Grivna Rafael Alves Guimarães Yuming Guo Gaurav Gupta Juanita A Haagsma Brian James Hall Randah R Hamadeh Samer Hamidi Demelash Woldeyohannes Handiso Josep Maria Haro Amir Hasanzadeh Shoaib Hassan Soheil Hassanipour Hadi Hassankhani Hamid Yimam Hassen Rasmus Havmoeller Delia Hendrie Fatemeh Heydarpour Martha Híjar Hung Chak Ho Chi Linh Hoang Michael K Hole Ramesh Holla Naznin Hossain Mehdi Hosseinzadeh Sorin Hostiuc Guoqing Hu Segun Emmanuel Ibitoye Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi Leeberk Raja Inbaraj Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani M Mofizul Islam Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam Rebecca Q Ivers Mohammad Ali Jahani Mihajlo Jakovljevic Farzad Jalilian Sudha Jayaraman Achala Upendra Jayatilleke Ravi Prakash Jha Yetunde O John-Akinola Jost B Jonas Kelly M Jones Nitin Joseph Farahnaz Joukar Jacek Jerzy Jozwiak Suresh Banayya Jungari Mikk Jürisson Ali Kabir Amaha Kahsay Leila R Kalankesh Rohollah Kalhor Teshome Abegaz Kamil Tanuj Kanchan Neeti Kapoor Manoochehr Karami Amir Kasaeian Hagazi Gebremedhin Kassaye Taras Kavetskyy Gbenga A Kayode Peter Njenga Keiyoro Abraham Getachew Kelbore Yousef Saleh Khader Morteza Abdullatif Khafaie Nauman Khalid Ibrahim A Khalil Rovshan Khalilov Maseer Khan Ejaz Ahmad Khan Junaid Khan Tripti Khanna Salman Khazaei Habibolah Khazaie Roba Khundkar Daniel N Kiirithio Young-Eun Kim Yun Jin Kim Daniel Kim Sezer Kisa Adnan Kisa Hamidreza Komaki Shivakumar K M Kondlahalli Ali Koolivand Vladimir Andreevich Korshunov Ai Koyanagi Moritz U G Kraemer Kewal Krishan Barthelemy Kuate Defo Burcu Kucuk Bicer Nuworza Kugbey Nithin Kumar Manasi Kumar Vivek Kumar Narinder Kumar Girikumar Kumaresh Faris Hasan Lami Van C Lansingh Savita Lasrado Arman Latifi Paolo Lauriola Carlo La Vecchia Janet L Leasher Shaun Wen Huey Lee Shanshan Li Xuefeng Liu Alan D Lopez Paulo A Lotufo Ronan A Lyons Daiane Borges Machado Mohammed Madadin Muhammed Magdy Abd El Razek Narayan Bahadur Mahotra Marek Majdan Azeem Majeed Venkatesh Maled Deborah Carvalho Malta Navid Manafi Amir Manafi Ana-Laura Manda Narayana Manjunatha Fariborz Mansour-Ghanaei Mohammad Ali Mansournia Joemer C Maravilla Amanda J Mason-Jones Seyedeh Zahra Masoumi Benjamin Ballard Massenburg Pallab K Maulik Man Mohan Mehndiratta Zeleke Aschalew Melketsedik Peter T N Memiah Walter Mendoza Ritesh G Menezes Melkamu Merid Mengesha Tuomo J Meretoja Atte Meretoja Hayimro Edemealem Merie Tomislav Mestrovic Bartosz Miazgowski Tomasz Miazgowski Ted R Miller G K Mini Andreea Mirica Erkin M Mirrakhimov Mehdi Mirzaei-Alavijeh Prasanna Mithra Babak Moazen Masoud Moghadaszadeh Efat Mohamadi Yousef Mohammad Aso Mohammad Darwesh Abdollah Mohammadian-Hafshejani Reza Mohammadpourhodki Shafiu Mohammed Jemal Abdu Mohammed Farnam Mohebi Mohammad A Mohseni Bandpei Mariam Molokhia Lorenzo Monasta Yoshan Moodley Masoud Moradi Ghobad Moradi Maziar Moradi-Lakeh Rahmatollah Moradzadeh Lidia Morawska Ilais Moreno Velásquez Shane Douglas Morrison Tilahun Belete Mossie Atalay Goshu Muluneh Kamarul Imran Musa Ghulam Mustafa Mehdi Naderi Ahamarshan Jayaraman Nagarajan Gurudatta Naik Mukhammad David Naimzada Farid Najafi Vinay Nangia Bruno Ramos Nascimento Morteza Naserbakht Vinod Nayak Javad Nazari Duduzile Edith Ndwandwe Ionut Negoi Josephine W Ngunjiri Trang Huyen Nguyen Cuong Tat Nguyen Diep Ngoc Nguyen Huong Lan Thi Nguyen Rajan Nikbakhsh Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum Chukwudi A Nnaji Richard Ofori-Asenso Felix Akpojene Ogbo Onome Bright Oghenetega In-Hwan Oh Andrew T Olagunju Tinuke O Olagunju Ahmed Omar Bali Obinna E Onwujekwe Heather M Orpana Erika Ota Nikita Otstavnov Stanislav S Otstavnov Mahesh P A Jagadish Rao Padubidri Smita Pakhale Keyvan Pakshir Songhomitra Panda-Jonas Eun-Kee Park Sangram Kishor Patel Ashish Pathak Sanghamitra Pati Kebreab Paulos Amy E Peden Veincent Christian Filipino Pepito Jeevan Pereira Michael R Phillips Roman V Polibin Suzanne Polinder Farshad Pourmalek Akram Pourshams Hossein Poustchi Swayam Prakash Dimas Ria Angga Pribadi Parul Puri Zahiruddin Quazi Syed Navid Rabiee Mohammad Rabiee Amir Radfar Anwar Rafay Ata Rafiee Alireza Rafiei Fakher Rahim Siavash Rahimi Muhammad Aziz Rahman Ali Rajabpour-Sanati Fatemeh Rajati Ivo Rakovac Sowmya J Rao Vahid Rashedi Prateek Rastogi Priya Rathi Salman Rawaf Lal Rawal Reza Rawassizadeh Vishnu Renjith Serge Resnikoff Aziz Rezapour Ana Isabel Ribeiro Jennifer Rickard Carlos Miguel Rios González Leonardo Roever Luca Ronfani Gholamreza Roshandel Basema Saddik Hamid Safarpour Mahdi Safdarian S Mohammad Sajadi Payman Salamati Marwa R Rashad Salem Hosni Salem Inbal Salz Abdallah M Samy Juan Sanabria Lidia Sanchez Riera Milena M Santric Milicevic Abdur Razzaque Sarker Arash Sarveazad Brijesh Sathian Monika Sawhney Mehdi Sayyah David C Schwebel Soraya Seedat Subramanian Senthilkumaran Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi Feng Sha Faramarz Shaahmadi Saeed Shahabi Masood Ali Shaikh Mehran Shams-Beyranvand Aziz Sheikh Mika Shigematsu Jae Il Shin Rahman Shiri Soraya Siabani Inga Dora Sigfusdottir Jasvinder A Singh Pankaj Kumar Singh Dhirendra Narain Sinha Amin Soheili Joan B Soriano Muluken Bekele Sorrie Ireneous N Soyiri Mark A Stokes Mu'awiyyah Babale Sufiyan Bryan L Sykes Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos Karen M Tabb Biruk Wogayehu Taddele Yonatal Mesfin Tefera Arash Tehrani-Banihashemi Gebretsadkan Hintsa Tekulu Ayenew Kassie Tesema Tesema Berhe Etsay Tesfay Rekha Thapar Mariya Vladimirovna Titova Kenean Getaneh Tlaye Hamid Reza Tohidinik Roman Topor-Madry Khanh Bao Tran Bach Xuan Tran Jaya Prasad Tripathy Alexander C Tsai Aristidis Tsatsakis Lorainne Tudor Car Irfan Ullah Saif Ullah Bhaskaran Unnikrishnan Era Upadhyay Olalekan A Uthman Pascual R Valdez Tommi Juhani Vasankari Yousef Veisani Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian Francesco S Violante Vasily Vlassov Yasir Waheed Yuan-Pang Wang Taweewat Wiangkham Haileab Fekadu Wolde Dawit Habte Woldeyes Temesgen Gebeyehu Wondmeneh Adam Belay Wondmieneh Ai-Min Wu Grant M A Wyper Rajaram Yadav Ali Yadollahpour Yuichiro Yano Sanni Yaya Vahid Yazdi-Feyzabadi Pengpeng Ye Paul Yip Engida Yisma Naohiro Yonemoto Seok-Jun Yoon Yoosik Youm Mustafa Z Younis Zabihollah Yousefi Chuanhua Yu Yong Yu Telma Zahirian Moghadam Zoubida Zaidi Sojib Bin Zaman Mohammad Zamani Hamed Zandian Fatemeh Zarei Zhi-Jiang Zhang Yunquan Zhang Arash Ziapour Sanjay Zodpey Rakhi Dandona Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne Simon I Hay Ali H Mokdad David M Pigott Robert C Reiner Theo Vos

