Publications by authors named "Ian Needleman"

80 Publications

BSP implementation of European S3 - level evidence-based treatment guidelines for stage I-III periodontitis in UK clinical practice.

J Dent 2021 03 8;106:103562. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Periodontal Research Group, Institute of Clinical Sciences, College of Medical & Dental Sciences, The University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK; Birmingham Community Healthcare NHS Trust, Birmingham, UK; Division of Periodontics, Section of Oral, Diagnostic and Rehabilitation Sciences, College of Dental Medicine, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA. Electronic address:

Objectives: To adapt the supranational European Federation for Periodontology (EFP) S3-Level Clinical Practice Guideline for treatment of periodontitis (stage I-III) to a UK healthcare environment, taking into account the views of a broad range of stakeholders, and patients.

Sources: This UK version is based on the supranational EFP guideline (Sanz et al., 2020) published in the Journal of Clinical Periodontology. The source guideline was developed using the S3-level methodology, which combined the assessment of formal evidence from 15 systematic reviews with a moderated consensus process of a representative group of stakeholders, and accounts for health equality, environmental factors and clinical effectiveness. It encompasses 62 clinical recommendations for the treatment of stage I-III periodontitis, based on a step-wise process mapped to the 2017 classification system.

Methodology: The UK version was developed from the source guideline using a formal process called the GRADE ADOLOPMENT framework. This framework allows for the adoption (unmodified acceptance), adaptation (acceptance with modifications) and the de novo development of clinical recommendations. Using this framework and following the S3-process, the underlying systematic reviews were updated and a representative guideline group of 75 delegates from 17 stakeholder organisations was assembled into three working groups. Following the formal S3-process, all clinical recommendations were formally assessed for their applicability to the UK and adoloped accordingly.

Results And Conclusion: Using the ADOLOPMENT protocol, a UK version of the EFP S3-level clinical practice guideline was developed. This guideline delivers evidence- and consensus-based clinical recommendations of direct relevance to the dental community in the UK.

Clinical Significance: The aim of S3-level guidelines is to combine the evaluation of formal evidence, grading and synthesis with the clinical expertise of a broad range of stakeholders to form clinical recommendations. Herein, the first major international S3-level guideline in dentistry, the EFP guideline, was implemented for direct clinical applicability in the UK healthcare system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdent.2020.103562DOI Listing
March 2021

Implementation of a behavioural change intervention to enhance oral health behaviours in elite athletes: a feasibility study.

BMJ Open Sport Exerc Med 2020 18;6(1):e000759. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Centre for Oral Health and Performance, University College London, Eastman Dental Institute, London, UK.

Background: Poor oral health of elite athletes is common and is associated with negative performance impacts. There is a need for oral health promotion strategies that are effective within the elite sport environment.

Aim: To develop, implement and evaluate a pragmatic oral health promotion intervention that integrated the capability, opportunity, motivation and behaviour model of behavioural change into the knowledge transfer system for effective implementation of preventive interventions.

Methods: Repeated measures study. Athletes and support team together viewed one 10 min presentation and three 90 s information films. Athletes alone received oral health screening, personalised advice and an oral health toolkit. Outcome measures included: (1) oral health knowledge, athlete-reported performance impacts (Oslo Sports Trauma Research Centre, OSTRC score), use of oral hygiene aids, gingival inflammation (bleeding) score, recorded at baseline, 4-6 weeks and 12-16 weeks and (2) athlete feedback.

Results: We recruited 62 athletes; 44 (71%) male and 58 (93.5%) white British, 55 (88.7%) athletes completed the study. Mean knowledge score improved from 5.69 (1.59) to 6.93 (1.32) p<0.001. Mean OSTRC score reduced from 8.73 (14.54) to 2.73 (11.31) p<0.001. Athlete use of prescription strength fluoride toothpaste increased from 8 (12.9%) to 45 (80.4%) p<0.001. Athlete-reported use of interdental cleaning aids at least 2-3 x week increased from 10 (16.2%) to 21 (34%) p=0.013. Bleeding score remained unchanged.

Conclusion: This behavioural change intervention was successfully implemented within different elite sport environments. It was associated with an increase in athlete oral health knowledge, enhanced oral health behaviour, a reduction in self-reported performance impacts and high participant retention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjsem-2020-000759DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7304795PMC
June 2020

Endpoints of active periodontal therapy.

J Clin Periodontol 2020 07;47 Suppl 22:61-71

Unit of Periodontology, University College London Eastman Dental Institute, London, UK.

Aim: Position paper on endpoints of active periodontal therapy for designing treatment guidelines. The question was as follows: How are, for an individual patient, commonly applied periodontal probing measures-recorded after active periodontal therapy-related to (a) stability of clinical attachment level, (b) tooth survival, (c) need for re-treatment or (d) oral health-related quality of life.

Methods: A literature search was conducted in Ovid MEDLINE(R) and Epub Ahead of Print, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations and Daily <1946 to 07 June 2019>.

Results: A total of 94 papers were retrieved. From the literature search, it was found that periodontitis patients with a low proportion of deep residual pockets after active periodontal therapy are more likely to have stability of clinical attachment level over a follow-up time of ≥1 year. Other supporting literature confirms this finding and additionally reports, at the patient level, that probing pocket depths ≥6 mm and bleeding on probing scores ≥30% are risks for tooth loss. There is lack of evidence that periodontal probing measures after completion of active periodontal treatment are tangible to the patient.

Conclusions: Based on literature and biological plausibility, it is reasonable to state that periodontitis patients with a low proportion of residual periodontal pockets and little inflammation are more likely to have stability of clinical attachment levels and less tooth loss over time. Guidelines for periodontal therapy should take into consideration (a) long-term tangible patient outcomes, (b) that shallow pockets (≤4 mm) without bleeding on probing in patients with <30% bleeding sites are the best guarantee for the patient for stability of his/her periodontal attachment, (c) patient heterogeneity and patient changes in immune response over time, and (d) that treatment strategies include lifestyle changes of the patient. Long-term large population-based and practice-based studies on the efficacy of periodontal therapies including both clinical and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) need to be initiated, which include the understanding that periodontitis is a complex disease with variation of inflammatory responses due to environment, (epi)genetics, lifestyle and ageing. Involving people living with periodontitis as co-researchers in the design of these studies would also help to improve their relevance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcpe.13253DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7670400PMC
July 2020

Development of a tool to assess oral health-related quality of life in patients hospitalised in critical care.

Qual Life Res 2020 Feb 26;29(2):559-568. Epub 2019 Oct 26.

Unit of Periodontology, UCL Eastman Dental Institute, 1st Floor Levy wing, 256 Gray's Inn Road, London, WC1X 8LD, UK.

Aims And Objectives: Oral health deteriorates following hospitalisation in critical care units (CCU) but there are no validated measures to assess effects on oral health-related quality of life (OHQoL). The objectives of this study were (i) to develop a tool (CCU-OHQoL) to assess OHQoL amongst patients admitted to CCU, (ii) to collect data to analyse the validity, reliability and acceptability of the CCU-OHQoL tool and (iii) to investigate patient-reported outcome measures of OHQoL in patients hospitalised in a CCU.

Methods: The project included three phases: (1) the development of an initial questionnaire informed by a literature review and expert panel, (2) testing of the tool in CCU (n = 18) followed by semi-structured interviews to assess acceptability, face and content validity and (3) final tool modification and testing of CCU-OHQoL questionnaire to assess validity and reliability.

Results: The CCU-OHQoL showed good face and content validity and was quick to administer. Cronbach's alpha was 0.72 suggesting good internal consistency. For construct validity, the CCU-OHQoL was strongly and significantly correlated (correlation coefficients 0.71, 0.62 and 0.77, p < 0.01) with global OHQoL items. In the validation study, 37.8% of the participants reported a deterioration in self-reported oral health after CCU admission. Finally, 26.9% and 31% of the participants reported considerable negative impacts of oral health in their life overall and quality of life, respectively.

