Publications by authors named "Hyun Jung Kim"

1,100 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Potential of Chickpea Flours with Different Microstructures as Multifunctional Ingredient in an Instant Soup Application.

Foods 2021 Oct 29;10(11). Epub 2021 Oct 29.

KU Leuven, Laboratory of Food Technology, Department of Microbial and Molecular Systems (M2S), Kasteelpark Arenberg 23, P.O. Box 2457, 3001 Leuven, Belgium.

Chickpea flours are an interesting multifunctional ingredient for different food products. This study investigated the potential of differently processed chickpea flours as alternative thickening agents in an instant soup recipe, replacing potato starch. Dry instant soup powders were compared on bulk density and powder flowability, whereas prepared liquid instant soups were studied in terms of rheological behaviour (as influenced by microstructure) and volatile composition. The chickpea-flour-containing soup powders possessed similar powder flowability to a reference powder but were easier to mix and will potentially result in reduced blockages during filling. For prepared liquid instant soups, similar viscosities were reached compared to the potato starch reference soup. Nevertheless, the chickpea-flour-containing soups showed higher shear thinning behaviour due to the presence of larger particles and the shear induced breakdown of particle clusters. Flavour compounds from the soup mix interacted with chickpea flour constituents, changing their headspace concentrations. Additionally, chickpea flours introduced new volatile compounds to the soups, such as ketones, aldehydes, alcohols, and sulphur compounds, which can possibly alter the aroma and flavour. It was concluded that chickpea flours showed excellent potential as alternative thickening ingredient in instant soups, improving the protein, mineral and vitamin content, and the powder flowability of the soups, although the flavour of the soups might be affected by the changes in volatile profiles between the soups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10112622DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8620198PMC
October 2021

Simultaneous Viscum pleurodesis and video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) bullectomy in patients with primary spontaneous pneumothorax.

Sci Rep 2021 Nov 25;11(1):22934. Epub 2021 Nov 25.

Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, CHA Bundang Medical Center, CHA University, 59, Yatap-ro, Bundang-gu, Seongnam-si, 13496, Korea.

Although surgery is the gold standard for treatment of primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP), recurrence after surgery remains a concern. This study sought to evaluate the efficacy of simultaneous pleurodesis using Viscum album (VA) extract and video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) bullectomy for the treatment of PSP. From March 2016 to June 2020, 175 patients with PSP underwent bullectomy and intraoperative pleurodesis with VA extract at a single institution. All operations were performed through thoracoscopy by one surgeon. Upon completion of bullectomy, a polyglycolic acid sheet was used to cover the stapler lines, and 40 mg of VA extract was instilled over the entire chest wall before chest tube placement. The median operating time was 20 min (interquartile ranges, 15-30) and the median indwelling time of chest drainage was 2 days (interquartile ranges, 2-3). There were no postoperative complications over grade 3. During the median follow-up period of 38 months (interquartile ranges, 15-48), no recurrence of pneumothorax was observed. The results of this study demonstrated that simultaneous Viscum pleurodesis and VATS bullectomy provides a feasible and effective treatment option for preventing postoperative pneumothorax in patients with PSP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-02224-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8617264PMC
November 2021

Effect of bioactive glass addition on the physical properties of mineral trioxide aggregate.

Biomater Res 2021 Nov 24;25(1):39. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Department of Conservative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul, 02447, Republic of Korea.

Background: The addition of bioactive glass (BG), a highly bioactive material with remineralization potential, might improve the drawback of weakening property of mineral trioxide aggregates (MTA) when it encounters with body fluid. This study aims to evaluate the effect of BG addition on physical properties of MTA.

Methods: ProRoot (MTA), and MTA with various concentrations of BG (1, 2, 5 and 10% BG/MTA) were prepared. Simulated body fluid (SBF) was used to investigate the effect of the storage solution on dentin remineralization. Prepared specimens were examined as following; the push-out bond strength to dentin, compressive strength, setting time solubility and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis.

Results: The 2% BG/MTA showed higher push-out bond strengths than control group after 7 days of SBF storage. The 2% BG/MTA exhibited the highest compressive strength. Setting times were reduced in the 1 and 2% BG/MTA groups, and solubility of all experimental groups were clinically acceptable. In all groups, precipitates were observed in dentinal tubules via SEM. XRD showed the increased hydroxyapatite peaks in the 2, 5 and 10% BG/MTA groups.

Conclusion: It was verified that the BG-added MTA increased dentin push-out bond strength and compressive strength under SBF storage. The addition of BG did not negatively affect the MTA maturation reaction; it increased the amount of hydroxyapatite during SBF maturation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40824-021-00238-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8611879PMC
November 2021

Turn-On Fluorescence Sensing of Oxygen with Dendrimer-Encapsulated Platinum Nanoparticles as Tunable Oxidase Mimics for Spatially Resolved Measurement of Oxygen Gradient in a Human Gut-on-a-Chip.

Anal Chem 2021 Nov 22. Epub 2021 Nov 22.

Department of Chemistry, Research Institute for Basic Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea.

Turn-on type fluorescence sensing of O is considered a promising approach to developing ways to measure O in microenvironments with spatially distributed O levels. As a class of nanomaterials with a high degree of control over composition and structure, dendrimer-encapsulated nanoparticles (DENs) are promising candidates to mimic biological enzymes. Here, we report a strategy to monitor spatially distributed O across a three-dimensional (3D) human intestinal epithelial layer in a gut-on-a-chip in a turn-on fluorescence sensing manner. The strategy is based on the oxidase-mimetic activity of Pt DENs for catalytic oxidation of nonfluorescent Amplex Red to highly fluorescent resorufin in the presence of O. We synthesized Pt DENs using two different types of dendrimers (i.e., amine-terminated or hydroxyl-terminated generation 6 polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers) with six different Pt/dendrimer ratios (i.e., 55, 200, 220, 550, 880, and 1320). After clarifying the intrinsic oxidase-mimetic activity of Pt DENs, we determined tunable oxidase-mimetic activity of Pt DENs, especially with fine-tuning the ratios of the Pt precursor ions and dendrimers. Particularly, the optimal Pt DENs having a Pt/dendrimer ratio of 1320 exhibited an ∼117-fold increase in the oxidase-mimetic activity for catalyzing the aerobic oxidation of Amplex Red to resorufin compared to one having a Pt/dendrimer ratio of 200. This study exemplified a simple yet effective approach for spatially resolved imaging of O using metal nanoparticle-based oxidase mimics in microphysiological environments like a human gut-on-a-chip.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.1c03891DOI Listing
November 2021

Robust response of pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma to pembrolizumab and sequential radiotherapy: A case report.

