Publications by authors named "Hyunju Lee"

161 Publications

Genome-Wide Transcriptomic Analysis of Non-Tumorigenic Tissues Reveals Aging-Related Prognostic Markers and Drug Targets in Renal Cell Carcinoma.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Jun 18;13(12). Epub 2021 Jun 18.

School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, 123 Cheomdangwagi-ro, Buk-Gu, Gwangju 61005, Korea.

The relationship between expression of aging-related genes in normal tissues and cancer patient survival has not been assessed. We developed a genome-wide transcriptomic analysis approach for normal tissues adjacent to the tumor to identify aging-related transcripts associated with survival outcome, and applied it to 12 cancer types. As a result, five aging-related genes (DUSP22, MAPK14, MAPKAPK3, STAT1, and VCP) in normal tissues were found to be significantly associated with a worse survival outcome in patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). This computational approach was investigated using nontumorigenic immune cells purified from young and aged mice. Aged immune cells showed upregulated expression of all five aging-related genes and promoted RCC invasion compared to young immune cells. Further studies revealed DUSP22 as a regulator and druggable target of metastasis. DUSP22 gene knockdown reduced RCC invasion and the small molecule inhibitor BML-260 prevented RCC dissemination in a tumor/immune cell xenograft model. Overall, these results demonstrate that deciphering the relationship between aging-related gene expression in normal tissues and cancer patient survival can provide new prognostic markers, regulators of tumorigenesis and novel targets for drug development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13123045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8234889PMC
June 2021

Virtual Reality vs. Tablet Video as an Experiential Education Platform for Pediatric Patients Undergoing Chest Radiography: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

J Clin Med 2021 Jun 4;10(11). Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Medical Virtual Reality Research Group, Department of Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 03080, Korea.

Virtual reality (VR), which offers an immersive experience, has been implemented into the education of pediatric patients to reduce peri-procedural anxiety. This randomized clinical trial evaluated the effect of VR, compared with standard video, on reducing anxiety and distress in pediatric patients undergoing chest radiography. A total of 120 children aged 4 to 8 years with scheduled chest radiography appointments were randomized into either the tablet or the VR group. Children in the tablet group experienced chest radiography indirectly with a 3 min tablet video, whereas those in the VR group received the same content via a VR experience. The distress of children was measured using the Observational Scale of Behavioral Distress (OSBD) scale. Parental presence and procedural outcomes were also recorded. The number of less distressed children (OSBD score < 5) was significantly higher in the VR group than in the tablet group (49 [81.7%]) vs. 32 [53.3%]) ( = 0.001). The OSBD scores, the need for parental presence, the procedure time, and the number of repeated procedures were all lower in the VR group. The immersive VR experience appears to decrease the degree of anxiety in children and increase the efficiency of the procedures compared with the tablet video with the same content.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10112486DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8200101PMC
June 2021

Maternal antibiotic exposure during pregnancy is a risk factor for community-acquired urinary tract infection caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria in infants.

Pediatr Nephrol 2021 Jun 25. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: This study aimed to investigate the risk factors for community-acquired urinary tract infection (UTI) caused by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-positive bacteria in infants.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of infants aged < 1 year with first UTI from 2018 to 2019 at two tertiary centers in Korea. Data analyzed included clinical findings, birth history, delivery mode, milk type, use of postpartum care center, and previous use of antibiotics both in the patient and mother.

Results: Of 265 patients, 62 (23.4%) were diagnosed with first UTI caused by ESBL-positive bacteria at the median age of 3.6 (interquartile range (IQR) 2.3-5.4) months. Maternal use of antibiotics during pregnancy (29.0 vs. 10.3%, p < 0.001) and Klebsiella species (19.4% vs. 4.9%, p < 0.001) were significantly associated with ESBL-positive UTIs and remained valid in the multivariate analysis (odds ratio [OR], 3.40; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.61-7.19, p = 0.001, and OR 5.26; 95% CI 2.03-13.13, p = 0.001, respectively). Previous antibiotic exposure of patients, previous hospitalization, prematurity, delivery mode, milk type, and use of postpartum care center were not significantly different between ESBL-positive and ESBL-negative groups. With respect to the clinical course of UTI, the ESBL-positive group presented a higher number of blood leukocytes (p = 0.041) and longer hospital stay (p < 0.001) than the ESBL-negative group.

Conclusions: About one-fourth of infantile UTI cases were ESBL-positive. Prenatal antibiotic exposure of mothers and Klebsiella species were associated with community-acquired UTI caused by ESBL-positive bacteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00467-021-05163-zDOI Listing
June 2021

Status of antimicrobial stewardship programmes in Korean hospitals including small to medium-sized hospitals and the awareness and demands of physicians: a nationwide survey in 2020.