Inj Prev 2020 Oct 24;26(Supp 1):i125-i153. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Background: While there is a long history of measuring death and disability from injuries, modern research methods must account for the wide spectrum of disability that can occur in an injury, and must provide estimates with sufficient demographic, geographical and temporal detail to be useful for policy makers. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 study used methods to provide highly detailed estimates of global injury burden that meet these criteria.

Methods: In this study, we report and discuss the methods used in GBD 2017 for injury morbidity and mortality burden estimation. In summary, these methods included estimating cause-specific mortality for every cause of injury, and then estimating incidence for every cause of injury. Non-fatal disability for each cause is then calculated based on the probabilities of suffering from different types of bodily injury experienced.

Results: GBD 2017 produced morbidity and mortality estimates for 38 causes of injury. Estimates were produced in terms of incidence, prevalence, years lived with disability, cause-specific mortality, years of life lost and disability-adjusted life-years for a 28-year period for 22 age groups, 195 countries and both sexes.

Conclusions: GBD 2017 demonstrated a complex and sophisticated series of analytical steps using the largest known database of morbidity and mortality data on injuries. GBD 2017 results should be used to help inform injury prevention policy making and resource allocation. We also identify important avenues for improving injury burden estimation in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2019-043531DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7571362PMC
October 2020

Global injury morbidity and mortality from 1990 to 2017: results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017.

