Publications by authors named "Hyun-Hee Kong"

76 Publications

Clinical performance of medical students in Korea in a whole-task emergency station in the objective structured clinical examination with a standardized patient complaining of palpitations

J Educ Eval Health Prof 2020 16;17:42. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Department of Pediatrics, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju, Korea

This study assessed the clinical performance of 150 third-year medicalstudents in Busan, Korea in a whole-task emergency objective structured clinical examination station that simulated a patient with palpitations visiting the emergency department. The examination was conducted from November 25 to 27, 2019. Clinical performance was assessed as the number and percentage of students who performed history-taking (HT), a physical examination (PE), an electrocardiography (ECG) study, patient education (Ed), and clinical reasoning (CR), which were items on the checklist. It was found that 18.0% of students checked the patient’s pulse, 51.3% completed an ECG study, and 57.9% explained the results to the patient. A sizable proportion (38.0%) of students did not even attempt an ECG study. In a whole-task emergency station, students showed good performance on HT and CR, but unsatisfactory results for PE, ECG study, and Ed. Clinical skills educational programs for subjected student should focus more on PE, timely diagnostic tests, and sufficient Ed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3352/jeehp.2020.17.42DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7856094PMC
December 2020

Identification of differentially expressed genes during its intracellular growth in .

Heliyon 2020 Oct 12;6(10):e05238. Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Department of Medical Zoology, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

grows intracellularly in free-living amoeba as well as in mammalian macrophages. Until now, the overall gene expression pattern of intracellular in was not fully explained. Intracellular bacteria are capable of not only altering the gene expression of its host, but it can also regulate the expression of its own genes for survival. In this study, differentially expressed genes within during the 24 h intracellular growth period were investigated for comparative analysis. RNA sequencing analysis revealed 3,003 genes from the intracellular . Among them, 115 genes were upregulated and 1,676 genes were downregulated more than 2 fold compared to the free . Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed the suppression of multiple genes within the intracellular , which were categorized under 'ATP binding' and 'DNA binding' in the molecular function domain. Gene expression of alkylhydroperoxidase, an enzyme involved in virulence and anti-oxidative stress response, was strongly enhanced 24 h post-intracellular growth. Amino acid ABC transporter substrate-binding protein that utilizes energy generation was also highly expressed. Genes associated with alkylhydroperoxidase, glucose pathway, and Dot/Icm type IV secretion system were shown to be differentially expressed. These results contribute to a better understanding of the survival strategies of intracellular within .
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e05238DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7566939PMC
October 2020

The role of the Acanthamoeba castellanii Sir2-like protein in the growth and encystation of Acanthamoeba.

Parasit Vectors 2020 Jul 22;13(1):368. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Department of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Republic of Korea.

Background: The encystation of Acanthamoeba leads to the development of resilient cysts from vegetative trophozoites. This process is essential for the survival of parasites under unfavorable conditions. Previous studies have reported that, during the encystation of A. castellanii, the expression levels of encystation-related factors are upregulated. However, the regulatory mechanisms for their expression during the encystation process remains unknown. Proteins in the sirtuin family, which consists of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylases, are known to play an important role in various cellular functions. In the present study, we identified the Acanthamoeba silent-information regulator 2-like protein (AcSir2) and examined its role in the growth and encystation of Acanthamoeba.

Methods: We obtained the full-length sequence for AcSir2 using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. In Acanthamoeba transfectants that constitutively overexpress AcSir2 protein, SIRT deacetylase activity was measured, and the intracellular localization of AcSir2 and the effects on the growth and encystation of trophozoites were examined. In addition, the sirtuin inhibitor salermide was used to determine whether these effects were caused by AcSir2 overexpression RESULTS: AcSir2 was classified as a class-IV sirtuin. AcSir2 exhibited functional SIRT deacetylase activity, localized mainly in the nucleus, and its transcription was upregulated during encystation. In trophozoites, AcSir2 overexpression led to greater cell growth, and this growth was inhibited by treatment with salermide, a sirtuin inhibitor. When AcSir2 was overexpressed in the cysts, the encystation rate was significantly higher; this was also reversed with salermide treatment. In AcSir2-overexpressing encysting cells, the transcription of cellulose synthase was highly upregulated compared with that of control cells, and this upregulation was abolished with salermide treatment. Transmission electron microscope-based ultrastructural analysis of salermide-treated encysting cells showed that the structure of the exocyst wall and intercyst space was impaired and that the endocyst wall had not formed.

Conclusions: These results indicate that AcSir2 is a SIRT deacetylase that plays an essential role as a regulator of a variety of cellular processes and that the regulation of AcSir2 expression is important for the growth and encystation of A. castellanii.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04237-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7376869PMC
July 2020

Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Enhance the Amoebicidal Effect of Low Concentration of Polyhexamethylene Biguanide by Inducing Apoptosis.

Cornea 2020 Feb;39(2):245-249

Department of Medical Zoology, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to reduce the cytotoxicity and improve the amoebicidal effect of polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) at low concentrations by combining it with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors.

Methods: To reduce the cytotoxic effect on human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells, the concentration of PHMB was reduced to 0.0002%. To enhance the amoebicidal effect of PHMB, HDAC inhibitors such as suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, MS275, or MC1568 were combined with it. Acanthamoeba and HCE cells were treated with 3 combinations to evaluate the amoebicidal and cytotoxic effects. Microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis were performed to investigate the apoptotic cell death of Acanthamoeba by these combinatorial treatments.