Conclusions: The new CCU-OHQoL tool may be of use in the assessment of oral health-related quality of life in CCU patients. Deterioration of OHQoL seems to be common in CCU patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11136-019-02335-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6994456PMC
February 2020

Gum health - who cares?

Br Dent J 2019 Oct;227(7):559-561

British Society of Periodontology, Patient Forum member, UK.

Much of the British population have poor gum health which can affect their daily lives and general health. Surprisingly, we don't often hear from the public whether they care about this situation. Is this a lack of interest or a lack of opportunity to be heard? In addition, gum health, like overall health, requires people to take care of themselves and to take ownership of their condition. Whose responsibility is it to promote this care? In this article, a BSP Patient Forum member (Barbara Sturgeon) and clinician (Professor Ian Needleman) explore and discuss the issues surrounding: gum health - who cares?
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41415-019-0795-4DOI Listing
October 2019

Oral health-related behaviours reported by elite and professional athletes.

Br Dent J 2019 Aug;227(4):276-280

UCL Eastman Dental Institute Centre for Oral Health and Performance, 256 Gray's Inn Road, London, UK.

Background In elite sport, the protection of an athlete's health is a priority. However, research indicates a substantial prevalence of oral disease in elite and professional athletes. The challenges to oral health from participation in sport require investigation to identify effective strategies and mitigate risk.Aim To explore athlete-reported oral health behaviours, risks and potential for behaviour change in a representative sample of elite athletes based in the UK.Method This was a cross-sectional study. We provided oral health screening for 352 elite and professional athletes from June 2015 to September 2016; 344 athletes also completed a questionnaire.Results The median age was 25 years (range 18-39) and 236 (67%) were male; 323 (94.2%) said they brush twice daily while 136 (40%) said their most recent dental attendance was within the previous six months. Ninety-seven (28%) would be assessed as high consumers of sugar in their regular diet. The use of sports nutrition products was common with 288 (80%) reporting the use of sports drinks during training or competition but were positive about behaviour changes.Conclusion Despite reporting positive oral health-related behaviours, athletes have substantial amounts of oral disease. Athletes are willing to consider behaviour change related to daily plaque removal, increased fluoride availability and regular dental visits to improve oral health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41415-019-0617-8DOI Listing
August 2019

WITHDRAWN: Guided tissue regeneration for periodontal infra-bony defects.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2019 05 29;5:CD001724. Epub 2019 May 29.

Unit of Periodontology and International Centre for Evidence-Based Oral Health, UCL Eastman Dental Institute, 256 Gray's Inn Road, London, UK, WC1X 8LD.

Background: Conventional treatment of destructive periodontal (gum) disease arrests the disease but does not usually regain the bone support or connective tissue lost in the disease process. Guided tissue regeneration (GTR) is a surgical procedure that specifically aims to regenerate the periodontal tissues when the disease is advanced and could overcome some of the limitations of conventional therapy.

Objectives: To assess the efficacy of GTR in the treatment of periodontal infra-bony defects measured against conventional surgery (open flap debridement (OFD)) and factors affecting outcomes.

Search Methods: We conducted an electronic search of the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register, MEDLINE and EMBASE up to April 2004. Handsearching included Journal of Periodontology, Journal of Clinical Periodontology, Journal of Periodontal Research and bibliographies of all relevant papers and review articles up to April 2004. In addition, we contacted experts/groups/companies involved in surgical research to find other trials or unpublished material or to clarify ambiguous or missing data and posted requests for data on two periodontal electronic discussion groups.

Selection Criteria: Randomised, controlled trials (RCTs) of at least 12 months duration comparing guided tissue regeneration (with or without graft materials) with open flap debridement for the treatment of periodontal infra-bony defects. Furcation involvements and studies specifically treating aggressive periodontitis were excluded.

Data Collection And Analysis: Screening of possible studies and data extraction was conducted independently. The methodological quality of studies was assessed in duplicate using individual components and agreement determined by Kappa scores. Methodological quality was used in sensitivity analyses to test the robustness of the conclusions. The Cochrane Collaboration statistical guidelines were followed and the results expressed as mean differences (MD and 95% CI) for continuous outcomes and risk ratios (RR and 95% CI) for dichotomous outcomes calculated using random-effects models. Any heterogeneity was investigated. The primary outcome measure was change in clinical attachment.

Main Results: The search produced 626 titles, of these 596 were clearly not relevant to the review. The full text of 32 studies of possible relevance was obtained and 15 studies were excluded. Therefore 17 RCTs were included in this review, 16 studies testing GTR alone and two testing GTR + bone substitutes (one study had both test treatment arms).No tooth loss was reported in any study although these data are incomplete where patient follow up was not complete. For attachment level change, the mean difference between GTR and OFD was 1.22 mm (95% CI Random Effects: 0.80 to 1.64, Chi for heterogeneity 69.1 (df = 15), P < 0.001, I = 78%) and for GTR + bone substitutes was 1.25 mm (95% CI 0.89 to 1.61, Chi for heterogeneity 0.01 (df = 1), P = 0.91). GTR showed a significant benefit when comparing the numbers of sites failing to gain 2 mm attachment with risk ratio 0.54 (95% CI Random Effects: 0.31 to 0.96, Chi for heterogeneity 8.9 (df = 5), P = 0.11). The number needed to treat (NNT) for GTR to achieve one extra site gaining 2 mm or more attachment over open flap debridement was therefore 8 (95% CI 5 to 33), based on an incidence of 28% of sites in the control group failing to gain 2 mm or more of attachment. For baseline incidences in the range of the control groups of 3% and 55% the NNTs are 71 and 4.Probing depth reduction was greater for GTR than OFD: 1.21 mm (95% CI 0.53 to 1.88, Chi for heterogeneity 62.9 (df = 10), P < 0.001, I = 84%) or GTR + bone substitutes, weighted mean difference 1.24 mm (95% CI 0.89 to 1.59, Chi for heterogeneity 0.03 (df = 1), P = 0.85).For gingival recession, a statistically significant difference between GTR and open flap debridement controls was evident (mean difference 0.26 mm (95% CI Random Effects: 0.08, 0.43, Chi for heterogeneity 2.7 (df = 8), P = 0.95), with a greater change in recession from baseline for the control group.Regarding hard tissue probing at surgical re-entry, a statistically significant greater gain was found for GTR compared with open flap debridement. This amounted to a weighted mean difference of 1.39 mm (95% CI 1.08 to 1.71, Chi for heterogeneity 0.85 (df = 2), P = 0.65). For GTR + bone substitutes the difference was greater, with mean difference 3.37 mm (95% CI 3.14 to 3.61).Adverse effects were generally minor although with an increased treatment time for GTR. Exposure of the barrier membrane was frequently reported with a lack of evidence of an effect on healing.

Authors' Conclusions: GTR has a greater effect on probing measures of periodontal treatment than open flap debridement, including improved attachment gain, reduced pocket depth, less increase in gingival recession and more gain in hard tissue probing at re-entry surgery. However there is marked variability between studies and the clinical relevance of these changes is unknown. As a result, it is difficult to draw general conclusions about the clinical benefit of GTR. Whilst there is evidence that GTR can demonstrate a significant improvement over conventional open flap surgery, the factors affecting outcomes are unclear from the literature and these might include study conduct issues such as bias. Therefore, patients and health professionals need to consider the predictability of the technique compared with other methods of treatment before making final decisions on use. Since trial reports were often incomplete, we recommend that future trials should follow the CONSORT statement both in their conduct and reporting.There is therefore little value in future research repeating simple, small efficacy studies. The priority should be to identify factors associated with improved outcomes as well as investigating outcomes relevant to patients. Types of research might include large observational studies to generate hypotheses for testing in clinical trials, qualitative studies on patient-centred outcomes and trials exploring innovative analytic methods such as multilevel modelling. Open flap surgery should remain the control comparison in these studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD001724.pub3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6541039PMC
May 2019

Periodontal diagnosis in the context of the BSP implementation plan for the 2017 classification system of periodontal diseases and conditions: presentation of a patient with severe periodontitis following successful periodontal therapy and supportive periodontal treatment.

