Publications by authors named "I F Tvete"

26 Publications

Comparative effectiveness of dopamine agonists and monoamine oxidase type-B inhibitors for Parkinson's disease: a multiple treatment comparison meta-analysis.

Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2020 Dec 24;76(12):1731-1743. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Purpose: To investigate the comparative effectiveness of dopamine agonists and monoamine oxidase type-B (MAO-B) inhibitors available for treatment of Parkinson's disease.

Methods: We performed a systematic literature search identifying randomized controlled trials investigating 4 dopamine agonists (cabergoline, pramipexole, ropinirole, rotigotine) and 3 MAO-B inhibitors (selegiline, rasagiline, safinamide) for Parkinson's disease. We extracted and pooled data from included clinical trials in a joint model allowing both direct and indirect comparison of the seven drugs. We considered dopamine agonists and MAO-B inhibitors given as monotherapy or in combination with levodopa. Selected endpoints were change in the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) score, serious adverse events and withdrawals. We estimated the relative effectiveness of each dopamine agonist and MAO-B inhibitor versus comparator drug.

Results: Altogether, 79 publications were included in the analysis. We found all the investigated drugs to be effective compared with placebo when given as monotherapy except safinamide. When considering combination treatment, the estimated relative effects of selegiline, pramipexole, ropinirole, rotigotine, cabergoline, rasagiline and safinamide were 2.316 (1.819, 2.951), 2.091 (1.889, 2.317), 2.037 (1.804, 2.294), 1.912 (1.716, 2.129), 1.664 (1.113, 2.418), 1.584 (1.379, 1.820) and 1.179 (1.031, 1.352), respectively, compared with joint placebo and levodopa treatment.

Conclusions: Dopamine agonists were found to be effective as treatment for Parkinson's disease, both when given as monotherapy and in combination with levodopa. Selegiline and rasagiline were also found to be effective for treating Parkinson's disease, and selegiline was the best option in combination with levodopa among all the drugs investigated.
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December 2020

Mental Health and Disability Pension Onset: Changes in Consumption of Antianxiety and Hypnotic Drugs.

Health Serv Res Manag Epidemiol 2018 Jan-Dec;5:2333392818792683. Epub 2018 Aug 28.

Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

Introduction: In Norway, disability pension (DP) has been more prevalent over the later years, with mental disorders being a frequent cause. Previous analyses have questioned whether receiving DP is beneficial for mental health by considering changes in antidepressant drug consumption. To explore this further, we examined changes in antianxiety and hypnotic drug consumption following DP onset.

Methods: Based on national Norwegian register data, this retrospective study encompassed 8617 working-age individuals (25-50 years) who became DP during 2005 to 2013. We compared their benzodiazepines (BZD) and Z-hypnotic consumption 1 year pre- and postdisability pension onset.

Results: About 80% of the individuals did not change their altogether benzodiazepine/Z-hypnotic consumption. Among individuals with an initial consumption ≤1 defined daily dose (DDD), 18.9% increased their consumption to above 1 DDD. Individuals in the age-group 45 to 50 versus 24 to 34 years had a lower risk of dose escalation (odds ratio [OR], 0.756, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.601-0.957). Individuals who used Z-hypnotics only had a higher risk of dose escalation compared to the joint benzodiazepine/Z-hypnotic user group (OR, 1.594, 95%CI: 1.284-1.970).

Conclusion: In general, we cannot see that DP is associated with changes in benzodiazepine/Z-hypnotic consumption, but younger users and individuals using Z-hypnotics only had a greater risk of dose escalation compared to the older users and users with combined BZD and Z-hypnotic use.
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August 2018

A multiple treatment comparison meta-analysis of monoamine oxidase type B inhibitors for Parkinson's disease.

Br J Clin Pharmacol 2018 09 25;84(9):1917-1927. Epub 2018 Jun 25.

Department of Pharmacology, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Aims: To the best of our knowledge, there are no systematic reviews or meta-analyses that compare rasagiline, selegiline and safinamide. Therefore, we aimed to perform a drug class review comparing all available monoamine oxidase type B (MAO-B) inhibitors in a multiple treatment comparison.

Methods: We performed a systematic literature search to identify randomized controlled trials assessing the efficacy of MAO-B inhibitors in patients with Parkinson's disease. MAO-B inhibitors were evaluated either as monotherapy or in combination with levodopa or dopamine agonists. Endpoints of interest were change in the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) score and serious adverse events. We estimated the relative effect of each MAO-B inhibitor versus the comparator drug by creating three networks of direct and indirect comparisons. For each of the networks, we considered a joint model.