J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2021 Jun 18;26:180-187. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, 82 Gumi-ro, 173 beon-gil, Bundang-gu, Seongnam 13620, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea.

Objectives: This study aimed to identify the status of antimicrobial stewardship programmes (ASPs) in small to medium-sized Korean hospitals as well as the awareness and demands about ASPs of physicians.

Methods: A questionnaire was designed based on a questionnaire from a previous nationwide survey in 2018 targeting large hospitals in Korea and modified to reflect the results of in-depth interviews with non-infectious diseases (IDs) physicians at secondary care hospitals. The survey targeted all hospitals with ≥150 beds in South Korea and was performed in May-June 2020. Only one ASP-associated physician per hospital participated in the survey.

Results: The survey response rate was 31.9% (217/680). ID specialists comprised the majority of medical personnel participating in ASPs in tertiary care hospitals. Conversely, in secondary and primary care hospitals there was no predominant medical personnel for ASPs and the median full-time equivalent was 0 for all types of medical personnel. Tertiary care hospitals, more than secondary and primary care hospitals, tended to perform ASP activities more actively. 'Workforce for ASPs', 'Establishment of healthcare fees for ASPs' and 'Development of tools for ASPs' were the most important required support for ASP improvement.

Conclusion: The level of ASP establishment was more limited in primary care hospitals than in secondary and tertiary care hospitals in Korea. To improve ASPs in Korean hospitals, a supporting workforce and the establishment of a healthcare fee for ASPs appear to be necessary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgar.2021.06.001DOI Listing
June 2021

Synthesis, characterization and application of intracellular Ag/AgCl nanohybrids biosynthesized in Scenedesmus sp. as neutral lipid inducer and antibacterial agent.

Environ Res 2021 Jun 17;201:111499. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Biosciences and Biomedical Engineering, IIT Indore, India. Electronic address:

The current research focuses on the Intracellular biosynthesis of Ag/AgCl nanohybrids in microalgae, Scenedesmus sp. The effect of biosynthesis process on growth and lipid profile of cells is key element of this study. Ag/AgCl nanohybrids synthesized intracellularly were characterized by UV-Vis spectrophotometer, Powder X-Ray Diffraction (P-XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). 10-20 nm and 10-50 nm sized spherical shaped nanoparticles of polycrystalline nature were grown using 0.5 and 1 mM of AgNO precursor, respectively and Scenedesmus sp. as reducing agent. Total lipid content of the cells treated with 0.5 mM and 1 mM AgNO was static and found to be 43.2 ± 0.01 μg/mL and 48.2 ± 0.02 μg/mL respectively at 120 h of Ag/AgCl nanoparticles biosynthesis. FAME (Fatty Acid Methyl Ester) profile was improved due to intracellular nanoparticles biosynthesis with maximum C16:0 (palmitic acid) (35.7%) in cells treated with 0.5 mM AgNO used for Ag/AgCl nanohybrids synthesis. Palmitic acid in cells exposed to 0.5 mM concentration of metallic precursor increased by 75.86%. Synthesized nanoparticles were tested on four bacterial strains to establish its antibacterial efficiency showing appropriate zone of inhibition at varying concentrations. Present study efficiently demonstrates the utility of microalgae integrating nanoparticles biosynthesis and lipid accumulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111499DOI Listing
June 2021

Recommendation for use of diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis, inactivated poliovirus, Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate, and hepatitis B vaccine in infants.

Clin Exp Pediatr 2021 Jun 8. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

In April 2020, the Ministry of Food and Drug Safety licensed a hexavalent combined diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis (DTaP), inactivated poliovirus (IPV), Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugated to tetanus protein, and hepatitis B (HepB) (recombinant DNA) vaccine, DTaP-IPV-Hib-HepB (Hexaxim®; Sanofi Pasteur), for use as a three-dose primary series in infants aged 2, 4, and 6 months. The DTaP-IPV-Hib-HepB vaccine is highly immunogenic and safe and provides a long-term immune response based on studies performed in a variety of settings in many countries, including Korea. This report summarizes the Committee on Infectious Diseases of the Korean Pediatric Society guidelines for the use of this newly introduced hexavalent combination vaccine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3345/cep.2021.00507DOI Listing
June 2021

Super.FELT: supervised feature extraction learning using triplet loss for drug response prediction with multi-omics data.

BMC Bioinformatics 2021 May 25;22(1):269. Epub 2021 May 25.

School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju, South Korea.

Background: Predicting the drug response of a patient is important for precision oncology. In recent studies, multi-omics data have been used to improve the prediction accuracy of drug response. Although multi-omics data are good resources for drug response prediction, the large dimension of data tends to hinder performance improvement. In this study, we aimed to develop a new method, which can effectively reduce the large dimension of data, based on the supervised deep learning model for predicting drug response.