Respirol Case Rep 2021 Dec 10;9(12):e0875. Epub 2021 Nov 10.

Division of Pulmonary Disease and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Dongsan Hospital Keimyung University School of Medicine Daegu South Korea.

Pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma (PPC) is a rare type of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with a more aggressive clinical course and a worse outcome than other types of NSCLC. Pembrolizumab, a monoclonal antibody targeting programmed cell death-1 (PD-1), has been approved as the first-line treatment for advanced NSCLC with robust PD-L1 expression in at least 50% of tumour cells, without epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR) mutations or anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene (ALK) rearrangement. Here, we report the case of an 81-year-old man with multiple comorbidities who was diagnosed with PPC and showed a robust response to pembrolizumab followed by radiation therapy without adverse effects. In the absence of randomized clinical trials for PPCs, our case report demonstrates the potential application of pembrolizumab and radiation therapy for the treatment of PPCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rcr2.875DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8580814PMC
December 2021

Outcomes of living liver donors are worse than those of matched healthy controls.

J Hepatol 2021 Nov 13. Epub 2021 Nov 13.

Department of Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Background & Aims: Donor death is the most serious complication of living liver donation, but is reported rarely. We investigated the actual mortality of living liver donors (LLDs) compared with matched control groups based on analysis of the Korean National Health Insurance Services (NHIS) database.

Methods: This cohort study included 12,372 LLDs who donated a liver graft between 2002 and 2018, and were registered in the Korean Network for Organ Sharing. They were compared to three matched control groups selected from the Korean NHIS and comprising a total of 123,710 subjects: healthy population (Group I); general population without comorbidities (Group II); and general population with comorbidities (Group III).

Results: In this population, 78.5% of living liver donors were 20-39 years old, and 64.7% of all donors were male. Eighty-nine donors (0.7%) in the LLD group died (68 males and 21 females), a mortality rate (1000 person/year) of 0.91 (0.74-1.12). Mortality rate ratio and the adjusted hazard ratio of the LLD group was 2.03 (1.61-2.55) and 1.71 (1.31-2.25) compared to Control Group I, 0.75 (0.60-0.93) and 0.63 (0.49-0.82) compared to Control Group II, and 0.58 (0.46-0.71) and 0.49 (0.39-0.60) compared to Control Group III. LLD group, depression, and lower income were risk factors for adjusted mortality. The incidence of liver failure, depression, cancer, diabetes, hypertension, brain infarction, brain hemorrhage, and end-stage renal disease in the LLD group was significantly higher than in Control Group I.

Conclusions: Outcomes of the LLD group were worse than those of the matched healthy control group despite the small number of death and medical morbidities in this group. LLDs should receive careful medical attention for an extended period after donation.

Lay Summary: The incidence of mortality, liver failure, depression, cancer, diabetes, hypertension, brain infarction, brain hemorrhage, and end-stage renal disease in the LLD group was significantly higher than in the matched healthy group even though few cases. Careful donor evaluation and selection processes can improve donor safety and enable safe living donor liver transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2021.10.031DOI Listing
November 2021

Statin use and incidence and mortality of breast and gynecology cancer: A cohort study using the National Health Insurance claims database.

Int J Cancer 2021 Nov 9. Epub 2021 Nov 9.

Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Previous studies have reported inconsistent findings concerning the impact of statin use on cancer prevention. Our study examined the association between statin use and cancer incidence and mortality related to breast and gynecologic cancers in South Korea. A population-based cohort study was conducted using the National Health Insurance claims database. Women aged 45 to 70 years old who had taken statins for at least 6 months were compared to statin non-users of the same age from January 2005 to June 2013. The primary outcomes were cancer incidence and mortality related to breast cancer, total gynecologic cancers, cervix uteri cancer and ovarian cancer. Cox proportional hazards regression was conducted to calculate the adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Out of 587 705 women, there were 3591 cases of breast cancer, 2239 cases of gynecologic cancers and 565 breast and total gynecologic cancer deaths during 7.6 person-years. The aHRs for the association between the risk of each cancer and statin use were 0.88 (95% CI 0.79-0.97) for breast cancer and 0.83 (95% CI 0.67-0.99) for cervix uteri cancer. Statin use was associated with decreased breast cancer mortality (HR = 0.65, 95% CI 0.43-0.99) and total gynecologic cancer mortality (HR = 0.70, 95% CI 0.50-0.98). A dose-response relationship was only found for all-cancer mortality. Statin use for at least 6 months was significantly associated with a lower risk of breast and cervix uteri cancer incidence, and with lower mortality of breast and gynecologic cancers. Further research on these associations will be needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33869DOI Listing
November 2021

A Bioprinted Tubular Intestine Model Using a Colon-Specific Extracellular Matrix Bioink.

Adv Healthc Mater 2021 Nov 7:e2101768. Epub 2021 Nov 7.

School of Interdisciplinary Bioscience and Bioengineering, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang, Kyungbuk, 37673, Korea.