Br Dent J 2019 Mar;226(6):411-413

Department of Oral Surgery, The School of Dentistry, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.

Case report A case of a 59-year-old female patient who attended with a history of periodontitis, who had been successfully treated and maintained for several years, is described. Following a full periodontal assessment, the patient was diagnosed with 'generalised periodontitis; stage IV; grade C; currently stable'.Conclusion The present case report exemplifies the use of the 2017 classification system in a successfully treated and well-maintained patient whose treatment need is supportive periodontal treatment. It recognises the fact that, by staging and grading, the patient is a high-risk periodontitis patient due to historical disease experience, but also that following successful therapy and maintenance she is currently 'stable' with no need for active periodontal therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41415-019-0143-8DOI Listing
March 2019

Periodontal diagnosis in the context of the BSP implementation plan for the 2017 classification system of periodontal diseases and conditions: presentation of a patient with a history of periodontal treatment.

Br Dent J 2019 02;226(4):265-267

Department of Oral Surgery, The School of Dentistry, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.

This case report is the fourth in a series that illustrates the application of the BSP implementation plan for diagnosing periodontitis patients according to the 2017 classification. It demonstrates the diagnostic approach and disease classification for a previously treated patient who presented with a diagnosis of unstable generalised periodontitis; stage IV, grade C. We describe a case of a 49-year-old patient who attended with a history of periodontal treatment over several years. Following a full periodontal assessment, the patient was diagnosed with 'generalised periodontitis; stage IV, grade C; currently unstable'. This case report presents an example of how to classify and diagnose a patient using the 2017 classification system and highlights challenges with the application of the new classification in patients with a previous history of periodontal therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41415-019-0015-2DOI Listing
February 2019

Infographic. Nutrition and oral health in sport: time for action.

Br J Sports Med 2019 Nov 22;53(22):1432-1433. Epub 2019 Jan 22.

Performance Nutrition, English Institute of Sport, London, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2018-100358DOI Listing
November 2019

Oral care measures for preventing nursing home-acquired pneumonia.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 09 27;9:CD012416. Epub 2018 Sep 27.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, NO.14, 3rd Section of Ren Min Nan Road, Chengdu, Sichuan, China, 610041.

Background: Pneumonia occurring in residents of long-term care facilities and nursing homes can be termed 'nursing home-acquired pneumonia' (NHAP). NHAP is the leading cause of mortality among residents. NHAP may be caused by aspiration of oropharyngeal flora into the lung, and by failure of the individual's defence mechanisms to eliminate the aspirated bacteria. Oral care measures to remove or disrupt oral plaque might be effective in reducing the risk of NHAP.

Objectives: To assess effects of oral care measures for preventing nursing home-acquired pneumonia in residents of nursing homes and other long-term care facilities.

Search Methods: Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 15 November 2017), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library, 2017, Issue 10), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 15 November 2017), and Embase Ovid (1980 to 15 November 2017) and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; 1937 to 15 November 2017). The US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry (ClinicalTrials.gov) and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. We also searched the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and the Sciencepaper Online to 20 November 2017.

Selection Criteria: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated the effects of oral care measures (brushing, swabbing, denture cleaning mouthrinse, or combination) in residents of any age in nursing homes and other long-term care facilities.

Data Collection And Analysis: At least two review authors independently assessed search results, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias in the included studies. We contacted study authors for additional information. We pooled data from studies with similar interventions and outcomes. We reported risk ratio (RR) for dichotomous outcomes, mean difference (MD) for continuous outcomes, and hazard ratio (HR) for time-to-event outcomes, using random-effects models.

Main Results: We included four RCTs (3905 participants), all of which were at high risk of bias. The studies all evaluated one comparison: professional oral care versus usual oral care. We did not pool the results from one study (N = 834 participants), which was stopped at interim analysis due to lack of a clear difference between groups.We were unable to determine whether professional oral care resulted in a lower incidence rate of NHAP compared with usual oral care over an 18-month period (hazard ratio 0.65, 95% CI 0.29 to 1.46; one study, 2513 participants analysed; low-quality evidence).We were also unable to determine whether professional oral care resulted in a lower number of first episodes of pneumonia compared with usual care over a 24-month period (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.37 to 1.01; one study, 366 participants analysed; low-quality evidence).There was low-quality evidence from two studies that professional oral care may reduce the risk of pneumonia-associated mortality compared with usual oral care at 24-month follow-up (RR 0.41, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.72, 507 participants analysed).We were uncertain whether or not professional oral care may reduce all-cause mortality compared to usual care, when measured at 24-month follow-up (RR 0.55, 95% CI 0.27 to 1.15; one study, 141 participants analysed; very low-quality evidence).Only one study (834 participants randomised) measured adverse effects of the interventions. The study identified no serious events and 64 non-serious events, the most common of which were oral cavity disturbances (not defined) and dental staining.No studies evaluated oral care versus no oral care.

Authors' Conclusions: Although low-quality evidence suggests that professional oral care could reduce mortality due to pneumonia in nursing home residents when compared to usual care, this finding must be considered with caution. Evidence for other outcomes is inconclusive. We found no high-quality evidence to determine which oral care measures are most effective for reducing nursing home-acquired pneumonia. Further trials are needed to draw reliable conclusions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD012416.pub2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6513285PMC
September 2018

INTERVAL (investigation of NICE technologies for enabling risk-variable-adjusted-length) dental recalls trial: a multicentre randomised controlled trial investigating the best dental recall interval for optimum, cost-effective maintenance of oral health in dentate adults attending dental primary care.

BMC Oral Health 2018 08 7;18(1):135. Epub 2018 Aug 7.

University of Dundee School of Dentistry, Dundee, UK.

Background: Traditionally, patients at low risk and high risk of developing dental disease have been encouraged to attend dental recall appointments at regular intervals of six months between appointments. The lack of evidence for the effect that different recall intervals between dental check-ups have on patient outcomes, provider workload and healthcare costs is causing considerable uncertainty for the profession and patients, despite the publication of the NICE Guideline on dental recall. The need for primary research has been highlighted in the Health Technology Assessment Group's systematic review of routine dental check-ups, which found little evidence to support or refute the practice of encouraging 6-monthly dental check-ups in adults. The more recent Cochrane review on recall interval concluded there was insufficient evidence to draw any conclusions regarding the potential beneficial or harmful effects of altering the recall interval between dental check-ups. There is therefore an urgent need to assess the relative effectiveness and cost-benefit of different dental recall intervals in a robust, sufficiently powered randomised control trial (RCT) in primary dental care.

Methods: This is a four year multi-centre, parallel-group, randomised controlled trial with blinded outcome assessment based in dental primary care in the UK. Practitioners will recruit 2372 dentate adult patients. Patient participants will be randomised to one of three groups: fixed-period six month recall, risk-based recall, or fixed-period twenty-four month recall. Outcome data will be assessed through clinical examination, patient questionnaires and NHS databases. The primary outcomes measure gingival inflammation/bleeding on probing and oral health-related quality of life.

Discussion: INTERVAL will provide evidence for the most clinically-effective and cost-beneficial recall interval for maintaining optimum oral health in dentate adults attending general dental practice.

Trial Registration: ISRCTN95933794 (Date assigned 20/08/2008).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12903-018-0587-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6081817PMC
August 2018

Injectable local anaesthetic agents for dental anaesthesia.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018 07 10;7:CD006487. Epub 2018 Jul 10.

Endodontics Unit, Eastman Dental Hospital, 256 Grays Inn Road, London, UK, WC1X 8LD.

Background: Pain during dental treatment, which is a common fear of patients, can be controlled successfully by local anaesthetic. Several different local anaesthetic formulations and techniques are available to dentists.

Objectives: Our primary objectives were to compare the success of anaesthesia, the speed of onset and duration of anaesthesia, and systemic and local adverse effects amongst different local anaesthetic formulations for dental anaesthesia. We define success of anaesthesia as absence of pain during a dental procedure, or a negative response to electric pulp testing or other simulated scenario tests. We define dental anaesthesia as anaesthesia given at the time of any dental intervention.Our secondary objective was to report on patients' experience of the procedures carried out.

