Publications by authors named "I Khadra"

28 Publications

Small scale in vitro method to determine a potential bioequivalent equilibrium solubility range for fed human intestinal fluid.

Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2022 Jun 16. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, 161 Cathedral Street, Glasgow, G4 0RE, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Intestinal drug solubility is a key parameter controlling oral absorption but varies both intra and inter individuals and between the fasted and fed states, with food intake known to alter the bioavailability of many compounds. Intestinal solubility can be measured in vitro either using sampled fed human intestinal fluid (FeHIF) or simulated fed intestinal fluid (SIF) but neither approach is optimal. FeHIF is difficult to obtain and variable, whilst for fed SIF multiple recipes are available with no consensus on the ideal version. A recent study characterised FeHIF aspirates using a multidimensional approach and calculated nine simulated media recipes that covered over ninety percent of FeHIF compositional variability. In this study the equilibrium solubility of thirteen drugs have been measured using the nine simulated media recipes and compared to multiple previous design of experiment (DoE) studies, which have examined the impact of fed SIF media components on solubility. The measured nine media solubility data set is only statistically equivalent to the large scale 92 media DoE in 4 out of 13 drug comparisons, but has improved equivalence against small scale DoEs (9 or 10 media) with 6 out of 9 or 10 out of 12 (9 and 10 media respectively) equivalent. Selective removal of non-biorelevant compositions from the 92 media DoE improves statistical equivalence to 9 out of 13 comparisons. The results indicate that solubility equivalence is linked to media component concentrations and compositions, the nine media system is measuring a similar solubility space to previous systems, with a narrower solubility range than the 92 point DoE but equivalent to smaller DoE systems. Phenytoin and tadalafil display a narrow solubility range, a behaviour consistent with previous studies in fed and fasted states and only revealed through the multiple media approach. Custom DoE analysis of the nine media results to determine the most statistically significant component influencing solubility does not detect significant components. Indicating that the approach has a low statistical resolution and is not appropriate if determination of media component significance is required. This study demonstrates that it is possible to assess the fed intestinal equilibrium solubility envelope using the nine media recipes obtained from a multi-dimensional analysis of fed HIF. The derivation of the nine media compositions coupled with the results in this study indicate that the solubility results are more likely to reflect the fed intestinal solubility envelope than previous DoE studies and highlight that the system is worthy of further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpb.2022.06.005DOI Listing
June 2022

Structured solubility behaviour in bioequivalent fasted simulated intestinal fluids.

Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2022 Jul 20;176:108-121. Epub 2022 May 20.

Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, 161 Cathedral Street, Glasgow G4 0RE, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Drug solubility in intestinal fluid is a key parameter controlling absorption after the administration of a solid oral dosage form. To measure solubility in vitro simulated intestinal fluids have been developed, but there are multiple recipes and the optimum is unknown. This situation creates difficulties during drug discovery and development research. A recent study characterised sampled fasted intestinal fluids using a multidimensional approach to derive nine bioequivalent fasted intestinal media that covered over 90% of the compositional variability. These media have been applied in this study to examine the equilibrium solubility of twenty one exemplar drugs (naproxen, indomethacin, phenytoin, zafirlukast, piroxicam, ibuprofen, mefenamic acid, furosemide, aprepitant, carvedilol, tadalafil, dipyridamole, posaconazole, atazanavir, fenofibrate, felodipine, griseofulvin, probucol, paracetamol, acyclovir and carbamazepine) to determine if consistent solubility behaviour was present. The bioequivalent media provide in the majority of cases structured solubility behaviour that is consistent with physicochemical properties and previous solubility studies. For the acidic drugs (pKa < 6.3) solubility is controlled by media pH, the profile is identical and consistent and the lowest and highest pH media identify the lowest and highest solubility in over 70% of cases. For weakly acidic (pKa > 8), basic and neutral drugs solubility is controlled by a combination of media pH and total amphiphile concentration (TAC), a consistent solubility behaviour is evident but with variation related to individual drug interactions within the media. The lowest and highest pH × TAC media identify the lowest and highest solubility in over 78% of cases. A subset of the latter category consisting of neutral and drugs non-ionised in the media pH range have been identified with a very narrow solubility range, indicating that the impact of the simulated intestinal media on their solubility is minimal. Two drugs probucol and atazanavir exhibit unusual behaviour. The study indicates that the use of two appropriate bioequivalent fasted intestinal media from the nine will identify in vitro the maximum and minimum solubility boundaries for drugs and due to the media derivation this is probably applicable in vivo. These media could be applied during discovery and development activities to provide a solubility range, which would assist placement of the drug within the BCS/DCS and rationalise drug and formulation decisions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpb.2022.05.010DOI Listing
July 2022

Investigating the role of excipients on the physical stability of directly compressed tablets.

Int J Pharm X 2022 Dec 9;4:100106. Epub 2021 Dec 9.

Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy & Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK.

