Publications by authors named "Ian T Macqueen"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Intra-Operative Vascular Injury and Control During Laparoscopic and Robotic Mesh Explantation for Chronic Post Herniorrhaphy Inguinal Pain (CPIP).

Surg Technol Int 2021 04 20;38. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine, Lichtenstein Amid Hernia Institute at UCLA Santa Monica, CA, USA.

Introduction: Chronic postherniorrhaphy inguinal pain (CPIP) is common following inguinal hernia repair. As even primary minimally-invasive inguinal hernia repairs carry a risk of significant intra-operative bleeding, it is unsurprising that reoperative groin exploration and mesh explantation for chronic post-inguinal herniorrhaphy pain confers an even higher risk of arteriotomy or venotomy due to a distorted anatomy and the presence of adhesions. In this report, we present a single institution's experience with the management of intra-operative vascular injury encountered during minimally invasive groin exploration and mesh explantation for CPIP.

Materials And Methods: We performed a retrospective consecutive case series study at a single academic center of patients with CPIP who underwent minimally invasive groin exploration and mesh removal during which an iatrogenic arteriotomy or venotomy occurred from September 2015 to September 2020. Descriptive statistics were collected for age, laterality of hernia repair, mean follow-up time, surgical approach (robotic vs. laparoscopic), type of intra-operative vascular injury, vascular control technique, and post-operative complications.

Results: Of 196 minimally invasive groin exploration and mesh removal cases, 46 were performed with robotic assistance and 150 were performed using traditional laparoscopy. The overall incidence of intra-operative vascular injury was 43 (22%). Fifteen of 46 (32%) robotic groin exploration and mesh removal cases and 28 of 150 (19%) laparoscopic cases involved vascular control. Three of 15 (20%) robotic cases and 23 of 28 (82%) laparoscopic cases involved a hybrid open inguinal approach to address anterior pathology (neurectomy, anterior mesh removal, hernia repair) or facilitate exposure for vascular repair. The most common site of injury was the inferior epigastric vessels. Other sites included the iliac vein, iliac artery, corona mortis, and accessory obturator vessels. Vascular control techniques included ligation with an energy device or suture, primary suture repair of injured vessel, or bovine pericardium patch angioplasty. All were managed without intra-operative vascular surgery intervention except for one case with extensive calcification that required endarterectomy and angioplasty to improve patency. No cases required conversion to midline laparotomy. Ninety three percent of the cases with large vessel bleeding during laparoscopic-assisted procedures were repaired via an open groin incision, whereas all cases of large vessel bleeding during robotic-assisted procedures were repaired robotically. None of the patients required transfusion. Postoperative complications occurred in 3 patients (7%), 2 (5%) developed hematoma formation requiring surgical evacuation, and 1 (2%) developed ipsilateral iliofemoral deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and underwent peripheral angiography and thrombolysis.

Conclusions: Although minimally invasive groin exploration and mesh explantation for CPIP is technically challenging, it is a safe and effective operation when performed at experienced centers. Iatrogenic vascular injury should be anticipated but can be effectively controlled laparoscopically, robotically, or via a hybrid open inguinal incision without conversion to a midline laparotomy and with low post-operative complication rates.
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April 2021

Investigating the effect of discordant clinical and pathological diagnoses of complicated appendicitis on clinical outcomes.

Am J Surg 2020 01 15;219(1):71-74. Epub 2019 May 15.

Department of Surgery, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, 1000 W Carson St, Torrance, CA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Following appendectomy, management is often guided by surgeon determination of whether the appendicitis is uncomplicated or complicated. Our objectives were to determine the incidence of discordance between intraoperative and pathological findings and determine effect on outcomes.

Methods: We performed a retrospective five-year cohort analysis of adults who underwent appendectomy for acute appendicitis. Outcomes examined were length of stay (LOS), return to ED, and 30-day readmission. We reported p-values from logistic regression.

Results: Of 1479 cases, 36.4% were labeled complicated appendicitis, among which, 58.2% were discordant. When intraoperative findings underestimated pathological findings, there was a decreased LOS (p < 0.001) compared to concordant diagnoses. There was no significant difference for readmission (p = 0.592) or ED (p = 0.857).

Conclusion: Operative underestimation of appendicitis severity was associated with a shorter LOS. Discordance did not adversely affect hospital readmission or rate of return to ED. These findings suggest reliance on intraoperative findings is sufficient in guiding management.

