Publications by authors named "Hyun-Dong Paik"

145 Publications

Chrysanthemum indicum suppresses adipogenesis by inhibiting mitotic clonal expansion in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes.

J Food Biochem 2021 Sep 9;45(9):e13896. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Department of Food Science and Biotechnology of Animal Resources, Konkuk University, Seoul, Korea.

Herbs have been of interest to treat diseases, including obesity, owing to their various bioactive constituents that exhibit therapeutic and prophylactic properties. The present study examined the anti-adipogenic effects and mechanisms of Chrysanthemum indicum aqueous extract (CAE) in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. CAE comprises 1,3-dicaffeoylquinic acid, chlorogenic acid, kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, caffeic acid, and apigenin, which were corresponded with previous reports. CAE inhibited the accumulation of lipid droplets and significantly alleviated the expression of lipogenesis- and adipogenesis-associated biomarkers. Treatment with CAE inhibited the mitotic clonal expansion (MCE), corroborated by cell cycle arrest at the G /G phase, and mitigated the expression of cell cycle progression-associated proteins and in addition to phosphorylation of MCE-promoting transcription factors. Moreover, CAE downregulated the activation of Akt and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling pathways. In summary, CAE facilitates adipogenic inhibition during the early phase of differentiation, especially MCE, and its phenolic compounds can contribute to its anti-obesogenic properties. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Chrysanthemum indicum has been mainly used as traditional herbal tea and drinks. Chrysanthemum indicum aqueous extract (CAE) inhibits adipogenesis by suppressing mitotic clonal expansion during the early phase of differentiation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. 1,3-Dicaffeoylquinic acid, chlorogenic acid, kaempferol-3-O-glucoside, caffeic acid, and apigenin were detected in CAE. Based on these findings, CAE can be used as nutraceutical agents for prevention and treatment of obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.13896DOI Listing
September 2021

Anti-adipogenic Effects of the Probiotic Lactiplantibacillus plantarum KU15117 on 3T3-L1 Adipocytes.

Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Department of Food Science and Biotechnology of Animal Resource, Konkuk University, Seoul, 05029, Republic of Korea.

In this study, we investigated the probiotic properties and anti-obesity effects of bacterial strains isolated from homemade kimchi. Lactiplantibacillus plantarum KU15117 was isolated using lactobacilli selective medium. L. plantarum KU15117 did not produce β-glucuronidase and showed high tolerance to artificial gastric juice and bile salt, acceptable resistance to antibiotics, and high adhesion ability to HT-29 cells. The anti-adipogenic activity of L. plantarum KU15117 at 10 CFU/well was confirmed by the reduction of oil red O staining and intracellular triglyceride level. Additionally, the expression levels of fatty acid synthase, CCAAT/enhance-binding protein-α, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, which are associated with the early stage of adipocyte differentiation, were significantly lower in the probiotic-treated group than in the control group. These results suggest that L. plantarum KU15117 has probiotic properties and anti-obesity effects and could be used as a prophylactic probiotics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12602-021-09818-zDOI Listing
July 2021

Fermented dairy products as delivery vehicles of novel probiotic strains isolated from traditional fermented Asian foods.

J Food Sci Technol 2021 Jul 23;58(7):2467-2478. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Department of Food Science and Biotechnology of Animal Resources, Konkuk University, Seoul, 05029 Korea.

The screening of novel probiotic strains from various food sources including fruits, vegetables, herbs, and traditional fermented foods, have been of growing concern recently. Most of these potential probiotic lactic acid bacteria isolates were distinguished from the commercial probiotics based on multiple therapeutic effects and functionalities. Recent in vitro and in vivo investigates have also verified the usage of probiotics to lower the risk of diseases. Application of these novel strains in fermented dairy products is also an emerging trend to improve the physical and quality characteristics, functional properties, and safety of dairy products. Moreover, since dairy products are one of the highest consumed products in the globe, the dispatch channels for fermented dairy products are already established. Therefore, incorporating novel probiotic strains into fermented dairy products might be the most feasible approach for their delivery. In this context, our aim is to discuss the feasibility of dairy products as delivery vehicles for novel probiotic strains. Thus, we summarize the scientific evidence that points to a dynamic future for the production of fermented dairy-based probiotics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13197-020-04857-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8196123PMC
July 2021

Prophylactic effects of probiotics on respiratory viruses including COVID-19: a review.

