Publications by authors named "Hyo-Jong Lee"

86 Publications

Humulene Inhibits Acute Gastric Mucosal Injury by Enhancing Mucosal Integrity.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 May 11;10(5). Epub 2021 May 11.

Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, College of Pharmacy and Inje, Inje University, 607 Obang-dong, Gimhae 621749, Korea.

This study was designed to determine whether α-humulene, a major constituent in many plants used in fragrances, has a protective role against gastric injury in vivo and in vitro. A rat model of hydrochloric acid (HCl)/ethanol-induced gastritis and human mast cells (HMC-1) were used to investigate the mucosal protective effect of α-humulene. α-Humulene significantly inhibited gastric lesions in HCl/ethanol-induced acute gastritis and decreased gastric acid secretion pyloric ligation-induced gastric ulcers in vivo. In addition, α-humulene reduced the amount of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde through upregulation of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). In HMC-1 cells, α-humulene decreased intracellular calcium and increased intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels, resulting in low histamine levels. α-Humulene also reduced the expression levels of cytokine genes such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) by downregulating nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) nuclear translocation. Finally, α-humulene upregulated the expression levels of mucin 5AC (Muc5ac), Muc6, trefoil factor 1 (Tff1), trefoil factor 2 (Tff2), and polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pigr). α-Humulene may attenuate HCl/ethanol-induced gastritis by inhibiting histamine release and NF-κB activation and stimulating antioxidants and mucosal protective factors, particularly Muc5ac and Muc6. Therefore, these data suggest that α-humulene is a potential drug candidate for the treatment of stress-induced or alcoholic gastritis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox10050761DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8150829PMC
May 2021

Enhanced anti-angiogenic activity of novel melatonin-like agents.

J Pineal Res 2021 Aug 13;71(1):e12739. Epub 2021 May 13.

School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Gyeonggi-do, Korea.

Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) plays an important role in cellular responses to hypoxia, including the transcriptional activation of several genes involved in tumor angiogenesis. Melatonin, also known as N-acetyl-5-methopxytryptamine, is produced naturally by the pineal gland and has anti-angiogenic effects in cancer through its ability to modulate HIF-1α activity. However, the use of melatonin as a therapeutic is limited by its low oral bioavailability and short half-life. Here, we synthesized melatonin-like molecules with enhanced HIF-1α targeting activity and less toxicity and investigated their effects on tumor growth and angiogenesis, as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms. Among melatonin derivatives, N-butyryl-5-methoxytryptamine (NB-5-MT) showed the most potent HIF-1α targeting activity. This molecule was able to (a) reduce the expression of HIF-1α at the protein level, (b) reduce the transcription of HIF-1α target genes, (c) reduce reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, (d) decrease angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo, and (e) suppress tumor size and metastasis. In addition, NB-5-MT showed improved anti-angiogenic activity compared with melatonin due to its enhanced cellular uptake. NB-5-MT is thus a promising lead for the future development of anticancer compounds with HIF-1α targeting activity. Given that HIF-1α is overexpressed in the majority of human cancers, the melatonin derivative NB-5-MT could represent a novel potent therapeutic agent for cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpi.12739DOI Listing
August 2021

Phaseolin Attenuates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammation in RAW 264.7 Cells and Zebrafish.

Biomedicines 2021 Apr 13;9(4). Epub 2021 Apr 13.

School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, 2066 Seobu-ro, Jangan-gu, Suwon 16419, Gyeonggi-do, Korea.

Kushen (Radix ) is used to treat ulcerative colitis, tumors, and pruritus. Recently, phaseolin, formononetin, matrine, luteolin, and quercetin, through a network pharmacology approach, were tentatively identified as five bioactive constituents responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of . However, the role of phaseolin (one of the primary components of ) in the direct regulation of inflammation and inflammatory processes is not well known. In this study, the beneficial role of phaseolin against inflammation was explored in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation models of RAW 264.7 macrophages and zebrafish larvae. Phaseolin inhibited LPS-mediated production of nitric oxide (NO) and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), without affecting cell viability. In addition, phaseolin suppressed pro-inflammatory mediators such as cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, phaseolin reduced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity as well as macrophage adhesion in vitro and the recruitment of leukocytes in vivo by downregulating Ninjurin 1 (Ninj1), an adhesion molecule. Finally, phaseolin inhibited the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). In view of the above, our results suggest that phaseolin could be a potential therapeutic candidate for the management of inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines9040420DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8069760PMC
April 2021

A Novel Upsampling and Context Convolution for Image Semantic Segmentation.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Mar 20;21(6). Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Division of Computer Science and Engineering, CAIIT, Jeonbuk National University, Jeonju 54896, Korea.