Authors:
Spencer L James Chris D Castle Zachary V Dingels Jack T Fox Erin B Hamilton Zichen Liu Nicholas L S Roberts Dillon O Sylte Nathaniel J Henry Kate E LeGrand Ahmed Abdelalim Amir Abdoli Ibrahim Abdollahpour Rizwan Suliankatchi Abdulkader Aidin Abedi Akine Eshete Abosetugn Abdelrahman I Abushouk Oladimeji M Adebayo Marcela Agudelo-Botero Tauseef Ahmad Rushdia Ahmed Muktar Beshir Ahmed Miloud Taki Eddine Aichour Fares Alahdab Genet Melak Alamene Fahad Mashhour Alanezi Animut Alebel Niguse Meles Alema Suliman A Alghnam Samar Al-Hajj Beriwan Abdulqadir Ali Saqib Ali Mahtab Alikhani Cyrus Alinia Vahid Alipour Syed Mohamed Aljunid Amir Almasi-Hashiani Nihad A Almasri Khalid Altirkawi Yasser Sami Abdeldayem Amer Saeed Amini Arianna Maever Loreche Amit Catalina Liliana Andrei Alireza Ansari-Moghaddam Carl Abelardo T Antonio Seth Christopher Yaw Appiah Jalal Arabloo Morteza Arab-Zozani Zohreh Arefi Olatunde Aremu Filippo Ariani Amit Arora Malke Asaad Babak Asghari Nefsu Awoke Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla Getinet Ayano Martin Amogre Ayanore Samad Azari Ghasem Azarian Alaa Badawi Ashish D Badiye Eleni Bagli Atif Amin Baig Mohan Bairwa Ahad Bakhtiari Arun Balachandran Maciej Banach Srikanta K Banerjee Palash Chandra Banik Amrit Banstola Suzanne Lyn Barker-Collo Till Winfried Bärnighausen Lope H Barrero Akbar Barzegar Mohsen Bayati Bayisa Abdissa Baye Neeraj Bedi Masoud Behzadifar Tariku Tesfaye Bekuma Habte Belete Corina Benjet Derrick A Bennett Isabela M Bensenor Kidanemaryam Berhe Pankaj Bhardwaj Anusha Ganapati Bhat Krittika Bhattacharyya Sadia Bibi Ali Bijani Muhammad Shahdaat Bin Sayeed Guilherme Borges Antonio Maria Borzì Soufiane Boufous Alexandra Brazinova Nikolay Ivanovich Briko Shyam S Budhathoki Josip Car Rosario Cárdenas Félix Carvalho João Mauricio Castaldelli-Maia Carlos A Castañeda-Orjuela Giulio Castelpietra Ferrán Catalá-López Ester Cerin Joht S Chandan Wagaye Fentahun Chanie Soosanna Kumary Chattu Vijay Kumar Chattu Irini Chatziralli Neha Chaudhary Daniel Youngwhan Cho Mohiuddin Ahsanul Kabir Chowdhury Dinh-Toi Chu Samantha M Colquhoun Maria-Magdalena Constantin Vera M Costa Giovanni Damiani Ahmad Daryani Claudio Alberto Dávila-Cervantes Feleke Mekonnen Demeke Asmamaw Bizuneh Demis Gebre Teklemariam Demoz Desalegn Getnet Demsie Afshin Derakhshani Kebede Deribe Rupak Desai Mostafa Dianati Nasab Diana Dias da Silva Zahra Sadat Dibaji Forooshani Kerrie E Doyle Tim Robert Driscoll Eleonora Dubljanin Bereket Duko Adema Arielle Wilder Eagan Aziz Eftekhari Elham Ehsani-Chimeh Maysaa El Sayed Zaki Demelash Abewa Elemineh Shaimaa I El-Jaafary Ziad El-Khatib Christian Lycke Ellingsen Mohammad Hassan Emamian Daniel Adane Endalew Sharareh Eskandarieh Pawan Sirwan Faris Andre Faro Farshad Farzadfar Yousef Fatahi Wubalem Fekadu Tomas Y Ferede Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad Eduarda Fernandes Pietro Ferrara Garumma Tolu Feyissa Irina Filip Florian Fischer Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan Masoud Foroutan Joel Msafiri Francis Richard Charles Franklin Takeshi Fukumoto Biniyam Sahiledengle Geberemariyam Abadi Kahsu Gebre Ketema Bizuwork Gebremedhin Gebreamlak Gebremedhn Gebremeskel Berhe Gebremichael Getnet Azeze Gedefaw Birhanu Geta Mansour Ghafourifard Farhad Ghamari Ahmad Ghashghaee Asadollah Gholamian Tiffany K Gill Alessandra C Goulart Ayman Grada Michal Grivna Mohammed Ibrahim Mohialdeen Gubari Rafael Alves Guimarães Yuming Guo Gaurav Gupta Juanita A Haagsma Nima Hafezi-Nejad Hassan Haghparast Bidgoli Brian James Hall Randah R Hamadeh Samer Hamidi Josep Maria Haro Md Mehedi Hasan Amir Hasanzadeh Soheil Hassanipour Hadi Hassankhani Hamid Yimam Hassen Rasmus Havmoeller Khezar Hayat Delia Hendrie Fatemeh Heydarpour Martha Híjar Hung Chak Ho Chi Linh Hoang Michael K Hole Ramesh Holla Naznin Hossain Mehdi Hosseinzadeh Sorin Hostiuc Guoqing Hu Segun Emmanuel Ibitoye Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi Irena Ilic Milena D Ilic Leeberk Raja Inbaraj Endang Indriasih Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam M Mofizul Islam Rebecca Q Ivers Kathryn H Jacobsen Mohammad Ali Jahani Nader Jahanmehr Mihajlo Jakovljevic Farzad Jalilian Sudha Jayaraman Achala Upendra Jayatilleke Ravi Prakash Jha Yetunde O John-Akinola Jost B Jonas Nitin Joseph Farahnaz Joukar Jacek Jerzy Jozwiak Suresh Banayya Jungari Mikk Jürisson Ali Kabir Rajendra Kadel Amaha Kahsay Leila R Kalankesh Rohollah Kalhor Teshome Abegaz Kamil Tanuj Kanchan Neeti Kapoor Manoochehr Karami Amir Kasaeian Hagazi Gebremedhin Kassaye Taras Kavetskyy Hafte Kahsay Kebede Peter Njenga Keiyoro Abraham Getachew Kelbore Bayew Kelkay Yousef Saleh Khader Morteza Abdullatif Khafaie Nauman Khalid Ibrahim A Khalil Rovshan Khalilov Mohammad Khammarnia Ejaz Ahmad Khan Maseer Khan Tripti Khanna Habibolah Khazaie Fatemeh Khosravi Shadmani Roba Khundkar Daniel N Kiirithio Young-Eun Kim Daniel Kim Yun Jin Kim Adnan Kisa Sezer Kisa Hamidreza Komaki Shivakumar K M Kondlahalli Vladimir Andreevich Korshunov Ai Koyanagi Moritz U G Kraemer Kewal Krishan Burcu Kucuk Bicer Nuworza Kugbey Vivek Kumar Nithin Kumar G Anil Kumar Manasi Kumar Girikumar Kumaresh Om P Kurmi Oluwatosin Kuti Carlo La Vecchia Faris Hasan Lami Prabhat Lamichhane Justin J Lang Van C Lansingh Dennis Odai Laryea Savita Lasrado Arman Latifi Paolo Lauriola Janet L Leasher Shaun Wen Huey Lee Tsegaye Lolaso Lenjebo Miriam Levi Shanshan Li Shai Linn Xuefeng Liu Alan D Lopez Paulo A Lotufo Raimundas Lunevicius