Results: The low concentration of PHMB (0.0002%) alone demonstrated no cytopathic effects (CPEs) on HCE cells. Three combinatorial treatments using 0.0002% PHMB with 10 μM suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, 10 μM MS275, or 10 μM MC1568 showed higher amoebicidal effects on A. castellanii trophozoites than PHMB alone. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis confirmed that HDAC inhibitors increased the apoptotic cell death of Acanthamoeba. Mild CPEs were observed from HCE cells cotreated with PHMB and the HDAC inhibitors after 24 hours of exposure.

Conclusions: Combinatorial treatments showed high amoebicidal effects on Acanthamoeba and low CPEs on HCE cells, which suggests their potential application for Acanthamoeba keratitis treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ICO.0000000000002201DOI Listing
February 2020

Comparison of Proteins Secreted into Extracellular Space of Pathogenic and Non-pathogenic Acanthamoeba castellanii.

Korean J Parasitol 2018 Dec 31;56(6):553-558. Epub 2018 Dec 31.

Department of Medical Zoology, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul 02447, Korea.

Pathogenic Acanthamoeba spp. cause granulomatous amoebic encephalitis and keratitis. Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a rare but serious ocular infection that can result in permanent visual impairment or blindness. However, pathogenic factors of AK remain unclear and treatment for AK is arduous. Expression levels of proteins secreted into extracellular space were compared between A. castellanii pathogenic (ACP) and non-pathogenic strains. Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed 123 differentially expressed proteins, including 34 increased proteins , 7 qualitative increased proteins, 65 decreased proteins, and 17 qualitative decreased proteins in ACP strain. Twenty protein spots with greater than 5-fold increase in ACP strain were analyzed by liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. These proteins showed similarity each to inosine-uridine preferring nucleoside hydrolase, carboxylesterase, oxygen-dependent choline dehydrogenase, periplasmic-binding protein proteinases and hypothetical proteins. These proteins expressed higher in ACP may provide some information to understand pathogenicity of Acanthamoeba.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3347/kjp.2018.56.6.553DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6327195PMC
December 2018

Effect of 2, 6-Dichlorobenzonitrile on Amoebicidal Activity of Multipurpose Contact Lens Disinfecting Solutions.

Korean J Parasitol 2018 Oct 31;56(5):491-494. Epub 2018 Oct 31.

Department of Parasitology, Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan 49201, Korea.

Multipurpose contact lens disinfecting solutions (MPDS) are widely used to cleanse and disinfect microorganisms. However, disinfection efficacy of these MPDS against Acanthamoeba cyst remain insufficient. 2, 6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCB), a cellulose synthesis inhibitor, is capable of increasing the amoebical effect against Acanthamoeba by inhibiting its encystation. In this study, we investigated the possibility of DCB as a disinfecting agent to improve the amoebicidal activity of MPDS against Acanthamoeba cyst. Eight commercial MPDS (from a to h) were assessed, all of which displayed insufficient amoebicidal activity against the mature cysts. Solution e, f, and h showed strong amoebicidal effect on the immature cysts. Amoebicidal efficacy against mature cysts remained inadequate even when the 8 MPDS were combined with 100 μM DCB. However, 4 kinds of MPDS (solution d, e, f, and h) including 100 μM DCB demonstrated strong amoebicidal activity against the immature cysts. The amoebicidal activity of solution d was increased by addition of DCB. Cytotoxicity was absent in human corneal epithelial cells treated with either DCB or mixture of DCB with MPDS. These results suggested that DCB can enhance the amoebicical activity of MPDS against Acanthamoeba immature cyst in vitro.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3347/kjp.2018.56.5.491DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6243186PMC
October 2018

Polyhexamethylene biguanide and chloroquine induce programmed cell death in Acanthamoeba castellanii.

Exp Parasitol 2018 Aug 6;191:31-35. Epub 2018 Jun 6.

Department of Medical Zoology, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul, 02447, Republic of Korea; Biomedical Science Institute, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul, 02447, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Several chemotherapeutic drugs have been described as amoebicidal agents acting against Acanthamoeba trophozoites and cysts. However, the underlying mechanism of action is poorly characterized. Here, we describe programmed cell death (PCD) in A. castellanii induced by polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) and chloroquine. We used four types of amoebicidal agents including 0.02% PHMB, 0.02% chlorhexidine digluconate, 100 μM chloroquine, and 100 μM 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile to kill Acanthamoeba trophozoites and cysts. Exposure to PHMB and chloroquine induced cell shrinkage and membrane blebbing in Acanthamoeba, observed microscopically. Externalization of phosphatidyl serine on the membranes of Acanthamoeba was detected by annexin V staining. Apoptotic cell death of Acanthamoeba by PHMB and chloroquine was confirmed by FACS analysis. Nuclear fragmentation of Acanthamoeba was demonstrated by DAPI staining. PHMB induced PCD in trophozoites and cysts, and chloroquine induced PCD in cysts. These findings are discussed to establish the most effective treatment for Acanthamoeba-induced keratitis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2018.06.002DOI Listing
August 2018

Chloroquine as a possible disinfection adjunct of disinfection solutions against Acanthamoeba.

Exp Parasitol 2018 May 3;188:102-106. Epub 2018 Apr 3.