Semantic segmentation, which refers to pixel-wise classification of an image, is a fundamental topic in computer vision owing to its growing importance in the robot vision and autonomous driving sectors. It provides rich information about objects in the scene such as object boundary, category, and location. Recent methods for semantic segmentation often employ an encoder-decoder structure using deep convolutional neural networks. The encoder part extracts features of the image using several filters and pooling operations, whereas the decoder part gradually recovers the low-resolution feature maps of the encoder into a full input resolution feature map for pixel-wise prediction. However, the encoder-decoder variants for semantic segmentation suffer from severe spatial information loss, caused by pooling operations or stepwise convolutions, and does not consider the context in the scene. In this paper, we propose a novel dense upsampling convolution method based on a guided filter to effectively preserve the spatial information of the image in the network. We further propose a novel local context convolution method that not only covers larger-scale objects in the scene but covers them densely for precise object boundary delineation. Theoretical analyses and experimental results on several benchmark datasets verify the effectiveness of our method. Qualitatively, our approach delineates object boundaries at a level of accuracy that is beyond the current excellent methods. Quantitatively, we report a new record of 82.86% and 81.62% of pixel accuracy on ADE20K and Pascal-Context benchmark datasets, respectively. In comparison with the state-of-the-art methods, the proposed method offers promising improvements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21062170DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8003770PMC
March 2021

RGS2-mediated translational control mediates cancer cell dormancy and tumor relapse.

J Clin Invest 2021 Jan;131(1)

Creative Research Initiative Center for Concurrent Control of Emphysema and Lung Cancer, College of Pharmacy.

Slow-cycling/dormant cancer cells (SCCs) have pivotal roles in driving cancer relapse and drug resistance. A mechanistic explanation for cancer cell dormancy and therapeutic strategies targeting SCCs are necessary to improve patient prognosis, but are limited because of technical challenges to obtaining SCCs. Here, by applying proliferation-sensitive dyes and chemotherapeutics to non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and patient-derived xenografts, we identified a distinct SCC subpopulation that resembled SCCs in patient tumors. These SCCs displayed major dormancy-like phenotypes and high survival capacity under hostile microenvironments through transcriptional upregulation of regulator of G protein signaling 2 (RGS2). Database analysis revealed RGS2 as a biomarker of retarded proliferation and poor prognosis in NSCLC. We showed that RGS2 caused prolonged translational arrest in SCCs through persistent eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2α) phosphorylation via proteasome-mediated degradation of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4). Translational activation through RGS2 antagonism or the use of phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors, including sildenafil (Viagra), promoted ER stress-induced apoptosis in SCCs in vitro and in vivo under stressed conditions, such as those induced by chemotherapy. Our results suggest that a low-dose chemotherapy and translation-instigating pharmacological intervention in combination is an effective strategy to prevent tumor progression in NSCLC patients after rigorous chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI136779DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7773398PMC
January 2021

Identification of differentially expressed genes in mouse embryonic stem cell under hypoxia.

Genes Genomics 2021 Apr 22;43(4):313-321. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

College of Pharmacy and Inje Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Inje University, 197 Inje-ro, Gimhae, Gyungnam, 50834, South Korea.

Background: Under hypoxia, mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs) lose the ability to self-renew and begin to differentiate through down-regulation of LIFR-STAT3 pathway via hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). However, it remains largely unknown what kinds of factors are involved in hypoxia-induced differentiation of mESCs.

Purpose: This study aims to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in early differentiation of mESCs under hypoxia.

Methods: Here we utilized a Genefishing technique to discover the new DEGs during hypoxia-induced early differentiation in CCE mESCs. Next, we investigated the role of DEGs using morphological observation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay, STAT3 activation analysis, and biomarkers analysis for stemness.

Results: We detected 19 DEGs under hypoxia and performed cloning with sequencing in six genes. We confirmed the expression patterns of five DEGs including H2afz and GOT1 by realtime PCR assay. Among them, H2afz was significantly decreased under hypoxia, depending on HIF-1α. H2afz-overexpressing CCE mESCs maintained their ALP activity and stem cell markers (Nanog and Rex1), even in hypoxic condition. On the other hand, the early differentiation markers such as FGF5 and STAT5a, which had been increased in hypoxic conditions, were reduced by H2afz overexpression.

Conclusion: We discovered that H2afz could be a new target gene that functions in hypoxia-induced differentiation in mESCs and have revealed that it is involved in maintaining the pluripotency of mESCs in the early stages of differentiation. These findings will provide insights into mechanisms of hypoxia-mediated differentiation of mESCs during early development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13258-020-01009-4DOI Listing
April 2021

Deep Global Features for Point Cloud Alignment.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Jul 20;20(14). Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Division of Computer Science and Engineering, Jeonbuk National University, Jeonju 54896, Korea.