Ronan A Lyons Mohammed Madadin Muhammed Magdy Abd El Razek Narayan Bahadur Mahotra Marek Majdan Azeem Majeed Jeadran N Malagon-Rojas Venkatesh Maled Reza Malekzadeh Deborah Carvalho Malta Navid Manafi Amir Manafi Ana-Laura Manda Narayana Manjunatha Fariborz Mansour-Ghanaei Borhan Mansouri Mohammad Ali Mansournia Joemer C Maravilla Lyn M March Amanda J Mason-Jones Seyedeh Zahra Masoumi Benjamin Ballard Massenburg Pallab K Maulik Gebrekiros Gebremichael Meles Addisu Melese Zeleke Aschalew Melketsedik Peter T N Memiah Walter Mendoza Ritesh G Menezes Meresa Berwo Mengesha Melkamu Merid Mengesha Tuomo J Meretoja Atte Meretoja Hayimro Edemealem Merie Tomislav Mestrovic Bartosz Miazgowski Tomasz Miazgowski Ted R Miller G K Mini Andreea Mirica Erkin M Mirrakhimov Mehdi Mirzaei-Alavijeh Prasanna Mithra Babak Moazen Masoud Moghadaszadeh Efat Mohamadi Yousef Mohammad Karzan Abdulmuhsin Mohammad Aso Mohammad Darwesh Naser Mohammad Gholi Mezerji Abdollah Mohammadian-Hafshejani Milad Mohammadoo-Khorasani Reza Mohammadpourhodki Shafiu Mohammed Jemal Abdu Mohammed Farnam Mohebi Mariam Molokhia Lorenzo Monasta Yoshan Moodley Mahmood Moosazadeh Masoud Moradi Ghobad Moradi Maziar Moradi-Lakeh Farhad Moradpour Lidia Morawska Ilais Moreno Velásquez Naho Morisaki Shane Douglas Morrison Tilahun Belete Mossie Atalay Goshu Muluneh Srinivas Murthy Kamarul Imran Musa Ghulam Mustafa Ashraf F Nabhan Ahamarshan Jayaraman Nagarajan Gurudatta Naik Mukhammad David Naimzada Farid Najafi Vinay Nangia Bruno Ramos Nascimento Morteza Naserbakht Vinod Nayak Duduzile Edith Ndwandwe Ionut Negoi Josephine W Ngunjiri Cuong Tat Nguyen Huong Lan Thi Nguyen Rajan Nikbakhsh Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum Chukwudi A Nnaji Peter S Nyasulu Felix Akpojene Ogbo Onome Bright Oghenetega In-Hwan Oh Emmanuel Wandera Okunga Andrew T Olagunju Tinuke O Olagunju Ahmed Omar Bali Obinna E Onwujekwe Kwaku Oppong Asante Heather M Orpana Erika Ota Nikita Otstavnov Stanislav S Otstavnov Mahesh P A Jagadish Rao Padubidri Smita Pakhale Keyvan Pakshir Songhomitra Panda-Jonas Eun-Kee Park Sangram Kishor Patel Ashish Pathak Sanghamitra Pati George C Patton Kebreab Paulos Amy E Peden Veincent Christian Filipino Pepito Jeevan Pereira Hai Quang Pham Michael R Phillips Marina Pinheiro Roman V Polibin Suzanne Polinder Hossein Poustchi Swayam Prakash Dimas Ria Angga Pribadi Parul Puri Zahiruddin Quazi Syed Mohammad Rabiee Navid Rabiee Amir Radfar Anwar Rafay Ata Rafiee Alireza Rafiei Fakher Rahim Siavash Rahimi Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar Muhammad Aziz Rahman Ali Rajabpour-Sanati Fatemeh Rajati Ivo Rakovac Kavitha Ranganathan Sowmya J Rao Vahid Rashedi Prateek Rastogi Priya Rathi Salman Rawaf Lal Rawal Reza Rawassizadeh Vishnu Renjith Andre M N Renzaho Serge Resnikoff Aziz Rezapour Ana Isabel Ribeiro Jennifer Rickard Carlos Miguel Rios González Luca Ronfani Gholamreza Roshandel Anas M Saad Yogesh Damodar Sabde Siamak Sabour Basema Saddik Saeed Safari Roya Safari-Faramani Hamid Safarpour Mahdi Safdarian S Mohammad Sajadi Payman Salamati Farkhonde Salehi Saleh Salehi Zahabi Marwa R Rashad Salem Hosni Salem Omar Salman Inbal Salz Abdallah M Samy Juan Sanabria Lidia Sanchez Riera Milena M Santric Milicevic Abdur Razzaque Sarker Arash Sarveazad Brijesh Sathian Monika Sawhney Susan M Sawyer Sonia Saxena Mehdi Sayyah David C Schwebel Soraya Seedat Subramanian Senthilkumaran Sadaf G Sepanlou Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi Feng Sha Faramarz Shaahmadi Saeed Shahabi Masood Ali Shaikh Mehran Shams-Beyranvand Morteza Shamsizadeh Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini Hamid Sharifi Aziz Sheikh Mika Shigematsu Jae Il Shin Rahman Shiri Soraya Siabani Inga Dora Sigfusdottir Pankaj Kumar Singh Jasvinder A Singh Dhirendra Narain Sinha Catalin-Gabriel Smarandache Emma U R Smith Amin Soheili Bija Soleymani Ali Reza Soltanian Joan B Soriano Muluken Bekele Sorrie Ireneous N Soyiri Dan J Stein Mark A Stokes Mu'awiyyah Babale Sufiyan Hafiz Ansar Rasul Suleria Bryan L Sykes Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos Karen M Tabb Biruk Wogayehu Taddele Degena Bahrey Tadesse Animut Tagele Tamiru Ingan Ukur Tarigan Yonatal Mesfin Tefera Arash Tehrani-Banihashemi Merhawi Gebremedhin Tekle Gebretsadkan Hintsa Tekulu Ayenew Kassie Tesema Berhe Etsay Tesfay Rekha Thapar Asres Bedaso Tilahune Kenean Getaneh Tlaye Hamid Reza Tohidinik Roman Topor-Madry Bach Xuan Tran Khanh Bao Tran Jaya Prasad Tripathy Alexander C Tsai Lorainne Tudor Car Saif Ullah Irfan Ullah Maida Umar Bhaskaran Unnikrishnan Era Upadhyay Olalekan A Uthman Pascual R Valdez Tommi Juhani Vasankari Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian Francesco S Violante Vasily Vlassov Yasir Waheed Girmay Teklay Weldesamuel Andrea Werdecker Taweewat Wiangkham Haileab Fekadu Wolde Dawit Habte Woldeyes Dawit Zewdu Wondafrash Temesgen Gebeyehu Wondmeneh Adam Belay Wondmieneh Ai-Min Wu Rajaram Yadav Ali Yadollahpour Yuichiro Yano Sanni Yaya Vahid Yazdi-Feyzabadi Paul Yip Engida Yisma Naohiro Yonemoto Seok-Jun Yoon Yoosik Youm Mustafa Z Younis Zabihollah Yousefi Yong Yu Chuanhua Yu Hasan Yusefzadeh Telma Zahirian Moghadam Zoubida Zaidi Sojib Bin Zaman Mohammad Zamani Maryam Zamanian Hamed Zandian Ahmad Zarei Fatemeh Zare Zhi-Jiang Zhang Yunquan Zhang Sanjay Zodpey Lalit Dandona Rakhi Dandona Louisa Degenhardt Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne Simon I Hay Ali H Mokdad Robert C Reiner Benn Sartorius Theo Vos

