Publications by authors named "Hyunwoo Kim"

188 Publications

Assessing Adverse Drug Reactions Reported for New Respiratory Medications in the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System Database.

Respir Care 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

School of Pharmacy, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Background: Between 2012 and 2017, 25 new medications or combination products were approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in treatment of chronic lower respiratory diseases (CLRDs). With limited data on post-marketing patient exposure to these drugs, their safety profiles remain unknown. This study aims to provide post-marketing surveillance of these medications.

Methods: A list of new CLRD medications approved between 2012 and 2017 was generated through searches on Drugs.com (https://www.drugs.com), FDA.gov (https://www.fda.gov), and IBM Micromedex (https://www.micromedexsolutions.com/home/dispatch/ssl/true). Data describing adverse drug reactions (ADRs) were collected from the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System for analysis. Of the 25 identified medications, we selected 4 medications indicated for asthma or COPD with at least 500 reports. Only ADRs catalogued with these medications as the primary suspect were analyzed. Reporting odds ratios were calculated for the top 10 ADRs of each CLRD medication.

Results: A total of 61,682 ADR reports were collected for newly approved CLRD medications ( = 27,190 older adults; = 30,502 male). Reports of COPD medications (umeclidinium and umeclidinium/vilanterol) indicate that umeclidinium/vilanterol yielded a higher reporting odds ratio than umeclidinium alone for reports of pain. Fluticasone furoate/vilanterol had higher reporting odds ratios for cough, pain, and dizziness than budesonide/formoterol and fluticasone propionate/salmeterol.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the incidence of different adverse events experienced by patients in post-marketing reports resembles the incidence reported in pre-marketing clinical trials for COPD medications, except for fluticasone furoate/vilanterol, which has several differences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4187/respcare.08809DOI Listing
June 2021

Revisiting Platinum-Based Anticancer Drugs to Overcome Gliomas.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 May 12;22(10). Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Neurosurgery, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University School of Medicine, Busan 48108, Korea.

Although there are many patients with brain tumors worldwide, there are numerous difficulties in overcoming brain tumors. Among brain tumors, glioblastoma, with a 5-year survival rate of 5.1%, is the most malignant. In addition to surgical operations, chemotherapy and radiotherapy are generally performed, but the patients have very limited options. Temozolomide is the most commonly prescribed drug for patients with glioblastoma. However, it is difficult to completely remove the tumor with this drug alone. Therefore, it is necessary to discuss the potential of anticancer drugs, other than temozolomide, against glioblastomas. Since the discovery of cisplatin, platinum-based drugs have become one of the leading chemotherapeutic drugs. Although many studies have reported the efficacy of platinum-based anticancer drugs against various carcinomas, studies on their effectiveness against brain tumors are insufficient. In this review, we elucidated the anticancer effects and advantages of platinum-based drugs used in brain tumors. In addition, the cases and limitations of the clinical application of platinum-based drugs are summarized. As a solution to overcome these obstacles, we emphasized the potential of a novel approach to increase the effectiveness of platinum-based drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22105111DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8151298PMC
May 2021

Autophagic Organelles in DNA Damage Response.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 12;9:668735. Epub 2021 Apr 12.

Department of Integrated Biological Science, Pusan National University, Busan, South Korea.

Autophagy is an important subcellular event engaged in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis the degradation of cargo proteins and malfunctioning organelles. In response to cellular stresses, like nutrient deprivation, infection, and DNA damaging agents, autophagy is activated to reduce the damage and restore cellular homeostasis. One of the responses to cellular stresses is the DNA damage response (DDR), the intracellular pathway that senses and repairs damaged DNA. Proper regulation of these pathways is crucial for preventing diseases. The involvement of autophagy in the repair and elimination of DNA aberrations is essential for cell survival and recovery to normal conditions, highlighting the importance of autophagy in the resolution of cell fate. In this review, we summarized the latest information about autophagic recycling of mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and ribosomes (called mitophagy, ER-phagy, and ribophagy, respectively) in response to DNA damage. In addition, we have described the key events necessary for a comprehensive understanding of autophagy signaling networks. Finally, we have highlighted the importance of the autophagy activated by DDR and appropriate regulation of autophagic organelles, suggesting insights for future studies. Especially, DDR from DNA damaging agents including ionizing radiation (IR) or anti-cancer drugs, induces damage to subcellular organelles and autophagy is the key mechanism for removing impaired organelles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.668735DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8072393PMC
April 2021

Atomically Precise Gold Nanoclusters as Model Catalysts for Identifying Active Sites for Electroreduction of CO.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Department of Chemistry, Yonsei University, Seoul, 03722, Republic of Korea.