Search Methods: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; the Cochrane Library; 2018, Issue 1), MEDLINE (OVID SP), Embase, CINAHL PLUS, WEB OF SCIENCE, and other resources up to 31 January 2018. Other resources included trial registries, handsearched journals, conference proceedings, bibliographies/reference lists, and unpublished research.

Selection Criteria: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) testing different formulations of local anaesthetic used for clinical procedures or simulated scenarios. Studies could apply a parallel or cross-over design.

Data Collection And Analysis: We used standard Cochrane methodological approaches for data collection and analysis.

Main Results: We included 123 studies (19,223 participants) in the review. We pooled data from 68 studies (6615 participants) for meta-analysis, yielding 23 comparisons of local anaesthetic and 57 outcomes with 14 different formulations. Only 10 outcomes from eight comparisons involved clinical testing.We assessed the included studies as having low risk of bias in most domains. Seventy-three studies had at least one domain with unclear risk of bias. Fifteen studies had at least one domain with high risk of bias due to inadequate sequence generation, allocation concealment, masking of local anaesthetic cartridges for administrators or outcome assessors, or participant dropout or exclusion.We reported results for the eight most important comparisons.Success of anaesthesiaWhen the success of anaesthesia in posterior teeth with irreversible pulpitis requiring root canal treatment is tested, 4% articaine, 1:100,000 epinephrine, may be superior to 2% lidocaine, 1:100,000 epinephrine (31% with 2% lidocaine vs 49% with 4% articaine; risk ratio (RR) 1.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10 to 2.32; 4 parallel studies; 203 participants; low-quality evidence).When the success of anaesthesia for teeth/dental tissues requiring surgical procedures and surgical procedures/periodontal treatment, respectively, was tested, 3% prilocaine, 0.03 IU felypressin (66% with 3% prilocaine vs 76% with 2% lidocaine; RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.95; 2 parallel studies; 907 participants; moderate-quality evidence), and 4% prilocaine plain (71% with 4% prilocaine vs 83% with 2% lidocaine; RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.99; 2 parallel studies; 228 participants; low-quality evidence) were inferior to 2% lidocaine, 1:100,000 epinephrine.Comparative effects of 4% articaine, 1:100,000 epinephrine and 4% articaine, 1:200,000 epinephrine on success of anaesthesia for teeth/dental tissues requiring surgical procedures are uncertain (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.02; 3 parallel studies; 930 participants; very low-quality evidence).Comparative effects of 0.5% bupivacaine, 1:200,000 epinephrine and both 4% articaine, 1:200,000 epinephrine (odds ratio (OR) 0.87, 95% CI 0.27 to 2.83; 2 cross-over studies; 37 participants; low-quality evidence) and 2% lidocaine, 1:100,000 epinephrine (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.07 to 5.12; 2 cross-over studies; 31 participants; low-quality evidence) on success of anaesthesia for teeth requiring extraction are uncertain.Comparative effects of 2% mepivacaine, 1:100,000 epinephrine and both 4% articaine, 1:100,000 epinephrine (OR 3.82, 95% CI 0.61 to 23.82; 1 parallel and 1 cross-over study; 110 participants; low-quality evidence) and 2% lidocaine, 1:100,000 epinephrine (RR 1.16, 95% CI 0.25 to 5.45; 2 parallel studies; 68 participants; low-quality evidence) on success of anaesthesia for teeth requiring extraction and teeth with irreversible pulpitis requiring endodontic access and instrumentation, respectively, are uncertain.For remaining outcomes, assessing success of dental local anaesthesia via meta-analyses was not possible.Onset and duration of anaesthesiaFor comparisons assessing onset and duration, no clinical studies met our outcome definitions.Adverse effects (continuous pain measured on 170-mm Heft-Parker visual analogue scale (VAS))Differences in post-injection pain between 4% articaine, 1:100,000 epinephrine and 2% lidocaine, 1:100,000 epinephrine are small, as measured on a VAS (mean difference (MD) 4.74 mm, 95% CI -1.98 to 11.46 mm; 3 cross-over studies; 314 interventions; moderate-quality evidence). Lidocaine probably resulted in slightly less post-injection pain than articaine (MD 6.41 mm, 95% CI 1.01 to 11.80 mm; 3 cross-over studies; 309 interventions; moderate-quality evidence) on the same VAS.For remaining comparisons assessing local and systemic adverse effects, meta-analyses were not possible. Other adverse effects were rare and minor.Patients' experiencePatients' experience of procedures was not assessed owing to lack of data.

Authors' Conclusions: For success (absence of pain), low-quality evidence suggests that 4% articaine, 1:100,000 epinephrine was superior to 2% lidocaine, 1:100,000 epinephrine for root treating of posterior teeth with irreversible pulpitis, and 2% lidocaine, 1:100,000 epinephrine was superior to 4% prilocaine plain when surgical procedures/periodontal treatment was provided. Moderate-quality evidence shows that 2% lidocaine, 1:100,000 epinephrine was superior to 3% prilocaine, 0.03 IU felypressin when surgical procedures were performed.Adverse events were rare. Moderate-quality evidence shows no difference in pain on injection when 4% articaine, 1:100,000 epinephrine and 2% lidocaine, 1:100,000 epinephrine were compared, although lidocaine resulted in slightly less pain following injection.Many outcomes tested our primary objectives in simulated scenarios, although clinical alternatives may not be possible.Further studies are needed to increase the strength of the evidence. These studies should be clearly reported, have low risk of bias with adequate sample size, and provide data in a format that will allow meta-analysis. Once assessed, results of the 34 'Studies awaiting classification (full text unavailable)' may alter the conclusions of the review.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD006487.pub2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6513572PMC
July 2018

Oral health and performance impacts in elite and professional athletes.

Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 2018 12 25;46(6):563-568. Epub 2018 Jun 25.

Centre for Oral Health and Performance, University College London, Eastman Dental Institute, London, UK.

Objectives: To measure dental caries, erosive tooth wear (ETW), periodontal health, self-reported oral health problems and performance impacts in a representative sample of UK elite athletes from different sports using standardized conditions clearly defined clinical indices and a measure of impact on performance with evidence of validity in sport.

Methods: Cross-sectional study, with single, calibrated examiner, conducted in the local facilities of elite and professional UK athletes (UCL ethics number 6388/001). Main oral measures: dental caries (ICDAS), erosive tooth wear (BEWE), periodontal health (BPE) and athlete-reported performance impacts.

Results: We recruited 352 athletes from eleven sports. The mean age was 25 years (range 18-39), and 67.0% were male. We found caries (ICDAS code ≥3) in 49.1% of athletes, ETW (BEWE score of ≥7) in 41.4%, gingival bleeding on probing/presence of calculus (BPE score 1 or 2) in 77.0% and pocket probing depths of at least 4 mm (BPE score 3 or 4) in a further 21.6%. One in five athletes reported previous wisdom teeth problems. The odds of having caries were 2.4 times greater in team sport than endurance sport (95% CI 1.3-3.2). The odds of having erosion were 2.0 times greater in team sport than endurance sport (95% CI 1.3-3.1). Overall, 32.0% athletes reported an oral health-related impact on sport performance: oral pain (29.9%), difficulty participating in normal training and competition (9.0%), performance affected (5.8%) and reduction in training volume (3.8%). Other impacts were difficulty with eating (34.6%), relaxing (15.1%) and smiling (17.2%). Several oral health problems were associated with performance impacts.

Conclusions: This is the first large representative sample study of oral health in athletes from different sports at elite level. Although experience of oral disease differs by sport, the prevalence, in UK elite and professional athletes, is substantial, with common self-reported performance impacts. Regular screening and use of effective oral health promotion strategies may minimize performance impacts from poor oral health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cdoe.12392DOI Listing
December 2018

Mean annual attachment, bone level, and tooth loss: A systematic review.

J Periodontol 2018 06;89 Suppl 1:S120-S139

Biostatistics Unit, University College London Eastman Dental Institute, London, UK.