Inj Prev 2020 Oct 24;26(Supp 1):i96-i114. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Background: Past research in population health trends has shown that injuries form a substantial burden of population health loss. Regular updates to injury burden assessments are critical. We report Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 Study estimates on morbidity and mortality for all injuries.

Methods: We reviewed results for injuries from the GBD 2017 study. GBD 2017 measured injury-specific mortality and years of life lost (YLLs) using the Cause of Death Ensemble model. To measure non-fatal injuries, GBD 2017 modelled injury-specific incidence and converted this to prevalence and years lived with disability (YLDs). YLLs and YLDs were summed to calculate disability-adjusted life years (DALYs).

Findings: In 1990, there were 4 260 493 (4 085 700 to 4 396 138) injury deaths, which increased to 4 484 722 (4 332 010 to 4 585 554) deaths in 2017, while age-standardised mortality decreased from 1079 (1073 to 1086) to 738 (730 to 745) per 100 000. In 1990, there were 354 064 302 (95% uncertainty interval: 338 174 876 to 371 610 802) new cases of injury globally, which increased to 520 710 288 (493 430 247 to 547 988 635) new cases in 2017. During this time, age-standardised incidence decreased non-significantly from 6824 (6534 to 7147) to 6763 (6412 to 7118) per 100 000. Between 1990 and 2017, age-standardised DALYs decreased from 4947 (4655 to 5233) per 100 000 to 3267 (3058 to 3505).

Interpretation: Injuries are an important cause of health loss globally, though mortality has declined between 1990 and 2017. Future research in injury burden should focus on prevention in high-burden populations, improving data collection and ensuring access to medical care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2019-043494DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7571366PMC
October 2020

Epidemiology of injuries from fire, heat and hot substances: global, regional and national morbidity and mortality estimates from the Global Burden of Disease 2017 study.

Authors:
Spencer L James Lydia R Lucchesi Catherine Bisignano Chris D Castle Zachary V Dingels Jack T Fox Erin B Hamilton Nathaniel J Henry Darrah McCracken Nicholas L S Roberts Dillon O Sylte Alireza Ahmadi Muktar Beshir Ahmed Fares Alahdab Vahid Alipour Zewudu Andualem Carl Abelardo T Antonio Jalal Arabloo Ashish D Badiye Mojtaba Bagherzadeh Amrit Banstola Till Winfried Bärnighausen Akbar Barzegar Mohsen Bayati Soumyadeep Bhaumik Ali Bijani Gene Bukhman Félix Carvalho Christopher Stephen Crowe Koustuv Dalal Ahmad Daryani Mostafa Dianati Nasab Hoa Thi Do Huyen Phuc Do Aman Yesuf Endries Eduarda Fernandes Irina Filip Florian Fischer Takeshi Fukumoto Ketema Bizuwork Bizuwork Gebremedhin Gebreamlak Gebremedhn Gebremeskel Syed Amir Gilani Juanita A Haagsma Samer Hamidi Sorin Hostiuc Mowafa Househ Ehimario U Igumbor Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani Achala Upendra Jayatilleke Amaha Kahsay Neeti Kapoor Amir Kasaeian Yousef Saleh Khader Ibrahim A Khalil Ejaz Ahmad Khan Maryam Khazaee-Pool Yoshihiro Kokubo Alan D Lopez Mohammed Madadin Marek Majdan Venkatesh Maled Reza Malekzadeh Navid Manafi Ali Manafi Srikanth Mangalam Benjamin Ballard Massenburg Hagazi Gebre Meles Ritesh G Menezes Tuomo J Meretoja Bartosz Miazgowski Ted R Miller Abdollah Mohammadian-Hafshejani Reza Mohammadpourhodki Shane Douglas Morrison Ionut Negoi Trang Huyen Nguyen Son Hoang Nguyen Cuong Tat Nguyen Molly R Nixon Andrew T Olagunju Tinuke O Olagunju Jagadish Rao Padubidri Suzanne Polinder Navid Rabiee Mohammad Rabiee Amir Radfar Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar Salman Rawaf David Laith Rawaf Aziz Rezapour Jennifer Rickard Elias Merdassa Roro Nobhojit Roy Roya Safari-Faramani Payman Salamati Abdallah M Samy Maheswar Satpathy Monika Sawhney David C Schwebel Subramanian Senthilkumaran Sadaf G Sepanlou Mika Shigematsu Amin Soheili Mark A Stokes Hamid Reza Tohidinik Bach Xuan Tran Pascual R Valdez Tissa Wijeratne Engida Yisma Zoubida Zaidi Mohammad Zamani Zhi-Jiang Zhang Simon I Hay Ali H Mokdad

Inj Prev 2020 Oct 18;26(Supp 1):i36-i45. Epub 2019 Dec 18.

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Background: Past research has shown how fires, heat and hot substances are important causes of health loss globally. Detailed estimates of the morbidity and mortality from these injuries could help drive preventative measures and improved access to care.

Methods: We used the Global Burden of Disease 2017 framework to produce three main results. First, we produced results on incidence, prevalence, years lived with disability, deaths, years of life lost and disability-adjusted life years from 1990 to 2017 for 195 countries and territories. Second, we analysed these results to measure mortality-to-incidence ratios by location. Third, we reported the measures above in terms of the cause of fire, heat and hot substances and the types of bodily injuries that result.

Results: Globally, there were 8 991 468 (7 481 218 to 10 740 897) new fire, heat and hot substance injuries in 2017 with 120 632 (101 630 to 129 383) deaths. At the global level, the age-standardised mortality caused by fire, heat and hot substances significantly declined from 1990 to 2017, but regionally there was variability in age-standardised incidence with some regions experiencing an increase (eg, Southern Latin America) and others experiencing a significant decrease (eg, High-income North America).

Conclusions: The incidence and mortality of injuries that result from fire, heat and hot substances affect every region of the world but are most concentrated in middle and lower income areas. More resources should be invested in measuring these injuries as well as in improving infrastructure, advancing safety measures and ensuring access to care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2019-043299DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7571358PMC
October 2020

Identifying residual hotspots and mapping lower respiratory infection morbidity and mortality in African children from 2000 to 2017.

Nat Microbiol 2019 12 30;4(12):2310-2318. Epub 2019 Sep 30.

