Publications by authors named "Ian Nora"

3 Publications

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Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis in Crohn's Disease: An Atypical Complication.

Cureus 2021 May 11;13(5):e14964. Epub 2021 May 11.

Florida State University College of Medicine Internal Medicine Residency, Sarasota Memorial Hospital, Sarasota, USA.

Crohn's disease (CD) is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that affects thousands of Americans, and it is commonly found in individuals aged between 20-30 years. Patients often present with abdominal pain and describe concerns of diarrhea, bloating, and weight loss. In this report, we discuss the case of a 21-year-old man who presented with diarrhea and intermittent hematochezia. He was admitted for a suspected lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleed. An abdominal CT scan demonstrated pancolitis with a mildly distended gallbladder. Subsequent sigmoidoscopy revealed a diagnosis of CD, which was confirmed with a biopsy. Following steroid therapy, the patient reported symptomatic improvement, although his alkaline phosphatase (ALP) levels continued to increase. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) revealed biliary strictures, which were suggestive of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). This case highlights the importance of not ruling out CD in patients with PSC and understanding the differential clinical outcomes in patients with PSC with ulcerative colitis (UC) compared to those with CD. These differences include variations in colorectal carcinoma risk and severity of symptoms.
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May 2021

The accuracy of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and platelet to lymphocyte ratio as a marker for gastrointestinal malignancies.

J Gastrointest Oncol 2018 Oct;9(5):972-978

Department of Gastrointestinal Oncology, Sarasota Memorial Healthcare System, Sarasota, FL, USA.

Background: Accurate predictors of locally advanced and recurrence disease in patients with gastrointestinal cancer are currently lacking. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) have emerged as possible markers for predicting recurrence in these patients. In this study, we sought to evaluate the utility of NLR and PLR in predicting the presence of regional nodal disease, metastasis and systemic recurrence in patients with gastrointestinal malignancies.

Methods: We queried a comprehensive gastrointestinal oncology database to identify patients who had undergone surgery for a GI malignancy. NLR and PLR values were determined via a complete blood count (CBC). In patients treated with neoadjuvant therapy (NT) the NLR and PLR were calculated from CBCs before and after NT and in patients proceeding to surgery within 2 weeks pre-operatively. The associations between NLR and PLR and the clinicopathologic parameters (sex, age, tumor size, differentiation, positive lymph nodes, and metastatic disease) were assessed via χ or Fisher's exact tests where appropriate. All the tests were two-sided, and P<0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results: We identified 116 patients diagnosed with gastrointestinal malignancies. There were 76 (65.5%) males and 40 (34.5%) females with an average age of 69.4±10.7 years. The mean follow up was 14.1±15.5 months. We identified 49 (42.2%) esophageal, 34 (29.3%) pancreatic, 14 (12.1%) colorectal, 13 (11.2%) gastric, and 6 (5.2%) biliary cancers. There were 36 (31.0%) patients with node negative disease, 52 (44.8%) with node positive and 28 (24.2%) with metastatic disease at surgery. Of the metastatic patients 4 (3.4%) were found at staging laparoscopy and 24 (20.6%) were diagnosed pre-operatively. The median NLR for LN- patient's was 1.78 (0.23-8.2) and for LN+ and metastatic patients was 4.69 (2.27-36), P<0.001. The median PLR for LN- patient's was 123.03 (14-257.69) and for LN+ and metastatic patients was 212.42 (105.45-2,185.18), P<0.001. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for a NLR >2.25 was 98.8%, 72.2%, 89%, and 96% respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV for PLR >140 was 95%, 78%, 90%, and 88% respectively. Utilizing both NLR and PLR the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV was increased.

Conclusions: Elevation of NLR and PLR can be used to help identify patients with advanced disease GI malignancies and recurrences after surgery. Additionally, failure of normalization of NLR and PLR 3-month post-surgical resection may indicate early recurrence or persistent disease. Individually, NLR has a higher sensitivity and negative predictive value while PLR has a higher specificity and positive predictive value for distinguishing metastatic disease and node positivity. The combination of NLR and PLR has the highest accuracy of predicting advanced disease among all gastrointestinal malignancies.
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October 2018

Robotic-assisted Ivor Lewis esophagectomy: technique and early outcomes.

Robot Surg 2017 27;4:93-100. Epub 2017 Sep 27.

Florida State University, FL, USA,

Esophagectomy is pivotal for the long-term survival in patients with early stage and advanced esophageal cancer, and improved perioperative care and advanced surgical techniques have contributed to reduced postoperative morbidity. However, despite these advances, esophagectomy continues to be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Minimally invasive esophageal surgery (MIE) has been increasingly used in patients undergoing surgery for esophageal cancer. Potential advantages of MIE include the decreased postoperative pain; lower postoperative wound infection, decreased pulmonary complications, and decreased length of hospitalization. Robotic esophageal surgery has the ability to overcome some of the limitations of laparoscopic and thoracoscopic approaches to esophagectomy while maintaining the benefits of the minimally invasive approach. In this article, we will review the clinical efficacy and outcomes associated with robotic-assisted Ivor Lewis esophagectomy (RAIL).
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September 2017