Background: Rate of progression of periodontitis has been used to inform the design of classifications of periodontal diseases. However, the evidence underpinning this topic is unclear and no systematic review has yet been conducted.

Objectives: The focused question for this systematic review was: in adults, what is the progression of periodontitis in terms of clinical attachment loss, radiographic bone loss, and tooth loss?

Data Sources: Highly sensitive electronic search was conducted for published data in MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, and unpublished grey literature in OpenGrey up to February 2016. Reference lists of retrieved studies for full-text screening and reviews were hand-searched for potentially eligible studies.

Study Eligibility Criteria And Participants: Prospective, longitudinal observational studies with follow-up of at least 12 months and presenting data on the primary outcome, change in clinical attachment level, in adults (age ≥18 years). Secondary outcomes, tooth loss and bone level change, were only assessed in studies reporting the primary outcome. Studies investigating specific disease populations or only on treated periodontitis patients were excluded.

Study Appraisal And Synthesis Methods: Risk of bias and methodology were assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale with two additional questions on security of outcome assessment. Studies were pooled by abstracting or estimating mean annual attachment or bone level change and annual tooth loss. Random effects meta-analysis was conducted with investigation of effect of potential modifiers where possible.

Results: A total 11,482 records were screened for eligibility; 33 publications of 16 original studies reporting on more than 8,600 participants were finally included as eligible for the review. The studies represented populations from both developing and developed economies. Mean annual attachment loss was 0.1 mm per year (95% CI 0.068, 0.132; I = 99%) and mean annual tooth loss was 0.2 teeth per year (95% CI 0.10, 0.33; I = 94%). Observational analysis of highest and lowest mean attachment change quintiles suggested substantial differences between groups with minimal annual change in the lowest quintile and an average deterioration of 0.45 mm mean attachment loss per year in the highest group. This value increased to 0.6 mm per year with periodontitis alone. There was surprisingly little effect of age or gender on attachment level change. Geographic location, however, was associated with more than three times higher mean annual attachment loss in Sri Lanka and China (0.20 mm, 95% CI 0.15, 0.27; I  = 83%) vs North America and Europe (0.056 mm, 95% CI 0.025, 0.087; I  = 99%) P < 0.001.

Limitations: There were a limited number of studies (N = 16), high variability of design in key study components (sampling frames, included ages, data analyses), and high statistical heterogeneity that could not be explained.

Conclusions: Within the limitations of the research, the data show that mean annual attachment level change varies considerably both within and between populations. Overall, the evidence does not support or refute the differentiation between forms of periodontal diseases based upon progression of attachment level change.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/JPER.17-0062DOI Listing
June 2018

Periodontitis: Consensus report of workgroup 2 of the 2017 World Workshop on the Classification of Periodontal and Peri-Implant Diseases and Conditions.

J Periodontol 2018 06;89 Suppl 1:S173-S182

University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, SAR China.

A new periodontitis classification scheme has been adopted, in which forms of the disease previously recognized as "chronic" or "aggressive" are now grouped under a single category ("periodontitis") and are further characterized based on a multi-dimensional staging and grading system. Staging is largely dependent upon the severity of disease at presentation as well as on the complexity of disease management, while grading provides supplemental information about biological features of the disease including a history-based analysis of the rate of periodontitis progression; assessment of the risk for further progression; analysis of possible poor outcomes of treatment; and assessment of the risk that the disease or its treatment may negatively affect the general health of the patient. Necrotizing periodontal diseases, whose characteristic clinical phenotype includes typical features (papilla necrosis, bleeding, and pain) and are associated with host immune response impairments, remain a distinct periodontitis category. Endodontic-periodontal lesions, defined by a pathological communication between the pulpal and periodontal tissues at a given tooth, occur in either an acute or a chronic form, and are classified according to signs and symptoms that have direct impact on their prognosis and treatment. Periodontal abscesses are defined as acute lesions characterized by localized accumulation of pus within the gingival wall of the periodontal pocket/sulcus, rapid tissue destruction and are associated with risk for systemic dissemination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/JPER.17-0721DOI Listing
June 2018

Periodontitis: Consensus report of workgroup 2 of the 2017 World Workshop on the Classification of Periodontal and Peri-Implant Diseases and Conditions.

J Clin Periodontol 2018 06;45 Suppl 20:S162-S170

University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, SAR China.

A new periodontitis classification scheme has been adopted, in which forms of the disease previously recognized as "chronic" or "aggressive" are now grouped under a single category ("periodontitis") and are further characterized based on a multi-dimensional staging and grading system. Staging is largely dependent upon the severity of disease at presentation as well as on the complexity of disease management, while grading provides supplemental information about biological features of the disease including a history-based analysis of the rate of periodontitis progression; assessment of the risk for further progression; analysis of possible poor outcomes of treatment; and assessment of the risk that the disease or its treatment may negatively affect the general health of the patient. Necrotizing periodontal diseases, whose characteristic clinical phenotype includes typical features (papilla necrosis, bleeding, and pain) and are associated with host immune response impairments, remain a distinct periodontitis category. Endodontic-periodontal lesions, defined by a pathological communication between the pulpal and periodontal tissues at a given tooth, occur in either an acute or a chronic form, and are classified according to signs and symptoms that have direct impact on their prognosis and treatment. Periodontal abscesses are defined as acute lesions characterized by localized accumulation of pus within the gingival wall of the periodontal pocket/sulcus, rapid tissue destruction and are associated with risk for systemic dissemination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcpe.12946DOI Listing
June 2018

Mean annual attachment, bone level, and tooth loss: A systematic review.

J Clin Periodontol 2018 06;45 Suppl 20:S112-S129

Biostatistics Unit, University College London Eastman Dental Institute, London, UK.

Background: Rate of progression of periodontitis has been used to inform the design of classifications of periodontal diseases. However, the evidence underpinning this topic is unclear and no systematic review has yet been conducted.

Objectives: The focused question for this systematic review was: in adults, what is the progression of periodontitis in terms of clinical attachment loss, radiographic bone loss, and tooth loss?

Data Sources: Highly sensitive electronic search was conducted for published data in MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, and unpublished grey literature in OpenGrey up to February 2016. Reference lists of retrieved studies for full-text screening and reviews were hand-searched for potentially eligible studies.

Study Eligibility Criteria And Participants: Prospective, longitudinal observational studies with follow-up of at least 12 months and presenting data on the primary outcome, change in clinical attachment level, in adults (age ≥18 years). Secondary outcomes, tooth loss and bone level change, were only assessed in studies reporting the primary outcome. Studies investigating specific disease populations or only on treated periodontitis patients were excluded.

Study Appraisal And Synthesis Methods: Risk of bias and methodology were assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale with two additional questions on security of outcome assessment. Studies were pooled by abstracting or estimating mean annual attachment or bone level change and annual tooth loss. Random effects meta-analysis was conducted with investigation of effect of potential modifiers where possible.

Results: A total 11,482 records were screened for eligibility; 33 publications of 16 original studies reporting on more than 8,600 participants were finally included as eligible for the review. The studies represented populations from both developing and developed economies. Mean annual attachment loss was 0.1 mm per year (95% CI 0.068, 0.132; I = 99%) and mean annual tooth loss was 0.2 teeth per year (95% CI 0.10, 0.33; I = 94%). Observational analysis of highest and lowest mean attachment change quintiles suggested substantial differences between groups with minimal annual change in the lowest quintile and an average deterioration of 0.45 mm mean attachment loss per year in the highest group. This value increased to 0.6 mm per year with periodontitis alone. There was surprisingly little effect of age or gender on attachment level change. Geographic location, however, was associated with more than three times higher mean annual attachment loss in Sri Lanka and China (0.20 mm, 95% CI 0.15, 0.27; I  = 83%) vs North America and Europe (0.056 mm, 95% CI 0.025, 0.087; I  = 99%) P < 0.001.

Limitations: There were a limited number of studies (N = 16), high variability of design in key study components (sampling frames, included ages, data analyses), and high statistical heterogeneity that could not be explained.