Food Sci Biotechnol 2021 May 24:1-9. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Food Science and Biotechnology of Animal Resources, Konkuk University, Seoul, 05029 Republic of Korea.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is mainly transmitted through respiratory droplets. The symptoms include dry cough, fever, and fatigue; however, high propagation, mutation, and fatality rates have been reported for SARS-CoV-2. This review investigates the structure of SARS-CoV-2, antiviral mechanisms, preventive strategies, and remedies against it. Effective vaccines have been developed by Pfizer (95% effective), AstraZeneca (90% effective), Moderna (94.5% effective) vaccine, among others. However, herd immunity is also required. Probiotics play a major role in the gut health, and some are known to have therapeutic potential against viral infections. Their modes of antiviral activities include direct interaction with targeted viruses, production of antiviral metabolites, and immunomodulatory effects on the host. Hence, probiotics can be a useful prophylactic against COVID-19, and more studies are required on the effects of probiotics against other viral infections that may occur in future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10068-021-00913-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8142068PMC
May 2021

Inhibitory effects of Lactobacillus brevis KU15153 against Streptococcus mutans KCTC 5316 causing dental caries.

Microb Pathog 2021 Aug 20;157:104938. Epub 2021 May 20.

Department of Food Science and Biotechnology of Animal Resources, Konkuk University, Seoul, 05029, South Korea. Electronic address:

This study determined the inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus brevis KU15153 against cariogenic Streptococcus mutans KCTC 5316. Antimicrobial activity, auto-aggregation, cell surface hydrophobicity, exopolysaccharides (EPS) production, biofilm formation, and morphological changes were assessed in the presence of L. brevis KU15153. L. brevis KU15153 exhibited the highest antimicrobial activity against S. mutans KCTC 5316 (28.67 ± 4.16 mm). Auto-aggregation (38.32%), cell surface hydrophobicity (27.08%), and EPS production rate (58.52%) of S. mutans KCTC 5316 slightly decreased upon treatment with L. brevis KU15153. Additionally, crystal violet stanning and scanning electron microscopy confirmed the L. brevis KU15153-mediated inhibition of biofilm formation by S. mutans KCTC 5316 in comparison to that observed in the negative control (untreated S. mutans KCTC 5316). These results indicate that the L. brevis KU15153 could be used as a potential probiotic for maintaining oral health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2021.104938DOI Listing
August 2021

Physicochemical Analysis of Yogurt Produced by H40 and Its Effects on Oxidative Stress in Neuronal Cells.

Food Sci Anim Resour 2021 Mar 1;41(2):261-273. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Food Science and Biotechnology of Animal Resources, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea.

H40 (H40) was isolated from kimchi, and its probiotic properties and neuroprotective effect was evaluated in oxidatively stressed SH-SY5Y cells. H40 was stable in artificial gastric conditions and can be attached in HT-29 cells. In addition, H40 did not produce β-glucuronidase and showed resistant to several antibiotics. The conditioned medium (CM) was made using HT-29 cells refined with heat-killed probiotics (Probiotics-CM) and heated yogurts (Y-CM) to investigate the neuroprotective effect. Treatment with H40-CM not only increased cell viability but also significantly improved brain derived neurotropic factor () expression and reduced the ratio in oxidatively stress-induced SH-SY5Y cells. Besides, probiotic Y-CM significantly increased mRNA expression and decreased ratio. The physicochemical properties of probiotic yogurt with H40 was not significantly different from the control yogurt. The viable cell counts of lactic acid bacteria in control and probiotic yogurt with H40 was 8.66 Log CFU/mL and 8.96 Log CFU/mL, respectively. Therefore, these results indicate that H40 can be used as prophylactic functional dairy food having neuroprotective effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5851/kosfa.2020.e97DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8115002PMC
March 2021

Immune-Enhancing Effects of 200655 Isolated from Korean Kimchi in a Cyclophosphamide-Induced Immunocompromised Mouse Model.

J Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 May;31(5):726-732

Department of Nano Bio engineering, Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul 01811, Republic of Korea.

In this study, we evaluated the immune-enhancing activity of kimchi-derived 200655 on immune suppression by cyclophosphamide (CP) in ICR mice. Animals were fed distilled water or 1×10 colony-forming unit/kg B.W. 200655 or GG as a positive control for 14 days. An in vivo model of immunosuppression was induced using CP 150 and 100 mg/kg B.W. at 7 and 10 days, respectively. Body weight, spleen index, spleen weight, and gene expression were measured to estimate the immune-enhancing effects. The dead 200655 (D-200655) group showed an increased spleen weight compared to the sham control (SC) group. Similarly, the spleen index was significantly higher than that in the CP-treated group. The live 200655 (L-200655) group showed an increased mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-6 in splenocytes. Also, the iNOS and COX-2 mRNA expression was upregulated in the L-200655 group compared to the CP-only (SC) group. The phosphorylation of ERK and MAPK was also upmodulated in the L-200655 group. These results indicate that 200655 ameliorated CP-induced immune suppression, suggesting that 200655 may have the potential to enhance the immune system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4014/jmb.2103.03028DOI Listing
May 2021

Antioxidant Effect and Sensory Evaluation of Yogurt Supplemented with Hydroponic Ginseng Root Extract.