Tremendous advances have been made toward accurate recapitulation of the human intestinal system in vitro to understand its developmental process, and disease progression. However, current in vitro models are often confined to 2D or 2.5D microarchitectures, which is difficult to mimic the systemic level of complexity of the native tissue. To overcome this problem, physiologically relevant intestinal models are developed with a 3D hollow tubular structure using 3D bioprinting strategy. A tissue-specific biomaterial, colon-derived decellularized extracellular matrix (Colon dECM) is developed and it provides significant maturation-guiding potential to human intestinal cells. To fabricate a perfusable tubular model, a simultaneous printing process of multiple materials through concentrically assembled nozzles is developed and a light-activated Colon dECM bioink is employed by supplementing with ruthenium/sodium persulfate as a photoinitiator. The bioprinted intestinal tissue models show spontaneous 3D morphogenesis of the human intestinal epithelium without any external stimuli. In consequence, the printed cells form multicellular aggregates and cysts and then differentiate into several types of enterocytes, building junctional networks. This system can serve as a platform to evaluate the effects of potential drug-induced toxicity on the human intestinal tissue and create a coculture model with commensal microbes and immune cells for future therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adhm.202101768DOI Listing
November 2021

Hand-Held Raman Spectrometer-Based Dual Detection of Creatinine and Cortisol in Human Sweat Using Silver Nanoflakes.

Anal Chem 2021 11 4;93(45):14996-15004. Epub 2021 Nov 4.

Department of Medical Device, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials (KIMM), Daegu 42994, Republic of Korea.

The conventional tissue biopsy method yields isolated snapshots of a narrow region. Therefore, it cannot facilitate comprehensive disease characterization and monitoring. Recently, the detection of tumor-derived components in body fluids─a practice known as liquid biopsy─has attracted increased attention from the biochemical research and clinical application viewpoints. In this vein, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has been identified as one of the most powerful liquid-biopsy analysis techniques, owing to its high sensitivity and specificity. Moreover, it affords high-capacity spectral multiplexing for simultaneous target detection and a unique ability to obtain intrinsic biomolecule-fingerprint spectra. This paper presents the fabrication of silver nanosnowflakes (SNSFs) using the polyol method and their subsequent dropping onto a hydrophobic filter paper. The SERS substrate, which comprises the SNSFs and hydrophobic filter paper, facilitates the simultaneous detection of creatinine and cortisol in human sweat using a hand-held Raman spectrometer. The proposed SERS system affords Raman spectrometry to be performed on small sample volumes (2 μL) to identify the normal and at-risk creatinine and cortisol groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.1c02496DOI Listing
November 2021

Predicting thickness perception of liquid food products from their non-Newtonian rheology.

Nat Commun 2021 11 3;12(1):6328. Epub 2021 Nov 3.

Unilever Innovation Centre Wageningen, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

The "mouthfeel" of food products is a key factor in our perception of food quality and in our appreciation of food products. Extensive research has been performed on what determines mouthfeel, and how it can be linked to laboratory measurements and eventually predicted. This was mainly done on the basis of simple models that do not accurately take the rheology of the food products into account. Here, we show that the subjectively perceived "thickness" of liquid foods, or the force needed to make the sample flow or deform in the mouth, can be directly related to their non-Newtonian rheology. Measuring the shear-thinning rheology and modeling the squeeze flow between the tongue and the palate in the oral cavity allows to predict how a panel perceives soup "thickness". This is done for various liquid bouillons with viscosities ranging from that of water to low-viscous soups and for high-viscous xanthan gum solutions. Our findings show that our tongues, just like our eyes and ears, are logarithmic measuring instruments in agreement with the Weber-Fechner law that predicts a logarithmic relation between stimulus amplitude and perceived strength. Our results pave the way for more accurate prediction of mouthfeel characteristics of liquid food products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-26687-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8566491PMC
November 2021

Aging effects on the diurnal patterns of gut microbial composition in male and female mice.

Korean J Physiol Pharmacol 2021 Nov;25(6):575-583

Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 07084, Korea.

Composition of the gut microbiota changes with aging and plays an important role in age-associated disease such as metabolic syndrome, cancer, and neurodegeneration. The gut microbiota composition oscillates through the day, and the disruption of their diurnal rhythm results in gut dysbiosis leading to metabolic and immune dysfunctions. It is well documented that circadian rhythm changes with age in several biological functions such as sleep, body temperature, and hormone secretion. However, it is not defined whether the diurnal pattern of gut microbial composition is affected by aging. To evaluate aging effects on the diurnal pattern of the gut microbiome, we evaluated the taxa profiles of cecal contents obtained from young and aged mice of both sexes at daytime and nighttime points by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. At the phylum level, the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes and the relative abundances of Verrucomicrobia and Cyanobacteria were increased in aged male mice at night compared with that of young male mice. Meanwhile, the relative abundances of Sutterellaceae, , Lachnospiraceae UCG-001, and increased in aged female mice at night compared with that of young female mice. The Lachnospiraceae NK4A136 group relative abundance increased in aged mice of both sexes but at opposite time points. These results showed the changes in diurnal patterns of gut microbial composition with aging, which varied depending on the sex of the host. We suggest that disturbed diurnal patterns of the gut microbiome can be a factor for the underlying mechanism of age-associated gut dysbiosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4196/kjpp.2021.25.6.575DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8552826PMC
November 2021

Heterogeneous radiological response to chemotherapy is associated with poor prognosis in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer.

Thorac Cancer 2021 Oct 24. Epub 2021 Oct 24.

Division of Pulmonology, Department of Internal Medicine, Inha University Hospital, Inha University College of Medicine, Incheon, Republic of Korea.

Background: A heterogeneous radiological response is frequently observed in cancer patients and could reflect tumor heterogeneity. We investigated the prognostic impact of heterogeneous radiological responses in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who received platinum-based chemotherapy.

Methods: The treatment response according to Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) 1.1 criteria was evaluated in 212 patients with advanced NSCLC who received platinum-based chemotherapy. Patients with partial response (PR) or stable disease (SD) were classified into "PR homo," "PR hetero," "SD homo," and "SD hetero" by the presence of a heterogeneous radiological response, and survival was compared between groups. We also compared survival based on the presence of metabolic responses in lesions with heterogeneous radiological responses.

