Publications by authors named "Ian Chiu"

2 Publications

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Predictors of Academic Neurosurgical Career Trajectory among International Medical Graduates Training Within the United States.

Neurosurgery 2021 Aug;89(3):478-485

Department of Neurosurgery, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Background: Within the literature, there has been limited research tracking the career trajectories of international medical graduates (IMGs) following residency training.

Objective: To compare the characteristics of IMG and US medical school graduate (USMG) neurosurgeons holding academic positions in the United States and also analyze factors that influence IMG career trajectories following US-based residency training.

Methods: We collected data on 243 IMGs and 2506 USMGs who graduated from Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)-accredited neurosurgery residency programs. We assessed for significant differences between cohorts, and a logistic regression model was used for the outcome of academic career trajectory.

Results: Among the 2749 neurosurgeons in our study, IMGs were more likely to pursue academic neurosurgery careers relative to USMGs (59.7% vs 51.1%; P = .011) and were also more likely to complete a research fellowship before beginning residency (odds ratio [OR] = 9.19; P < .0001). Among current US academic neurosurgeons, USMGs had significantly higher pre-residency h-indices relative to IMGs (1.23 vs 1.01; P < .0001) with no significant differences between cohorts when comparing h-indices during (USMG = 5.02, IMG = 4.80; P = .67) or after (USMG = 14.05, IMG = 13.90; P = .72) residency. Completion of a post-residency clinical fellowship was the only factor independently associated with an academic career trajectory among IMGs (OR = 1.73, P = .046).

Conclusion: Our study suggests that while IMGs begin their US residency training with different research backgrounds and achievements relative to USMG counterparts, they attain similar levels of academic productivity following residency. Furthermore, IMGs are more likely to pursue academic careers relative to USMGs. Our work may be useful for better understanding IMG career trajectories following US-based neurosurgery residency training.
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August 2021

Person- and Incident-Level Predictors of Blame, Disclosure, and Reporting to Authorities in Rape Scenarios.

J Interpers Violence 2021 05 23;36(9-10):NP4788-NP4814. Epub 2018 Aug 23.

Binghamton University, NY, USA.

Rapes perpetrated during college are both common and underreported. Research highlights that several person- and incident-level factors relating to gender and sexuality may diminish reporting, by themselves and as they pertain to attributions of blame for the assault. In this study, male and female college students ( = 916) read vignettes describing a rape perpetrated by a man against a woman, a man against a man, or a woman against a man. Participants rated the blameworthiness of both perpetrator and victim and rated the likelihood that they would disclose the rape to social ties or health services or report it to authorities if they were in the victim's position. We found that male gender and heterosexual orientation predicted higher victim blame, lower perpetrator blame, and lower likelihood of disclosure, although relative endorsement of masculine gender ideology seemed to be driving these associations, as well as predicted lower likelihood of reporting to authorities. Controlling for other factors, vignettes portraying a woman raping a man led to a lower likelihood of disclosing or reporting the assault, compared with a male-on-female rape. We also found that the effects of female-on-male rape and traditional masculine ideologies tied to rape disclosure partially by decreasing blame to the perpetrator, which itself carried a unique influence on decisions to report. Our findings overall indicate that factors related to gender, sexuality, and blame have myriad influences and may contribute to low rates of disclosing rape to important outlets.
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May 2021