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Lower respiratory infections (LRIs) are the leading cause of death in children under the age of 5, despite the existence of vaccines against many of their aetiologies. Furthermore, more than half of these deaths occur in Africa. Geospatial models can provide highly detailed estimates of trends subnationally, at the level where implementation of health policies has the greatest impact. We used Bayesian geostatistical modelling to estimate LRI incidence, prevalence and mortality in children under 5 subnationally in Africa for 2000-2017, using surveys covering 1.46 million children and 9,215,000 cases of LRI. Our model reveals large within-country variation in both health burden and its change over time. While reductions in childhood morbidity and mortality due to LRI were estimated for almost every country, we expose a cluster of residual high risk across seven countries, which averages 5.5 LRI deaths per 1,000 children per year. The preventable nature of the vast majority of LRI deaths mandates focused health system efforts in specific locations with the highest burden.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41564-019-0562-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6877470PMC
December 2019

Estimating health-loss due to enteric pathogens: importance and challenges.

Lancet Glob Health 2019 03;7(3):e284-e285

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98121, USA. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(19)30017-8DOI Listing
March 2019

Morbidity and mortality due to shigella and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli diarrhoea: the Global Burden of Disease Study 1990-2016.

Lancet Infect Dis 2018 11 25;18(11):1229-1240. Epub 2018 Sep 25.

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, Seattle WA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Shigella and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are bacterial pathogens that are frequently associated with diarrhoeal disease, and are a significant cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors study 2016 (GBD 2016) is a systematic, scientific effort to quantify the morbidity and mortality due to over 300 causes of death and disability. We aimed to analyse the global burden of shigella and ETEC diarrhoea according to age, sex, geography, and year from 1990 to 2016.

Methods: We modelled shigella and ETEC-related mortality using a Bayesian hierarchical modelling platform that evaluates a wide range of covariates and model types on the basis of vital registration and verbal autopsy data. We used a compartmental meta-regression tool to model the incidence of shigella and ETEC, which enforces an association between incidence, prevalence, and remission on the basis of scientific literature, population representative surveys, and health-care data. We calculated 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) for the point estimates.

Findings: Shigella was the second leading cause of diarrhoeal mortality in 2016 among all ages, accounting for 212 438 deaths (95% UI 136 979-326 913) and about 13·2% (9·2-17·4) of all diarrhoea deaths. Shigella was responsible for 63 713 deaths (41 191-93 611) among children younger than 5 years and was frequently associated with diarrhoea across all adult age groups, increasing in elderly people, with broad geographical distribution. ETEC was the eighth leading cause of diarrhoea mortality in 2016 among all age groups, accounting for 51 186 deaths (26 757-83 064) and about 3·2% (1·8-4·7) of diarrhoea deaths. ETEC was responsible for about 4·2% (2·2-6·8) of diarrhoea deaths in children younger than 5 years.

Interpretation: The health burden of bacterial diarrhoeal pathogens is difficult to estimate. Despite existing prevention and treatment options, they remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Additional emphasis by public health officials is needed on a reduction in disease due to shigella and ETEC to reduce disease burden.

Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30475-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6202441PMC
November 2018

Variation in Childhood Diarrheal Morbidity and Mortality in Africa, 2000-2015.

N Engl J Med 2018 09;379(12):1128-1138

From the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (R.C.R., N.G., D.C.C., C.T., G.M.G., J.F.M., A.D., S.J.S., S.E.R., B.F.B., P.C.R., A.O.-Z., R.B., D.M.P., I.M.D., I.D.L., L.E., J.M.R., I.A.K., T.H.F., D.L.S., N.J.K., A.H.M., C.J.L.M., S.I.H.) and the Division of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine (J.M.R.), University of Washington, and the Divisions of Pediatric Infectious Diseases (J.F.M.) and Pediatric Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine (N.J.K.), Seattle Children's Hospital - all in Seattle; the Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (O.J.B.), and the Department of Infectious Disease Epidemiology, Imperial College London (S.B.), London, and the Department of Zoology (M.U.G.K.) and the Big Data Institute, Li Ka Shing Centre for Health Information and Discovery (S.B., D.J.W., P.W.G.), University of Oxford, Oxford - all in the United Kingdom; and the Computational Epidemiology Lab, Boston Children's Hospital, and Harvard Medical School - both in Boston (M.U.G.K.).

Background: Diarrheal diseases are the third leading cause of disease and death in children younger than 5 years of age in Africa and were responsible for an estimated 30 million cases of severe diarrhea (95% credible interval, 27 million to 33 million) and 330,000 deaths (95% credible interval, 270,000 to 380,000) in 2015. The development of targeted approaches to address this burden has been hampered by a paucity of comprehensive, fine-scale estimates of diarrhea-related disease and death among and within countries.

Methods: We produced annual estimates of the prevalence and incidence of diarrhea and diarrhea-related mortality with high geographic detail (5 km) across Africa from 2000 through 2015. Estimates were created with the use of Bayesian geostatistical techniques and were calibrated to the results from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016.

Results: The results revealed geographic inequality with regard to diarrhea risk in Africa. Of the estimated 330,000 childhood deaths that were attributable to diarrhea in 2015, more than 50% occurred in 55 of the 782 first-level administrative subdivisions (e.g., states). In 2015, mortality rates among first-level administrative subdivisions in Nigeria differed by up to a factor of 6. The case fatality rates were highly varied at the national level across Africa, with the highest values observed in Benin, Lesotho, Mali, Nigeria, and Sierra Leone.

Conclusions: Our findings showed concentrated areas of diarrheal disease and diarrhea-related death in countries that had a consistently high burden as well as in countries that had considerable national-level reductions in diarrhea burden. (Funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1716766DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6078160PMC
September 2018

Global Mortality From Firearms, 1990-2016.