Point cloud registration is a key problem in computer vision applications and involves finding a rigid transform from a point cloud into another such that they align together. The iterative closest point (ICP) method is a simple and effective solution that converges to a local optimum. However, despite the fact that point cloud registration or alignment is addressed in learning-based methods, such as PointNetLK, they do not offer good generalizability for point clouds. In this stud, we proposed a learning-based approach that addressed existing problems, such as finding local optima for ICP and achieving minimum generalizability. The proposed model consisted of three main parts: an encoding network, an auxiliary module that weighed the contribution of each input point cloud, and feature alignment to achieve the final transform. The proposed architecture offered greater generalization among the categories. Experiments were performed on ModelNet40 with different configurations and the results indicated that the proposed approach significantly outperformed the state-of-the-art point cloud alignment methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20144032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7411762PMC
July 2020

The ATF6-EGF Pathway Mediates the Awakening of Slow-Cycling Chemoresistant Cells and Tumor Recurrence by Stimulating Tumor Angiogenesis.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 2;12(7). Epub 2020 Jul 2.

Creative Research Initiative Center for concurrent control of emphysema and lung cancer, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826, Korea.

Slow-cycling cancer cells (SCCs) with a quiescence-like phenotype are believed to perpetrate cancer relapse and progression. However, the mechanisms that mediate SCC-derived tumor recurrence are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the mechanisms underlying cancer recurrence after chemotherapy, focusing on the interplay between SCCs and the tumor microenvironment. We established a preclinical model of SCCs by exposing non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells to either the proliferation-dependent dye carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) or chemotherapeutic drugs. An RNA sequencing analysis revealed that the established SCCs exhibited the upregulation of a group of genes, especially epidermal growth factor (EGF). Increases in the number of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-positive vascular endothelial cells and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation were found in NSCLC cell line- and patient-derived xenograft tumors that progressed upon chemotherapy. EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors effectively suppressed the migration and tube formation of vascular endothelial cells. Furthermore, activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) induced the upregulation of EGF, and its antagonism effectively suppressed these SCC-mediated events and inhibited tumor recurrence after chemotherapy. These results suggest that the ATF6-EGF signaling axis in SCCs functions to trigger the angiogenesis switch in residual tumors after chemotherapy and is thus a driving force for the switch from SCCs to actively cycling cancer cells, leading to tumor recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071772DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7407555PMC
July 2020

Fluorinated CRA13 analogues: Synthesis, in vitro evaluation, radiosynthesis, in silico and in vivo PET study.

Bioorg Chem 2020 06 10;99:103834. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

Medicinal Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea; Department of Life and Nanopharmaceutical Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea; KHU-KIST Department of Converging Science and Technology, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Fluorine is a unique atom that imparts distinct properties to bioactive molecules upon incorporation. Herein, we prepare and study fluorinated derivatives of the nanomolar affine peripherally restricted dual CBR/CBR agonist; CRA13 and its analogs. Binding affinity evaluation relative to CRA13 proved the stronger binding affinity of compound 7c to CBR and CBR by 6.95 and 5.64 folds. Physicochemical properties evaluation proved compound 7c improved lipophilicity profile suggesting some enhanced BBB penetration relative to CRA13. Radiosynthesis of F-labeled compound 7c was conducted conveniently affording pure hot ligand. In vivo PET study investigation demonstrated efficient distribution of F-labeled compound 7c in peripheral tissues visualizing peripheral CBR/CBR generating time-activity-curves showing good standard uptake values. Despite enhanced BBB penetration and increased cannabinoid receptors binding affinity, low brain uptake of 7c was observed. In silico docking study explained the measured binding affinities of compounds 7a-d to CBR. While most of previous efforts aimed to develop central cannabinoid PET imaging agents, F-labeled compound 7c might be a promising agent serving as a universal CBR/CBR PET imaging agents for diagnosis and therapy of various diseases correlated with peripheral cannabinoid system. It might also serve as a lead compound for development of PET imaging of peripheral and central cannabinoid systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2020.103834DOI Listing
June 2020

The Interplay between Slow-Cycling, Chemoresistant Cancer Cells and Fibroblasts Creates a Proinflammatory Niche for Tumor Progression.