Foods 2021 Mar 17;10(3). Epub 2021 Mar 17.

Department of Food Science and Biotechnology of Animal Resources, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea.

Hydroponic ginseng (HG) is cultivated using only nutrients and water under constant environmental conditions and is more beneficial than soil-cultured ginseng (SG). This study aimed to determine the physicochemical properties, antioxidant activity, and sensory properties of HG-supplemented yogurt to develop high-value yogurt. HG (0.1%, 0.5%, and 1.0%) was added to yogurt formulations and fermented with a 0.1% starter. Antioxidant activities were determined using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), 2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt, reducing power, and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays. Semi-trained panelists performed a quantitative descriptive analysis for sensory evaluation. The number of starter cells increased more rapidly in ginseng extract-fortified yogurt than in the control group, shortening fermentation time. Regarding antioxidant assays, all HG extract-fortified yogurts showed higher antioxidant activity than the control group. In particular, the HG (0.5%) group showed better results than the SG group in the DPPH and reducing power assays, although the difference was not significant. The sensory scores of color, flavor, texture, taste, and overall acceptance of 0.5% HG-supplemented yogurt did not differ significantly from those of non-supplemented yogurt (control). This suggests that HG can be used in high-value dairy products as a supplement with bioactive properties for health in the food industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10030639DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8002633PMC
March 2021

Optimization of Medium Composition for Biomass Production of 200655 Using Response Surface Methodology.

J Microbiol Biotechnol 2021 May;31(5):717-725

Department of Food Science and Biotechnology of Animal Resources, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Republic of Korea.

This study aimed to optimize medium composition and culture conditions for enhancing the biomass of 200655 using statistical methods. The one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) method was used to screen the six carbon sources (glucose, sucrose, maltose, fructose, lactose, and galactose) and six nitrogen sources (peptone, tryptone, soytone, yeast extract, beef extract, and malt extract). Based on the OFAT results, six factors were selected for the Plackett- Burman design (PBD) to evaluate whether the variables had significant effects on the biomass. Maltose, yeast extract, and soytone were assessed as critical factors and therefore applied to response surface methodology (RSM). The optimal medium composition by RSM was composed of 31.29 g/l maltose, 30.27 g/l yeast extract, 39.43 g/l soytone, 5 g/l sodium acetate, 2 g/l KHPO, 1 g/l Tween 80, 0.1 g/l MgSO·7HO, and 0.05 g/l MnSO·HO, and the maximum biomass was predicted to be 3.951 g/l. Under the optimized medium, the biomass of 200655 was 3.845 g/l, which was similar to the predicted value and 1.58-fold higher than that of the unoptimized medium (2.429 g/l). Furthermore, the biomass increased to 4.505 g/l under optimized cultivation conditions. For lab-scale bioreactor validation, batch fermentation was conducted with a 5-L bioreactor containing 3.5 L of optimized medium. As a result, the highest yield of biomass (5.866 g/l) was obtained after 18 h of incubation at 30°C, pH 6.5, and 200 rpm. In conclusion, mass production by 200655 could be enhanced to obtain higher yields than that in MRS medium.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4014/jmb.2103.03018DOI Listing
May 2021

Probiotic properties of novel probiotic KU15147 isolated from radish kimchi and its antioxidant and immune-enhancing activities.

Food Sci Biotechnol 2021 Feb 6;30(2):257-265. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Food Science and Biotechnology of Animal Resources, Konkuk University, Seoul, 05029 Republic of Korea.

This study was conducted to evaluate the probiotic properties and antioxidant activities of lactic acid bacteria strains including KU15147 isolated from kimchi to determine their potential as a probiotic. The tolerance of all strains to gastric acid and bile salts was more than 90%. The strains did not produce a β-glucuronidase and survived following treatment with gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, and ciprofloxacin. KU15147 showed greater adhesion activity to HT-29 cells (6.38%) and its antioxidant activities were higher than those of other tested strains, showing values of 38.56%, 22%, and 23.82% in DPPH, ABTS, and β-carotene bleaching assays, respectively. Additionally, the relative expression intensities of induced nitric oxide synthase and tumor necrosis factor-α of KU15147 were greater than those of other strains, suggesting that this strain can be applied in the health food or pharmaceutical industry as a novel probiotic strain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10068-020-00853-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7914125PMC
February 2021

Antimicrobial and anti-biofilm effects of probiotic KU200656 isolated from kimchi.

Food Sci Biotechnol 2021 Jan 23;30(1):97-106. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Department of Food Science and Biotechnology of Animal Resources, Konkuk University, Seoul, 05029 Republic of Korea.