Conclusions: Within the limitations of the research, the data show that mean annual attachment level change varies considerably both within and between populations. Overall, the evidence does not support or refute the differentiation between forms of periodontal diseases based upon progression of attachment level change.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcpe.12943DOI Listing
June 2018

Nutrition and oral health in sport: time for action.

Br J Sports Med 2018 Dec 31;52(23):1483-1484. Epub 2018 May 31.

Performance Nutrition, English Institute of Sport, London, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2017-098919DOI Listing
December 2018

Dental caries and periodontal diseases in the ageing population: call to action to protect and enhance oral health and well-being as an essential component of healthy ageing - Consensus report of group 4 of the joint EFP/ORCA workshop on the boundaries between caries and periodontal diseases.

J Clin Periodontol 2017 Mar;44 Suppl 18:S135-S144

Department of Operative Dentistry, Charitè - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.

Background: Over the last two decades, progress in prevention and treatment of caries and periodontal diseases has been translated to better oral health and improved tooth retention in the adult population. The ageing population and the increasing expectations of good oral health-related quality of life in older age pose formidable challenges to clinical care and healthcare systems.

Aims: The objective of this workshop was to critically review scientific evidence and develop specific recommendations to: (i) prevent tooth loss and retain oral function through prevention and treatment of caries and periodontal diseases later in life and (ii) increase awareness of the health benefits of oral health as an essential component of healthy ageing.

Methods: Discussions were initiated by three systematic reviews covering aspects of epidemiology of caries and periodontal diseases in elders, the impact of senescence on caries and periodontal diseases and the effectiveness of interventions. Recommendations were developed based on evidence from the systematic reviews and expert opinion.

Results: Key messages included: (i) the ageing population, trends in risk factors and improved tooth retention point towards an expected increase in the total burden of disease posed by caries and periodontal diseases in the older population; (ii) specific surveillance is required to monitor changes in oral health in the older population; (iii) senescence impacts oral health including periodontitis and possibly caries susceptibility; (iv) evidence indicates that caries and periodontal diseases can be prevented and treated also in older adults; (v) oral health and functional tooth retention later in life provides benefits both in terms of oral and general quality of life and in terms of preventing physical decline and dependency by fostering a healthy diet; (vi) oral healthcare professionals and individuals should not base decisions impacting tooth retention on chronological age but on level of dependency, life expectancy, frailty, comfort and quality of life; and (vii) health policy should remove barriers to oral health care for vulnerable elders.

Conclusions: Consensus was reached on specific actionable priorities for public health officials, oral healthcare professionals, educators and workforce planners, caregivers and relatives as well as for the public and ageing patients. Some priorities have major implications for policymakers as health systems need to adapt to the challenge by systemwide changes to enable (promote) tooth retention later in life and management of deteriorating oral health in increasingly dependent elders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcpe.12681DOI Listing
March 2017

Self-Reported Outcome Measures of the Impact of Injury and Illness on Athlete Performance: A Systematic Review.

Sports Med 2017 Jul;47(7):1335-1348

UCL Library Services, University College London, London, UK.

Background: Self-reported outcome measures of athlete health, wellbeing and performance add information to that obtained from clinical measures. However valid, universally accepted outcome measures are required.

Objective: To determine which athlete-reported outcome measures of performance have been used to measure the impact of injury and illness on performance in sport and assess evidence to support their validity.

Methods: The authors searched Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, CINAHL Plus, SPORTDiscus with Full Text and Cochrane library to January 2016. Predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied and papers included if an outcome measure of performance, assessed in relation to illness, injury or a related intervention, was reported by an elite, adult, able-bodied athlete. A checklist was used to assess eligible outcome measures for aspects of validity. Reporting of this study was guided by PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews.

Results: Twenty athlete-reported outcome measures in 21 papers were identified. Of these 20, only four cited validation. Of these four, three reported evidence to support validity in elite athlete groups as defined by the predetermined checklist. Fifteen patient-reported outcome measures were identified, of which four demonstrated validity in young athletic populations.

Conclusions: Most athlete-reported outcome measures of performance have been designed for individual studies with no reported assessment of validity. Despite some limitations, the Oslo Sports Trauma Centre overuse injury questionnaire demonstrates validity and potential utility to investigate the self-reported impact of pre-defined conditions on athletic performance across different sports.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40279-016-0651-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5488135PMC
July 2017

WITHDRAWN: Occlusal interventions for periodontitis in adults.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2016 11 28;11:CD004968. Epub 2016 Nov 28.

Perio Solutions, 2 Ankerage Green, Warndon, Worcester, UK, WR4 0DZ.

Background: Occlusal interventions may be used in adults with periodontitis. At present there is little consensus regarding the indications and effectiveness of occlusal interventions in periodontal patients.

Objectives: To identify and analyse the evidence for the effect of occlusal interventions on adults who have periodontitis in relation to tooth loss, probing depths, clinical attachment level, adverse effects and patient-centred outcomes.

Search Methods: The search was last conducted in April 2008. We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 30th April 2008); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2008, Issue 1); MEDLINE (1966 to 30th April 2008); and EMBASE (1980 to 30th April 2008). There were no language restrictions.

Selection Criteria: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing occlusal interventions in patients with periodontitis with a follow up of at least 3 months.

Data Collection And Analysis: Screening of eligible studies, assessment of the methodological quality of the trials and data extraction were conducted in duplicate and independently by two review authors. Any disagreements between the review authors were resolved by discussion. The main investigator of the included trial was contacted to obtain missing information. The Cochrane Collaboration statistical guidelines were to be followed for data synthesis.

Main Results: Abstracts of 54 papers were identified by the search. One paper was eligible for inclusion. This paper studied the effect of occlusal adjustment against no occlusal adjustment in patients who were treated with non-surgical and surgical periodontal therapy. Methodological quality assessment of the included paper revealed that randomisation of the patients into the treatment groups was adequate. Allocation concealment, masking of patients and clinicians were not reported and no response to author contact was received.Mean change in attachment level and mean pocket depth were reported in the included trial. Mean difference in clinical attachment level between occlusal intervention and control in the non-surgical group amounted to 0.38 mm (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.04 to 0.72) favouring the occlusal intervention group and was statistically significant. In the surgical group the mean difference in clinical attachment level between occlusal intervention and control amounted to 0.40 mm (95% CI 0.05 to 0.75) favouring the occlusal intervention group and was also statistically significant. The difference in mean pocket depth reduction between the occlusal intervention and control in both the surgical and non-surgical groups was less than 0.1 mm and was not statistically significant. Tooth loss, patient-centred affects and adverse effects were not reported. Meta-analysis was not possible due to the inclusion of only one study.

Authors' Conclusions: There is only one randomised trial that has addressed this question. The data from this study are inconclusive. We therefore conclude there is no evidence for or against the use of occlusal interventions in clinical practice. This question can only be addressed by adequately powered bias-protected randomised controlled trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD004968.pub3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6464553PMC
November 2016

Has the quality of reporting in periodontology changed in 14 years? A systematic review.

J Clin Periodontol 2016 10 4;43(10):833-8. Epub 2016 Aug 4.

International Centre for Evidence-Based Oral Health, University College London, Eastman Dental Institute, London, UK.

Background: Quality of reporting randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in periodontology has been poor. Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials guidelines and an extension for non-pharmacologic trials (CONSORT-NPE), were introduced to aid in improving this.

Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the quality of reporting in periodontology, changes over the last 14 years, and adherence to CONSORT-NPE.

Methods: Randomized controlled trials in humans, published in three periodontal journals, from 2013 to 2015 were included. Search was conducted through Medline, Embase and hand searching.