Authors:
Mohsen Naghavi Laurie B Marczak Michael Kutz Katya Anne Shackelford Megha Arora Molly Miller-Petrie Miloud Taki Eddine Aichour Nadia Akseer Rajaa M Al-Raddadi Khurshid Alam Suliman A Alghnam Carl Abelardo T Antonio Olatunde Aremu Amit Arora Mohsen Asadi-Lari Reza Assadi Tesfay Mehari Atey Leticia Avila-Burgos Ashish Awasthi Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla Suzanne Lyn Barker-Collo Till Winfried Bärnighausen Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi Masoud Behzadifar Meysam Behzadifar James R Bennett Ashish Bhalla Zulfiqar A Bhutta Arebu Issa Bilal Guilherme Borges Rohan Borschmann Alexandra Brazinova Julio Cesar Campuzano Rincon Félix Carvalho Carlos A Castañeda-Orjuela Lalit Dandona Rakhi Dandona Paul I Dargan Diego De Leo Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne Eric L Ding Huyen Phuc Do David Teye Doku Kerrie E Doyle Tim Robert Driscoll Dumessa Edessa Ziad El-Khatib Aman Yesuf Endries Alireza Esteghamati Andre Faro Farshad Farzadfar Valery L Feigin Florian Fischer Kyle J Foreman Richard Charles Franklin Nancy Fullman Neal D Futran Tsegaye Tewelde Gebrehiwot Reyna Alma Gutiérrez Nima Hafezi-Nejad Hassan Haghparast Bidgoli Gessessew Bugssa Hailu Josep Maria Haro Hamid Yimam Hassen Caitlin Hawley Delia Hendrie Martha Híjar Guoqing Hu Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi Mihajlo Jakovljevic Spencer L James Sudha Jayaraman Jost B Jonas Amaha Kahsay Amir Kasaeian Peter Njenga Keiyoro Yousef Khader Ibrahim A Khalil Young-Ho Khang Jagdish Khubchandani Aliasghar Ahmad Kiadaliri Christian Kieling Yun Jin Kim Soewarta Kosen Kristopher J Krohn G Anil Kumar Faris Hasan Lami Van C Lansingh Heidi Jane Larson Shai Linn Raimundas Lunevicius Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek Muhammed Magdy Abd El Razek Reza Malekzadeh Deborah Carvalho Malta Amanda J Mason-Jones Richard Matzopoulos Peter T N Memiah Walter Mendoza Tuomo J Meretoja Haftay Berhane Mezgebe Ted R Miller Shafiu Mohammed Maziar Moradi-Lakeh Rintaro Mori Devina Nand Cuong Tat Nguyen Quyen Le Nguyen Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum Felix Akpojene Ogbo Andrew T Olagunju George C Patton Michael R Phillips Suzanne Polinder Farshad Pourmalek Mostafa Qorbani Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar Mahfuzar Rahman Rajesh Kumar Rai Chhabi Lal Ranabhat David Laith Rawaf Salman Rawaf Ali Rowhani-Rahbar Mahdi Safdarian Saeid Safiri Rajesh Sagar Joseph S Salama Juan Sanabria Milena M Santric Milicevic Rodrigo Sarmiento-Suárez Benn Sartorius Maheswar Satpathy David C Schwebel Soraya Seedat Sadaf G Sepanlou Masood Ali Shaikh Nigussie Tadesse Sharew Ivy Shiue Jasvinder A Singh Mekonnen Sisay Vegard Skirbekk Adauto Martins Soares Filho Dan J Stein Mark Andrew Stokes Mu'awiyyah Babale Sufiyan Mamta Swaroop Bryan L Sykes Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos Fentaw Tadese Bach Xuan Tran Tung Thanh Tran Kingsley Nnanna Ukwaja Tommi Juhani Vasankari Vasily Vlassov Andrea Werdecker Pengpeng Ye Paul Yip Naohiro Yonemoto Mustafa Z Younis Zoubida Zaidi Maysaa El Sayed Zaki Simon I Hay Stephen S Lim Alan D Lopez Ali H Mokdad Theo Vos Christopher J L Murray

JAMA 2018 08;320(8):792-814

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle.

Importance: Understanding global variation in firearm mortality rates could guide prevention policies and interventions.

Objective: To estimate mortality due to firearm injury deaths from 1990 to 2016 in 195 countries and territories.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This study used deidentified aggregated data including 13 812 location-years of vital registration data to generate estimates of levels and rates of death by age-sex-year-location. The proportion of suicides in which a firearm was the lethal means was combined with an estimate of per capita gun ownership in a revised proxy measure used to evaluate the relationship between availability or access to firearms and firearm injury deaths.

Exposures: Firearm ownership and access.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Cause-specific deaths by age, sex, location, and year.

Results: Worldwide, it was estimated that 251 000 (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 195 000-276 000) people died from firearm injuries in 2016, with 6 countries (Brazil, United States, Mexico, Colombia, Venezuela, and Guatemala) accounting for 50.5% (95% UI, 42.2%-54.8%) of those deaths. In 1990, there were an estimated 209 000 (95% UI, 172 000 to 235 000) deaths from firearm injuries. Globally, the majority of firearm injury deaths in 2016 were homicides (64.0% [95% UI, 54.2%-68.0%]; absolute value, 161 000 deaths [95% UI, 107 000-182 000]); additionally, 27% were firearm suicide deaths (67 500 [95% UI, 55 400-84 100]) and 9% were unintentional firearm deaths (23 000 [95% UI, 18 200-24 800]). From 1990 to 2016, there was no significant decrease in the estimated global age-standardized firearm homicide rate (-0.2% [95% UI, -0.8% to 0.2%]). Firearm suicide rates decreased globally at an annualized rate of 1.6% (95% UI, 1.1-2.0), but in 124 of 195 countries and territories included in this study, these levels were either constant or significant increases were estimated. There was an annualized decrease of 0.9% (95% UI, 0.5%-1.3%) in the global rate of age-standardized firearm deaths from 1990 to 2016. Aggregate firearm injury deaths in 2016 were highest among persons aged 20 to 24 years (for men, an estimated 34 700 deaths [95% UI, 24 900-39 700] and for women, an estimated 3580 deaths [95% UI, 2810-4210]). Estimates of the number of firearms by country were associated with higher rates of firearm suicide (P < .001; R2 = 0.21) and homicide (P < .001; R2 = 0.35).

Conclusions And Relevance: This study estimated between 195 000 and 276 000 firearm injury deaths globally in 2016, the majority of which were firearm homicides. Despite an overall decrease in rates of firearm injury death since 1990, there was variation among countries and across demographic subgroups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2018.10060DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6143020PMC
August 2018

Rotavirus Vaccination and the Global Burden of Rotavirus Diarrhea Among Children Younger Than 5 Years.

JAMA Pediatr 2018 10;172(10):958-965

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, Seattle, Washington.

Importance: Rotavirus infection is the global leading cause of diarrhea-associated morbidity and mortality among children younger than 5 years.

Objectives: To examine the extent of rotavirus infection among children younger than 5 years by country and the number of deaths averted because of the rotavirus vaccine.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This report builds on findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016, a cross-sectional study that measured diarrheal diseases and their etiologic agents. Models were used to estimate burden in data-sparse locations.