The probiotic properties and anti-pathogenic effects of KU200656 (KU200656) isolated from Korean fermented kimchi against , , , and Typhimurium were investigated. KU200656 showed high tolerance to artificial gastric acid (99.48%) and bile salts (102.40%) and this strain was safe according to antibiotic sensitivity test; it could not produce harmful enzymes, including β-glucuronidase. KU200656 exhibited high adhesion (4.45%) to intestinal cells, HT-29 cells, with high cell surface hydrophobicity (87.31% for xylene and 81.11% for toluene). Moreover, KU200656 co-aggregated with pathogenic bacteria and exhibited antibacterial activity and anti-adhesion properties against pathogens. The cell-free supernatant (CFS) of KU200656 inhibited biofilm formation by pathogenic bacteria. In addition, half of the minimum inhibitory concentration of the KU200656 CFS downregulated the expression of biofilm-related genes, as determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Therefore, KU200656 was demonstrated to possess anti-pathogenic effects and have potential for use as probiotics in the food industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10068-020-00837-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7847474PMC
January 2021

In Vivo Evaluation of Immune-Enhancing Activity of Red Gamju Fermented by Probiotic KU15154 in Mice.

Foods 2021 Jan 26;10(2). Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Food Science and Biotechnology of Animal Resources, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immune-enhancing effect of red gamju fermented with KU15154, isolated from kimchi, as a biofunctional beverage using mice. Thirty-two mice were used, and after a 2-week feeding, the growth, cytokine and immunoglobulin production, and immune-related cell activation (phagocytes and natural killer [NK] cells) of the mice were evaluated. The red gamju- (SR) and fermented red gamju- (FSR) treated groups had 3.5-4.0-fold greater T-cell proliferation ability than the negative control group. IFN-γ production in the FSR group (15.5 ± 1.2 mg/mL) was significantly higher ( < 0.05) than that in the SR group (12.5 ± 1.8 mg/mL). The FSR group (502.6 ± 25.8 μg/mL) also showed higher IgG production levels than the SR group (412.2 ± 44.8 μg/mL). The activity of NK cells treated with FSR was also greater than that of cells treated with SR but it was not significant ( ≤ 0.05). Further, the phagocytic activity of peritoneal macrophages was higher in both SR and FSR groups than in the control group but was not significantly different ( < 0.05) between the SR and FSR groups. In conclusion, KU15154 may be applied in the fermentation of bioactive food products, such as beverages or pharmaceutical industries, to potentially improve immunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10020253DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7912586PMC
January 2021

Neuroprotective Effects of Heat-Killed Lactobacillus plantarum 200655 Isolated from Kimchi Against Oxidative Stress.

Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins 2021 Jun 17;13(3):788-795. Epub 2021 Jan 17.

Department of Food Science and Biotechnology of Animal Resources, Konkuk University, Seoul, 05029, Republic of Korea.

Oxidative stress plays an important role in exacerbating neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease. In a previous study, Lactobacillus plantarum 200655 was shown to possess probiotic and antioxidant potential. The current study aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of heat-killed L. plantarum 200655. We incubated intestinal cells (HT-29) with heat-killed L. plantarum 200655 in a conditioned medium (CM) and found that the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA level was elevated in the HT-29 cells and the CM contained high concentrations of BDNF. The CM protected neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) from hydrogen peroxide (HO)-induced toxicity. Moreover, the CM increased BDNF and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA expression and significantly reduced the apoptosis-related Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in HO-treated SH-SY5Y cells. At the protein level, the CM resulted in downregulation of caspase-3. These results indicate that L. plantarum 200655 might be used as a prophylactic functional ingredient to prevent neurodegenerative disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12602-020-09740-wDOI Listing
June 2021

Anti-Biofilm Effect of Egg Yolk Phosvitin by Inhibition of Biomass Production and Adherence Activity against .

Food Sci Anim Resour 2020 Nov 1;40(6):1001-1013. Epub 2020 Nov 1.

Department of Food Science and Biotechnology of Animal Resources, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea.

The formation of biofilms on the enamel surface of teeth by is an important step in dental plaque formation, demineralization, and early caries because the biofilm is where other bacteria involved in dental caries attach, grow, and proliferate. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of phosvitin (PSV) on the biofilm formation, exopolysaccharides (EPS) production, adherence activity of , and the expression of genes related to the compounds essential for biofilm formation (quorum-sensing inducers and components of biofilm matrix) by . PSV significantly reduced the biofilm-forming activity of and increased the degradation of preformed biofilms by . PSV inhibited the adherence activity of by 31.9%-33.6%, and the production of EPS by 62%-65% depending upon the strains and the amount of PSV added. The expressions of genes regulating the production of EPS and the quorum-sensing-inducers (, and ) in all strains were down-regulated by PSV, but was down-regulated only in KCTC 5316. Therefore, the anti-biofilm-forming activity of PSV was accomplished through the inhibition of biofilm formation, adherence activity, and the production of quorum-sensing inducers and EPS by .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5851/kosfa.2020.e71DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7713763PMC
November 2020

Potential neuroprotective effects of heat-killed KC24 using SH-SY5Y cells against oxidative stress induced by hydrogen peroxide.