Results: Fifty-two patients (24.5%) were classified as PR, 112 patients (52.8%) as SD, and 48 patients (22.7%) as progressive disease (PD). There was no significant difference in progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) between the PR homo and PR hetero groups. The SD homo group had a longer PFS and OS than the SD hetero group. In the SD hetero group, patients with increased maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) in lesions with heterogeneous radiological responses had a shorter PFS than those with a stable SUVmax.

Conclusions: The presence of lesions with radiological heterogeneity was associated with disease progression and poor prognosis in the SD group. Patients with heterogeneous radiological responses require careful monitoring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1759-7714.14207DOI Listing
October 2021

Targeted theranostic photoactivation on atherosclerosis.

J Nanobiotechnology 2021 Oct 24;19(1):338. Epub 2021 Oct 24.

Multimodal Imaging and Theranostic Laboratory, Cardiovascular Center, Korea University Guro Hospital, 148 Gurodong-ro, Guro-gu, Seoul, 08308, Republic of Korea.

Background: Photoactivation targeting macrophages has emerged as a therapeutic strategy for atherosclerosis, but limited targetable ability of photosensitizers to the lesions hinders its applications. Moreover, the molecular mechanistic insight to its phototherapeutic effects on atheroma is still lacking. Herein, we developed a macrophage targetable near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) emitting phototheranostic agent by conjugating dextran sulfate (DS) to chlorin e6 (Ce6) and estimated its phototherapeutic feasibility in murine atheroma. Also, the phototherapeutic mechanisms of DS-Ce6 on atherosclerosis were investigated.

Results: The phototheranostic agent DS-Ce6 efficiently internalized into the activated macrophages and foam cells via scavenger receptor-A (SR-A) mediated endocytosis. Customized serial optical imaging-guided photoactivation of DS-Ce6 by light illumination reduced both atheroma burden and inflammation in murine models. Immuno-fluorescence and -histochemical analyses revealed that the photoactivation of DS-Ce6 produced a prominent increase in macrophage-associated apoptotic bodies 1 week after laser irradiation and induced autophagy with Mer tyrosine-protein kinase expression as early as day 1, indicative of an enhanced efferocytosis in atheroma.

Conclusion: Imaging-guided DS-Ce6 photoactivation was able to in vivo detect inflammatory activity in atheroma as well as to simultaneously reduce both plaque burden and inflammation by harmonic contribution of apoptosis, autophagy, and lesional efferocytosis. These results suggest that macrophage targetable phototheranostic nanoagents will be a promising theranostic strategy for high-risk atheroma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12951-021-01084-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8543964PMC
October 2021

Dyslipidemia Is Associated With Increased Risk of Achilles Tendon Disorders in Underweight Individuals to a Greater Extent Than Obese Individuals: A Nationwide, Population-Based, Longitudinal Cohort Study.

Orthop J Sports Med 2021 Oct 15;9(10):23259671211042599. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Inje University Ilsan Paik Hospital, Goyang-si, Gyeonggi-do, Republic of Korea.

Background: The association between dyslipidemia and Achilles tendinopathy (AT) or Achilles tendon rupture (ATR) remains controversial, although some studies have examined this topic.

Purpose: To evaluate the correlation of dyslipidemia and the risk of AT or ATR, and its association with body mass index (BMI), by assessing data from a nationwide population-based cohort.

Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: We used the National Health Insurance database, which includes the entire population of the Republic of Korea, to evaluate participants in the National Health Screening Program between January 2009 and December 2010. Participants diagnosed with AT or ATR before December 31, 2017, were selected. The variables assessed were age, sex, frequency of high-intensity exercise per week, BMI, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, and levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and fasting blood glucose. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression was used for data analysis.

Results: A total of 16,830,532 participants were included. Of these, 125,814 and 31,424 participants developed AT and ATR, respectively. A higher level of LDL-C was associated with an increased risk of AT (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.16) and ATR (adjusted HR, 1.18). A slightly increased risk of AT was observed in participants with higher TG levels (adjusted HR, 1.03), whereas higher HDL-C level was associated with a slight risk reduction for AT (adjusted HR, 0.95). However, no significant association was observed between higher TG or HDL-C levels and ATR. In the underweight group (BMI <18.5 kg/m), a higher LDL-C level was associated with an increased risk of AT and ATR by 37% and 116%, respectively, compared with lower LDL-C. Higher LDL-C level was associated with an increased risk of AT and ATR by 10% and 16%, respectively, in the obese group (BMI ≥25 kg/m).

Conclusion: Dyslipidemia was related to the development of AT and ATR. The association of higher LDL-C levels with AT and ATR risk was more pronounced in underweight than in overweight and obese individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/23259671211042599DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8524716PMC
October 2021

Extract Inhibits Invasive Activities and G1/S Transition of HT1080 Fibrosarcoma Cells.

Chonnam Med J 2021 Sep 24;57(3):185-190. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju, Korea.

is known to contain bioactive substances that exhibit beneficial effects in osteoporosis, gastric ulcers, hepatic damage, and pathologic angiogenesis. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of extract on the invasive activities and cell-cycle progression of human fibrosarcoma cells. Cytotoxicity of extract was assessed by MTT assay, in-vitro invasiveness of HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells was measured using matrigel assay, expression of invasion- and cell-cycle-related proteins was analyzed by western blot analysis, and that of E2F target genes was quantified using qRT-PCR. extract did not show distinct cytotoxicity in the experimental concentrations used. Invasiveness of HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells and expression of cyclin D1 and CDK4 in them were significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner after treatment with extract. extract showed inhibitory effects on the G1/S transition during cell-cycle progression; the active phosphorylated Rb protein level was decreased, and expression of E2F target genes was downregulated by the extract. Our data collectively demonstrated that extract exerts inhibitory effects on the invasiveness and cell-cycle progression of HT1080 human fibrosarcoma cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4068/cmj.2021.57.3.185DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8485087PMC
September 2021

Effect of Novel Bioactive Glass-Containing Dentin Adhesive on the Permeability of Demineralized Dentin.

Materials (Basel) 2021 Sep 19;14(18). Epub 2021 Sep 19.

Department of Conservative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02453, Korea.