Cancer Res 2020 06 19;80(11):2257-2272. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Creative Research Initiative Center for Concurrent Control of Emphysema and Lung Cancer, College of Pharmacy, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Quiescent cancer cells are believed to cause cancer progression after chemotherapy through unknown mechanisms. We show here that human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line-derived, quiescent-like, slow-cycling cancer cells (SCC) and residual patient-derived xenograft (PDX) tumors after chemotherapy experience activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6)-mediated upregulation of various cytokines, which acts in a paracrine manner to recruit fibroblasts. Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) underwent transcriptional upregulation of COX2 and type I collagen (Col-I), which subsequently triggered a slow-to-active cycling switch in SCC through prostaglandin E (PGE)- and integrin/Src-mediated signaling pathways, leading to cancer progression. Both antagonism of ATF6 and cotargeting of Src/COX2 effectively suppressed cytokine production and slow-to-active cell cycling transition in SCC, withholding cancer progression. Expression of COX2 and Col-I and activation of Src were observed in patients with NSCLC who progressed while receiving chemotherapy. Public data analysis revealed significant association between and expression and NSCLC relapse. Overall, these findings indicate that a proinflammatory niche created by the interplay between SCC and CAF triggers tumor progression. SIGNIFICANCE: Cotargeting COX2 and Src may be an effective strategy to prevent cancer progression after chemotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-19-0631DOI Listing
June 2020

Critical roles of ARHGAP36 as a signal transduction mediator of Shh pathway in lateral motor columnar specification.

Elife 2019 07 15;8. Epub 2019 Jul 15.

College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

During spinal cord development, Sonic hedgehog (Shh), secreted from the floor plate, plays an important role in the production of motor neurons by patterning the ventral neural tube, which establishes MN progenitor identity. It remains unknown, however, if Shh signaling plays a role in generating columnar diversity of MNs that connect distinct target muscles. Here, we report that Shh, expressed in MNs, is essential for the formation of lateral motor column (LMC) neurons in vertebrate spinal cord. This novel activity of Shh is mediated by its downstream effector ARHGAP36, whose expression is directly induced by the MN-specific transcription factor complex Isl1-Lhx3. Furthermore, we found that AKT stimulates the Shh activity to induce LMC MNs through the stabilization of ARHGAP36 proteins. Taken together, our data reveal that Shh, secreted from MNs, plays a crucial role in generating MN diversity via a regulatory axis of Shh-AKT-ARHGAP36 in the developing mouse spinal cord.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.46683DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6658197PMC
July 2019

Synthesis of arbutin-gold nanoparticle complexes and their enhanced performance for whitening.

Arch Pharm Res 2019 Nov 29;42(11):977-989. Epub 2019 May 29.

College of Pharmacy and Inje Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Inje University, 197 Inje-ro, Gimhae, Gyungnam, 50834, South Korea.

Arbutin, a natural polyphenol, possesses numerous biological activities including whitening, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory activities, as well as strong reducing power, making it an ideal bioactive ingredient for preparing gold nanoparticles (GNPs). Previously, we developed a novel green, mild synthetic method for GNPs using glycosides such as arbutin as reducing agents and stabilizers. Herein, we optimized the synthetic method for glycoside-GNPs using arbutin, methyl β-D-glucoside, and phenyl β-D-glucoside and validated their whitening efficacy in vitro and in vivo. The resulting glycoside-GNPs were predominantly mono-dispersed and spherical (10.30-17.13 nm diameter). Compared with arbutin itself, arbutin-GNP complexes (GNP-A1 and GNP-P2) displayed enhanced whitening capabilities. Furthermore, GNP-P2 exhibited enhanced anti-inflammatory activity and lacked the toxicity associated with arbutin. Bioactive glycoside-GNP complexes may open new directions for cosmeceuticals, and GNP-P2 may serve as a useful whitening ingredient in future cosmeceutical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12272-019-01164-7DOI Listing
November 2019

N-BiC: A Method for Multi-Component and Symptom Biclustering of Structural MRI Data: Application to Schizophrenia.

IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2020 01 1;67(1):110-121. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Objective: We propose and develop a novel biclustering (N-BiC) approach for performing N-way biclustering of neuroimaging data. Our approach is applicable to an arbitrary number of features from both imaging and behavioral data (e.g., symptoms). We applied it to structural MRI data from patients with schizophrenia.

Methods: It uses a source-based morphometry approach [i.e., independent component analysis of gray matter segmentation maps] to decompose the data into a set of spatial maps, each of which includes regions that covary among individuals. Then, the loading parameters for components of interest are entered to an exhaustive search, which incorporates a modified depth-first search technique to carry out the biclustering, with the goal of obtaining submatrices where the selected rows (individuals) show homogeneity in their expressions of selected columns (components) and vice versa.

Results: Findings demonstrate that multiple biclusters have an evident association with distinct brain networks for the different types of symptoms in schizophrenia. The study identifies two components: inferior temporal gyrus (16) and brainstem (7), which are related to positive (distortion/excess of normal function) and negative (diminution/loss of normal function) symptoms in schizophrenia, respectively.

Conclusion: N-BiC is a data-driven method of biclustering MRI data that can exhaustively explore relationships/substructures from a dataset without any prior information with a higher degree of robustness than earlier biclustering applications.