Accurate identification of active sites is critical for elucidating catalytic reaction mechanisms and developing highly efficient and selective electrocatalysts. Herein, we report the atomic-level identification of active sites using atomically well-defined gold nanoclusters (Au NCs) Au , Au , and Au as model catalysts in the electrochemical CO reduction reaction (CO RR). The studied Au NCs exhibited remarkably high CO RR activity, which increased with increasing NC size. Electrochemical and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses revealed that the Au NCs were activated by removing one thiolate group from each staple motif at the beginning of CO RR. In addition, density functional theory calculations revealed higher charge densities and upshifts of d-states for dethiolated Au sites. The structure-activity properties of the studied Au NCs confirmed that dethiolated Au sites were the active sites and that CO RR activity was determined by the number of active sites on the cluster surface.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.202102887DOI Listing
April 2021

Simultaneous production of 1,6-hexanediol, furfural, and high-purity lignin from white birch: Process integration and techno-economic evaluation.

Bioresour Technol 2021 Jul 20;331:125009. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Department of Chemical Engineering (Integrated Engineering), Kyung Hee University, 1732 Deogyeong-daero, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 17104, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

An integrated strategy of multiple catalytic conversions was developed to completely utilize three major fractions of biomass, thereby increasing the revenue from lignocellulosic biomass (white birch). Cellulose was converted into 1,6-hexanediol (1,6-HDO) with a yield of 21.8% via a series of catalytic conversions, hemicellulose was converted into furfural with a yield of 87.2% via dehydration, and lignin was purified into high-purity lignin with a yield of 71.7% via two-step purification. Heat integration was performed to mitigate the challenges associated with the large energy requirements of the process. Additionally, a techno-economic analysis was conducted to investigate the feasibility of the proposed process. The minimum selling price (MSP) of 1,6-HDO is estimated to be $3,922/ton, meaning that the economics of the proposed process are favorable compared to petroleum-derived 1,6-HDO production ($4,400/ton). The effect of economic parameters on the MSP of 1,6-HDO was also investigated via a wide array of sensitivity analyses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2021.125009DOI Listing
July 2021

Selective photocatalytic production of CH using Zn-based polyoxometalate as a nonconventional CO reduction catalyst.

Nanoscale Horiz 2021 May 15;6(5):379-385. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Energy Engineering, School of Energy and Chemical Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), 50 UNIST-gil, Ulsan 44919, Republic of Korea. and Emergent Hydrogen Technology R&D Center, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), 50 UNIST-gil, Ulsan 44919, Republic of Korea.

Efficient and selective production of CH through the CO reduction reaction (CO2RR) is a challenging task due to the high amount of energy consumption and various reaction pathways. Here, we report the synthesis of Zn-based polyoxometalate (ZnPOM) and its application in the photocatalytic CO2RR. Unlike conventional Zn-based catalysts that produce CO, ZnPOM can selectively catalyze the production of CH in the presence of an Ir-based photosensitizer (TIr3) through the photocatalytic CO2RR. Photophysical and computation analyses suggest that selective photocatalytic production of CH using ZnPOM and TIr3 can be attributed to (1) the exceptionally fast transfer of photogenerated electrons from TIr3 to ZnPOM through the strong molecular interactions between them and (2) effective transfer of electrons from ZnPOM to *CO intermediates due to significant hybridization of their molecular orbitals. This study provides insights into the design of novel CO2RR catalysts for CH production beyond the limitations in conventional studies that focus on Cu-based materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nh00657bDOI Listing
May 2021

Synthesis of 1-Indazoles via Silver(I)-Mediated Intramolecular Oxidative C-H Bond Amination.

ACS Omega 2021 Mar 23;6(9):6498-6508. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Chemistry and Nanoscience, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760, Republic of Korea.

We described a silver(I)-mediated intramolecular oxidative C-H amination that enables the construction of assorted 1-indazoles that are widely applicable in medicinal chemistry. The developed amination was found to be efficient for the synthesis of a variety of 3-substituted indazoles that are otherwise difficult to be synthesized by other means of C-H aminations. Preliminary mechanistic studies suggested that the current amination proceeds via single electron transfer (SET) mediated by Ag(I) oxidant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c00025DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7948442PMC
March 2021

Polymorphic Effects on Electrochemical Performance of Conversion-Based MnO Anode Materials for Next-Generation Li Batteries.

Small 2021 Apr 11;17(14):e2006433. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, 16419, South Korea.