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a novel bioactive glass (BAG)-containing dentin adhesive on the permeability of demineralized dentin. Bioactive glass (85% SiO, 15% CaO) was fabricated using the sol-gel process, and two experimental dentin adhesives were prepared with 3 wt% silica (silica-containing dentin adhesive; SCA) or BAG (BAG-containing dentin adhesive; BCA). Micro-tensile bond strength (μTBS) test, fracture mode analysis, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) analysis of adhesive and demineralized dentin, real-time dentinal fluid flow (DFF) rate measurement, and Raman confocal microscopy were performed to compare SCA and BCA. There was no difference in μTBS between the SCA and BCA ( > 0.05). Multiple precipitates were evident on the surface of the BCA, and partial occlusion of dentinal tubules was observed in FE-SEM of BCA-approximated dentin. The DFF rate was reduced by 50.10% after BCA approximation and increased by 6.54% after SCA approximation. Raman confocal spectroscopy revealed an increased intensity of the hydroxyapatite (HA) peak on the dentin surface after BCA application. The novel BAG-containing dentin adhesive showed the potential of both reducing dentin permeability and dentin remineralization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma14185423DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8465205PMC
September 2021

Antimicrobial Effect of Acetic Acid, Sodium Hypochlorite, and Thermal Treatments against Psychrotolerant Group Isolated from Lettuce ( L.).

Foods 2021 Sep 13;10(9). Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Food Analysis Center, Korea Research Institute, Wanju-gun 55365, Jeollabuk-do, Korea.

Various food products distributed throughout the cold chain can present a health risk for consumers due to the presence of psychrotolerant group species that possess enterotoxin genes and antibiotic resistance. As these bacteria can grow at the low temperatures used in the food industry, this study evaluated the antimicrobial efficacy of acetic acid, sodium hypochlorite, and thermal treatments for inhibition of psychrotolerant strains and the effect that differences in activation temperature (30 °C and 10 °C) have on their efficacy. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), and bacterial growth assay of acetic acid and thermal treatment showed an equal or higher antimicrobial efficacy in isolates activated at 10 °C than in those activated at 30 °C. In particular, psychrotolerant strains from the group were completely eliminated with 0.25% acetic acid, regardless of the activation temperature. The possibility of tolerance was determined by observing responses in cells activated at 10 and 30 °C when exposed to different concentrations of sodium hypochlorite. Five isolates activated at 10 °C exhibited enhanced survivability in sodium hypochlorite compared to isolates activated at 30 °C, and these isolates were able to grow in sodium hypochlorite at concentrations of 250 ppm or higher. Although a significant difference in antimicrobial efficacy was observed for psychrotolerant group strains depending on the activation temperature, acetic acid may be the most effective antimicrobial agent against psychrotolerant species isolated from food products distributed in a cold chain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10092165DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8467346PMC
September 2021

Familial risk and incidence of alopecia areata among first degree relatives-A nationwide population-based study in Korea.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2021 Nov 24;85(5):1360-1362. Epub 2020 Oct 24.

Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, Korea. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2020.10.063DOI Listing
November 2021

Usefulness of the prostate health index in predicting the presence and aggressiveness of prostate cancer among Korean men: a prospective observational study.

BMC Urol 2021 Sep 16;21(1):131. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Laboratory Medicine, Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, 1342 Dongil-ro, Nowon-gu, Seoul, 01757, Republic of Korea.

Background: We aimed to evaluate the usefulness of the Beckman Coulter prostate health index (PHI) and to compare it with total prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels and related derivatives in predicting the presence and aggressiveness of prostate cancer (PCa) in the Korean population.

Methods: A total of 140 men who underwent their first prostate biopsy for suspected PCa were included in this prospective observational study. The diagnostic performance of total PSA, free PSA, %free PSA, [-2] proPSA (p2PSA), %p2PSA, and PHI in detecting and predicting the aggressiveness of PCa was estimated using the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) and logistic multivariate regression analyses.

Results: Of 140 patients, PCa was detected in 63 (45%) of participants, and 48 (76.2%) of them had significant cancer with a Gleason score (GS) ≥ 7. In the whole group, the area under the curve (AUC) for ROC analysis of tPSA, free PSA, %fPSA, p2PSA, %p2PSA, and PHI were 0.63, 0.57, 0.69, 0.69, 0.72, and 0.76, respectively, and the AUC was significantly greater in the PHI group than in the tPSA group (p = 0.005). For PCa with GS ≥ 7, the AUCs for tPSA, free PSA, %fPSA, p2PSA, %p2PSA, and PHI were 0.62, 0.58, 0.41, 0.79, 0.86, and 0.87, respectively, and the AUC was significantly greater in the PHI group than in the tPSA group (p < 0.001). In the subgroup with tPSA 4-10 ng/mL, both %p2PSA and PHI were strong independent predictors for PCa (p = 0.007, p = 0.006) and significantly improved the predictive accuracy of a base multivariable model, including age, tPSA, fPSA and %fPSA, using multivariate logistic regression analysis. (p = 0.054, p = 0.048). Additionally, at a cutoff PHI value > 33.4, 22.9% (32/140) of biopsies could be avoided without missing any cases of aggressive cancer.

Conclusions: This study shows that %p2PSA and PHI are superior to total PSA and %fPSA in predicting the presence and aggressiveness (GS ≥ 7) of PCa among Korean men. Using PHI, a significant proportion of unnecessary biopsies can be avoided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12894-021-00897-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8447777PMC
September 2021

Synergic association of diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease with muscle loss and cachexia: results of a 16-year longitudinal follow-up of a community-based prospective cohort study.

Aging (Albany NY) 2021 09 16;13(18):21941-21961. Epub 2021 Sep 16.

Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Institute of Kidney Disease Research, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Muscle loss is a serious complication in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, studies on a long-term change in muscle mass presence or absence of DM and CKD are scarce. We included 6247 middle-aged adults from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES) between 2001 and 2016. Bioimpedance analysis (BIA) was performed biennially. Patients were classified into four groups according to the presence or absence of DM and CKD. The primary outcome was muscle depletion, which was defined as a decline in fat-free mass index (FFMI) below the 10th percentile of all subjects. The secondary outcomes included the occurrence of cachexia, all-cause mortality, and the slopes of changes in fat-free mass and weight. During 73,059 person-years of follow-up, muscle depletion and cachexia occurred in 460 (7.4%) and 210 (3.4%), respectively. In the multivariable cause-specific hazards model, the risk of muscle depletion was significantly higher in subjects with DM alone than in those without DM and CKD (HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.04-1.80) and was strongly pronounced in subjects with both conditions (HR, 3.38; 95% CI, 1.30-8.75). The secondary outcome analysis showed consistent results. The annual decline rates in FFMI, fat mass, and body mass index (BMI) were the steepest in subjects with DM and CKD among the four groups. DM and CKD are synergically associated with muscle loss over time. In addition, the mortality risk is higher in individuals with muscle loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/aging.203539DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8507303PMC
September 2021

Macrophage targeted theranostic strategy for accurate detection and rapid stabilization of the inflamed high-risk plaque.

Theranostics 2021 18;11(18):8874-8893. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Multimodal Imaging and Theranostic Lab., Cardiovascular Center, Korea University Guro Hospital, Seoul, South Korea.

Inflammation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of the acute coronary syndrome. Detecting plaques with high inflammatory activity and specifically treating those lesions can be crucial to prevent life-threatening cardiovascular events. Here, we developed a macrophage mannose receptor (MMR)-targeted theranostic nanodrug (mannose-polyethylene glycol-glycol chitosan-deoxycholic acid-cyanine 7-lobeglitazone; MMR-Lobe-Cy) designed to identify inflammatory activity as well as to deliver peroxisome proliferator-activated gamma (PPARγ) agonist, lobeglitazone, specifically to high-risk plaques based on the high mannose receptor specificity. The MMR-Lobe-Cy was intravenously injected into balloon-injured atheromatous rabbits and serial optical coherence tomography (OCT)-near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) structural-molecular imaging was performed. One week after MMR-Lobe-Cy administration, the inflammatory NIRF signals in the plaques notably decreased compared to the baseline whereas the signals in saline controls even increased over time. In accordance with imaging findings, NIRF signals on fluorescence reflectance imaging (FRI) and plaque inflammation by immunostainings significantly decreased compared to oral lobeglitazone group or saline controls. The anti-inflammatory effect of MMR-Lobe-Cy was mediated by inhibition of TLR4/NF-κB pathway. Furthermore, acute resolution of inflammation altered the inflamed plaque into a stable phenotype with less macrophages and collagen-rich matrix. Macrophage targeted PPARγ activator labeled with NIRF rapidly stabilized the inflamed plaques in coronary sized artery, which could be quantitatively assessed using intravascular OCT-NIRF imaging. This novel theranostic approach provides a promising theranostic strategy for high-risk coronary plaques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/thno.59759DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8419038PMC
August 2021

Effects of high versus low inspiratory oxygen fraction on postoperative clinical outcomes in patients undergoing surgery under general anesthesia: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

J Clin Anesth 2021 Dec 11;75:110461. Epub 2021 Sep 11.

Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address:

Objectives: To determine whether high perioperative inspired oxygen fraction (FiO) compared with low FiO has more deleterious postoperative clinical outcomes in patients undergoing non-thoracic surgery under general anesthesia.

Design: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Setting: Operating room, postoperative recovery room and surgical ward.

Patients: Surgical patients under general anesthesia.

Intervention: High perioperative FiO (≥0.8) vs. low FiO (≤0.5).

Measurements: The primary outcome was mortality within 30 days. Secondary outcomes were pulmonary outcomes (atelectasis, pneumonia, respiratory failure, postoperative pulmonary complications [PPCs], and postoperative oxygen parameters), intensive care unit (ICU) admissions, and length of hospital stay. A subgroup analysis was performed to explore the treatment effect by body mass index (BMI).

Main Results: Twenty-six trials with a total 4991 patients were studied. The mortality in the high FiO group did not differ from that in the low FiO group (risk ratio [RR] 0.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.42-1.97, P = 0.810). Nor were there any significant differences between the groups in such outcomes as pneumonia (RR 1.19, 95% CI 0.74-1.92, P = 0.470), respiratory failure (RR 1.29, 95% CI 0.82-2.04, P = 0.270), PPCs (RR 1.05, 95% CI 0.69-1.59, P = 0.830), ICU admission (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.55-1.60, P = 0.810), and length of hospital stay (mean difference [MD] 0.27 d, 95% CI -0.28-0.81, P = 0.340). The high FiO was associated with postoperative atelectasis more often (risk ratio 1.27, 95% CI 1.00-1.62, P = 0.050), and lower postoperative arterial partial oxygen pressure (MD -5.03 mmHg, 95% CI -7.90- -2.16, P < 0.001) In subgroup analysis of BMI >30 kg/m, these parameters were similarly affected between the groups.

Conclusions: The use of high FiO compared to low FiO did not affect the short-term mortality, although it may increase the incidence of atelectasis in adult, non-thoracic patients undergoing surgical procedures. Nor were there any significant differences in other secondary outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinane.2021.110461DOI Listing
December 2021

Familial Risk and Its Interaction With Body Mass Index and Physical Activity in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury Among First-Degree Relatives: A Population-Based Cohort Study.

Am J Sports Med 2021 10 7;49(12):3312-3321. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Genetic and behavioral risk factors have been suggested to play a role in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. However, population-based familial risk estimates are unavailable.

Purpose: To quantify familial risk of ACL injury among first-degree relatives (FDRs) after controlling for certain behavioral risk factors. To estimate the combined effect of family history and body mass index (BMI) or physical activity on the risk of ACL injury.

Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3.

Methods: Using nationwide data from the Korean National Health Insurance and National Health Screening Program databases on kinship, lifestyle habits, and anthropometrics, 5,184,603 individuals with blood-related FDRs were identified from 2002 to 2018. Familial risk of ACL injury, as represented as incidence risk ratios (IRRs) with 95% CIs, was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards models among individuals with versus without affected FDRs. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, and behavioral risk factors. Interaction testing between familial history and BMI or physical activity was performed on an additive scale.