Food Sci Biotechnol 2020 Dec 18;29(12):1735-1740. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Department of Food Science and Biotechnology of Animal Resources, Konkuk University, Seoul, 05029 Korea.

The present study was an investigation of the neuroprotective effects of probiotic bacteria in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells experiencing oxidative stress. The bacterial strains were: commercial GG; two isolated bacterial strains ( KU200170 and KU200661); and probiotic KC24. To evaluate the neuroprotective effects of the bacteria, a conditioned medium (CM) was prepared using HT-29 cells cultured with the heat-killed probiotic strains. Of the bacterial strains tested, the oxidatively stressed SH-SY5Y cells were most viable when cultured with KC24-CM. KC24-CM promoted the expression of brain-derived neurotropic factor () in the HT-29 cells. It also significantly increased expression and reduced the apoptosis-related ratio in the oxidatively stressed SH-SY5Y cells. Therefore, KC24 is a potential psychobiotic for use in the functional food industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10068-020-00830-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7708562PMC
December 2020

Effect of Interaction between Mealworm Protein and Myofibrillar Protein on the Rheological Properties and Thermal Stability of the Prepared Emulsion Systems.

Foods 2020 Oct 12;9(10). Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Research Group of Food Processing, Korea Food Research Institute, Wanju 55365, Korea.

In this study, we investigated the effect of replacing myofibrillar protein (pork ham) with edible insect proteins ( L.) in meat emulsion systems and examined the interaction between the two types of proteins. We also evaluated the rheological properties and thermal stability of these meat emulsions. The replacement ratios of myofibrillar protein and edible insect protein were as follows: 100:0 (EI0), 80:20 (EI20), 60:40 (EI40), 40:60 (EI60), 20:80 (EI80), and 0:100 (EI100). The pH, redness, and yellowness of the emulsion systems, after replacing myofibrillar protein with protein, significantly increased with protein concentrations. In contrast, the lightness, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, apparent viscosity, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of the emulsion systems decreased significantly with increasing protein concentrations. The backscattering values of EI0, EI20, and EI40 decreased evenly in all spots of the dispersions as the storage time increased. Thus, up to 40% of pork myofibrillar protein could be replaced with protein in meat emulsion systems. The results also suggest that the interaction between edible insect protein and myofibrillar protein degrades the rheological properties and thermal stability of the meat emulsion systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9101443DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7601821PMC
October 2020

Inhibits Adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 Preadipocytes via Modulation of Mitotic Clonal Expansion Involving ERK 1/2 and Akt Signaling Pathways.

Nutrients 2020 Oct 3;12(10). Epub 2020 Oct 3.

Department of Food Science and Biotechnology of Animal Resources, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea.

The flower of contains various phenolic compounds with prophylactic properties. This study aimed to determine the anti-adipogenic effect of an flower aqueous extract (IAE) and its underlying mechanisms in the 3T3-L1 preadipocytes and to identify the phenolic compounds in the extract. Treatment with IAE inhibited the adipogenesis by showing a dose-dependent suppressed intracellular lipid accumulation and mitigated expression levels of lipogenesis- and adipogenesis-associated biomarkers including transcription factors. IAE exerted an anti-adipogenic effect through the modulation of the early phases of adipogenesis including mitotic clonal expansion (MCE). Treatment with IAE inhibited MCE by arresting the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase and suppressing the activation of MCE-related transcription factors. Furthermore, IAE inhibited adipogenesis by regulating the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and Akt signaling pathways. Protocatechuic acid, chlorogenic acid, kaempferol-3--glucoside, and 6-methoxyluteolin, which are reported to exhibit anti-adipogenic properties, were detected in IAE. Therefore, modulation of early phases of adipogenesis, especially MCE, is a key mechanism underlying the anti-adipogenic activity of IAE. In summary, the anti-obesity effects of IAE can be attributed to its phenolic compounds, and hence, IAE can be used for the development of anti-obesity products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12103037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7599673PMC
October 2020

Erratum to: Milk Containing BF-7 Enhances the Learning and Memory, Attention, and Mathematical Ability of Normal Persons.

Food Sci Anim Resour 2020 Sep 1;40(5):860-861. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul 07061, Korea.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.5851/kosfa.2009.29.2.278.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5851/kosfa.2020.e61DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7492170PMC
September 2020

Anti-Biofilm Activity of Cell-Free Supernatant of against .