In this study, four different MnO polymorphs are synthesized with a controlled morphology of hollow porous structures to systematically investigate the influences of polymorphs in conversion-based material. As the structure of these materials transforms into nanosized metal and maintains an extremely low-crystalline phase during cell operation, the effects of polymorphs are overlooked as compared to the case of insertion-based materials. Thus, differences in the ion storage behaviors among various MnO polymorphs are not well identified. Herein, the structural changes, charge storage reaction, and electrochemical performance of the different MnO polymorphs are investigated in detail. The experimental results demonstrate that the charge storage reactions, as part of which spinel-phased MnO formation is observed after lithiation and delithiation instead of recovery of the original phases, are similar for all the samples. However, the electrochemical performance varies depending on the initial crystal structure. Among the four polymorphs, the spinel-type λ-MnO delivers the highest reversible capacity of ≈1270 mAh g . The structural similarity between the cycled and pristine states of λ-MnO induces faster kinetics, resulting in the better electrochemical performance. These findings suggest that polymorphs are another important factor to consider when designing high-performance materials for next-generation rechargeable batteries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202006433DOI Listing
April 2021

Purcell-enhanced photoluminescence of few-layer MoS transferred on gold nanostructure arrays with plasmonic resonance at the conduction band edge.

Nanoscale 2021 Mar;13(10):5316-5323

Laboratory for Advanced Molecular Probing (LAMP), Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon 34114, South Korea. and School of Chemical Engineering, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419, South Korea.

Plasmonic coupling of metallic nanostructures with two-dimensional molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) atomic layers is an important topic because it provides a pathway to manipulate the optoelectronic properties and to overcome the limited optical cross-section of the materials. Plasmonic enhanced light-matter interaction of a MoS2 layer is known to be mainly governed by optical field enhancement and the Purcell effect, while the discrimination of the contribution from each mechanism to the plasmonic enhancement is challenging. Here, we investigate photoluminescence (PL) enhancement from few-layer MoS2 transferred on Au nanostructure arrays with controlled localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) spectral positions that were detuned from the excitation wavelengths. Two distinctive regimes in LSPR mode-dependent PL enhancement were revealed showing a maximum enhancement (∼40-fold) with zero detuning and a modest enhancement (∼10-fold) with the red-shift detuned LSPR from the excitation wavelength, which were attributed to LSPR-induced optical field enhancement and the Purcell effect, respectively. By applying the experimental parameters into the Purcell effect formalism, an effective mode volume of ∼0.016λ03 was estimated. Our work provides an insight into how to utilize few-layer MoS2 as a base material for optoelectronics by harnessing Purcell-enhanced optical responsivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nr08158bDOI Listing
March 2021

Improvement in Self-Heating Characteristic by Utilizing Sapphire Substrate in Omega-Gate-Shaped Nanowire Field Effect Transistor for Wearable, Military, and Aerospace Application.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2021 May;21(5):3092-3098

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Republic of Korea.

In this study, we propose an omega-shaped-gate nanowire field effect transistor (ONWFET) with a silicon-on-sapphire (SOS) substrate. In order to investigate improvements in the self-heating characteristic with the use of a SOS substrate, the lattice temperature is examined using a Synopsys Sentaurus 3D Technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulator with the results compared to those with a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate. To validate the proposed structure with the SOS substrate, the locations of hot spots and heat dissipation paths (heat sinks) depending on the substrate materials are also analyzed. The electrical characteristics, specifically the on-current (), off-current (), and subthreshold swing (SS), were investigated as well. Hence, it is demonstrated here that incorporating a SOS substrate can improve both the self-heating characteristic and the SS at the same time. Therefore, enhanced logic devices are feasible if using an ONWFET with a SOS substrate. Examples include wearable devices and military and future aerospace applications achieved by the radiation-resistant material Al₂O₃ that has high thermal conductivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2021.19149DOI Listing
May 2021

Copy Number Variant Analysis and Genome-wide Association Study Identify Loci with Large Effect for Vesicoureteral Reflux.

J Am Soc Nephrol 2021 Feb 17. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Clinical Genetics, Our Lady's Children's Hospital Crumlin, Dublin, Ireland.

Background: Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a common, familial genitourinary disorder, and a major cause of pediatric urinary tract infection (UTI) and kidney failure. The genetic basis of VUR is not well understood.

Methods: A diagnostic analysis sought rare, pathogenic copy number variant (CNV) disorders among 1737 patients with VUR. A GWAS was performed in 1395 patients and 5366 controls, of European ancestry.

Results: Altogether, 3% of VUR patients harbored an undiagnosed rare CNV disorder, such as the 1q21.1, 16p11.2, 22q11.21, and triple X syndromes ((OR, 3.12; 95% CI, 2.10 to 4.54; =6.35×10) The GWAS identified three study-wide significant and five suggestive loci with large effects (ORs, 1.41-6.9), containing canonical developmental genes expressed in the developing urinary tract ( and ). In particular, 3.3% of VUR patients were homozygous for an intronic variant in (rs13013890; OR, 3.65; 95% CI, 2.39 to 5.56; =1.86×10). This locus was associated with multiple genitourinary phenotypes in the UK Biobank and eMERGE studies. Analysis of mutant mice confirmed the role of Wnt5a signaling in bladder and ureteric morphogenesis.