Results: We proposed a novel method called Supervised Feature Extraction Learning using Triplet loss (Super.FELT) for drug response prediction. Super.FELT consists of three stages, namely, feature selection, feature encoding using a supervised method, and binary classification of drug response (sensitive or resistant). We used multi-omics data including mutation, copy number aberration, and gene expression, and these were obtained from cell lines [Genomics of Drug Sensitivity in Cancer (GDSC), Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE), and Cancer Therapeutics Response Portal (CTRP)], patient-derived tumor xenografts (PDX), and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). GDSC was used for training and cross-validation tests, and CCLE, CTRP, PDX, and TCGA were used for external validation. We performed ablation studies for the three stages and verified that the use of multi-omics data guarantees better performance of drug response prediction. Our results verified that Super.FELT outperformed the other methods at external validation on PDX and TCGA and was good at cross-validation on GDSC and external validation on CCLE and CTRP. In addition, through our experiments, we confirmed that using multi-omics data is useful for external non-cell line data.

Conclusion: By separating the three stages, Super.FELT achieved better performance than the other methods. Through our results, we found that it is important to train encoders and a classifier independently, especially for external test on PDX and TCGA. Moreover, although gene expression is the most powerful data on cell line data, multi-omics promises better performance for external validation on non-cell line data than gene expression data. Source codes of Super.FELT are available at  https://github.com/DMCB-GIST/Super.FELT .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12859-021-04146-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8152321PMC
May 2021

Integrative reconstruction of cancer genome karyotypes using InfoGenomeR.

Nat Commun 2021 04 29;12(1):2467. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju, South Korea.

Annotation of structural variations (SVs) and base-level karyotyping in cancer cells remains challenging. Here, we present Integrative Framework for Genome Reconstruction (InfoGenomeR)-a graph-based framework that can reconstruct individual SVs into karyotypes based on whole-genome sequencing data, by integrating SVs, total copy number alterations, allele-specific copy numbers, and haplotype information. Using whole-genome sequencing data sets of patients with breast cancer, glioblastoma multiforme, and ovarian cancer, we demonstrate the analytical potential of InfoGenomeR. We identify recurrent derivative chromosomes derived from chromosomes 11 and 17 in breast cancer samples, with homogeneously staining regions for CCND1 and ERBB2, and double minutes and breakage-fusion-bridge cycles in glioblastoma multiforme and ovarian cancer samples, respectively. Moreover, we show that InfoGenomeR can discriminate private and shared SVs between primary and metastatic cancer sites that could contribute to tumour evolution. These findings indicate that InfoGenomeR can guide targeted therapies by unravelling cancer-specific SVs on a genome-wide scale.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22671-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8085216PMC
April 2021

Identification of altered protein expression in major depressive disorder and bipolar disorder patients using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

Psychiatry Res 2021 May 2;299:113850. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Department of Psychiatry, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Department of Neuropsychiatry, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Institute of Human Behavioral Medicine, Seoul National University Medical Research Center, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Emerging high-throughput proteomic technologies have recently been considered as a powerful means of identifying substrates involved in mood disorders. We performed proteomic profiling using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry to identify dysregulated proteins in plasma samples of 42 and 45 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD), respectively, in comparison to 51 healthy controls (HCs). Fourteen and six proteins in MDD and BD patients, respectively, were differentially expressed compared to HCs, among which coagulation factor XIII A chain (F13A1), platelet basic protein (PPBP), platelet facor 4 (PF4), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and thymosin beta-4 (TMSB4X) were altered in both disorders. For proteins dysregulated in both, except F13A1, higher fold changes were observed in MDD than in BD patients. These findings may help identify candidate biomarkers of mood disorders and elucidate their underlying pathophysiology and biochemical abnormalities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2021.113850DOI Listing
May 2021

Nano/Micro Hybrid Bamboo Fibrous Preforms for Robust Biodegradable Fiber Reinforced Plastics.

Polymers (Basel) 2021 Feb 20;13(4). Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Department of Agriculture, Forestry and Bioresources, College of Agriculture & Life Sciences, Seoul National Universtiy, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826, Korea.