Summary: We wanted determine the incidence of discordance between operative and pathological findings and determine effect on outcomes. Operative underestimation of appendicitis severity was associated with a shorter LOS. Discordance did not adversely affect hospital readmission or rate of return to ED. These findings suggest reliance on intraoperative findings is sufficient in guiding management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjsurg.2019.05.004DOI Listing
January 2020

Prevention of Parastomal Hernia.

Surg Technol Int 2018 Sep 11;33. Epub 2018 Sep 11.

Lichtenstein Amid Hernia Clinic, David Geffen School of Medicine at University, of California, Los Angeles, Santa Monica, CA.

Parastomal hernia (PSH), defined as an incisional hernia at the abdominal wall defect resulting from stoma formation, is a frequent complication of enterostomy (ileostomy and jejunostomy), colostomy, and urostomy. A growing body of evidence supports the use of prophylactic mesh at the time of stoma creation to prevent the development of PSH. In particular, the use of permanent mesh has been supported in the creation of an end colostomy, and prophylactic mesh has been studied for use in other types of stoma. Permanent mesh materials used for PSH prophylaxis include polypropylene, polyester, polytetrafluoroethylene, and composite prosthetics. Despite the appeal of biologic and bioabsorbable materials in an operative field that poses a potentially higher risk of infection, there is insufficient evidence to support their use in primary PSH prevention. Two-dimensional meshes are usually cut to contain a keyhole through which the bowel passes, and may be placed in the sublay/retrorectus, intraperitoneal, or preperitoneal position. Alternative techniques include placement of a non-keyhole mesh in a position similar to that of a Sugarbaker PSH repair or use of a circular stapler fired through the abdominal wall fascia and mesh simultaneously, fixing both together. Three-dimensional mesh devices, including the Prolene® and Ultrapro® Hernia Systems (PHS/UHS) (Ethicon US, LLC, Somerville, NJ), have been studied for use in PSH prevention. Novel, specialized devices such as the Koring™ (Koring AG, Basel, Switzerland) stoma mesh have been designed specifically for primary PSH prevention. While the benefits of mesh prophylaxis have been established, further evidence is needed to identify the optimal materials and technique for PSH prevention in a variety of patients and settings. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the operative techniques and evidence supporting prophylaxis of parastomal hernias.
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September 2018

Blended Learning Methods for Surgical Education.

Surg Technol Int 2018 Nov;33:127-132

Lichtenstein Amid Hernia Clinic, David Geffen School of Medicine at University, of California, Los Angeles, Santa Monica, CA.

The emergence and maturation of the concept of blended learning in public and military education may prove equally valuable in CME surgical education and training. Creating a learner-centric environment in which multiple modes of education are encouraged, available, integrated, and accredited can increase the level of competence achieved in CME courses. This paper defines a framework for blended surgical training using principles developed for the military and it is applied in courses at a major post-graduate surgical education center.
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November 2018

Perioperative management of antiplatelet therapy in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery following coronary stent placement: a systematic review.

Syst Rev 2018 01 10;7(1). Epub 2018 Jan 10.

Veterans Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: The correct perioperative management of antiplatelet therapy (APT) in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery (NCS) is often debated by clinicians. American College of Cardiology (ACC) and American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines recommend postponing elective NCS at least 3 months after stent implantation. Regardless of the timing of surgery, ACC/AHA guidelines recommend continuing at least ASA throughout the perioperative period and ideally continuing dual APT (DAPT) therapy "unless surgery demands discontinuation." The objective of this review was to ascertain the risks and benefits of APT in the perioperative period, to assess how these risks and benefits vary by APT management, and the significance of length of time since stent implantation before operative intervention.

Methods: PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus were searched from inception through October 2017. Articles were included if patients were post PCI with stent placement (bare metal [BMS] or drug eluting [DES]), underwent elective NCS, and had rates of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) or bleeding events associated with pre and perioperative APT therapy.

Results: Of 4882 screened articles, we included 16 studies in the review (1 randomized controlled trial and 15 observational studies). Studies were small (< 50: n = 5, 51-150: n = 5, >150: n = 6). All studies included DES with 7 of 16 also including BMS. Average time from stent to NCS was variable (< 6 months: n = 3, 6-12 months: n = 1, > 12 months: n = 6). At least six different APT strategies were described. Six studies further utilized bridging protocols using three different pharmacologic agents. Studies typically included multiple surgical fields with varying degrees of invasiveness. Across all APT strategies, rates of MACE/bleeding ranged from 0 to 21% and 0 to 22%. There was no visible trend in MACE/bleeding rates within a given APT strategy. Stratifying the articles by type of surgery, timing of discontinuation of APT therapy, bridging vs. no bridging, and time since stent placement did not help explain the heterogeneity.