Conclusions: These data demonstrate the genetic heterogeneity of VUR. Altogether, 6% of patients with VUR harbored a rare CNV or a common variant genotype conferring an OR >3. Identification of these genetic risk factors has multiple implications for clinical care and for analysis of outcomes in VUR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2020050681DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8017540PMC
February 2021

Fabrication of plasmonic arrays of nanodisks and nanotriangles by nanotip indentation lithography and their optical properties.

Nanoscale 2021 Mar;13(8):4475-4484

Interdisciplinary Materials Measurement Institute, Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science, Daejeon 34113, South Korea.

Fabrication of plasmonic nanostructures in a precise and reliable manner is a topic of huge interest because their structural details significantly affect their plasmonic properties. Herein, we present nanotip indentation lithography (NTIL) based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) indentation for the patterning of plasmonic nanostructures with precisely controlled size and shape. The size of the nanostructures is controlled by varying the indentation force of AFM tips into the mask polymer; while their shapes are determined to be nanodisks (NDs) or nanotriangles (NTs) depending on the shapes of the AFM tip apex. The localized surface plasmon resonance of the NDs is tailored to cover most of the visible-wavelength regime by controlling their size. The NTs show distinct polarization-dependent plasmon modes consistent with full-wave optical simulations. For the demonstration of the light-matter interaction control capability of NTIL nanostructures, we show that photoluminescence enhancement from MoS2 layers can be deliberately controlled by tuning the size of the nanostructures. Our results pave the way for the AFM-indentation-based fabrication of plasmonic nanostructures with a highly precise size and shape controllability and reproducibility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nr08398dDOI Listing
March 2021

Encoding Multiple Virtual Signals in DNA Barcodes with Single-Molecule FRET.

Nano Lett 2021 02 15;21(4):1694-1701. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

School of Biological Sciences and Institute for Molecular Biology and Genetics, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, South Korea.

DNA barcoding provides a way to label a myriad of different biological molecules using the extreme programmability in DNA sequence synthesis. Fluorescence imaging is presumably the most easy-to-access method for DNA barcoding, yet large spectral overlaps between fluorescence dyes severely limit the numbers of barcodes that can be detected simultaneously. We here demonstrate the use of single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to encode virtual signals in DNA barcodes using conventional two-color fluorescence microscopy. By optimizing imaging and biochemistry conditions for weak DNA hybridization events, we markedly enhanced accuracy in our determination of the single-molecule FRET efficiency exhibited by each binding event between DNA barcode sequences. This allowed us to unambiguously differentiate six DNA barcodes encoding different FRET values without involving any probe sequence exchanges. Our method can be directly incorporated with previous DNA barcode techniques, and may thus be widely adopted to expand the signal space of DNA barcoding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c04502DOI Listing
February 2021

Microcrystal Electron Diffraction Elucidates Water-Specific Polymorphism-Induced Emission Enhancement of Bis-arylacylhydrazone.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Feb 5;13(6):7546-7555. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of Chemistry, Sungkyunkwan University, 2066 Seobu-ro, Janan-gu, Suwon-si, Gyeonggi-do 16419 Republic of Korea.

Aggregation-induced emission (AIE) phenomena have gained intense interest over the last decades because of its importance in solid-state emission. However, the elucidation of a working mechanism is difficult owing to the limited characterization methods on solid-state molecules, further complicated if dynamic structural changes occur. Here, a series of bis-arylacylhydrazones () were synthesized, for which their AIE properties are only turned on by the reversible adsorption of water molecules. We used microcrystal electron diffraction (MicroED) to determine the molecular structures of two directly from bulk powders (without attempting to grow crystals) prepared in the absence or presence of water adsorption. This study reveals the unambiguous characterization of the dependence of crystal packing on the specific cocrystallization with hydrates. The structural analysis demonstrates that water molecules form strong hydrogen bonds with three neighboring , resulting in the almost complete planarization and restriction of the intramolecular rotation of the molecule. MicroED plays an important role in providing a decisive clue for the reversible polymorphism changes induced by the adsorption of water molecules, regulating emissive properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c21248DOI Listing
February 2021

An abrupt-onset shoulder joint subluxation and pseudoparalysis caused by intraarticular pigmented villonodular synovitis: A case report.

Jt Dis Relat Surg 2021 6;32(1):258-261. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Nanoori Hospital Gangnam, 63-8 Nonhyun-Dong, Gangnam-gu, Seoul 06048, Republic of Korea.

Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) occurs most frequently in the knee and hand joints and is extremely rare in the shoulder joints. A 27-year-old women was admitted to our outpatient clinic with an abrupt-onset pain and limited range of motion of the left shoulder. On arthroscopic examination, localized PVNS surrounding the reactive synovitis in the posterior aspect of the subscapularis within the shoulder joint cavity. The mass was removed using a grasper and shaver. Symptomatic relief was achieved following surgical removal. In conclusion, although rare, localized PVNS of the shoulder joint should be kept in mind in patients with a sudden-onset shoulder joint subluxation and pseudoparalysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5606/ehc.2021.75437DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8073445PMC
May 2021

Flexible Thin Carbon Nanotube Web Film for Curved Heating Elements Under High Temperature Conditions.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol 2021 Mar;21(3):1809-1814

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Soongsil University, 369 Sangdo-ro, Donjak-gu, Seoul, 156-743, Korea.

Heating elements need a rapid heating property and long-term cycle stability when subjected to extreme temperatures. Carbon nanotube-based films can be used as ideal heating units owing to their superior electrical and thermal properties. However, carbon nanotube polymer composites are not appropriate for extreme conditions such as high temperatures (300 °C) due to the poor thermal stability of the polymer matrix. In this study, we fabricated a carbon nanotube web film, comprising heating elements consisting of pure carbon nanotubes, through the direct spinning method. The carbon nanotube web film has a microscale thickness. The carbon nanotube web film showed flexibility at high temperatures, while a fracture occurred in the case of the carbon nanotube polymer composite. We conducted electrical heating experiments on the curved carbon nanotube web film to observe the heating uniformity and flexibility. The heating test is conducted on various curved form heaters. The carbon nanotube web film showed rapid heating properties and a uniform heat distribution (temperature departure of less than 3%) without thermal aggregation. The curved heating units can be utilized in various applications such as functional clothes and de-icing systems having curved surfaces.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1166/jnn.2021.18931DOI Listing
March 2021

Monitoring Insecticide Resistance and Target Site Mutations of L1014 Kdr And G119 Ace Alleles in Five Mosquito Populations in Korea.

Korean J Parasitol 2020 Oct 22;58(5):543-550. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Department of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine & Global Resource Bank of Parasitic Protozoa Pathogens, Inha University School of Medicine, Incheon 22212, Korea.

Mosquitoes are globally distributed and important vectors for the transmission of many human diseases. Mosquito control is a difficult task and the cost of preventing mosquito-borne diseases is much lower than that for curing the associated diseases. Thus, chemical control remains the most effective tool for mosquito. Due to the long-term intensive use of insecticides to control mosquito vectors, resistance to most chemical insecticides has been reported. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between insecticide resistance and target site mutation of L1014 kdr and G119 ace alleles in 5 species/species group of mosquitoes (Aedes vexans, Ae. albopictus, Anopheles spp., Culex pipiens complex, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus) obtained from 6 collection sites. For Anopheles spp., the proportion of mosquitoes with mutated alleles in L1014 was 88.4%, homozygous resistant genotypes were observed in 46.7%, and heterozygous resistant genotypes were observed in 41.8%. For the Cx. pipiens complex and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus species, homozygous resistant genotypes were found in 25.9% and 9.8%, respectively. However, target site mutation of L1014 in the Ae. vexans nipponii and Ae. albopictus species was not observed. Anopheles spp., Cx. pipiens complex, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes were resistant to deltamethrin and chlorpyriphos, whereas Ae. vexans nipponii and Ae. albopictus were clearly susceptible. We also found a correlation between the resistance phenotype and the presence of the L1014 kdr and G119 ace mutations only in the Anopheles spp. population. In this study, we suggest that insecticide resistance poses a growing threat and resistance management must be integrated into all mosquito control programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3347/kjp.2020.58.5.543DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7672240PMC
October 2020

Lissajous scanning structured illumination microscopy.

Biomed Opt Express 2020 Oct 15;11(10):5575-5585. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Department of Bio and Brain Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) and KAIST Institute of Health Science and Technology, Daejeon 34141, South Korea.