The focus on high-strength and functional natural fiber-based composite materials is growing as interest in developing eco-friendly plastics and sustainable materials increases. An eco-friendly fibrous composite with excellent mechanical properties was prepared by applying the bamboo-derived nano and microfiber multiscale hybridization phenomenon. As a result, the cellulose nanofibers simultaneously coated the micro-bamboo fiber surface and adhered between them. The multiscale hybrid phenomenon implemented between bamboo nano and microfibers improved the tensile strength, elongation, Young's modulus, and toughness of the fibrous composite. The enhancement of the fibrous preform mechanical properties also affected the reinforcement of biodegradable fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP). This eco-friendly nano/micro fibrous preform can be extensively utilized in reinforced preforms for FRPs and other green plastic industry applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym13040636DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7924370PMC
February 2021

Clinical Efficacy of Doxycycline for Treatment of Macrolide-Resistant Pneumonia in Children.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2021 Feb 17;10(2). Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03080, Korea.

In areas with high prevalence of macrolide-resistant (MRMP) pneumonia, treatment in children has become challenging. This study aimed to analyze the efficacy of macrolides and doxycycline with regard to the presence of macrolide resistance. We analyzed children with MP pneumonia during the two recent epidemics of 2014-2015 and 2019-2020 from four hospitals in Korea. Nasopharyngeal samples were obtained from children with pneumonia for MP cultures and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Macrolide resistance was determined by the analysis of 23S rRNA gene transition. Time to defervescence and to chest X-ray improvement were analyzed. Of 145 cases, the median age was 5.0 years and MRMP accounted for 59 (40.7%). Among macrolide-susceptible MP (MSMP), 78 (90.7%) were treated with macrolides and 21 (35.6%) in the MRMP group with doxycycline. In MRMP pneumonia, shorter days to defervescence (2 vs. 5 days, < 0.001) and to chest X-ray improvement (3 vs. 6 days, < 0.001) in the doxycycline group than in the macrolide group was observed, whereas no differences were observed among children with MSMP pneumonia. Compared to macrolides, treatment with doxycycline resulted in better outcomes with a shorter time to defervescence and to chest X-ray improvement among children with MRMP pneumonia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10020192DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7921960PMC
February 2021

Whole-Genome Sequencing for Investigating a Health Care-Associated Outbreak of Carbapenem-Resistant .

Diagnostics (Basel) 2021 Jan 29;11(2). Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam 13620, Korea.

Carbapenem-resistant (CRAB) outbreaks in hospital settings challenge the treatment of patients and infection control. Understanding the relatedness of clinical isolates is important in distinguishing outbreak isolates from sporadic cases. This study investigated 11 CRAB isolates from a hospital outbreak by whole-genome sequencing (WGS), utilizing various bioinformatics tools for outbreak analysis. The results of multilocus sequence typing (MLST), single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis, and phylogenetic tree analysis by WGS through web-based tools were compared, and repetitive element polymerase chain reaction (rep-PCR) typing was performed. Through the WGS of 11 isolates, three clonal lineages were identified from the outbreak. The coexistence of and with additional aminoglycoside-inactivating enzymes, predicted to confer multidrug resistance, was identified in all isolates. The MLST Oxford scheme identified three types (ST191, ST369, and ST451), and, through whole-genome MLST and whole-genome SNP analyses, different clones were found to exist within the MLST types. wgSNP showed the highest discriminatory power with the lowest similarities among the isolates. Using the various bioinformatics tools for WGS, CRAB outbreak analysis was applicable and identified three discrete clusters differentiating the separate epidemiologic relationships among the isolates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics11020201DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7910894PMC
January 2021

Surveillance of COVID-19-Associated Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children, South Korea.

Emerg Infect Dis 2021 04 4;27(4):1196-1200. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

A concerning development during the coronavirus disease pandemic has been multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. Reports of this condition in East Asia have been limited. In South Korea, 3 cases were reported to the national surveillance system for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. All case-patients were hospitalized and survived with no major disease sequelae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2704.210026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8007302PMC
April 2021

Limited Benefit of Facility Isolation and the Rationale for Home Care in Children with Mild COVID-19.

J Korean Med Sci 2021 Feb 1;36(5):e45. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Considering the mild degree of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children and the enormous stress caused by isolation in unfamiliar places, policies requiring mandatory isolation at medical facilities should be reevaluated especially given the impact of the pandemic on the availability of hospital beds. In this study, we assessed the usefulness of facility isolation and the transmissibility of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 by infected children to uninfected caregivers in isolation units at a hospital and a residential treatment center in Seoul during August-November 2020. Fifty-three children were included and median age was 4 years (range, 0-18). All were mildly ill or asymptomatic and isolated for a median duration of 12 days. Thirty percent stayed home longer than 2 days before entering isolation units from symptom onset. Among 15 uninfected caregivers, none became infected when they used facemasks and practiced hand hygiene. The results suggest children with mild COVID-19 may be cared safely at home by a caregiver in conditions with adherence to the preventive measures of wearing facemasks and practicing hand hygiene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2021.36.e45DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7850862PMC
February 2021

Antimicrobial Resistance and Molecular Analysis of in Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome among Children in Korea.