Stability studies are an integral part of the drug development process for any drug product. In addition to monitoring chemical degradation, the physical stability of a drug product must also be evaluated to ensure that the drug release and performance is not affected by storage. In this study, directly compressed tablets of 16 different formulations were exposed to an accelerated stability program to quantify changes in tablet breaking force, porosity, contact angle and disintegration time. Tablets were exposed to five different storage conditions from 37 /30% relative humidity (RH) to 70 /75%RH with testing after 2 and 4 weeks of storage. Each formulation contained two different fillers (47% /w each), a disintegrant (5% /w) and magnesium stearate (1% w/w). The results show that tablets stored at high humidity show increases in porosity and decreases in tensile strength, particularly if they contain a highly hygroscopic filler such as microcrystalline cellulose (MCC). For tablets stored at high temperature, the most commonly affected property was the tablet wettability, measured by sessile drop contact angle measurements. These results are considered in combination with the performance-controlling disintegration mechanism (Maclean et al., 2021) to identify the critical properties which influence the performance after storage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpx.2021.100106DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8688555PMC
December 2022

Fasted intestinal solubility limits and distributions applied to the biopharmaceutics and developability classification systems.

Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2022 Jan 16;170:160-169. Epub 2021 Dec 16.

Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, 161 Cathedral Street, Glasgow G4 0RE, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

After oral administration, a drug's solubility in intestinal fluid is an important parameter influencing bioavailability and if the value is known it can be applied to estimate multiple biopharmaceutical parameters including the solubility limited absorbable dose. Current in vitro measurements may utilise fasted human intestinal fluid (HIF) or simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) to provide an intestinal solubility value. This single point value is limited since its position in relation to the fasted intestinal solubility envelope is unknown. In this study we have applied a nine point fasted equilibrium solubility determination in SIF, based on a multi-dimensional analysis of fasted human intestinal fluid composition, to seven drugs that were previously utilised to investigate the developability classification system (ibuprofen, mefenamic acid, furosemide, dipyridamole, griseofulvin, paracetamol and acyclovir). The resulting fasted equilibrium solubility envelope encompasses literature solubility values in both HIF and SIF indicating that it measures the same solubility space as current approaches with solubility behaviour consistent with previous SIF design of experiment studies. In addition, it identifies that three drugs (griseofulvin, paracetamol and acyclovir) have a very narrow solubility range, a feature that single point solubility approaches would miss. The measured mid-point solubility value is statistically equivalent to the value determined with the original fasted simulated intestinal fluid recipe, further indicating similarity and that existing literature results could be utilised as a direct comparison. Since the multi-dimensional approach covered greater than ninety percent of the variability in fasted intestinal fluid composition, the measured maximum and minimum equilibrium solubility values should represent the extremes of fasted intestinal solubility and provide a range. The seven drugs all display different solubility ranges and behaviours, a result also consistent with previous studies. The dose/solubility ratio for each measurement point can be plotted using the developability classification system to highlight individual drug behaviours. The lowest solubility represents a worst-case scenario which may be useful in risk-based quality by design biopharmaceutical calculations than the mid-point value. The method also permits a dose/solubility ratio frequency distribution determination for the solubility envelope which permits further risk-based refinement, especially where the drug crosses a classification boundary. This novel approach therefore provides greater in vitro detail with respect to possible biopharmaceutical performance in vivo and an improved ability to apply risk-based analysis to biopharmaceutical performance. Further studies will be required to expand the number of drugs measured and link the in vitro measurements to in vivo results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpb.2021.12.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8769049PMC
January 2022

Small scale in vitro method to determine a bioequivalent equilibrium solubility range for fasted human intestinal fluid.

Eur J Pharm Biopharm 2021 Nov 20;168:90-96. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Strathclyde Institute of Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, 161 Cathedral Street, Glasgow G4 0RE, United Kingdom. Electronic address:

Drug solubility is a key parameter controlling oral absorption, but intestinal solubility is difficult to assess in vitro. Human intestinal fluid (HIF) aspirates can be applied but they are variable, difficult to obtain and expensive. Simulated intestinal fluids (SIF) are a useful surrogate but multiple recipes are available and the optimum is unknown. A recent study characterised fasted HIF aspirates using a multi-dimensional approach and determined nine bioequivalent SIF media recipes that represented over ninety percent of HIF compositional variability. In this study these recipes have been applied to determine the equilibrium solubility of twelve drugs (naproxen, indomethacin, phenytoin, piroxicam, aprepitant, carvedilol, zafirlukast, tadalafil, fenofibrate, griseofulvin, felodipine, probucol) previously investigated using a statistical design of experiment (DoE) approach. The bioequivalent solubility measurements are statistically equivalent to the previous DoE, enclose literature solubility values in both fasted HIF and SIF, and the solubility range is less than the previous DoE. These results indicate that the system is measuring the same solubility space as literature systems with the lower overall range suggesting improved equivalence to in vivo solubility, when compared to DoEs. Three drugs (phenytoin, tadalafil and griseofulvin) display a comparatively narrow solubility range, a behaviour that is consistent with previous studies and related to the drugs' molecular structure and properties. This solubility behaviour would not be evident with single point solubility measurements. The solubility results can be analysed using a custom DoE to determine the most statistically significant factor within the media influencing solubility. This approach has a lower statistical resolution than a formal DoE and is not appropriate if determination of media factor significance for solubilisation is required. This study demonstrates that it is possible to assess the fasted intestinal equilibrium solubility envelope using a small number of bioequivalent media recipes obtained from a multi-dimensional analysis of fasted HIF. The derivation of the nine bioequivalent SIF media coupled with the lower measured solubility range indicate that the solubility results are more likely to reflect the fasted intestinal solubility envelope than previous DoE studies and highlight that intestinal solubility is a range and not a single value.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejpb.2021.08.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8491656PMC
November 2021
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