Department of Parasitology, Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan 49201, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Acanthamoeba keratitis is commonly encountered by contact lens wearers. Contact lens solution plays an important role in the safe use of contact lenses. The most popular products for disinfecting lenses are multipurpose disinfecting solutions (MPDS). However, almost all MPDS retailed in Korea are ineffective in killing Acanthamoeba. The objective of this study was to determine the possibility of using autophagy inhibitor chloroquine as a disinfecting agent to improve the amoebicidal activity of MPDS against Acanthamoeba, especially the cyst. Amoebicidal effects of eight different MPDSs combined with chloroquine (CQ), an autophagy inhibitor, and their cytotoxicities to human corneal epithelium cells were determined. Almost all MPDS showed strong amoebicidal effect on trophozoites after 8 h of exposure. However, they showed inadequate amoebicidal effect on cysts even after 24 h of exposure. MPDSs combined with 100 μM CQ increased their amoebicidal effects on immature cyst by inhibiting formation of mature cysts. Incubation with 100 μM CQ for 30 min did not have cytotoxicity to human corneal epithelial cells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2018.04.005DOI Listing
May 2018

Medical students' clinical performance of dealing with patients in the context of domestic violence.

Korean J Med Educ 2018 Mar 28;30(1):31-40. Epub 2018 Feb 28.

Department of Medical Education and the Institute for Medical Humanities, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan, Korea.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to inquire about the clinical performance and determine the performance pattern of medical students in standardized patient (SP) based examinations of domestic violence (DV).

Methods: The clinical performance sores in DV station with SP of third-year (n=111, in 2014) and 4th-year (n=143, in 2016) medical students of five universities in the Busan-Gyeongnam Clinical Skills Examination Consortium were subjected in this study. The scenarios and checklists of DV cases were developed by the case development committee of the consortium. The students' performance was compared with other stations encountered in SP. The items of the checklists were categorized to determine the performance pattern of students investigating DV into six domains: disclosure strategy (D), DV related history taking (H), checking the perpetrator's psychosocial state (P), checking the victim's condition (V), negotiating and persuading the interviewee (N), and providing information about DV (I).

Results: Medical students showed poorer performance in DV stations than in the other stations with SP in the same examination. Most students did confirm the perpetrator and commented on confidentiality but ignored the perpetrator's state and patient's physical and psychological condition. The students performed well in the domains of D, H, and I but performed poorly in domains P, V, and N.

Conclusion: Medical students showed poor clinical performance in the DV station. They performed an 'event oriented interview' rather than 'patient centered' communication. An integrated educational program of DV should be set to improve students' clinical performance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3946/kjme.2018.79DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5840562PMC
March 2018

Authenticity, acceptability, and feasibility of a hybrid gynecology station for the Papanicolaou test as part of a clinical skills examination in Korea.

J Educ Eval Health Prof 2018 13;15. Epub 2018 Feb 13.

Department of Medical Education and the Institute for Medical Humanities, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan, Korea.

Purpose: The objective of this study was to evaluate the authenticity, acceptability, and feasibility of a hybrid station that combined a standardized patient encounter and a simulated Papanicolaou test.

Methods: We introduced a hybrid station in the routine clinical skills examination (CSE) for 335 third-year medical students at 4 universities in Korea from December 1 to December 3, 2014. After the tests, we conducted an anonymous survey on the authenticity, acceptability, and feasibility of the hybrid station.

Results: A total of 334 medical students and 17 professors completed the survey. A majority of the students (71.6%) and professors (82.4%) agreed that the hybrid station was more authentic than the standard CSE. Over 60 percent of the students and professors responded that the station was acceptable for assessing the students' competence. Most of the students (75.2%) and professors (82.4%) assessed the required tasks as being feasible after reading the instructions.

Conclusion: Our results showed that the hybrid CSE station was a highly authentic, acceptable, and feasible way to assess medical students' performance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3352/jeehp.2018.15.4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5900362PMC
January 2019

DNA Methylation of Gene Expression in Encystation.

Korean J Parasitol 2017 Apr 30;55(2):115-120. Epub 2017 Apr 30.

Department of Parasitology, Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan 49201, Korea.

Encystation mediating cyst specific cysteine proteinase (CSCP) of is expressed remarkably during encystation. However, the molecular mechanism involved in the regulation of CSCP gene expression remains unclear. In this study, we focused on epigenetic regulation of gene expression during encystation of . To evaluate methylation as a potential mechanism involved in the regulation of CSCP expression, we first investigated the correlation between promoter methylation status of CSCP gene and its expression. A 2,878 bp of promoter sequence of CSCP gene was amplified by PCR. Three CpG islands (island 1-3) were detected in this sequence using bioinformatics tools. Methylation of CpG island in trophozoites and cysts was measured by bisulfite sequence PCR. CSCP promoter methylation of CpG island 1 (1,633 bp) was found in 8.2% of trophozoites and 7.3% of cysts. Methylation of CpG island 2 (625 bp) was observed in 4.2% of trophozoites and 5.8% of cysts. Methylation of CpG island 3 (367 bp) in trophozoites and cysts was both 3.6%. These results suggest that DNA methylation system is present in CSCP gene expression of . In addition, the expression of encystation mediating CSCP is correlated with promoter CpG island 1 hypomethylation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3347/kjp.2017.55.2.115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5450953PMC
April 2017

Identification and Characterization of Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 1 in .

Korean J Parasitol 2017 Apr 30;55(2):109-114. Epub 2017 Apr 30.

Department of Medical Zoology, Kyung Hee University School of Medicine, Seoul 02447, Korea.

Protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) is an important epigenetic regulator in eukaryotic cells. During encystation, an essential process for survival, the expression of a lot of genes involved in the encystation process has to be regulated in order to be induced or inhibited. However, the regulation mechanism of these genes is yet unknown. In this study, the full-length 1,059 bp cDNA sequence of PRMT1 (AcPRMT1) was cloned for the first time. The AcPRMT1 protein comprised of 352 amino acids with a SAM-dependent methyltransferase PRMT-type domain. The expression level of AcPRMT1 was highly increased during encystation of . The EGFP-AcPRMT1 fusion protein was distributed over the cytoplasm, but it was mainly localized in the nucleus of . Knock down of AcPRMT1 by synthetic siRNA with a complementary sequence failed to form mature cysts. These findings suggested that AcPRMT1 plays a critical role in the regulation of encystation of . The target gene of AcPRMT1 regulation and the detailed mechanisms need to be investigated by further studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3347/kjp.2017.55.2.109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5450952PMC
April 2017

Efficacy of Korean Multipurpose Contact Lens Disinfecting Solutions against .

Korean J Parasitol 2016 Dec 31;54(6):697-702. Epub 2016 Dec 31.

Department of Parasitology, Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan 49201, Korea.

keratitis has been increasing in recent years. Main risk factors are contact lens wear and their cleaning solutions. Most contact lens wearers use multipurpose disinfecting solutions (MPDS) for cleansing and disinfecting microorganisms because of its convenience. We determined amoebicidal effects of MPDS made in Korea and their cytotoxicity on human corneal epithelium cells. Fifteen commercial MPDS (A to O) were tested for their amoebicidal effects on trophozoites and cysts by using a most probable number (MPN) technique. Among them, 7 kinds of MPDS showed little or no amoebicidal effects for 24 hr exposure. Solutions A, B, G, H, L, and O showed positive amoebicidal effects, and solutions M and N killed almost all trophozoites and cysts after 24 hr exposure. However, 50%-N solution showed 56% cytotoxicity on human corneal epithelial cells within 4 hr exposure, and 50%-O solution also showed 62% cytotoxicity on human cells within 4 hr exposure. Solution A did not show any cytotoxicity on human cells. These results revealed that most MPDS made in Korea were ineffective to kill . The solutions having amoebicidal activity also showed high levels of cytotoxicity on human corneal epithelial cells. New formulations for improved MPDS that are amoebicidal but safe for host cells are needed to prevent keratitis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3347/kjp.2016.54.6.697DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5266354PMC
December 2016

Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Targeting Actin DNA of Trichomonas vaginalis.

Korean J Parasitol 2016 Jun 30;54(3):329-34. Epub 2016 Jun 30.

Department of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu 41944, Korea.

Trichomoniasis caused by Trichomonas vaginalis is a common sexually transmitted disease. Its association with several health problems, including preterm birth, pelvic inflammatory disease, cervical cancer, and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, emphasizes the importance of improved access to early and accurate detection of T. vaginalis. In this study, a rapid and efficient loop-mediated isothermal amplification-based method for the detection of T. vaginalis was developed and validated, using vaginal swab specimens from subjects suspected to have trichomoniasis. The LAMP assay targeting the actin gene was highly sensitive with detection limits of 1 trichomonad and 1 pg of T. vaginalis DNA per reaction, and specifically amplified the target gene only from T. vaginalis. Validation of this assay showed that it had the highest sensitivity and better agreement with PCR (used as the gold standard) compared to microscopy and multiplex PCR. This study showed that the LAMP assay, targeting the actin gene, could be used to diagnose early infections of T. vaginalis. Thus, we have provided an alternative molecular diagnostic tool and a point-of-care test that may help to prevent trichomoniasis transmission and associated complications.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3347/kjp.2016.54.3.329DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4977792PMC
June 2016

Identification of Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 5 as a Regulator for Encystation of Acanthamoeba.

Korean J Parasitol 2016 Apr 30;54(2):133-8. Epub 2016 Apr 30.

Department of Parasitology, Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan 49201, Korea.

Encystation is an essential process for Acanthamoeba survival under nutrient-limiting conditions and exposure to drugs. The expression of several genes has been observed to increase or decrease during encystation. Epigenetic processes involved in regulation of gene expression have been shown to play a role in several pathogenic parasites. In the present study, we identified the protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5), a known epigenetic regulator, in Acanthamoeba castellanii. PRMT5 of A. castellanii (AcPRMT5) contained domains found in S-adenosylmethionine-dependent methyltransferases and in PRMT5 arginine-N-methyltransferase. Expression levels of AcPRMT5 were increased during encystation of A. castellanii. The EGFP-PRMT5 fusion protein was mainly localized in the nucleus of trophozoites. A. castellanii transfected with siRNA designed against AcPRMT5 failed to form mature cysts. The findings of this study lead to a better understanding of epigenetic mechanisms behind the regulation of encystation in cyst-forming pathogenic protozoa.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3347/kjp.2016.54.2.133DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4870982PMC
April 2016

A pilot study on the evaluation of medical student documentation: assessment of SOAP notes.

Korean J Med Educ 2016 Jun 17;28(2):237-41. Epub 2016 Mar 17.

Department of Obstetrics & Gynecology, Kosin University College of Medicine, Busan, Korea.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was evaluation of the current status of medical students' documentation of patient medical records.

Methods: We checked the completeness, appropriateness, and accuracy of 95 Subjective-Objective-Assessment-Plan (SOAP) notes documented by third-year medical students who participated in clinical skill tests on December 1, 2014. Students were required to complete the SOAP note within 15 minutes of an standard patient (SP)-encounter with a SP complaining rhinorrhea and warring about meningitis.