J Microbiol Biotechnol 2020 Dec;30(12):1854-1861

Department of Food Science and Biotechnology of Animal Resources, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Republic of Korea.

is one of the most common microorganisms and causes foodborne diseases. In particular, biofilm-forming is more resistant to antimicrobial agents and sanitizing treatments than planktonic cells. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the anti-biofilm effects of cell-free supernatant (CFS) of isolated from cucumber compared to grapefruit seed extract (GSE). CFS and GSE inhibited and degraded biofilms. The adhesion ability, auto-aggregation, and exopolysaccharide production of CFS-treated , compared to those of the control, were significantly decreased. Moreover, biofilm-related gene expression was altered upon CFS treatment. Scanning electron microscopy images confirmed that CFS exerted anti-biofilm effects against . Therefore, these results suggest that S. cerevisiae CFS has anti-biofilm potential against strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4014/jmb.2008.08053DOI Listing
December 2020

Probiotic Properties and Antioxidant Activities of SC28 and KU15151 in Fermented Black Gamju.

Foods 2020 Aug 21;9(9). Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Department of Food Science and Biotechnology of Animal Resources, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea.

Black gamju is Korean traditional beverage fermented with molds. The aim of this study was to assess the probiotic properties and antioxidant activities of novel SC28 and KU15151 to develop black gamju with bioactive properties for health. Tolerance against artificial gastric juice and bile salts, adhesion ability on HT-29 cells of strains, and antibiotics susceptibility were evaluated as probiotics, and various enzyme productions were detected. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl assay, 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate, and β-carotene bleaching assay were used for antioxidant activity of samples. The tolerance of both strains to artificial gastric juice and bile salts (Oxgall) was more than 90%. Additionally, both strains did not produce β-glucuronidase and were resistant to gentamicin, kanamycin, streptomycin, and ciprofloxacin. After fermentation of black gamju with each strain, the number of viable lactic acid bacteria increased to 8.25-8.95 log colony forming unit/mL, but the pH value of fermented samples decreased more (to pH 3.33-3.41) than that of control (pH 4.37). KU15151 showed higher adhesion activity to HT-29 cells and antioxidant effects than SC28 in three antioxidant assays.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9091154DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7554914PMC
August 2020

Probiotic Lactobacillus fermentum KU200060 isolated from watery kimchi and its application in probiotic yogurt for oral health.

Microb Pathog 2020 Oct 3;147:104430. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Department of Food Science and Biotechnology of Animal Resources, Konkuk University, Seoul, 05029, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Lactobacillus fermentum KU200060 was isolated from watery kimchi and its probiotic characteristics were evaluated, including tolerance to artificial gastric acid and bile salt, production of enzymes, ability to adhere to HT-29 cells, and antibiotic susceptibility. The antibacterial and antibiofilm effects of L. fermentum KU200060 against Streptococcus mutans KCTC 5316 were compared to those of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Lactobacillus brevis KU15006. L. fermentum KU200060 demonstrated higher antibacterial activity and inhibition of biofilm formation by S. mutans than L. rhamnosus GG via inhibiting formation of water-insoluble glucan and related gene expression. In addition, L. fermentum KU200060 was applied as a probiotic in yogurt, and its physicochemical property and sensory value demonstrated its potential as a yogurt starter. The physicochemical characteristics and consumer acceptability of the probiotic yogurt containing L. fermentum KU200060 were not significantly different compared to those of the control yogurt. Therefore, L. fermentum KU200060 could be used for oral health in the probiotic industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104430DOI Listing
October 2020

Application of mixed natural preservatives to improve the quality of vacuum skin packaged beef during refrigerated storage.

Meat Sci 2020 Nov 10;169:108219. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Department of Food Science and Biotechnology of Animal Resources, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

This study aimed to develop an active packaging (AP) system for beef storage using vacuum skin packaging (VSP) applied with mixed natural preservatives (MNPs) consisting of grapefruit seed extract (GSE), cinnamaldehyde (CA), and nisin; and to assess its effect on the physicochemical, microbial, and antibacterial properties against food-borne pathogens in beef compared with using wrapped packaging (WP) and VSP. The pH of the AP was a medium level of WP and VSP. AP was effective in preserving beef surface color including lightness and redness. AP delayed lipid oxidation and protein deterioration of beef by 14 days and 7 days as compared to that in WP and VSP, respectively. It also slowed low microbial counts of psychrotrophic and anaerobic bacteria about 1-2 Log CFU/g and inhibited the growth of experimented food-borne pathogens compared to initial inoculated counts. Our results indicated that MNPs applied to AP could be used to extend the shelf life of beef and prevent related food poisoning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2020.108219DOI Listing
November 2020

Survival of foodborne pathogens on stainless steel soiled with different food residues.

Food Sci Biotechnol 2020 May 3;29(5):729-737. Epub 2019 Dec 3.

3Department of Food and Nutrition, Gyeongsang National University, 501 Jinjudae-ro, Jinju, Gyeongsangnam-do 52828 Republic of Korea.