J Korean Med Sci 2021 Jan 18;36(3):e22. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS) is a skin disease characterized by blistering and desquamation caused by exfoliative toxins (ETs) of (). Although many countries show predominance of methicillin-susceptible (MSSA), cases of methicillin-resistant (MRSA) have been reported.

Methods: Twenty-six children aged <15 years diagnosed with SSSS from January 2010 to December 2017 from three hospitals were included. isolates from cases were analyzed for multilocus sequence types and ETs. Medical records were reviewed for clinical characteristics, treatment, and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of .

Results: Among the 26 cases, mean age was 2.3 years. According to skin manifestations patients were classified as generalized (n = 10, 38.5%), intermediate (n = 11, 42.3%), and abortive (n = 5, 19.2%). Among all cases, 96.2% (25/26) were due to MRSA and the macrolide-resistance rate was 92.3% (24/26). ST89 (n = 21, 80.8%) was the most prevalent clone, followed by single clones of ST1, ST5, ST72, ST121, and ST1507. The eta gene was detected in one (3.8%) isolate which was MSSA. The gene was detected in 14 (53.8%) isolates, all of which were ST89. Nafcillin or first-generation cephalosporin was most commonly prescribed (n=20, 76.9%). Vancomycin was administered in four patients (15.4%) and clindamycin in nine patients (34.6%). Among MRSA cases, there was no difference in duration of treatment when comparing the use of antimicrobials to which the causative bacteria were susceptible or non-susceptible (9.75 vs. 8.07 days, > 0.05).

Conclusion: isolated from children with SSSS in Korea demonstrated a high prevalence of methicillin-resistant ST89 clones that harbored the gene. The predominance of MRSA suggests that antibiotics to which MRSA are susceptible may be considered for empirical antibiotic treatment in children with SSSS in Korea. Further studies on the role and effectiveness of systemic antibiotics in SSSS are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2021.36.e22DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7813586PMC
January 2021

Social Ecological Barriers for Healthy Eating of Obese Children and Their Caregivers in Low-income Families in South Korea.

Ecol Food Nutr 2021 Jul-Aug;60(4):525-541. Epub 2021 Jan 17.

Korea Disease Control and Prevention Agency (KDCA), Osong, South Korea.

In this qualitative study, the focus is on healthy eating in children from low-income families who visit a Community Child Care center (CCC) in South Korea. Barriers for healthy eating were identified using focus group interviews with low-income overweight and obese children and their caregivers and applying a social ecological model as well as the framework analysis for qualitative data. The need for theory- and evidence-based health promotion interventions is indicated, at the level of the family, but also at the level of collaboration among all stakeholders, as well as multi-level policy changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03670244.2021.1875454DOI Listing
January 2021

Defect Mediated WO Nanorods Bundle for Nonenzymatic Amperometric Glucose Sensing Application.

ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2020 04 19;6(4):1909-1919. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Discipline of Metallurgy Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Simrol Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore-453552, India.

In this work, we have successfully proclaimed the importance of defect prone nanostructure on to the electrode surface for the promising glucose sensing applications. Oxygen-deficient WO moieties with multiple valences W and W have been investigated as an efficient electrocatalyst for the nonenzymatic glucose sensing. In order to highlight the importance of the defect, WO nanomaterial's electrode has also been synthesized and tested for glucose sensing. WO delivers a larger Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and mesoporous pores which have contributed to the high sensitivity performances. The oxygen vacant WO nanostructure has been synthesized by a facile solvothermal route and has retained interconnected nanorods morphology. Compared with non-oxygen-deficient WO, this defect prone version of tungsten oxide (WO) possesses a doubled linearity range up to 1.6 mM maximum electrooxidation toward glucose by giving a 1.6 times higher sensitivity of 167 μA mM cm, 0.5 times lower detection limit of 0.02 μM (/ = 3), and a swift response time of 5 s.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsbiomaterials.9b01791DOI Listing
April 2020

Transformation of Battery to High Performance Pseudocapacitor by the Hybridization of WO with RuO Nanostructures.

Langmuir 2021 Jan 12;37(3):1141-1151. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Discipline of Metallurgy Engineering and Materials Science, Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Simrol Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore-453552, India.