Results: Of the 95 SOAP notes reviewed, 36.8% were not signed. Only 27.4% documented the patient's symptoms under the Objective component, although all students completed the Subjective notes appropriately. A possible diagnosis was assessed by 94.7% students. Plans were described in 94.7% of the SOAP notes. Over half the students planned workups (56.7%) for diagnosis and treatment (52.6%). Accurate documentation of the symptoms, physical findings, diagnoses, and plans were provided in 78.9%, 9.5%, 62.1%, and 38.0% notes, respectively.

Conclusion: Our results showed that third-year medical students' SOAP notes were not complete, appropriate, or accurate. The most significant problems with completeness were the omission of students' signatures, and inappropriate documentation of the physical examinations conducted. An education and assessment program for complete and accurate medical recording has to be developed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3946/kjme.2016.26DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4951742PMC
June 2016

Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis in Women Visiting 2 Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics in Daegu, South Korea.

Korean J Parasitol 2016 Feb 26;54(1):75-80. Epub 2016 Feb 26.

Department of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu 41944, Korea.

This study explored epidemiological trends in trichomoniasis in Daegu, South Korea. Wet mount microscopy, PCR, and multiplex PCR were used to test for Trichomonas vaginalis in vaginal swab samples obtained from 621 women visiting 2 clinics in Daegu. Of the 621 women tested, microscopy detected T. vaginalis in 4 (0.6%) patients, PCR detected T. vaginalis in 19 (3.0%) patients, and multiplex PCR detected T. vaginalis in 12 (1.9%) patients. Testing via PCR demonstrated high sensitivity and high negative predictive value for T. vaginalis. Among the 19 women who tested positive for T. vaginalis according to PCR, 94.7% (18/19) reported vaginal signs and symptoms. Notably, more than 50% of T. vaginalis infections occurred in females younger than 30 years old, and 58% were unmarried. Multiplex PCR, which simultaneously detects pathogens from various sexually transmitted infections, revealed that 91.7% (11/12) of patients were infected with 2 or more pathogens. Mycoplasma hominis was the most prevalent co-infection pathogen with T. vaginalis, followed by Ureaplasma urealyticum and Chlamydia trachomatis. Our results indicate that PCR and multiplex PCR are the most sensitive tools for T. vaginalis diagnosis, rather than microscopy which has been routinely used to detect T. vaginalis infections in South Korea. Therefore, clinicians should take note of the high prevalence of T. vaginalis infections among adolescent and young women in order to prevent persistent infection and transmission of this disease.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3347/kjp.2016.54.1.75DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4792318PMC
February 2016

Assessing clinical reasoning abilities of medical students using clinical performance examination.

Korean J Med Educ 2016 Mar 27;28(1):35-47. Epub 2016 Jan 27.

Department of Pediatrics, Gyeongsang National University School of Medicine, Jinju, Korea.

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate the reliability and validity of new clinical performance examination (CPX) for assessing clinical reasoning skills and evaluating clinical reasoning ability of the students.

Methods: Third-year medical school students (n=313) in Busan-Gyeongnam consortium in 2014 were included in the study. One of 12 stations was developed to assess clinical reasoning abilities. The scenario and checklists of the station were revised by six experts. Chief complaint of the case was rhinorrhea, accompanied by fever, headache, and vomiting. Checklists focused on identifying of the main problem and systematic approach to the problem. Students interviewed the patient and recorded subjective and objective findings, assessments, plans (SOAP) note for 15 minutes. Two professors assessed students simultaneously. We performed statistical analysis on their scores and survey.

Results: The Cronbach α of subject station was 0.878 and Cohen κ coefficient between graders was 0.785. Students agreed on CPX as an adequate tool to evaluate students' performance, but some graders argued that the CPX failed to secure its validity due to their lack of understanding the case. One hundred eight students (34.5%) identified essential problem early and only 58 (18.5%) performed systematic history taking and physical examination. One hundred seventy-three of them (55.3%) communicated correct diagnosis with the patient. Most of them had trouble in writing SOAP notes.

Conclusion: To gain reliability and validity, interrater agreement should be secured. Students' clinical reasoning skills were not enough. Students need to be trained on problem identification, reasoning skills and accurate record-keeping.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3946/kjme.2016.8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4926939PMC
March 2016

Potential Value of Cellulose Synthesis Inhibitors Combined With PHMB in the Treatment of Acanthamoeba Keratitis.

Cornea 2015 Dec;34(12):1593-8

*Department of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Taegu, Korea; and †Department of Parasitology, Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan, Korea.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to improve the cytopathic effect (CPE) of antiamebic agents by combining with cellulose synthesis inhibitor as an encystation inhibitor.

Methods: Cellulose synthesis inhibitors, 2,6-dichlorobenzonitrile (DCB) and isoxaben were used to block encystation of Acanthamoeba during cultivation. Cultured human corneal epithelial (HCE) cells and Acanthamoeba were treated with polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) combined with cellulose synthesis inhibitors to evaluate the CPE as an antiamebic agent.

Results: 0.02% PHMB showed a 51.9% CPE on HCE cells within 30 minutes but exhibited significant toxic effects on Acanthamoeba. At a level of 0.00125%, PHMB had no significant CPEs on HCE cells, whereas 100 μM DCB and 10 μM isoxaben significantly inhibited the formation of the inner cyst wall of Acanthamoeba during encystation, and Acanthamoeba trophozoites failed to convert into mature cysts. Although a low concentration (0.00125%) of PHMB was used, the novel combinations with 100 μM DCB or 10 μM isoxaben had 23.4% or 18.7% additional amebicidal effects on Acanthamoeba. However, 100 μM DCB and 10 μM isoxaben had no CPEs on HCE cells.