Conclusions: Evidence regarding perioperative APT management in patients with cardiac stents undergoing NCS is insufficient to guide practice. Other clinical factors may have a greater impact than perioperative APT management on MACE and bleeding events.

Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO CRD42016036607.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13643-017-0635-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5763575PMC
January 2018

Recruiting Rural Healthcare Providers Today: a Systematic Review of Training Program Success and Determinants of Geographic Choices.

J Gen Intern Med 2018 02 27;33(2):191-199. Epub 2017 Nov 27.

Evidence-Based Practice Center, RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, CA, 90407, USA.

Background: Rural areas have historically struggled with shortages of healthcare providers; however, advanced communication technologies have transformed rural healthcare, and practice in underserved areas has been recognized as a policy priority. This systematic review aims to assess reasons for current providers' geographic choices and the success of training programs aimed at increasing rural provider recruitment.

Methods: This systematic review (PROSPERO: CRD42015025403) searched seven databases for published and gray literature on the current cohort of US rural healthcare practitioners (2005 to March 2017). Two reviewers independently screened citations for inclusion; one reviewer extracted data and assessed risk of bias, with a senior systematic reviewer checking the data; quality of evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach.

Results: Of 7276 screened citations, we identified 31 studies exploring reasons for geographic choices and 24 studies documenting the impact of training programs. Growing up in a rural community is a key determinant and is consistently associated with choosing rural practice. Most existing studies assess physicians, and only a few are based on multivariate analyses that take competing and potentially correlated predictors into account. The success rate of placing providers-in-training in rural practice after graduation, on average, is 44% (range 20-84%; N = 31 programs). We did not identify program characteristics that are consistently associated with program success. Data are primarily based on rural tracks for medical residents.

Discussion: The review provides insight into the relative importance of demographic characteristics and motivational factors in determining which providers should be targeted to maximize return on recruitment efforts. Existing programs exposing students to rural practice during their training are promising but require further refining. Public policy must include a specific focus on the trajectory of the healthcare workforce and must consider alternative models of healthcare delivery that promote a more diverse, interdisciplinary combination of providers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11606-017-4210-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5789104PMC
February 2018

Management of Primary Gastrointestinal Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas: a Population-Based Survival Analysis.

J Gastrointest Surg 2016 06 18;20(6):1141-9. Epub 2016 Mar 18.

Department of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA, 90095, USA.

Introduction: Primary gastrointestinal non-Hodgkin lymphomas (PGINHL) are a heterogeneous group of rare GI malignancies with limited data to guide management. This study describes management of PGINHL in a population-based registry and aims to determine the association between receipt of surgery and long-term survival.

Methods: All adults diagnosed with PGINHL over 27 years in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results were identified (excluding mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas). Demographic and clinical characteristics were assessed. Survival was compared using the log-rank method. Cox hazard modeling was used to determine independent prognostic factors.

Results: We identified 16,129 patients. The majority were of gastric origin and had diffuse large B cell histology. Surgery was performed in 46.9 % of patients, not recommended in 41.8 % and recommended but not performed in 10.1 %. Overall 1-year and 5-year survival rates were 65.6 and 35.6 %, respectively. Patients undergoing surgery had a 5-year survival of 43.6 % compared to 34.8 % for whom surgery was recommended but not performed (p < .0001), (receipt of chemotherapy not available). Female gender, gastric location, follicular or mantle cell histology, and radiation therapy were associated with improved survival.

Conclusions: Nearly 50 % of PGINHL patients underwent surgery. Surgery was not associated with improved survival. More prospective, case-matched studies are needed to guide management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11605-016-3129-8DOI Listing
June 2016

Use of a Hospital-Wide Screening Program for Early Detection of Sepsis in General Surgery Patients.

Am Surg 2015 Oct;81(10):1074-9

Department of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Sepsis remains a significant source of mortality among hospitalized patients. This study examines the usage of a vital sign-based screening protocol in identifying postoperative patients at risk for sepsis at an academic-affiliated medical center. We identified all general surgery inpatients undergoing abdominopelvic surgery from January to June 2014, and compared those with positive screening tests to a sample of screen-negative controls. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify predictors of positive screening tests and progression to severe sepsis. In total, 478 patients underwent abdominopelvic operations, 59 had positive screening tests, 33 qualified for sepsis, and six progressed to severe sepsis. Predictors of a positive screening test were presence of cancer [odds ratio (OR) 30.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.2-420], emergency operation (OR 6.5, 95% CI 1.7-24), longer operative time (OR 2.2/h, 95% CI 1.2-4.1), and presence of postoperative infection (OR 6.4, 95% CI 1.5-27). The screening protocol had sensitivity 100 per cent and specificity 88 per cent for severe sepsis. We identified no predictors of severe sepsis. In conclusion, vital sign-based screening provides value by drawing early attention to patients with potential to develop sepsis, but escalation of care for these patients should be based on clinical judgment.
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October 2015

The Role of Surgery in the Clinical Management of Primary Gastrointestinal Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma.