High-resolution fluorescent microscopic imaging techniques are in high demand to observe detailed structures or dynamic mechanisms of biological samples. Structured illumination microscopy (SIM) has grabbed much attention in super-resolution imaging due to simple configuration, high compatibility with common fluorescent molecules, and fast image acquisition. Here, we report Lissajous scanning SIM (LS-SIM) by using a high fill-factor Lissajous scanning micromirror and laser beam modulation. The LS-SIM was realized by a Lissajous scanned structured illumination module, relay optics, and a conventional fluorescent microscope. The micromirror comprises an inner mirror and an outer frame, which are scanned at pseudo-resonance with electrostatic actuation. The biaxial scanning frequencies are selected by the frequency selection rule for high fill-factor (> 80%) Lissajous scanning. Structured illumination (SI) was then realized by modulating the intensity of a laser beam at the least common multiple (LCM) of the scanning frequencies. A compact Lissajous scanned SI module containing a fiber-optic collimator and Lissajous micromirror has been fully packaged and coupled with relay optics and a fiber-based diode pumped solid state (DPSS) laser including acousto-optic-modulator (AOM). Various structured images were obtained by shifting the phase and orientation of the illumination patterns and finally mounted with a conventional fluorescent microscope. The LS-SIM has experimentally demonstrated high-resolution fluorescent microscopic imaging of reference targets and human lung cancer cell PC-9 cells. The LS-SIM exhibits the observable region in spatial frequency space over 2x, the line-edge sharpness over 1.5x, and the peak-to-valley (P-V) ratio over 2x, compared to widefield fluorescent microscopy. This method can provide a new route for advanced high-resolution fluorescent microscopic imaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/BOE.404220DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7587278PMC
October 2020

Characterization of heterogeneous aryl-Pd(II)-oxo clusters as active species for C-H arylation.

Chem Commun (Camb) 2020 Nov;56(92):14404-14407

Department of Chemistry, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 34141, Republic of Korea.

C-H arylation with heterogeneous palladium was investigated. The surface oxidation of Pd nanoparticles with a hypervalent iodine reagent, [Ph2I]BF4, resulted in the generation of Pd(ii)-aryl-oxo clusters, which were characterized as the crucial intermediate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cc06716dDOI Listing
November 2020

Effects of Long-Term Language Use Experience in Sentence Processing: Evidence from Korean.

J Psycholinguist Res 2021 Jun 19;50(3):523-541. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Department of Asian Studies, Palacký University Olomouc, Křížkovského 512/10, 771 80, Olomouc, Czech Republic.

Attraction effects arise when a comprehender erroneously retrieves a distractor instead of a target item during memory retrieval operations. In Korean, considerable processing difficulties occur in the agreement relation checking between a subject and an honorific-marked predicate when an intervening distractor carries a non-honorific feature. We investigate how attraction effects are managed during the processing of Korean subject-predicate honorific agreement by two Korean-speaking groups with different language use experience backgrounds: college students and airline workers. Results showed that both groups demonstrated stable knowledge of the honorific agreement in the acceptability judgment task. In the self-paced reading task, the airline group, who used honorifics extensively in their workplace, was less affected by the attraction effect than the student group. Our findings suggest that long-term language use experience can modulate how language users manage potential influence from attraction effects in real-time sentence processing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10936-020-09737-0DOI Listing
June 2021

Anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase-negative inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor of triceps brachii: Case report.

Jt Dis Relat Surg 2020 ;31(3):605-609

Nanoori 2bko R&D Institute, Nanoori Hospital Suwon, 295, Jungbu-daero, Yeongtong-gu, 16503 Gyeonggi-Do, Republic of Korea.

Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a non-neoplastic benign lesion comprising various inflammatory cells, including myofibroblasts and vascular tissues. It is a rare tumor that sometimes shows similar signs and progression as malignant tumors. The anatomical sites of IMTs include the lungs, liver, orbit, skin, mesentery, and maxillary sinus, but they rarely occur in the limb musculoskeletal system. To our knowledge, no case of neurological symptoms caused by the tumor in the triceps brachii muscle has been reported. In this article, we report the case of a 42-year-old male patient with an IMT that grew rapidly in the triceps brachii muscle and consequently caused symptoms of ulnar nerve lesion owing to its increasing size. The patient showed no ulnar nerve lesion symptoms after undergoing wide excision and was diagnosed with anaplastic lymphoma receptor tyrosine kinase- negative IMT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5606/ehc.2020.74662DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7607928PMC
February 2021

Structure elucidation of a new triterpene from Inonotus obliquus.

Magn Reson Chem 2021 04 4;59(4):489-494. Epub 2020 Oct 4.

College of Pharmacy, Korea University, Sejong, Republic of Korea.

Ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction of the Inonotus obliquus (Hymenochaetaceae) significantly inhibited nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced murine BV2 microglial cells. A new triterpene, characterized as inonotusol H (1), was isolated from the EtOAc fraction using the bioactivity-guided fractionation together with four known triterpenes, inotodiol (2), trametenolic acid (3), inonotsutriols A (4), and inonotusol A (5). Among them, Compounds 2-4 significantly reduced LPS-induced nitric oxide production to 4.5 ± 0.8%, 47.4 ± 4.4%, and 2.8 ± 1.7%, respectively, at a concentration of 30 μM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrc.5102DOI Listing
April 2021

Direct Chiral F NMR Analysis of Fluorine-Containing Analytes and Its Application to Simultaneous Chiral Analysis.