Conclusions: The combination of cellulose synthesis inhibitors with low concentrations of PHMB reduced the CPE on HCE cells and improved the amebicidal effect on Acanthamoeba by inhibition of encystation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ICO.0000000000000642DOI Listing
December 2015

Autophagy protein 12 plays an essential role in Acanthamoeba encystation.

Exp Parasitol 2015 Dec 19;159:46-52. Epub 2015 Aug 19.

Department of Parasitology, Dong-A University College of Medicine, Dongdaesin-dong 3-ga, Seo-gu, Busan 602-714, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Autophagy is a well conserved, catabolic process in eukaryotic cells. Previously, we identified two novel ubiquitin like conjugation systems (Atg12 and Atg8) in the autophagy process of Acanthamoeba castellanii. To obtain more specific information on the Atg12 ubiquitin like conjugation system during encystation of Acanthamoeba, we characterized the function of Atg12. Knockdown of AcAg12 in trophozoites resulted in inhibition of cyst formation. Analysis of subcellular localization showed that AcAtg12 was evenly distributed in the trophozoites during early encystation, started to accumulate partially as dots or fragments, and then co-localized with the vesicle of the autophagic structure. However, the mRNA expression of AcAtg12 was maintained at a constant level during encystation as well as in trophozoites. Ultrastructural analysis with TEM showed that AcAtg12-knockdown cells showed vacuolization, lack of cyst wall formation, and numerical decline of autophagic structures, compared with the control cells. Interestingly, these knockdown cells began to round-up and swell, and then burst at 144 h post encystation. Taken together, our results might provide a better understanding of the Atg12 UBL conjugation system in Acanthamoeba and other cyst forming protozoan parasites.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2015.08.013DOI Listing
December 2015

Essential Role for an M17 Leucine Aminopeptidase in Encystation of Acanthamoeba castellanii.

PLoS One 2015 15;10(6):e0129884. Epub 2015 Jun 15.

Department of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu 700-422, Republic of Korea.

Encystation of Acanthamoeba leads to the formation of resilient cysts from vegetative trophozoites. This process is essential for parasite survival under unfavorable conditions such as starvation, low temperatures, and exposure to biocides. During encystation, a massive turnover of intracellular components occurs, and a large number of organelles and proteins are degraded by proteases. Previous studies with specific protease inhibitors have shown that cysteine and serine proteases are involved in encystation of Acanthamoeba, but little is known about the role of metalloproteases in this process. Here, we have biochemically characterized an M17 leucine aminopeptidase of Acanthamoeba castellanii (AcLAP) and analyzed its functional involvement in encystation of the parasite. Recombinant AcLAP shared biochemical properties such as optimal pH, requirement of divalent metal ions for activity, substrate specificity for Leu, and inhibition profile by aminopeptidase inhibitors and metal chelators with other characterized M17 family LAPs. AcLAP was highly expressed at a late stage of encystation and mainly localized in the cytoplasm of A. castellanii. Knockdown of AcLAP using small interfering RNA induced a decrease of LAP activity during encystation, a reduction of mature cyst formation, and the formation of abnormal cyst walls. In summary, these results indicate that AcLAP is a typical M17 family enzyme that plays an essential role during encystation of Acanthamoeba.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0129884PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4468156PMC
March 2016

Autophagy inhibitors as a potential antiamoebic treatment for Acanthamoeba keratitis.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2015 Jul 20;59(7):4020-5. Epub 2015 Apr 20.

Department of Parasitology, Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan, Republic of Korea

Acanthamoeba cysts are resistant to extreme physical and chemical conditions. Autophagy is an essential pathway for encystation of Acanthamoeba cells. To evaluate the possibility of an autophagic Acanthamoeba encystation mechanism, we evaluated autophagy inhibitors, such as 3-methyladenine (3MA), LY294002, wortmannin, bafilomycin A, and chloroquine. Among these autophagy inhibitors, the use of 3MA and chloroquine showed a significant reduction in the encystation ratio in Acanthamoeba cells. Wortmannin also inhibited the formation of mature cysts, while LY294002 and bafilomycin A did not affect the encystation of Acanthamoeba cells. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that 3MA and wortmannin inhibited autophagy formation and that chloroquine interfered with the formation of autolysosomes. Inhibition of autophagy or autolysosome formation resulted in a significant block in the encystation in Acanthamoeba cells. Clinical treatment with 0.02% polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) showed high cytopathic effects on Acanthamoeba trophozoites and cysts; however, it also revealed high cytopathic effects on human corneal epithelial cells. In this study, we investigated effects of the combination of a low (0.00125%) concentration of PHMB with each of the autophagy inhibitors 3MA, wortmannin, and chloroquine on Acanthamoeba and human corneal epithelial cells. These new combination treatments showed low cytopathic effects on human corneal cells and high cytopathic effects on Acanthamoeba cells. Taken together, these results provide fundamental information for optimizing the treatment of Acanthamoeba keratitis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.05165-14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4468686PMC
July 2015

Tigecycline inhibits proliferation of Acanthamoeba castellanii.

Parasitol Res 2015 Mar 7;114(3):1189-95. Epub 2015 Jan 7.