Am Surg 2015 Oct;81(10):988-94

Department of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA.

Primary gastrointestinal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (PGINHL) is a heterogeneous family of tumors, with treatment modalities including chemotherapy, surgery, and radiotherapy. Because the role of surgery in PGINHL remains disputed, this study aims to assess the impact of operative resection on survival. We used a pathology database to identify all cases of PGINHL diagnosed at a single academic-affiliated medical center from 1988 to 2013. Demographic and clinical data were abstracted from the medical record. We summarized the clinical courses of patients with PGINHL and then performed a survival analysis to compare overall and disease-free survival, stratified by demographic and clinical variables. We identified 33 patients diagnosed with PGINHL during the study period. Of 29 who subsequently received treatment at the institution, 15 initially underwent chemotherapy, 10 underwent surgical resection, and 4 underwent surgery for other reasons such as diagnosis without resection or management of disease complications. Three patients suffered surgical complications and two of these patients died. We found no difference in overall survival between patients receiving surgical resection and patients managed initially with chemotherapy. This case series supports a continued role for surgical resection in the management of patients with PGINHL, though anticipated benefits should be weighed against the risk of complications.
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October 2015

Postoperative antibiotics are not associated with decreased wound complications among patients undergoing appendectomy for complicated appendicitis.

Am J Surg 2015 Dec 12;210(6):983-7; discussion 987-9. Epub 2015 Sep 12.

Department of Surgery, Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, 1000 West Carson Street, Torrance, CA 90509, USA.

Background: The objective of this study was to determine the role of postoperative antibiotics in reducing complications in patients undergoing appendectomy for complicated appendicitis.

Methods: We performed a 5-year retrospective cohort study of adult patients who underwent appendectomy for acute appendicitis. Patients with complicated appendicitis (perforated or gangrenous) were analyzed on the basis of whether they received postoperative antibiotics. Main outcome measures were wound complications, length of stay (LOS), and readmission to hospital.

Results: Of 410 patients with complicated appendicitis, postoperative antibiotics were administered to 274 patients (66.8%). On univariate and multivariate analyses, postoperative antibiotics were not associated with decreased wound complications or readmission, but independently predicted an increased LOS (P = .01).

Conclusions: Among patients with complicated appendicitis, postoperative antibiotics were not associated with a decrease in wound complications but did result in an increased hospital LOS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjsurg.2015.07.001DOI Listing
December 2015

Wearable Technology for Global Surgical Teleproctoring.

J Surg Educ 2015 Nov-Dec;72(6):1290-5. Epub 2015 Aug 11.

Department of Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, California. Electronic address:

Objective: In underserved communities around the world, inguinal hernias represent a significant burden of surgically-treatable disease. With traditional models of international surgical assistance limited to mission trips, a standardized framework to strengthen local healthcare systems is lacking. We established a surgical education model using web-based tools and wearable technology to allow for long-term proctoring and assessment in a resource-poor setting. This is a feasibility study examining wearable technology and web-based performance rating tools for long-term proctoring in an international setting.

Methods: Using the Lichtenstein inguinal hernia repair as the index surgical procedure, local surgeons in Paraguay and Brazil were trained in person by visiting international expert trainers using a formal, standardized teaching protocol. Surgeries were captured in real-time using Google Glass and transmitted wirelessly to an online video stream, permitting real-time observation and proctoring by mentoring surgeon experts in remote locations around the world. A system for ongoing remote evaluation and support by experienced surgeons was established using the Lichtenstein-specific Operative Performance Rating Scale.

Results: Data were collected from 4 sequential training operations for surgeons trained in both Paraguay and Brazil. With continuous internet connectivity, live streaming of the surgeries was successful. The Operative Performance Rating Scale was immediately used after each operation. Both surgeons demonstrated proficiency at the completion of the fourth case.

Conclusions: A sustainable model for surgical training and proctoring to empower local surgeons in resource-poor locations and "train trainers" is feasible with wearable technology and web-based communication. Capacity building by maximizing use of local resources and expertise offers a long-term solution to reducing the global burden of surgically-treatable disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsurg.2015.07.004DOI Listing
September 2016