Defects such as oxygen vacancy in the nanostructures have paramount importance in tuning the optical and electronic properties of a metal oxide. Here we report the growth of oxygen deficit tungsten oxide (WO) nanorods modified with ruthenium oxide (RuO) using a simple and economical hydrothermal approach for energy storage application. In this work, a novel approach of hybridizing the WO nanostructure with RuO to control the electrochemical performance for energy storage applications has been proposed. The result displays that the hybridization of the nanostructures plays an important role in yielding high specific capacitance of the electrode material. Due to the augmentation of WO and RuO nanostructures, the galvanostatic charging and discharging (GCD) mechanism exhibited the transformation from the battery type characteristics of WO into the typical pseudocapacitor feature of hybrid architect nanostructure due to defect creations. The electrochemical measurement of hybrid nanomaterial shows the doubling of specific capacitance to 1126 F/g and 1050 F/g in cyclic voltammetry (CV) and GCD, respectively, in comparison with WO and RuO and earlier reports. The enhancement in the stability performance up to 3000 cycles of hybrid is indebted to the stable nature of WO and the high conductivity of RuO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.0c03056DOI Listing
January 2021

Shared Blood Transcriptomic Signatures between Alzheimer's Disease and Diabetes Mellitus.

Biomedicines 2021 Jan 4;9(1). Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Department of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 61005, Korea.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are known to have a shared molecular mechanism. We aimed to identify shared blood transcriptomic signatures between AD and DM. Blood expression datasets for each disease were combined and a co-expression network was used to construct modules consisting of genes with similar expression patterns. For each module, a gene regulatory network based on gene expression and protein-protein interactions was established to identify hub genes. We selected one module, where , , , , and were identified as dysregulated transcription factors that were common between AD and DM. These five genes were also differentially co-expressed in disease-related tissues, such as the brain in AD and the pancreas in DM. Our study identified gene modules that were dysregulated in both AD and DM blood samples, which may contribute to reveal common pathophysiology between two diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9010034DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7823888PMC
January 2021

Impact of Antibiotic Prescribing Patterns on Susceptibilities of Uropathogens in Children below 24 Months Old.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2020 Dec 16;9(12). Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Department of Pediatrics, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea.

Monitoring regional antibiotic resistance patterns of uropathogens are important for deciding suitable empirical antibiotics for urinary tract infections (UTIs) in children. This study aimed to investigate regional differences in antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of and spp. in children below 24 months old, diagnosed with their first episode of UTI, and to find factors associated with an increased risk for UTI caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing uropathogens. This was a retrospective cohort study of children diagnosed between 2011 and 2017 in four different hospitals located in four different regions of South Korea; regions A, B, C, and D. The government's big data repository was used to acquire data on regional antibiotic prescriptions. The pooled antimicrobial susceptibilities of and spp. ( = 2044) were as follows: ampicillin-sulbactam (61.0%), 3rd generation cephalosporin (3C) (82.8%), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (72.0%). Multivariate analysis showed that children diagnosed at hospital A (OR, 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.6; = 0.002) and every year that increased in the study period (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.1-1.2; < 0.001) were factors associated with an increased risk for UTIs with ESBL-producers. Regions A and B had significantly higher amounts of oral 3Cs prescribed compared to regions C and D ( = 0.009), which correlate with hospitals in the regions that had higher proportions of UTIs with ESBL-producing uropathogens (A and B vs. C and D, < 0.001). Therefore, children in certain regions are at a higher risk for UTIs caused by ESBL-producers compared to other regions, which correlate with regions that had higher amounts of oral 3Cs prescribed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9120915DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7767190PMC
December 2020

Impact of Antibiotic Prescribing Patterns on Susceptibilities of Uropathogens in Children below 24 Months Old.

Antibiotics (Basel) 2020 Dec 16;9(12). Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Department of Pediatrics, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 06591, Korea.

Monitoring regional antibiotic resistance patterns of uropathogens are important for deciding suitable empirical antibiotics for urinary tract infections (UTIs) in children. This study aimed to investigate regional differences in antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of and spp. in children below 24 months old, diagnosed with their first episode of UTI, and to find factors associated with an increased risk for UTI caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing uropathogens. This was a retrospective cohort study of children diagnosed between 2011 and 2017 in four different hospitals located in four different regions of South Korea; regions A, B, C, and D. The government's big data repository was used to acquire data on regional antibiotic prescriptions. The pooled antimicrobial susceptibilities of and spp. ( = 2044) were as follows: ampicillin-sulbactam (61.0%), 3rd generation cephalosporin (3C) (82.8%), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (72.0%). Multivariate analysis showed that children diagnosed at hospital A (OR, 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.6; = 0.002) and every year that increased in the study period (OR, 1.1; 95% CI, 1.1-1.2; < 0.001) were factors associated with an increased risk for UTIs with ESBL-producers. Regions A and B had significantly higher amounts of oral 3Cs prescribed compared to regions C and D ( = 0.009), which correlate with hospitals in the regions that had higher proportions of UTIs with ESBL-producing uropathogens (A and B vs. C and D, < 0.001). Therefore, children in certain regions are at a higher risk for UTIs caused by ESBL-producers compared to other regions, which correlate with regions that had higher amounts of oral 3Cs prescribed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9120915DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7767190PMC
December 2020

Superexchange Coupling-Induced Enhancements of Thermoelectric Performance in Saturated Molecules.