Department of Microbiology, Keimyung University School of Medicine, 1095 Dalgubeol-daero, Dalseo-gu, Daegu, 704-701, Republic of Korea.

Acanthamoeba is an opportunistic protozoan parasite responsible for different diseases in humans, such as granulomatous amoebic encephalitis and amoebic keratitis. Tigecycline, a third-generation tetracycline antibiotic, has potential activity to treat most of the antibiotic resistant bacterial infections. The effects of tigecycline in eukaryotic cells as well as parasites are less well studied. In the present study, we tested the effects of tigecycline on trophozoites of Acanthamoeba castellanii. The inhibitory effect of tigecycline on Acanthamoeba was determined by resazurin reduction and trypan blue exclusion assays. We found that tigecycline significantly inhibited the growth of Acanthamoeba (46.4 % inhibition at the concentration of 100 μM) without affecting cell viability and induction of encystation, whereas other tetracycline groups of antibiotics such as tetracycline and doxycycline showed no inhibitory effects. Furthermore, tigecycline decreased cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level by 26 % than the control and increased mitochondrial mass, suggesting mitochondrial dysfunction in tigecycline-treated cells. These findings suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction with decreased ATP production might play an important mechanism of tigecycline in suppression of Acanthamoeba proliferation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-014-4302-1DOI Listing
March 2015

Prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis by PCR in men attending a primary care urology clinic in South Korea.

Korean J Parasitol 2014 Oct 22;52(5):551-5. Epub 2014 Oct 22.

Department of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu 700-422, Korea.

Trichomonas vaginalis, a causative agent of trichomoniasis, may trigger symptomatic or asymptomatic nongonococcal urethritis and chronic prostatitis in men. Despite the availability of highly sensitive diagnostic tests, such as nucleic acid amplification tests, including PCR, few prospective studies present data on male T. vaginalis infection in South Korea. In the present study, the prevalence of T. vaginalis and associated clinical conditions were evaluated in 201 male patients from a primary care urology clinic in South Korea. The prevalence of T. vaginalis infection in our cohort was 4% (8/201) by PCR. T. vaginalis infection was common in men older than 40 years (median age, 52 years). Among the 8 Trichomonas-positive patients, 87.5% (7/8) had prostatic diseases, such as prostatitis and benign prostatic hyperplasia, and 25.0% (2/8) and 12.5% (1/8) were coinfected with Chlamydia trachomatis and Mycoplasma genitalium, respectively. Our results suggest that T. vaginalis infection is not rare in men attending primary care urology clinics in South Korea, especially in those older than 40 years, in whom it may explain the presence of prostatic disease. The possibility of T. vaginalis infection should be routinely considered in older male patients with prostatic diseases in South Korea.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3347/kjp.2014.52.5.551DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4210741PMC
October 2014

The development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification targeting alpha-tubulin DNA for the rapid detection of Plasmodium vivax.

Malar J 2014 Jun 30;13:248. Epub 2014 Jun 30.

Department of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, 700-422 Daegu, Republic of Korea.

Background: Malaria that is caused by Plasmodium vivax is the most widely distributed human malaria. Its recent resurgence in many parts of the world, including the Republic of Korea (ROK), emphasizes the importance of improved access to the early and accurate detection of P. vivax to reduce disease burden. In this study, a rapid and efficient loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP)-based method was developed and validated using blood samples from malaria-suspected patients.

Method: A LAMP assay targeting the α-tubulin gene for the detection of P. vivax was developed with six primers that recognize different regions of the target gene. The diagnostic performance of the α-tubulin LAMP assay was compared to three other tests: microscopic examinations, rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), and nested polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) using 177 whole blood specimens obtained from ROK military personnel from May to December 2011.

Results: The α-tubulin LAMP assay was highly sensitive with a detection limit of 100 copies of P. vivax α-tubulin gene per reaction within 50 min. It specifically amplified the target gene only from P. vivax. Validation of the α-tubulin LAMP assay showed that the assay had the highest sensitivity (P < 0.001 versus microscopy; P = 0.0023 versus RDT) when nested PCR was used as the gold standard and better agreement (concordance: 94.9%, kappa value: 0.865) with nested PCR than RDT and microscopy. A Receiver Operation Characteristics analysis showed that the diagnostic accuracy of the α-tubulin LAMP assay for vivax malaria was higher (Area Under Curve = 0.908) than RDT and microscopy.

Conclusion: This study showed that the P. vivax α-tubulin LAMP assay, which can be used to diagnose early infections of vivax malaria, is an alternative molecular diagnostic tool and a point-of-care test that may help to prevent transmission in endemic areas.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-13-248DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4110549PMC
June 2014

Microarray and KOG analysis of Acanthamoeba healyi genes up-regulated by mouse-brain passage.

Exp Parasitol 2014 Aug 22;143:69-73. Epub 2014 May 22.