Insufficient and ineffective cleaning practices can cause food residues to remain in kitchen and can facilitate bacterial attachment and persistence by protective films. The present study investigated the survival of five major foodborne pathogens on stainless steel coupons, in the presence of cooked rice, whole eggs, and soymilk. Foodborne pathogens showed different survival rates by desiccation and disinfection depending on food residues. Overall, the pathogens showed stronger survival than the control at 0.13-3.97 log CFU/coupon with 5% residues, and at 0.75-5.29 log CFU/coupon with 50% residues. was not affected by the food residue with showing the least difference in concentration, while O157:H7 showed the most significant increase by food residue. The cells with cooked rice were observed using FE-SEM, and demonstrated bacterial binding or embedment. All results suggest that food safety can be practically ensured by food residue types and appropriate cleaning and disinfectants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10068-019-00705-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7221015PMC
May 2020

Effect of Yogurt Fermented by TSI and S2 Derived from a Mongolian Traditional Dairy Product on Rats with High-Fat-Diet-Induced Obesity.

Foods 2020 May 6;9(5). Epub 2020 May 6.

Department of Food Science and Biotechnology of Animal Resources, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea.

This study aimed to investigate the metabolic effect of yogurt fermented by TSI and S2 isolated from a Mongolian traditional dairy product on rats with high-fat-diet-induced obesity. Quality characteristics of yogurt fermented by commercial starter (CON), TSI2 (TSI2 group), S2 (S2 group), and mixed TSI2 and S2 strains at 1:1 (MIX group), were verified. Six-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups and administered the following diets: group NOR, normal diet with oral saline administration; group HF, high-fat diet (HD) with oral saline administration; group TSI, HD and TSI-fermented yogurt; group S2, HD and L. fermentum S2-fermented yogurt; and group MIX, HD and MIX-fermented yogurt. After eight weeks, the HD groups displayed significantly increased body weight and fat, serum cholesterol, and abdominal adipose tissue levels. However, serum HDL cholesterol levels were higher, triglyceride levels were lower, and abdominal adipocytes were smaller in the TSI and S2 groups than in the HF group. These results indicate that TSI reduces abdominal fat and improves blood lipid metabolism in HD-induced obese rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods9050594DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7278578PMC
May 2020

fermented with probiotic D30 exhibited anti-inflammatory effect and increased viability in RAW 264.7 cells.

Food Sci Biotechnol 2020 Apr 15;29(4):569-578. Epub 2019 Oct 15.

1Department of Food Science and Biotechnology of Animal Resources, Konkuk University, Seoul, 05029 Republic of Korea.

The objective of this study was to increase the bioavailability of (IB) through fermentation with probiotic D30, and to evaluate the chemical composition, viability, and anti-inflammatory effect of fermented (FIB). IB was fermented with D30 at 37 °C for 24 h. FIB increased total phenolic content and decreased total flavonoid content of IB. 1--acetylbritannilactone and ergolide production, which are associated with the viability, increased from 1.38 to 4.13 μg/mg, and decreased from 5.24 to 0.94 μg/mg, in the control and FIB, respectively. In addition, the cell viability of RAW264.7 cells increased when pretreated with 400 μg/mL FIB. FIB inhibited the production of nitric oxide and proinflammatory cytokines by inhibiting NF-κB and MAPKs pathways. Therefore, FIB with D30 reduced the toxicity and increased the anti-inflammatory properties. These results indicate that FIB is a potential beneficial bioactive agent for functional foods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10068-019-00690-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7142207PMC
April 2020

Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Probiotic KU15149 Derived from Korean Homemade Diced-Radish Kimchi.

J Microbiol Biotechnol 2020 Apr;30(4):591-598

Department of Food Science and Biotechnology of Animal Resources, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Republic of Korea.

KU15149 was demonstrated to have probiotic behavior and functions, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. KU15149 obtained from homemade diced-radish kimchi has a high survival rate under artificial gastric acid (pH 2.5, 0.3% pepsin) and bile salt (0.3% oxgall) conditions. However, KU15149 did not produce β-glucuronidase, which is known to be a carcinogenic enzyme with resistance to several antibiotics, such as gentamycin, kanamycin, streptomycin, tetracycline, and ciprofloxacin. KU15149 strongly adhered to HT-29 cells and had high antioxidant activity in terms of 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging and β-carotene bleaching assays. KU15149 also exhibited a pronounced inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production, along with expression of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase -2 (COX-2) as well as proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6, when RAW 264.7 cells were stimulated with LPS. Therefore, KU15149 exhibited pharmaceutical functionality as a potential probiotic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4014/jmb.2002.02052DOI Listing
April 2020

Immune-stimulating Effect of Ln1 Isolated from the Traditional Korean Fermented Food, Kimchi.