Org Lett 2020 10 10;22(20):7804-7808. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Department of Chemistry, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 34141, Korea.

We have demonstrated the efficient chiral analysis of fluorine-containing compounds by F NMR spectroscopy. The highly sensitive fluorine nucleus allowed chiral analysis of complex mixtures and even asymmetric reaction mixtures of multisubstrates. A single F NMR experiment was sufficient to determine the enantiomeric excesses and yields of the five products simultaneously.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.orglett.0c02620DOI Listing
October 2020

Universal inherent fluctuations in statistical counting of large particles in slurry used for semiconductor manufacturing.

Sci Rep 2020 Sep 7;10(1):14731. Epub 2020 Sep 7.

Samsung Electronics, Kiheung Campus, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, 446-811, Korea.

In the chemical mechanical polishing process of semiconductor manufacturing, the concentration of 'large' particles ([Formula: see text]0.5 μm) in the slurry, which is considerably larger in size than the main abrasives ([Formula: see text] 0.1 μm), is a critical parameter that strongly influences manufacturing defects, yields, and reliabilities of large-scale-integrated circuits. Various instruments, so-called particle counters, based on light scattering, light extinction, and holography techniques have been developed to measure and monitor the large particle concentration in semiconductor fabs in real time. However, sizeable fluctuation in the measured particle concentration complicates the statistical process control in the fabs worldwide. Here, we show that an inherent fluctuation exists in the counting of large particles, which is universal, independent of instrument type, and quantitatively determined by the instrument's operation parameters. We analytically derive a statistical theory of the fluctuation based on Poisson statistics and validate the theory through experiments and Monte-Carlo simulation. Furthermore, we provide a strategy to enhance the measurement accuracy by statistically adjusting the instrumental parameters commonly involved in the particle counters. The present results and analyses could be useful for statistical process control in semiconductor fabs to prevent large particle-induced defects such as micro-scratches and pits on wafers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-71768-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7477581PMC
September 2020

Nickel/briphos-catalyzed transamidation of unactivated tertiary amides.

Org Biomol Chem 2020 Aug 24;18(31):6053-6057. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

Department of Chemistry, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 61186, Republic of Korea.

The transamidation of tertiary amides was achieved via nickel catalysis in combination with briphos ligands. N-Methyl-N-phenylbenzamide derivatives reacted with primary amines in the presence of NiCl/briphos L4 to provide the transamidated products in moderate to good yields. Primary aromatic amines delivered higher product yields than aliphatic amines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0ob01271hDOI Listing
August 2020

Characterization of Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Constituents from Using LC-MS Coupled with a Bioassay Method.

Molecules 2020 Aug 9;25(16). Epub 2020 Aug 9.

College of Pharmacy, Korea University, Sejong 30019, Korea.

An effective and previously demonstrated screening method for active constituents in natural products using LC-MS coupled with a bioassay was reported in our earlier studies. With this, the current investigation attempted to identify bioactive constituents of through LC-MS coupled with a bioassay. Peaks at broadly 17-20 and 24-25 min on the MS chromatogram displayed an inhibitory effect on NO production in lipopolysaccharide-induced BV2 microglia cells. Similarly, peaks at roughly 17-19 and 22 min showed antioxidant activity with an 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS)/2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. For confirmation of LC-MS coupled with a bioassay, nine compounds (-) were isolated from an MeOH extract of . As we predicted, compounds , , and significantly reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO production in BV2 cells. Likewise, compounds , , and exhibited free radical-scavenging activities with the ABTS/DPPH assay. In addition, the structural similarity of the main components was confirmed by analyzing the total extract and EtOAc fractions through molecular networking. Overall, the results suggest that the method comprised of LC-MS coupled with a bioassay can effectively predict active compounds without an isolation process, and the results of molecular networking predicted that other components around the active compound node may also be active.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25163617DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7464942PMC
August 2020

Enhanced Viability of Probiotics against Gastric Acid by One-Step Coating Process with Poly-L-Lysine: In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation.

Pharmaceutics 2020 Jul 14;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 14.

College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Korea.