Department of Parasitology, Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan 602-714, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Long-term cultivation in a laboratory could reduce the virulence of Acanthamoeba. To identify virulence factors of Acanthamoeba, the authors compared the transcription profiles of long-term cultivated Acanthamoeba healyi (OLD) and three times mouse-brain passaged A. healyi (MBP) using microarray analysis and eukaryotic orthologous group (KOG) assignments. Microarray analysis revealed that 601 genes were up-regulated by mouse-brain passage. The results of real-time PCR of 8 randomly selected genes up-regulated in the MBP strain confirmed microarray analysis findings. KOG assignments showed relatively higher percentages of the MBP strain up-regulated genes in T article (signal transduction mechanism), O article (posttranslational modification, protein turnover, chaperones), C article (energy production and conversion), and J article (translation, ribosomal structure and biogenesis). In particular, the MBP strain showed higher expressions of cysteine protease and metalloprotease. A comparison of KOG assignments by microarray analysis and previous EST (expressed sequence tags) analysis showed similar populations of up-regulated genes. These results provide important information regarding the identification of virulence factors of pathogenic Acanthamoeba.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2014.05.012DOI Listing
August 2014

Down-regulation of cellulose synthase inhibits the formation of endocysts in Acanthamoeba.

Korean J Parasitol 2014 Apr 18;52(2):131-5. Epub 2014 Apr 18.

Department of Parasitology, Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan 602-714, Korea.

Acanthamoeba cysts are resistant to unfavorable physiological conditions and various disinfectants. Acanthamoeba cysts have 2 walls containing various sugar moieties, and in particular, one third of the inner wall is composed of cellulose. In this study, it has been shown that down-regulation of cellulose synthase by small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly inhibits the formation of mature Acanthamoeba castellanii cysts. Calcofluor white staining and transmission electron microscopy revealed that siRNA transfected amoeba failed to form an inner wall during encystation and thus are likely to be more vulnerable. In addition, the expression of xylose isomerase, which is involved in cyst wall formation, was not altered in cellulose synthase down-regulated amoeba, indicating that cellulose synthase is a crucial factor for inner wall formation by Acanthamoeba during encystation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3347/kjp.2014.52.2.131DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4028449PMC
April 2014

Heavy Hymenolepis nana infection possibly through organic foods: report of a case.

Korean J Parasitol 2014 Feb 19;52(1):85-7. Epub 2014 Feb 19.

Department of Parasitology and Genetics, College of Medicine, Kosin University, Busan 602-703, Korea.

We encountered a patient with heavy Hymenolepis nana infection. The patient was a 44-year-old Korean man who had suffered from chronic hepatitis (type B) for 15 years. A large number of H. nana adult worms were found during colonoscopy that was performed as a part of routine health screening. The parasites were scattered throughout the colon, as well as in the terminal ileum, although the patient was immunocompetent. Based on this study, colonoscopy may be helpful for diagnosis of asymptomatic H. nana infections.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3347/kjp.2014.52.1.85DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3949000PMC
February 2014

Identification of atg8 isoform in encysting Acanthamoeba.

Korean J Parasitol 2013 Oct 31;51(5):497-502. Epub 2013 Oct 31.

Department of Parasitology, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu 700-422, Korea.

Autophagy-related protein 8 (Atg8) is an essential component of autophagy formation and encystment of cyst-forming parasites, and some protozoa, such as, Acanthamoeba, Entamoeba, and Dictyostelium, have been reported to possess a type of Atg8. In this study, an isoform of Atg8 was identified and characterized in Acanthamoeba castellanii (AcAtg8b). AcAtg8b protein was found to encode 132 amino acids and to be longer than AcAtg8 protein, which encoded 117 amino acids. Real-time PCR analysis showed high expression levels of AcAtg8b and AcAtg8 during encystation. Fluorescence microscopy demonstrated that AcAtg8b is involved in the formation of the autophagosomal membrane. Chemically synthesized siRNA against AcAtg8b reduced the encystation efficiency of Acanthamoeba, confirming that AcAtg8b, like AcAtg8, is an essential component of cyst formation in Acanthamoeba. Our findings suggest that Acanthamoeba has doubled the number of Atg8 gene copies to ensure the successful encystation for survival when 1 copy is lost. These 2 types of Atg8 identified in Acanthamoeba provide important information regarding autophagy formation, encystation mechanism, and survival of primitive, cyst-forming protozoan parasites.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3347/kjp.2013.51.5.497DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3857495PMC
October 2013

Loop-mediated isothermal amplification targeting 18S ribosomal DNA for rapid detection of Acanthamoeba.

Korean J Parasitol 2013 Jun 30;51(3):269-77. Epub 2013 Jun 30.

Department of Parasitology and Tropical Medicine, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu 700-422, Korea.

Amoebic keratitis (AK) caused by Acanthamoeba is one of the most serious corneal infections. AK is frequently misdiagnosed initially as viral, bacterial, or fungal keratitis, thus ensuring treatment delays. Accordingly, the early detection of Acanthamoeba would contribute significantly to disease management and selection of an appropriate anti-amoebic therapy. Recently, the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method has been applied to the clinical diagnosis of a range of infectious diseases. Here, we describe a rapid and efficient LAMP-based method targeting Acanthamoeba 18S rDNA gene for the detection of Acanthamoeba using clinical ocular specimens in the diagnosis of AK. Acanthamoeba LAMP assays detected 11 different strains including all AK-associated species. The copy number detection limit for a positive signal was 10 DNA copies of 18S rDNA per reaction. No cross-reactivity with the DNA of fungi or other protozoa was observed. The sensitivity of LAMP assay was higher than those of Nelson primer PCR and JDP primer PCR. In the present study, LAMP assay based on directly heat-treated samples was found to be as efficient at detecting Acanthamoeba as DNA extracted using a commercial kit, whereas PCR was only effective when commercial kit-extracted DNA was used. This study showed that the devised Acanthamoeba LAMP assay could be used to diagnose AK in a simple, sensitive, and specific manner.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3347/kjp.2013.51.3.269DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3712100PMC
June 2013