Results: The systematic literature search and study selection process identified 27 publications eligible for our three network analyses. We found the relative effects of rasagiline, safinamide and selegiline treatment given alone and compared to placebo in a model without explanatory variables to be 1.560 (1.409, 1.734), 1.449 (0.873, 2.413) and 1.532 (1.337, 1.757) respectively. We also found all MAO-B inhibitors to be efficient when given together with levodopa. When ranking the MAO-B inhibitors given in combination with levodopa, selegiline was the most effective and rasagiline was the second best.

Conclusions: All of the included MAO-B inhibitors were effective compared to placebo when given as monotherapy. Combination therapy with MAO-B inhibitors and levodopa showed that all three MAO-B inhibitors were effective compared to placebo, but selegiline was the most effective drug.
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September 2018

A radiographic study of the mandibular third molar root development in different ethnic groups.

J Forensic Odontostomatol 2017 Dec 1;35(2):97-108. Epub 2017 Dec 1.

Institute of Clinical Dentistry, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.

Background: The nature of differences in the timing of tooth formation between ethnic groups is important when estimating age.

Aim: To calculate age of transition of the mandibular third (M3) molar tooth stages from archived dental radiographs from sub-Saharan Africa, Malaysia, Japan and two groups from London UK (Whites and Bangladeshi).

Materials And Methods: The number of radiographs was 4555 (2028 males, 2527 females) with an age range 10-25 years. The left M3 was staged into Moorrees stages. A probit model was fitted to calculate mean ages for transitions between stages for males and females and each ethnic group separately. The estimated age distributions given each M3 stage was calculated. To assess differences in timing of M3 between ethnic groups, three models were proposed: a separate model for each ethnic group, a joint model and a third model combining some aspects across groups. The best model fit was tested using Bayesian and Akaikes information criteria (BIC and AIC) and log likelihood ratio test.

Results: Differences in mean ages of M3 root stages were found between ethnic groups, however all groups showed large standard deviation values. The AIC and log likelihood ratio test indicated that a separate model for each ethnic group was best. Small differences were also noted between timing of M3 between males and females, with the exception of the Malaysian group. These findings suggests that features of a reference data set (wide age range and uniform age distribution) and a Bayesian statistical approach are more important than population specific convenience samples to estimate age of an individual using M3.

Conclusion: Some group differences were evident in M3 timing, however, this has some impact on the confidence interval of estimated age in females and little impact in males because of the large variation in age.
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December 2017

New benzodiazepine and Z-hypnotic users and disability pension: an eight-year nationwide observational follow-up study.

Scand J Prim Health Care 2017 Sep 16;35(3):240-246. Epub 2017 Aug 16.

c Department of Pharmacology , Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo , Oslo , Norway.

Objective: To compare how newly initiated treatment with benzodiazepines, Z-hypnotics or both associates with the reception of disability pension among 40,661 individuals of a working age.

Design: Prescription register study.

Setting: Norwegian nationwide prescriptions socio-economic and disability status data.

Methods: Cox regression analyses.

Subjects: New benzodiazepine or Z-hypnotic users.

Main Outcome Measure: Time to receive disability pension given benzodiazepine or Z-hypnotic use or both. Additional analyses focused on the benzodiazepine first redeemed.

Results: Among new users 8.65% of Z-hypnotic users, 12.29% of benzodiazepines users and 13.96% of combined Z-hypnotic and benzodiazepine users became disability pensioners. Z-hypnotic users were weaker associated with becoming disability pensioners (HR = 0.78, CI: 0.73-0.84) and combined users were stronger associated (HR = 1.09, CI: 1.01-1.17), than benzodiazepine users. Women had higher risk than men for becoming disability pensioners. Higher age, lower education, previous drug use and psychiatrist as first prescriber were risk factors. Comparing first benzodiazepine redeemed; clonazepam initiators were stronger associated with becoming disability pensioners than diazepam initiators were (HR = 2.22, CI: 1.81-2.71). No differences between other benzodiazepine users were found.

Conclusions: Adjusting for known risk factors gave lower risk for Z-hypnotic users compared to benzodiazepine users for receiving disability pension. Combined use increased the risk further. Clonazepam initiators are especially at risk. These findings may be helpful in prescribing situations to identify and guide individuals at risk for becoming disability pensioners.
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September 2017