Results: The risk of ACL injury was 1.79-fold higher (IRR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.73-1.85) among individuals with versus without affected FDRs, and the incidence was 12.61 per 10,000 person-years. The IRR (95% CI) was highest with affected twins at 4.49 (3.01-6.69), followed by siblings at 2.31 (2.19-2.44), the father at 1.58 (1.49-1.68), and the mother at 1.52 (1.44-1.61). High BMI and high level of physical activity were significantly associated with the risk of ACL injury. Individuals with positive family history and either high BMI or physical activity had a 2.59- and 2.45-fold increased risk of injury as compared with the general population, respectively, and the combined risks exceeded the sum of their independent risks.

Conclusion: Familial factors are risk factors for ACL injury with an additional contribution of 2 behavioral factors: BMI and physical activity level. A significant interaction was observed between family history of ACL injury and high BMI/level of physical activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/03635465211032643DOI Listing
October 2021

Contribution of Extracellular Matrix Component Landscapes in the Adult Subventricular Zone to the Positioning of Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells.

Exp Neurobiol 2021 Aug;30(4):275-284

Department of Anatomy, College of Medicine, Korea University, Seoul 02841, Korea.

Neurogenesis persists in restricted regions of the adult brain, including the subventricular zone (SVZ). Adult neural stem cells (NSCs) in the SVZ proliferate and give rise to new neurons and glial cells depending on intrinsic and environmental cues. Among the multiple factors that contribute to the chemical, physical, and mechanical components of the neurogenic niche, we focused on the composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) of vasculature and fractones in the SVZ. The SVZ consists of ECM-rich blood vessels and fractones during development and adulthood, and adult neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PCs) preferentially attach to the laminin-rich basal lamina. To examine the ECM preference of adult NS/PCs, we designed a competition assay using cell micropatterning. Although both laminin and collagen type IV, which are the main components of basal lamina, act as physical scaffolds, adult NS/PCs preferred to adhere to laminin over collagen type IV. Interestingly, the ECM preference of adult NS/PCs could be manipulated by chemokines such as stromal-derived factor 1 (SDF1) and α6 integrin. As SDF1 re-routes NSCs and their progenitors toward the injury site after brain damage, these results suggest that the alteration in ECM preferences may provide a molecular basis for contextdependent NS/PC positioning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5607/en21012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8424380PMC
August 2021

Dynamics of marine bacterial biofouling communities after initial Alteromonas genovensis biofilm attachment to anti-fouling paint substrates.

Mar Pollut Bull 2021 Nov 26;172:112895. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Library of Marine Samples, Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology, Geoje 53201, Republic of Korea; Department of Ocean Science, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon 34113, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

To determine how bacterial communities succeed after the initial attachment of the bacterial biofilm adhesion using 16S rDNA meta-barcoding in plates coated with copper-based anti-fouling (AF) and non-AF (control) coatings as well as ambient seawater, coated plates were submerged in a marine environment in situ. Alteromonas genovensis (Gammaproteobacteria) in AF coating and Pacificibacter sp. (Alphaproteobacteria) in the control plate were initially abundant. In the AF coating, the abundance of A. genovensis decreased rapidly, whereas that of genus Phaeobacter (Alphaproteobacteria), Serratia (Gammaproteobacteria) and Cupriavidus (Betaproteobacteria) increased. Bacterial community in the control plate had a strong connection to pathogenic Vibrio spp. associated with the growth of invertebrates. Therefore, in the in situ AF coating experiment, A. genovensis accumulation was initially and intensively increased, and the bacteria responded to chemical antagonism, induced the proliferation of specific biofilm bacteria and influenced the interactions and recruitment of additional bacterial communities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2021.112895DOI Listing
November 2021

Editor's Choice - Paclitaxel Coated Balloon Angioplasty vs. Plain Balloon Angioplasty for Haemodialysis Arteriovenous Access Stenosis: A Systematic Review and a Time to Event Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Trials.

Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg 2021 10 20;62(4):597-609. Epub 2021 Aug 20.

Department of Surgery, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address:

Objective: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) was performed to determine the effectiveness and safety of drug coated balloon (DCB) angioplasty compared with uncoated plain balloon (PB) angioplasty in treating arteriovenous access stenosis.

Methods: MEDLINE, Embase, Scopus, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for RCTs comparing paclitaxel coated DCB and PB angioplasty for arteriovenous access stenosis. The last date of the literature search was 31 December 2020. Risk of bias of the retrieved studies was assessed with the Cochrane Collaboration tool for assessing risk of bias (RoB 2.0). The random effects model was used to estimate the risk of loss of target lesion patency (six and 12 months) and circuit patency (six and 12 months). Procedure related adverse events and mortality rate were also compared. Patency results were pooled using the time to event meta-analytical method and the quality of evidence was assessed according to the GRADE approach.

Results: Sixteen eligible trials, including 1 682 lesions, were included in the quantitative analysis for the efficacy and safety of paclitaxel coated DCBs. DCBs were associated with a lower risk of loss of target lesion patency at six months (HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.42 - 0.66) and 12 months (HR 0.60, 95% CI 0.47 - 0.76), and were also associated with improved six and 12 month circuit patency. Overall quality of evidence was moderate to low. Procedural complications were rare, and the risk of death up to 12 months was similar between the two groups (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.68 - 1.56).

Conclusion: Paclitaxel coated DCBs reduced the risk of loss of target lesion patency and circuit patency in arteriovenous access stenosis compared with PBs. Considering the heterogeneity of the included trials, there is a need to investigate optimal treatment regimens regarding drug dose and agent of the DCB and the treatment procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejvs.2021.05.043DOI Listing
October 2021

Formulation and stability of horse oil-in-water emulsion by HLB system.

Food Sci Biotechnol 2021 Jul 16;30(7):931-938. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Food Bioengineering, Jeju National University, 102 Jejudaehakno, Jeju, 63243 Korea.