Exposure: Diarrhea due to rotavirus infection.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Rotavirus-associated mortality and morbidity by country and year and averted deaths attributable to the rotavirus vaccine by country.

Results: Rotavirus infection was responsible for an estimated 128 500 deaths (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 104 500-155 600) among children younger than 5 years throughout the world in 2016, with 104 733 deaths occurring in sub-Saharan Africa (95% UI, 83 406-128 842). Rotavirus infection was responsible for more than 258 million episodes of diarrhea among children younger than 5 years in 2016 (95% UI, 193 million to 341 million), an incidence of 0.42 cases per child-year (95% UI, 0.30-0.53). Vaccine use is estimated to have averted more than 28 000 deaths (95% UI, 14 600-46 700) among children younger than 5 years, and expanded use of the rotavirus vaccine, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, could have prevented approximately 20% of all deaths attributable to diarrhea among children younger than 5 years.

Conclusions And Relevance: Rotavirus-associated mortality has decreased markedly over time in part because of the introduction of the rotavirus vaccine. This study suggests that prioritizing vaccine introduction and interventions to reduce diarrhea-associated morbidity and mortality is necessary in the continued global reduction of rotavirus infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2018.1960DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6233802PMC
October 2018

Morbidity, mortality, and long-term consequences associated with diarrhoea from Cryptosporidium infection in children younger than 5 years: a meta-analyses study.

Lancet Glob Health 2018 07;6(7):e758-e768

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: The protozoan Cryptosporidium is a leading cause of diarrhoea morbidity and mortality in children younger than 5 years. However, the true global burden of Cryptosporidium infection in children younger than 5 years might have been underestimated in previous quantifications because it only took account of the acute effects of diarrhoea. We aimed to demonstrate whether there is a causal relation between Cryptosporidium and childhood growth and, if so, to quantify the associated additional burden.

Methods: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors study (GBD) 2016 was a systematic and scientific effort to quantify the morbidity and mortality associated with more than 300 causes of death and disability, including diarrhoea caused by Cryptosporidium infection. We supplemented estimates on the burden of Cryptosporidium in GBD 2016 with findings from a systematic review of published and unpublished cohort studies and a meta-analysis of the effect of childhood diarrhoea caused by Cryptosporidium infection on physical growth.

Findings: In 2016, Cryptosporidium infection was the fifth leading diarrhoeal aetiology in children younger than 5 years, and acute infection caused more than 48 000 deaths (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 24 600-81 900) and more than 4·2 million disability-adjusted life-years lost (95% UI 2·2 million-7·2 million). We identified seven data sources from the scientific literature and six individual-level data sources describing the relation between Cryptosporidium and childhood growth. Each episode of diarrhoea caused by Cryptosporidium infection was associated with a decrease in height-for-age Z score (0·049, 95% CI 0·014-0·080), weight-for-age Z score (0·095, 0·055-0·134), and weight-for-height Z score (0·126, 0·057-0·194). We estimated that diarrhoea from Cryptosporidium infection caused an additional 7·85 million disability-adjusted life-years (95% UI 5·42 million-10·11 million) after we accounted for its effect on growth faltering-153% more than that estimated from acute effects alone.

Interpretation: Our findings show that the substantial short-term burden of diarrhoea from Cryptosporidium infection on childhood growth and wellbeing is an underestimate of the true burden. Interventions designed to prevent and effectively treat infection in children younger than 5 years will have enormous public health and social development impacts.

Funding: The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30283-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6005120PMC
July 2018

Global disability-adjusted life-year estimates of long-term health burden and undernutrition attributable to diarrhoeal diseases in children younger than 5 years.

Lancet Glob Health 2018 03;6(3):e255-e269

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Diarrhoea is a leading cause of death and illness globally among children younger than 5 years. Mortality and short-term morbidity cause substantial burden of disease but probably underestimate the true effect of diarrhoea on population health. This underestimation is because diarrhoeal diseases can negatively affect early childhood growth, probably through enteric dysfunction and impaired uptake of macronutrients and micronutrients. We attempt to quantify the long-term sequelae associated with childhood growth impairment due to diarrhoea.

Methods: We used the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study framework and leveraged existing estimates of diarrhoea incidence, childhood undernutrition, and infectious disease burden to estimate the effect of diarrhoeal diseases on physical growth, including weight and height, and subsequent disease among children younger than 5 years. The burden of diarrhoea was measured in disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs), a composite metric of mortality and morbidity. We hypothesised that diarrhoea is negatively associated with three common markers of growth: weight-for-age, weight-for-height, and height-for-age Z-scores. On the basis of these undernutrition exposures, we applied a counterfactual approach to quantify the relative risk of infectious disease (subsequent diarrhoea, lower respiratory infection, and measles) and protein energy malnutrition morbidity and mortality per day of diarrhoea and quantified the burden of diarrhoeal disease due to these outcomes caused by undernutrition.

Findings: Diarrhoea episodes are significantly associated with childhood growth faltering. We found that each day of diarrhoea was associated with height-for-age Z-score (-0·0033 [95% CI -0·0024 to -0·0041]; p=4·43 × 10), weight-for-age Z-score (-0·0077 [-0·0058 to -0·0097]; p=3·19 × 10), and weight-for-height Z-score (-0·0096 [-0·0067 to -0·0125]; p=7·78 × 10). After addition of the DALYs due to the long-term sequelae as a consequence of undernutrition, the burden of diarrhoeal diseases increased by 39·0% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 33·0-46·6) and was responsible for 55 778 000 DALYs (95% UI 49 125 400-62 396 200) among children younger than 5 years in 2016. Among the 15 652 300 DALYs (95% UI 12 951 300-18 806 100) associated with undernutrition due to diarrhoeal episodes, more than 84·7% are due to increased risk of infectious disease, whereas the remaining 15·3% of long-term DALYs are due to increased prevalence of protein energy malnutrition. The burden of diarrhoea has decreased substantially since 1990, but progress has been greater in long-term (78·7% reduction [95% UI 69·3-85·5]) than in acute (70·4% reduction [95% UI 61·7-76·5]) DALYs.

Interpretation: Diarrhoea represents an even larger burden of disease than was estimated in the Global Burden of Disease Study. In order to adequately address the burden of its long-term sequelae, a renewed emphasis on controlling the risk of diarrhoea incidence may be required. This renewed effort can help further prevent the potential lifelong cost on child health, growth, and overall potential.

Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(18)30045-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5861379PMC
March 2018