Results: One hundred and seventy-three full-text articles included. Two reviewers screened for reporting quality (κ = 0.69, 95% CI 0.60-0.76). 84% of studies (n = 145) described randomization methods, 74% (n = 128) highlighted examiner blinding and 87% (n = 151) accounted for patients at study conclusion. Patient and caregiver blinding was addressed in 50% (n = 70) and 50% (n = 27) of studies respectively. 64% (n = 110) described adequate allocation concealment. Compared with Montenegro et al. (2002, Journal of Dental Research, 81, 866), improvements seen in describing randomization (2002, 16.5%; 2016, 84%), allocation concealment (2002, 6.5%; 2016, 64%), caregiver masking (2002, 17%; 2016, 50%). CONSORT-NPE; 62% (n = 107) had detailed explanations of all treatments, 88% (n = 152) lacked protocols for adherence of caregivers' to an intervention. Only 17% (n = 29) described caregivers' expertise and case volume.

Conclusions: Substantial improvements have occurred. Attention is required for statistical analysis of patient losses and masking. CONSORT-NPE aspects were poorly reported.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcpe.12572DOI Listing
October 2016

Tooth loss in molars with and without furcation involvement - a systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Clin Periodontol 2016 Feb 12;43(2):156-66. Epub 2016 Feb 12.

Clinical Oral Research Centre, Institute of Dentistry, Queen Mary University London (QMUL), London, UK.

Background: The aim of this study was to investigate risk of tooth loss in molars with furcation involvement (FI) based on initial diagnosis.

Materials And Methods: A systematic search of the literature was conducted in Ovid Medline, Embase, LILACS and Cochrane Library for longitudinal studies with at least 3 years follow-up including measures of FI and data on tooth loss.

Results: A total of 21 studies were included in the review, from an initial search of 1207 titles. The relative risk of tooth loss during maintenance therapy attributable to FI was 1.46 (95% CI = 0.99-2.15, p = 0.06) for studies up to 10 years and 2.21 (95% CI = 1.79-2.74, p < 0.0001) for studies with a follow-up of 10-15 years. A gradual increase in the risk of tooth loss was observed for molars with degree II and III FI.

Conclusions: The presence of FI approximately doubles the risk of tooth loss for molars maintained in supportive periodontal therapy for up to 10-15 years. However, most molars, even with grade III FI respond well to periodontal therapy, suggesting that every effort should be made to maintain these teeth when possible. Long-term studies reporting patient-reported outcomes are needed to substantiate this conclusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcpe.12497DOI Listing
February 2016

Oral health screening should be routine in professional football: a call to action for sports and exercise medicine (SEM) clinicians.

Br J Sports Med 2016 Nov 15;50(21):1295-1296. Epub 2015 Dec 15.

Football Medicine & Science Department, Manchester United Football Club, Manchester, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2015-095769DOI Listing
November 2016

Treatment of periodontal disease for glycaemic control in people with diabetes mellitus.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015 Nov 6(11):CD004714. Epub 2015 Nov 6.

Edinburgh Dental Institute, University of Edinburgh, Lauriston Place, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, EH3 8HA.

Background: Glycaemic control is a key issue in the care of people with diabetes mellitus (DM). Periodontal disease is the inflammation and destruction of the underlying supporting tissues of the teeth. Some studies have suggested a bidirectional relationship between glycaemic control and periodontal disease. This review updates the previous version published in 2010.

Objectives: The objective is to investigate the effect of periodontal therapy on glycaemic control in people with diabetes mellitus.

Search Methods: We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (to 31 December 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (Cochrane Library 2014, Issue 11), MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 31 December 2014), EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 31 December 2014), LILACS via BIREME (1982 to 31 December 2014), and CINAHL via EBSCO (1937 to 31 December 2014). ZETOC (1993 to 31 December 2014) and Web of Knowledge (1990 to 31 December 2014) were searched for conference proceedings. Additionally, two periodontology journals were handsearched for completeness, Annals of Periodontology (1996 to 2003) and Periodontology 2000 (1993 to 2003). We searched the US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry (http://clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases.

Selection Criteria: We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of people with type 1 or type 2 DM (T1DM/T2DM) with a diagnosis of periodontitis. Interventions included periodontal treatments such as mechanical debridement, surgical treatment and antimicrobial therapy. Two broad comparisons were proposed:1. periodontal therapy versus no active intervention/usual care;2. periodontal therapy versus alternative periodontal therapy.

Data Collection And Analysis: For this review update, at least two review authors independently examined the titles and abstracts retrieved by the search, selected the included trials, extracted data from included trials and assessed included trials for risk of bias.Our primary outcome was blood glucose levels measured as glycated (glycosylated) haemoglobin assay (HbA1c).Our secondary outcomes included adverse effects, periodontal indices (bleeding on probing (BOP), clinical attachment level (CAL), gingival index (GI), plaque index (PI) and probing pocket depth (PPD)), cost implications and diabetic complications.

Main Results: We included 35 studies (including seven from the previous version of the review), which included 2565 participants in total. All studies used a parallel RCT design, and 33 studies (94%) only targeted T2DM patients. There was variation between studies with regards to included age groups (ages 18 to 80), duration of follow-up (3 to 12 months), use of antidiabetic therapy, and included participants' baseline HbA1c levels (from 5.5% to 13.1%).We assessed 29 studies (83%) as being at high risk of bias, two studies (6%) as being at low risk of bias, and four studies (11%) as unclear. Thirty-four of the studies provided data suitable for analysis under one or both of the two comparisons.Comparison 1: low quality evidence from 14 studies (1499 participants) comparing periodontal therapy with no active intervention/usual care demonstrated that mean HbA1c was 0.29% lower (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.48% to 0.10% lower) 3 to 4 months post-treatment, and 0.02% lower after 6 months (five studies, 826 participants; 95% CI 0.20% lower to 0.16% higher).Comparison 2: 21 studies (920 participants) compared different periodontal therapies with each other. There was only very low quality evidence for the multiple head-to-head comparisons, the majority of which were unsuitable to be pooled, and provided no clear evidence of a benefit for one periodontal intervention over another. We were able to pool the specific comparison between scaling and root planing (SRP) plus antimicrobial versus SRP and there was no consistent evidence that the addition of antimicrobials to SRP was of any benefit to delivering SRP alone (mean HbA1c 0.00% lower: 12 studies, 450 participants; 95% CI 0.22% lower to 0.22% higher) at 3-4 months post-treatment, or after 6 months (mean HbA1c 0.04% lower: five studies, 206 patients; 95% CI 0.41% lower to 0.32% higher).Less than half of the studies measured adverse effects. The evidence was insufficient to conclude whether any of the treatments were associated with harm. No other patient-reported outcomes (e.g. quality of life) were measured by the included studies, and neither were cost implications or diabetic complications.Studies showed varying degrees of success with regards to achieving periodontal health, with some showing high levels of residual inflammation following treatment. Statistically significant improvements were shown for all periodontal indices (BOP, CAL, GI, PI and PPD) at 3-4 and 6 months in comparison 1; however, this was less clear for individual comparisons within the broad category of comparison 2.

Authors' Conclusions: There is low quality evidence that the treatment of periodontal disease by SRP does improve glycaemic control in people with diabetes, with a mean percentage reduction in HbA1c of 0.29% at 3-4 months; however, there is insufficient evidence to demonstrate that this is maintained after 4 months.There was no evidence to support that one periodontal therapy was more effective than another in improving glycaemic control in people with diabetes mellitus.In clinical practice, ongoing professional periodontal treatment will be required to maintain clinical improvements beyond 6 months. Further research is required to determine whether adjunctive drug therapies should be used with periodontal treatment. Future RCTs should evaluate this, provide longer follow-up periods, and consider the inclusion of a third 'no treatment' control arm.Larger, well conducted and clearly reported studies are needed in order to understand the potential of periodontal treatment to improve glycaemic control among people with diabetes mellitus. In addition, it will be important in future studies that the intervention is effective in reducing periodontal inflammation and maintaining it at lowered levels throughout the period of observation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD004714.pub3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6486035PMC
November 2015

Poor oral health including active caries in 187 UK professional male football players: clinical dental examination performed by dentists.

Br J Sports Med 2016 Jan 2;50(1):41-4. Epub 2015 Nov 2.

Sheffield, UK.