Nano Lett 2021 Jan 4;21(1):360-366. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Department of Chemistry, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea.

To develop thermoelectric devices, it is of the utmost importance to design organic building blocks to have efficient thermopower. Whereas conjugated and aromatic molecules with intrinsic narrow band gaps are attractive candidates to achieve efficient thermoelectric properties, saturated molecules are usually avoided owing to intrinsically poor thermopower. Here we demonstrate that thermopower of saturated molecules can be enhanced by superexchange coupling. Specifically, thermoelectric properties of large-area junctions that contain self-assembled monolayers of oligo(ethylene glycol) thiolates and alkanethiolates are compared. Through large-area thermopower measurements using a liquid metal top electrode, we show that the superexchange coupling enhances the Seebeck coefficient and counterintuitively leads to an increase in the Seebeck coefficient with increasing the length in a certain conformation. The improved thermoelectric performance is attributed to the superexchange-induced enhanced ability to mediate metal wave function in junctions. Our work offers new insights for improving the thermoelectric performance of nonconjugated, saturated molecules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.0c03736DOI Listing
January 2021

Kikuchi Cervical Lymphadenitis in Children: Ultrasound Differentiation From Common Infectious Lymphadenitis.

J Ultrasound Med 2020 Dec 2. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam, South Korea.

Objectives: To investigate ultrasound (US) features of enlarged cervical lymph nodes (LNs) to differentiate between Kikuchi disease (KD) and other common types of infectious lymphadenitis in an East Asian pediatric patient population.

Methods: A total of 142 pediatric patients with KD and 45 patients with infectious lymphadenitis (suppurative lymphadenitis [n = 29], nontuberculous mycobacterial lymphadenitis [n = 9], and tuberculous lymphadenitis [n = 7]) were included. The clinical characteristics, laboratory results, and US features of LNs were reviewed. The area under the curve (AUC) from a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used as a diagnostic accuracy measure.

Results: A multiple clustered adjacent pattern, bilaterality, an even size, posterior neck involvement, no enlargement, an elongated-to-ovoid shape, homogeneous hypoechogenicity, a well-defined margin, presence of an echogenic fatty hilum, no intranodal gross necrosis, increased perinodal fat echogenicity, and no increased echogenicity of the adjacent sternocleidomastoid muscle were significant US features of the affected LNs to discriminate KD from infectious lymphadenitis (P < .05). Homogeneous hypoechogenicity in KD showed the highest AUC (0.930) as a single variable (95% confidence interval, 0.88-0.96). The AUCs were increased in 3 combination models with 2 US features: homogeneous echogenicity and 1 of 3 other US features (increased perinodal fat echogenicity, 0.935; number of affected LNs, 0.947; and LN shape, 0.949).

Conclusions: Homogeneous hypoechogenicity of LNs was a significant US feature with the highest diagnostic accuracy in differentiating KD from common infectious lymphadenitis on a univariate analysis. In the combination model, US features of an elongated-to-ovoid shape and homogeneous hypoechogenicity showed the highest diagnostic accuracy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jum.15584DOI Listing
December 2020

Absence of SARS-CoV-2 Transmission from Children in Isolation to Guardians, South Korea.

Emerg Infect Dis 2021 Jan 30;27(1). Epub 2020 Nov 30.

We explored transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 among 12 children and their uninfected guardians in hospital isolation rooms in South Korea. We found that, even with close frequent contact, guardians who used appropriate personal protective equipment were not infected by children with diagnosed coronavirus disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2701.203450DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7774560PMC
January 2021

Absence of SARS-CoV-2 Transmission from Children in Isolation to Guardians, South Korea.

Emerg Infect Dis 2021 Jan 30;27(1). Epub 2020 Nov 30.

We explored transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 among 12 children and their uninfected guardians in hospital isolation rooms in South Korea. We found that, even with close frequent contact, guardians who used appropriate personal protective equipment were not infected by children with diagnosed coronavirus disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2701.203450DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7774560PMC
January 2021

Prediction of survival and recurrence in patients with pancreatic cancer by integrating multi-omics data.

Authors:
Bin Baek Hyunju Lee

Sci Rep 2020 11 3;10(1):18951. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju, 61005, Korea.