Significance: The use of such approaches is important to investigate the underlying biological substrates of mental illness by grouping patients into homogeneous subjects, as the schizophrenia diagnosis is known to be relatively nonspecific and heterogeneous.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TBME.2019.2908815DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7906485PMC
January 2020

Protective Effects of Nargenicin A1 against Tacrolimus-Induced Oxidative Stress in Hirame Natural Embryo Cells.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 03 22;16(6). Epub 2019 Mar 22.

Department of Biochemistry, Dong-eui University College of Korean Medicine, Busan 47227, Korea.

Tacrolimus is widely used as an immunosuppressant to reduce the risk of rejection after organ transplantation, but its cytotoxicity is problematic. Nargenicin A1 is an antibiotic extracted from and is known to have antioxidant activity, though its mode of action is unknown. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effects of nargenicin A1 on DNA damage and apoptosis induced by tacrolimus in hirame natural embryo (HINAE) cells. We found that reduced HINAE cell survival by tacrolimus was due to the induction of DNA damage and apoptosis, both of which were prevented by co-treating nargenicin A1 or N-acetyl-l-cysteine, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, with tacrolimus. In addition, apoptosis induction by tacrolimus was accompanied by increases in ROS generation and decreases in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels caused by mitochondrial dysfunction, and these changes were significantly attenuated in the presence of nargenicin A1, which further indicated tacrolimus-induced apoptosis involved an oxidative stress-associated mechanism. Furthermore, nargenicin A1 suppressed tacrolimus-induced B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) down-regulation, Bax up-regulation, and caspase-3 activation. Collectively, these results demonstrate that nargenicin A1 protects HINAE cells against tacrolimus-induced DNA damage and apoptosis, at least in part, by scavenging ROS and thus suppressing the mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16061044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6466173PMC
March 2019

Real-Time Vehicle Make and Model Recognition with the Residual SqueezeNet Architecture.

Sensors (Basel) 2019 Feb 26;19(5). Epub 2019 Feb 26.

School of Electrics and Electronic Engineering, Shanghai University of Engineering Science, Shanghai 201620, China.

Make and model recognition (MMR) of vehicles plays an important role in automatic vision-based systems. This paper proposes a novel deep learning approach for MMR using the SqueezeNet architecture. The frontal views of vehicle images are first extracted and fed into a deep network for training and testing. The SqueezeNet architecture with bypass connections between the Fire modules, a variant of the vanilla SqueezeNet, is employed for this study, which makes our MMR system more efficient. The experimental results on our collected large-scale vehicle datasets indicate that the proposed model achieves 96.3% recognition rate at the rank-1 level with an economical time slice of 108.8 ms. For inference tasks, the deployed deep model requires less than 5 MB of space and thus has a great viability in real-time applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s19050982DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6427723PMC
February 2019

Alteration of Semantic Networks during Swear Words Processing in Schizophrenia.

Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci 2019 Feb;17(1):64-73

Department of Psychiatry, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju, Korea.

Objective: Positive symptoms, such as delusion and hallucination, commonly include negative emotional content in schizophrenia. We investigated the neural basis implicated during the processing of strong negative emotional words in patients with schizophrenia.

Methods: In our study, 35 patients with schizophrenia and 19 healthy controls were recruited, and the participants were asked to passively view the words that contained swearing and neutral content during functional magnetic resonance imaging.

Results: Patients with schizophrenia, compared to healthy controls, showed hypoactivation to the swear and neutral words stimuli in the left inferior frontal gyrus, left middle frontal gyrus, and left angular/supramarginal gyrus. More specifically, patients with remitted schizophrenia were found to have greater activation to the stimuli in the left middle/inferior frontal gyrus than patients with active schizophrenia. Furthermore, in the analysis of regions of interests, the left inferior and middle frontal gyrus activity was related to the severity of positive symptoms, including delusion and suspiciousness.

Conclusion: Our results suggest that patients with schizophrenia have difficulty in semantic processing and inhibitory control of swear words, and these abnormalities may be connected with the severity of positive symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.9758/cpn.2019.17.1.64DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6361040PMC
February 2019

Salience-Default Mode Functional Network Connectivity Linked to Positive and Negative Symptoms of Schizophrenia.

Schizophr Bull 2019 06;45(4):892-901

Neuroscience Institute, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA.