Optimal condition was determined to prepare horse oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion stabilized by different HLB system. Span 60 and Tween 60 were used to achieve the predetermined HLB values ranging from 10 to 14 and the surfactant concentrations were adjusted to 10-20%. Fifteen formulated O/W emulsions were characterized by mean particle diameter, zeta-potential (ZP), polydispersity index, and encapsulation efficiency (EE, %). Mean particle diameter decreased with increasing HLB value and surfactant concentration. Particles of the emulsion with HLB 12 and surfactant concentration at 15% were distributed in the size of below 500 nm. The particle diameter and EE (%) of the emulsion with HLB 11 or 12 and surfactant concentration at 15 or 20% were not significantly changed during storage at 40 °C for 15 days. These results suggest the characteristics of horse oil O/W emulsion are dependent on HLB values and surfactant concentration so that affect to emulsion properties during storage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10068-021-00934-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8302701PMC
July 2021

Efficacy of non-sedating H1-receptor antihistamines in adults and adolescents with chronic cough: A systematic review.

World Allergy Organ J 2021 Aug 21;14(8):100568. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Department of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Airway Sensation and Cough Research Laboratory, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: Nasal symptoms frequently coexist in patients with chronic cough, and non-sedating H1-receptor antihistamines (nsH1RAs) are often prescribed for cough management in several countries. However, recommendations on the use of nsH1RAs vary among chronic cough guidelines. This study aimed to examine the efficacy of nsH1RAs over placebos in adolescents or adults with chronic cough or allergic respiratory conditions that may present as chronic cough.

Methods: Electronic databases were searched for studies published until November 2020. Randomized placebo-controlled trials of nsH1RAs reporting cough endpoints in adolescents or adults with chronic cough or cough-associated allergic respiratory conditions (allergic rhinitis, allergic asthma, or atopic cough) were included.

Results: A total of 10 placebo-controlled trials were identified. Three studies (one study each involving allergic rhinitis, allergic rhinitis with comorbid asthma, and atopic cough) described baseline and post-treatment cough scores, and all reported significant improvements in subjective cough scores; however, the magnitude of improvement was greater in the 2 studies of patients with atopic cough (relative improvement in cough frequency score: -36.6 ± 8.4%) or seasonal allergic rhinitis-associated cough (cough frequency score: -44.0 ± 7.3% and cough intensity score: -65.7 ± 8.3%) than in the 1 study of allergic rhinitis patients with comorbid asthma (-4.0 ± 1.3%). Meanwhile, the other 7 trials found conflicting results but lacked information on the baseline cough score and did not use validated cough measurement tools; thus, their clinical relevance could not be determined.

Conclusion: Despite the widespread use of nsH1RAs in patients with chronic cough, only a few clinical trials examining their benefits on cough outcomes have been conducted. There may be a subgroup of patients, particularly those with seasonal allergic rhinitis-associated cough or atopic cough, whose cough may improve with nsH1RA treatment. However, adequately powered trials with validated cough measurement tools are warranted to confirm the role of nsH1RAs in the management of patients with allergic phenotypes of chronic cough.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.waojou.2021.100568DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8322120PMC
August 2021

Oral cyclophosphamide-induced posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in a patient with ANCA-associated vasculitis: A case report.

World J Clin Cases 2021 Jul;9(21):6130-6137

Internal Medicine, Gyeongsang National University Hospital, Jinju 52727, South Korea.

Background: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) manifests many neurological symptoms with typical features on neuroimaging studies and has various risk factors. Cyclophosphamide is one of the therapeutic agents for anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis. Cyclophosphamide as the sole cause of PRES has been reported in only a few cases. Herein, we report a unique case of early-onset oral cyclophosphamide-induced PRES in a patient with ANCA-associated vasculitis.

Case Summary: A 73-year-old man was transferred to our hospital for sepsis due to acute cholangitis. He had already received hemodialysis for two weeks due to septic acute kidney injury. His azotemia was not improved after sepsis resolved and perinuclear-ANCA was positive. Kidney biopsy showed crescentic glomerulonephritis. Alveolar hemorrhage was observed on bronchoscopy. He was initially treated with intravenous methylprednisolone and plasma exchange for one week. And then, two days after adding oral cyclophosphamide, the patient developed generalized tonic-clonic seizures. We diagnosed PRES by Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and electroencephalography. Seizures were controlled with fosphenytoin 750 mg. Cyclophosphamide was suspected to be the cause of PRES and withdrawal. His mentality was recovered after seven days and brain MRI showed normal state after two weeks.

Conclusion: The present case shows the possibility of PRES induction due to short-term use of oral cyclophosphamide therapy. Physicians should carefully monitor neurologic symptoms after oral cyclophosphamide administration in elderly patients with underlying diseases like sepsis, renal failure and ANCA-associated vasculitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12998/wjcc.v9.i21.6130DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8316926PMC
July 2021

2021 Clinical Practice Guidelines for Diabetes Mellitus of the Korean Diabetes Association.

Diabetes Metab J 2021 07 30;45(4):461-481. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seongnam, Korea.

The Committee of Clinical Practice Guidelines of the Korean Diabetes Association (KDA) updated the previous clinical practice guidelines for Korean adults with diabetes and prediabetes and published the seventh edition in May 2021. We performed a comprehensive systematic review of recent clinical trials and evidence that could be applicable in real-world practice and suitable for the Korean population. The guideline is provided for all healthcare providers including physicians, diabetes experts, and certified diabetes educators across the country who manage patients with diabetes or the individuals at the risk of developing diabetes mellitus. The recommendations for screening diabetes and glucose-lowering agents have been revised and updated. New sections for continuous glucose monitoring, insulin pump use, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in patients with diabetes mellitus have been added. The KDA recommends active vaccination for coronavirus disease 2019 in patients with diabetes during the pandemic. An abridgement that contains practical information for patient education and systematic management in the clinic was published separately.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4093/dmj.2021.0156DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8369224PMC
July 2021
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