J Microbiol Biotechnol 2020 Jun;30(6):926-929

Department of Food Science and Biotechnology of Animal Resources, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Republic of Korea.

This study aimed to determine the immune-stimulating effects of heat-killed Ln1 (HK-Ln1) through the production of nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokine achieved by inducing NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-signaling pathways in macrophages. HK-Ln1 showed higher NO and cytokine production compared t°Control (nonstimulated lipopolysaccharide); in addition, the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was induced through HK-Ln1treatment. The phosphorylation of IκB-α and p65 increased following treatment by HK-Ln1, which implicates IκB-α degradation and the translocation of p65 to nucleus. In addition, the phosphorylation of MAPKs, ERK 1/2, JNK, and p38 was induced following HK-Ln1 treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4014/jmb.2001.01038DOI Listing
June 2020

Predictive model of growth kinetics for Staphylococcus aureus in raw beef under various packaging systems.

Meat Sci 2020 Jul 9;165:108108. Epub 2020 Mar 9.

Department of Food Science and Biotechnology of Animal Resources, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

This study describes a model of the growth kinetics for S. aureus in raw beef under wrapped packaging (WP), modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), vacuum packaging (VP), and vacuum skin packaging (VSP). Beef samples were inoculated with S. aureus and stored at 10, 15, 20, and 25 °C. VP and VSP showed lower maximum bacteria counts and higher lag time than WP and MAP at all temperatures. At 10 °C, S. aureus in VP and VSP decreased to about 2.5 Log CFU/g. Two primary models (modified Gompertz model and reparameterized Gompertz survival model) were used in the study. The secondary models were described using a polynomial equation and the Davey model. The bias factor (Bf), accuracy factor (Af), and root mean square error (RMSE) of the secondary models were 0.91-1.09, 1.00-1.13, and 0.00-0.68, respectively. The predictive models for kinetics of S. aureus in various packaged raw beef could help to predict the fate of S. aureus more accurately.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2020.108108DOI Listing
July 2020

Probiotic Properties of KU200019 and Synergistic Activity with Fructooligosaccharides in Antagonistic Activity against Foodborne Pathogens.

Food Sci Anim Resour 2020 Mar 1;40(2):297-310. Epub 2020 Mar 1.

Department of Food Science and Biotechnology of Animal Resources, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea.

This study aims to evaluate the probiotic properties of KU200019 and the synergistic activity with prebiotics on antimicrobial activity, and the potential application as an adjunct culture in fermented dairy products. The commercial strain, ATCC 14869 was used as reference strain. KU200019 was showed higher viability in simulated gastric (99.38±0.21%) and bile (115.10±0.13%) conditions compared to reference strain. KU200019 exhibited antimicrobial activity against various foodborne pathogens. The supplementation of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) enhanced viability of lactic acid bacteria (>8 Log CFU/mL) and antioxidant activity [2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical assay (DPPH) assay, 31.23±1.14%; 2,2-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) assay, 38.82±1.46%] in fermented skim milk during refrigerated storage. KU200019 was distinguished from the reference strain by its higher probiotic potential, antimicrobial activity, and higher antioxidant activity in fermented milk. Therefore, KU200019 with FOS was demonstrated promising properties for further application in fermented dairy products with enhanced safety and quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5851/kosfa.2020.e15DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7057033PMC
March 2020

Ovalbumin Hydrolysates Inhibit Nitric Oxide Production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 Macrophages.

Food Sci Anim Resour 2020 Mar 1;40(2):274-285. Epub 2020 Mar 1.

Department of Food Science and Biotechnology of Animal Resources, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea.

In this study, ovalbumin (OVA) hydrolysates were prepared using various proteolytic enzymes and the anti-inflammatory activities of the hydrolysates were determined. Also, the potential application of OVA as a functional food material was discussed. The effect of OVA hydrolysates on the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production was evaluated via the Griess reaction, and their effects on the expression of inducible NO synthase (inducible nitric oxide synthase, iNOS) were assessed using the quantitative real-time PCR and Western blotting. To determine the mechanism by which OVA hydrolysates activate macrophages, pathways associated with the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling were evaluated. When the OVA hydrolysates were added to RAW 264.7 cells without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation, they did not affect the production of NO. However, both the OVA-Protex 6L hydrolysate (OHPT) and OVA-trypsin hydrolysate (OHT) inhibited NO production dose-dependently in LPS- stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Especially, OHT showed a strong NO-inhibitory activity (62.35% at 2 mg/mL) and suppressed iNOS production and the mRNA expression for iNOS (p<0.05). Also, OHT treatment decreased the phosphorylation levels of Jun amino-terminal kinases (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) in the MAPK signaling pathway. These findings suggested that OVA hydrolysates could be used as an anti-inflammatory agent that prevent the overproduction of NO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5851/kosfa.2020.e12DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7057040PMC
March 2020
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