Schizophrenia is a complex, debilitating mental disorder characterized by wide-ranging symptoms including delusions, hallucinations (so-called positive symptoms), and impaired motor and speech/language production (so-called negative symptoms). Salience-monitoring theorists propose that abnormal functional communication between the salience network (SN) and default mode network (DMN) begets positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia, yet prior studies have predominately reported links between disrupted SN/DMN functional communication and positive symptoms. It remains unclear whether disrupted SN/DMN functional communication explains (1) solely positive symptoms or (2) both positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. To address this question, we incorporate time-lag-shifted functional network connectivity (FNC) analyses that explored coherence of the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging signal of 3 networks (anterior DMN, posterior DMN, and SN) with fixed time lags introduced between network time series (1 TR = 2 s; 2 TR = 4 s). Multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that severity of disordered thought and attentional deficits were negatively associated with 2 TR-shifted FNC between anterior DMN and posterior DMN. Meanwhile, severity of flat affect and bizarre behavior were positively associated with 1 TR-shifted FNC between anterior DMN and SN. These results provide support favoring the hypothesis that lagged SN/DMN functional communication is associated with both positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sby112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6581131PMC
June 2019

Neural Signature for Auditory Hallucinations in Schizophrenia: A High-Resolution Positron Emission Tomography Study with Fludeoxyglucose (F).

Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci 2018 Aug;16(3):324-332

Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Chonbuk National University-Biomedical Research Institute of Chonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju, Korea.

Objective: Auditory hallucinations (AHs) are a core symptom of schizophrenia. We investigated the neural signature of AHs by comparing hallucinating patients with schizophrenia with non-hallucinating patients with schizophrenia.

Methods: We recruited hallucinating patients with schizophrenia meeting the criteria for persistent, prominent, and predominant AHs (n=10) and non-hallucinating patients with schizophrenia (n=12). Various clinical assessments were performed incluing Psychotic Symptom Rating Scale for Auditory Hallucinations. Using fludeoxyglucose (F) positron emission tomography, regional differences in neural activity between the groups were analyzed.

Results: The regions of interest analysis showed significantly lower standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) in the superior, middle, and inferior frontal gyri, and higher SUVR in the putamen in patients with AHs versus patients without AHs. These findings were confirmed in the voxel-wise analysis.

Conclusion: Our findings indicate that hypoactivity in the frontal and cingulate gyri, coupled with hyperactivity in the temporal gyrus and putamen, may contribute to the pathophysiology of AHs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.9758/cpn.2018.16.3.324DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6124871PMC
August 2018

Reading the (functional) writing on the (structural) wall: Multimodal fusion of brain structure and function via a deep neural network based translation approach reveals novel impairments in schizophrenia.

Neuroimage 2018 11 25;181:734-747. Epub 2018 Jul 25.

The Mind Research Network, 1101 Yale Blvd, Albuquerque, NM, 87106, USA; Department of Psychiatry and Neurosciences, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, 87131, USA; Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM, 87131, USA.

This work presents a novel approach to finding linkage/association between multimodal brain imaging data, such as structural MRI (sMRI) and functional MRI (fMRI). Motivated by the machine translation domain, we employ a deep learning model, and consider two different imaging views of the same brain like two different languages conveying some common facts. That analogy enables finding linkages between two modalities. The proposed translation-based fusion model contains a computing layer that learns "alignments" (or links) between dynamic connectivity features from fMRI data and static gray matter patterns from sMRI data. The approach is evaluated on a multi-site dataset consisting of eyes-closed resting state imaging data collected from 298 subjects (age- and gender matched 154 healthy controls and 144 patients with schizophrenia). Results are further confirmed on an independent dataset consisting of eyes-open resting state imaging data from 189 subjects (age- and gender matched 91 healthy controls and 98 patients with schizophrenia). We used dynamic functional connectivity (dFNC) states as the functional features and ICA-based sources from gray matter densities as the structural features. The dFNC states characterized by weakly correlated intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) were found to have stronger association with putamen and insular gray matter pattern, while the dFNC states of profuse strongly correlated ICNs exhibited stronger links with the gray matter pattern in precuneus, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and temporal cortex. Further investigation with the estimated link strength (or alignment score) showed significant group differences between healthy controls and patients with schizophrenia in several key regions including temporal lobe, and linked these to connectivity states showing less occupancy in healthy controls. Moreover, this novel approach revealed significant correlation between a cognitive score (attention/vigilance) and the function/structure alignment score that was not detected when data modalities were considered separately.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2018.07.047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6321628PMC
November 2018

Upcycling of jellyfish (Nemopilema nomurai) sea wastes as highly valuable reducing agents for green synthesis of gold nanoparticles and their antitumor and anti-inflammatory activity.

Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 2018 26;46(sup2):1127-1136. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

a College of Pharmacy , Inje University and Inje Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research , Gyeongnam , Republic of Korea.