Background: The few studies that have assessed oral health in professional/elite football suggest poor oral health with minimal data on impact on performance. The aim of this research was to determine oral health in a representative sample of professional footballers in the UK and investigate possible determinants of oral health and self-reported impact on well-being, training and performance.

Methods: Clinical oral health examination of senior squad players using standard methods and outcomes carried out at club training facilities. Questionnaire data were also collected. 8 teams were included, 5 Premier League, 2 Championship and 1 League One.

Results: 6 dentists examined 187 players who represented >90% of each senior squad. Oral health was poor: 37% players had active dental caries, 53% dental erosion and 5% moderate-severe irreversible periodontal disease. 45% were bothered by their oral health, 20% reported an impact on their quality of life and 7% on training or performance. Despite attendance for dental check-ups, oral health deteriorated with age.

Conclusions: This is the first large, representative sample study in professional football. Oral health of professional footballers is poor, and this impacts on well-being and performance. Successful strategies to promote oral health within professional football are urgently needed, and research should investigate models based on best evidence for behaviour change and implementation science. Furthermore, this study provides strong evidence to support oral health screening within professional football.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2015-094953DOI Listing
January 2016

A systematic review of implant outcomes in treated periodontitis patients.

Clin Oral Implants Res 2016 Jul 18;27(7):787-844. Epub 2015 Sep 18.

Department of Clinical Research, Periodontology Unit, UCL Eastman Dental Institute, London, UK.

Objectives: To investigate the effect of treated periodontitis on implant outcomes in partially edentulous individuals compared with periodontally healthy patients.

Material And Methods: Longitudinal studies reporting on implant survival, success, incidence of peri-implantitis, bone loss and periodontal status, and on partially dentate patients with a history of treated periodontitis were included.

Results: The search yielded 14,917 citations. Twenty-seven publications met the inclusion criteria for qualitative data synthesis. Implant success and survival were higher in periodontally healthy patients, whilst bone loss and incidence of peri-implantitis was increased in patients with history of treated periodontitis. There was a higher tendency for implant loss and biological complications in patients previously presenting with severe forms of periodontitis. The strength of the evidence was limited by the heterogeneity of the included studies in terms of study design, population, therapy, unit of analysis, inconsistent definition of baselines and outcomes, as well as by the inadequate reporting of statistical analysis and accounting for confounding factors; thus, meta-analysis could not be performed.

Conclusions: Implants placed in patients treated for periodontal disease are associated with higher incidence of biological complications and lower success and survival rates than those placed in periodontally healthy patients. Severe forms of periodontal disease are associated with higher rates of implant loss. However, it is critical to develop well-designed, long-term prospective studies to provide further substantive evidence on the association of these outcomes.
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July 2016

Full-mouth treatment modalities (within 24 hours) for chronic periodontitis in adults.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2015 Apr 17(4):CD004622. Epub 2015 Apr 17.

Prosthetic Dentistry and Biomaterials Science, Hannover Medical School, Carl-Neuberg-Straße 1, Hannover, Germany, 30625.

Background: Periodontitis is chronic inflammation that causes damage to the soft tissues and bones supporting the teeth. Mild to moderate periodontitis affects up to 50% of adults. Conventional treatment is quadrant scaling and root planing. In an attempt to enhance treatment outcomes, alternative protocols for anti-infective periodontal therapy have been introduced: full-mouth scaling (FMS) and full-mouth disinfection (FMD), which is scaling plus use of an antiseptic. This review updates our previous review of full-mouth treatment modalities, which was published in 2008.

Objectives: To evaluate the clinical effects of 1) full-mouth scaling (over 24 hours) or 2) full-mouth disinfection (over 24 hours) for the treatment of chronic periodontitis compared to conventional quadrant scaling and root planing (over a series of visits at least one week apart). A secondary objective was to evaluate whether there was a difference in clinical effect between full-mouth disinfection and full-mouth scaling.

Search Methods: The following electronic databases were searched: the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (to 26 March 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; The Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 2), MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 26 March 2015), EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 26 March 2015) and CINAHL via EBSCO (1937 to 26 March 2015). We searched the US National Institutes of Health Trials Register (ClinicalTrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing studies. There were no restrictions regarding language or date of publication in the searches of the electronic databases. We scanned reference lists from relevant articles and contacted the authors of eligible studies to identify trials and obtain additional information.

Selection Criteria: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with at least three months of follow-up that evaluated full-mouth scaling and root planing within 24 hours with adjunctive use of an antiseptic such as chlorhexidine (FMD) or without the use of antiseptic (FMS), compared to conventional quadrant scaling and root planing (control). Participants had a clinical diagnosis of chronic periodontitis according to the International Classification of Periodontal Diseases. We excluded studies of people with aggressive periodontitis, systemic disorders or who were taking antibiotics.

Data Collection And Analysis: Several review authors independently conducted data extraction and risk of bias assessment (which focused on method of randomisation, allocation concealment, blinding of examiners and completeness of follow-up). Our primary outcome was tooth loss and secondary outcomes were change in probing pocket depth (PPD), bleeding on probing (BOP) and probing attachment (i.e. clinical attachment level; CAL), and adverse events. We followed the methodological guidelines of The Cochrane Collaboration.

Main Results: We included 12 trials, which recruited 389 participants. No studies assessed the primary outcome tooth loss.Ten trials compared FMS and control; three of these were assessed as being at high risk of bias, three as unclear risk and four as low risk. There was no evidence for a benefit for FMS over the control for change in probing pocket depth (PPD), gain in probing attachment (i.e. clinical attachment level; CAL) or bleeding on probing (BOP). The difference in changes between FMS and control for whole mouth PPD at three to four months was 0.01 mm higher (95% CI -0.17 to 0.19, three trials, 82 participants). There was no evidence of heterogeneity. The difference in changes for CAL was 0.02 mm lower (95% CI -0.26 to 0.22, three trials, 82 participants), and the difference in change in BOP was 2.86 per cent of sites lower (95% CI -7.65 to 1.93, four trials, 120 participants).We included six trials in the meta-analyses comparing FMD and control, with two trials assessed as being at high risk of bias, one as low and three as unclear. The analyses did not indicate a benefit for FMD over the control for PPD, CAL or BOP. The difference in changes for whole-mouth PPD between FMD and control at three to four months was 0.13 mm higher (95% CI -0.09 to 0.34, two trials, 44 participants). There was no evidence of heterogeneity. The difference in changes for CAL was 0.04mm higher (95% CI -0.25 to 0.33, two trials, 44 participants) and the difference in change in BOP being 12.59 higher for FMD (95% CI -8.58 to 33.77, three trials, 68 participants).Three trials were included in the analyses comparing FMS and FMD. The mean difference in PPD change at three to four months was 0.11 mm lower (-0.34 to 0.12, two trials, 45 participants) indicating no evidence of a difference between the two interventions. There was a difference in the gain in CAL at three to four months (-0.25 mm, 95% CI -0.42 to -0.07, two trials, 45 participants), favouring FMD but this was not found at six to eight months. There was no evidence for a difference between FMS and FMD for BOP (-1.59, 95% CI -9.97 to 6.80, two trials, 45 participants).Analyses were conducted for different teeth types (single- or multi-rooted) and for teeth with different levels of probing depth at baseline, for PPD, CAL and BOP. There was insufficient evidence of a benefit for either FMS or FMD.Harms and adverse events were reported in eight studies. The most important harm identified was an increased body temperature after FMS or FMD treatments.We assessed the quality of the evidence for each comparison and outcome as 'low' because of design limitations leading to risk of bias and because of the small number of trials and participants, which led to imprecision in the effect estimates.

Authors' Conclusions: The inclusion of five additional RCTs in this updated review comparing the clinical effects of conventional mechanical treatment with FMS and FMD approaches for the treatment of chronic periodontitis has not changed the conclusions of the original review. From the twelve included trials there is no clear evidence that FMS or FMD provide additional benefit compared to conventional scaling and root planing. In practice, the decision to select one approach to non-surgical periodontal therapy over another should include patient preference and the convenience of the treatment schedule.
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April 2015