Due to their low acid tolerance, a majority of probiotics face diculties with regard tosurviving in the gastric environment long enough to reach the intestinal surfaces where they colonizeand provide health benefits. We prepared a probiotic delivery system that can enhance their viabilityin acidic conditions by developing a one-step poly-L-lysine (PLL) coating process. We determinedwhether the coating process was successful by measuring the zeta potential and observing it withconfocal scanning microscopy. PLL-coated L. plantarum (PLL-LP), incubated in a solution of pH 2 for2 h, exhibited a higher viability (6.86 0.12 log CFU/mL of viable cells) than non-coated L. plantarum(non-coated LP), which exhibited only 2.7 1.23 log CFU/mL of viable cells. In addition, a higheramount of L. plantarum was detected in the feces of mice orally administered PLL-LP (6.2 0.4 logCFU/g of feces) than in the feces of the control groups. In addition to enhancing probiotic viability inpH 2 solution, the PLL coating showed no eect on the probiotic growth pattern and the viability ofeither freeze-dried L. plantarum or L. plantarum, stored at ?20 C and 4 C, respectively. Overall, theseresults indicated that the PLL coating is a promising potential probiotic delivery system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12070662DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7407136PMC
July 2020

Enhanced Action Recognition Using Multiple Stream Deep Learning with Optical Flow and Weighted Sum.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Jul 13;20(14). Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Department of Image, Graduate School of Advanced Imaging Science, Multimedia and Film, Chung-Ang University, Seoul 06974, Korea.

Various action recognition approaches have recently been proposed with the aid of three-dimensional (3D) convolution and a multiple stream structure. However, existing methods are sensitive to background and optical flow noise, which prevents from learning the main object in a video frame. Furthermore, they cannot reflect the accuracy of each stream in the process of combining multiple streams. In this paper, we present a novel action recognition method that improves the existing method using optical flow and a multi-stream structure. The proposed method consists of two parts: (i) optical flow enhancement process using image segmentation and (ii) score fusion process by applying weighted sum of the accuracy. The enhancement process can help the network to efficiently analyze the flow information of the main object in the optical flow frame, thereby improving accuracy. A different accuracy of each stream can be reflected to the fused score while using the proposed score fusion method. We achieved an accuracy of 98.2% on UCF-101 and 82.4% on HMDB-51. The proposed method outperformed many state-of-the-art methods without changing the network structure and it is expected to be easily applied to other networks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20143894DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7411841PMC
July 2020

Nitric Oxide-Releasing -Nitrosoglutathione-Conjugated Poly(Lactic--Glycolic Acid) Nanoparticles for the Treatment of MRSA-Infected Cutaneous Wounds.

Pharmaceutics 2020 Jul 2;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 2.

College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Korea.

-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) has emerged as a potent agent for the treatment of infected cutaneous wounds. However, fabrication of GSNO-containing nanoparticles has been challenging due to its high hydrophilicity and degradability. The present study aimed to fabricate nanoparticles using newly synthesized GSNO-conjugated poly(lactic--glycolic acid) (PLGA) (GSNO-PLGA; GPNPs). Since hydrophilic GSNO was covalently bound to hydrophobic PLGA, loss of GSNO during the nanoparticle fabrication process was minimized, resulting in sufficient loading efficiency (2.32% of GSNO, 0.07 μmol/mg of NO). Real-time NO release analysis revealed biphasic NO release by GPNPs, including initial burst release within 3 min and continuous controlled release for up to 11.27 h, due to the differential degradation rates of the -SNO groups located at the surface and inside of GPNPs. Since GPNPs could deliver NO more efficiently than GSNO in response to increased interaction with bacteria, the former showed enhanced antibacterial effects against methicillin-resistant (MRSA) at the same equivalent concentrations of NO. Finally, the facilitating effects of GPNPs on infected wound healing were demonstrated in MRSA-challenged full-thickness wound mouse model. Collectively, the results suggested GPNPs as an ideal nanoparticle formulation for the treatment of MRSA-infected cutaneous wounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12070618DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7407147PMC
July 2020

Effect of Filler Alignment on Piezo-Resistive and Mechanical Properties of Carbon Nanotube Composites.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Jun 7;13(11). Epub 2020 Jun 7.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Soongsil University, 369 Sangdo-ro, Dongjak-Gu, Seoul 06978, Korea.

Highly aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) polymer composites were fabricated via a roll-to-roll milling process; the alignment of the MWCNTs could be controlled by varying the speed of the rotating rolls. The effect of MWCNT alignment on the polymer matrix was morphologically observed and quantitatively characterized using polarized Raman spectroscopy. To provide a more detailed comparison, MWCNT composites with alignment in the transverse direction and random alignment were fabricated and tested. Enhanced mechanical and electrical properties were obtained for the aligned MWCNT composite, which can be attributed to the efficient electrical network and load transfer, respectively. In addition, a cyclic stretching test was conducted to evaluate the piezo-resistive characteristics of the aligned MWCNT composites. The composites with an aligned filler configuration showed an exceptionally high degree of strain sensitivity compared to the other composites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13112598DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7321622PMC
June 2020