Due to its tentacle poison and huge body, giant jellyfish (Nemopilema nomurai) poses challenging issues to the environment and ecosystems. Here we developed, upcycling a giant jellyfish extract as a reducing agent, a green synthetic method of gold nanoparticles (JF-AuNPs) which possess biological activities. The colloidal solutions of JF-AuNPs were blue, violet, purple and pink depending on the extract concentration. UV-visible spectra exhibited two surface plasmon resonance bands at 5 4 0 ∼ 550 nm and 810 nm. Spherical shapes with an average size of 35.2 ± 8.7 nm and triangular nanoplates with an average height of 70.5 ± 30.3 nm were observed. A face-centered cubic structure was confirmed by high-resolution X-ray diffraction. JF-AuNPs exhibited significant cytotoxic effect against HeLa cancer cells but not against normal cells such as NIH-3T3 and Raw 264.7 cells. In HeLa cells, JF-AuNPs decreased the phosphorylation of AKT and ERK, which are crucial for cell proliferation. Also, JF-AuNPs decreased NO secretion and iNOS expression levels, resulting in anti-inflammatory effects in LPS-inflamed macrophages. Collectively, we established a green synthesis of anti-tumorigenic and anti-inflammatory JF-AuNPs using the extract of jellyfish sea wastes. Thus, beneficial effects of JF-AgNPs must be weighed in further studies in vivo and it can be potent nanomedicine for future applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21691401.2018.1480490DOI Listing
June 2019

The aqueous extract from Artemisia capillaris inhibits acute gastric mucosal injury by inhibition of ROS and NF-kB.

Biomed Pharmacother 2018 Mar 20;99:681-687. Epub 2018 Feb 20.

College of Pharmacy and Inje Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Inje University, 607 Obang-Dong, Gimhae, Gyungnam, 621-749, South Korea; u-Healthcare & Anti-Aging Rearch Center (u-HARC), Inje University, Gyeongnam, South Korea. Electronic address:

Artemisia capillaris, also called "InJin" in Korean, has been used as traditional oriental medicine in Korea because of its various pharmacological activities. These include hepatoprotective, analgesic, and antipyretic activities. The present study was designed to validate the beneficial effects of the aqueous extract of A. capillaris (AEAC) against acute gastric mucosal injury and investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms. The pharmacological efficacy of AEAC was evaluated using the gastric ulcer index and histological examination. AEAC decreased gastric mucosal lesions mediated by HCl/ethanol in vivo in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, the mucosal damage was almost prevented by pretreatment with 200 or 400?mg/kg AEAC. However, AEAC did not have acid-neutralizing activity in vitro and did not prevent histamine secretion in HMC-1 mast cells. In the gastric mucosa, AEAC also significantly inhibited lipid peroxide formation through superoxide dismutase (SOD) activation. Moreover, AEAC strongly reduced the generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?), through nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) downregulation. Taken together, our findings suggest that AEAC inhibits inflammation and maintains oxidant/antioxidant homeostasis, resulting in a gastro-protective effect against HCl/ethanol-induced gastric damage. Therefore, AEAC might be a promising drug or useful neutraceutical for treatment of gastritis and gastric ulcer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2018.01.118DOI Listing
March 2018

Disrupted network cross talk, hippocampal dysfunction and hallucinations in schizophrenia.

Schizophr Res 2018 09 21;199:226-234. Epub 2018 Mar 21.

Neuroscience Institute, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA; Department of Psychology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA; Mind Research Network, Albuquerque, NM, USA. Electronic address:

Hallucinations characterize schizophrenia, with approximately 59% of patients reporting auditory hallucinations and 27% reporting visual hallucinations. Prior neuroimaging studies suggest that hallucinations are linked to disrupted communication across distributed (sensory, salience-monitoring and subcortical) networks. Yet, our understanding of the neurophysiological mechanisms that underlie auditory and visual hallucinations in schizophrenia remains limited. This study integrates two resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) analysis methods - amplitudes of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) and functional network connectivity (FNC) - to explore the hypotheses that (1) abnormal FNC between salience and sensory (visual/auditory) networks underlies hallucinations in schizophrenia, and (2) disrupted hippocampal oscillations (as measured by hippocampal ALFF) beget changes in FNC linked to hallucinations. Our first hypothesis was supported by the finding that schizophrenia patients reporting hallucinations have higher FNC between the salience network and an associative auditory network relative to healthy controls. Hippocampal ALFF was negatively associated with FNC between primary auditory cortex and the salience network in healthy subjects, but was positively associated with FNC between these networks in patients reporting hallucinations. These findings provide indirect support favoring our second hypothesis. We suggest future studies integrate fMRI with electroencephalogram (EEG) and/or magnetoencephalogram (MEG) methods to directly probe the temporal relation between altered hippocampal oscillations and changes in cross-network functional communication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2018.03.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6148405PMC
September 2018

An aqueous extract of Nomura's jellyfish ameliorates inflammatory responses in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and a zebrafish model of inflammation.

Biomed Pharmacother 2018 Apr 28;100:583-589. Epub 2018 Feb 28.