Predicting the prognosis of pancreatic cancer is important because of the very low survival rates of patients with this particular cancer. Although several studies have used microRNA and gene expression profiles and clinical data, as well as images of tissues and cells, to predict cancer survival and recurrence, the accuracies of these approaches in the prediction of high-risk pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PAAD) still need to be improved. Accordingly, in this study, we proposed two biological features based on multi-omics datasets to predict survival and recurrence among patients with PAAD. First, the clonal expansion of cancer cells with somatic mutations was used to predict prognosis. Using whole-exome sequencing data from 134 patients with PAAD from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we found five candidate genes that were mutated in the early stages of tumorigenesis with high cellular prevalence (CP). CDKN2A, TP53, TTN, KCNJ18, and KRAS had the highest CP values among the patients with PAAD, and survival and recurrence rates were significantly different between the patients harboring mutations in these candidate genes and those harboring mutations in other genes (p = 2.39E-03, p = 8.47E-04, respectively). Second, we generated an autoencoder to integrate the RNA sequencing, microRNA sequencing, and DNA methylation data from 134 patients with PAAD from TCGA. The autoencoder robustly reduced the dimensions of these multi-omics data, and the K-means clustering method was then used to cluster the patients into two subgroups. The subgroups of patients had significant differences in survival and recurrence (p = 1.41E-03, p = 4.43E-04, respectively). Finally, we developed a prediction model for prognosis using these two biological features and clinical data. When support vector machines, random forest, logistic regression, and L2 regularized logistic regression were used as prediction models, logistic regression analysis generally revealed the best performance for both disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) (accuracy [ACC] = 0.762 and area under the curve [AUC] = 0.795 for DFS; ACC = 0.776 and AUC = 0.769 for OS). Thus, we could classify patients with a high probability of recurrence and at a high risk of poor outcomes. Our study provides insights into new personalized therapies on the basis of mutation status and multi-omics data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-76025-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7609582PMC
November 2020

COVID-19 in children across three Asian cosmopolitan regions.

Emerg Microbes Infect 2020 Dec;9(1):2588-2596

Department of Pediatric Surgery, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People's Republic of China.

As another wave of COVID-19 outbreak has approached in July 2020, a larger scale COVID-19 pediatric Asian cohort summarizing the clinical observations is warranted. Children confirmed with COVID-19 infection from the Republic of Korea, the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) and Wuhan, China, during their first waves of local outbreaks were included. Their clinical characteristics and the temporal sequences of the first waves of local paediatric outbreaks were compared. Four hundred and twenty three children with COVID-19 were analyzed. Wuhan had the earliest peak, followed by Korea and HKSAR. Compared with Korea and Wuhan, patients in HKSAR were significantly older (mean age: 12.9 vs. 10.8 vs. 6.6 years,  < 0.001, respectively) and had more imported cases (87.5% vs. 16.5% vs. 0%,  < 0.001, respectively). The imported cases were also older (13.4 vs. 7.6 years,  < 0.001). More cases in HKSAR were asymptomatic compared to Korea and Wuhan (45.5% vs. 22.0% vs. 20.9%,  < 0.001, respectively), and significantly more patients from Wuhan developed fever (40.6% vs. 29.7% vs. 21.6%, =0.003, respectively). There were significantly less imported cases than domestic cases developing fever after adjusting for age and region of origin ( = 0.046). 5.4% to 10.8% of patients reported anosmia and ageusia. None developed pediatric multisystem inflammatory syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PMIS-TS). In general, adolescents were more likely to be asymptomatic and less likely to develop fever, but required longer hospital stays. In conclusion, majority patients in this pediatric Asian cohort had a mild disease. None developed PIMS-TS. Their clinical characteristics were influenced by travel history and age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/22221751.2020.1846462DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7723019PMC
December 2020

Dynamics of viral load and anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in patients with positive RT-PCR results after recovery from COVID-19.

Korean J Intern Med 2021 01 25;36(1):11-14. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam, Korea.

Recently, the number of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) who have tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), via the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test, after recovery has increased; this has caused a dilemma regarding the medical measures and policies. We evaluated the dynamics of viral load and anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in four patients with positive RT-PCR results after recovery. In all patients, the highest levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies were reached after about a month of the onset of the initial symptoms. Then, the IgG titers plateaued, and the IgM titers decreased, regardless of RT-PCR results. The IgG and IgM levels did not increase after the post-negative positive RT-PCR results in any of the patients. Our results reinforced that the post-negative positive RT-PCR results may be due to the detection of RNA particles rather than reinfection in individuals who have recovered from COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3904/kjim.2020.325DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7820639PMC
January 2021

Pandemic preparedness of an academic medical centre in the Republic of Korea.

Clin Microbiol Infect 2020 Dec 3;26(12):1595-1599. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cmi.2020.08.032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7470819PMC
December 2020