College of Pharmacy and Inje Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Inje University, 607 Obang-dong, Gimhae, Gyungnam, 621-749, South Korea. Electronic address:

The recent mass emergence of Nomura's jellyfish (Nemopilema nomurai) has caused much economic and environmental damage. However, there is no innovative strategy to dispose of or utilize these jellyfish. Some reports suggest that the jellyfish may be bioactive resources and a source of important compounds with antibacterial activity. Here, we examined the effect of an aqueous extract of Nomura's jellyfish (AENJ) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated Raw 264.7 macrophages and a zebrafish model of inflammation and analyzed the underlying molecular mechanisms. AENJ downregulated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA levels in LPS-stimulated Raw 264.7 macrophages, with no apparent cytotoxic effects. However, AENJ had no effect on expression of other inflammation-related genes such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and MCP-1. Furthermore, AENJ reduced expression of nerve injury-induced protein 1 (Ninj1), which is an important adhesion molecule, thereby reducing cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix (ECM) in vitro. The inhibitory effect of AENJ on leukocytes was confirmed in LPS-microinjected zebrafish larvae; AENJ reduced the number of the infiltrate accumulating at the site of inflammation. In addition, AENJ suppressed the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 in LPS-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells. Finally, AENJ blocked nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), a key transcription factor for inflammatory responses, in Raw 264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Collectively, the data suggest that AENJ inhibits expression of COX and iNOS by blocking NF-κB signaling pathways and suppresses the activity of macrophages by downregulating Ninj1 and MMPs. Therefore, AENJ may be a useful preventive neutraceutical, or therapeutic agent against inflammatory disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2018.01.116DOI Listing
April 2018

Role of dopamine D1 receptor in 3-fluoromethamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity in mice.

Neurochem Int 2018 02 2;113:69-84. Epub 2017 Dec 2.

Neuropsychopharmacology and Toxicology Program, College of Pharmacy, Kangwon National University, Chunchon 24341, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

3-Fluoromethamphetamine (3-FMA) is an illegal designer drug of methamphetamine (MA) derivative. Up to date, little is known about the neurotoxic potential of 3-FMA. In the present study, we investigated the role of dopamine receptors in neurotoxicity induced by 3-FMA in comparison with MA (35 mg/kg, i.p.) as a control drug. Here we found that 3-FMA (40, 60 or 80 mg/kg, i.p.) produced mortality in a dose-dependent manner in mice. Treatment with 3-FMA (40 mg/kg, i.p.) resulted in significant hyperthermia, oxidative stress and microgliosis (microglial differentiation into M1 phenotype) followed by pro-apoptotic changes and the induction of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUDP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells. Moreover, 3-FMA significantly produced dopaminergic impairments [i.e., increase in dopamine (DA) turnover rate and decreases in DA level, and in the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine transporter (DAT), and vesicular monoamine transporter 2 (VMAT-2)] with behavioral impairments. These dopaminergic neurotoxic effects of 3-FMA were comparable to those of MA. SCH23390, a dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, but not sulpiride, a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist significantly attenuated 3-FMA-induced neurotoxicity. Although both SCH23390 and sulpiride attenuated MA-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity, sulpiride is more effective than SCH23390 on the dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Interestingly, SCH23390 treatment positively modulated 3-FMA-induced microglial activation (i.e., SCH23390 inhibited M1 phenotype from 3-FMA insult, but activated M2 phenotype). Therefore, our results suggest that the activation of dopamine D1 receptor is critical to 3-FMA-induced neurotoxicity, while both dopamine D1 and D2 receptors (dopamine D2 receptor > dopamine D1 receptor) mediate MA-induced dopaminergic neurotoxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2017.11.017DOI Listing
February 2018

Design, synthesis and evaluation of alkylphosphocholine-gefitinib conjugates as multitarget anticancer agents.

Arch Pharm Res 2018 Jan 1;41(1):35-45. Epub 2017 Nov 1.

Department of Life and Nanopharmaceutical Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, 02447, Republic of Korea.

The evolving resistance to the currently used chemotherapeutic agents requires continuous efforts to develop new anticancer agents overcoming resistance and with lower side effects. Polypharmacology via designing a single molecule intercepting multiple signaling pathways is more effective than targeting a single one. Several alkylphosphocholines show anticancer activity via inhibition of Akt phosphorylation. On the other hand, several molecules having quinazoline scaffold elicit anticancer activity through inhibition of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinases. We report our efforts to develop alkylphosphocholines-gefitinib conjugates as multitarget anticancer agents. The antiproliferative activities of the newly synthesized compounds were evaluated against cell lines representing lung, breast, liver and skin cancers. In addition, the capability of the newly synthesized compounds to inhibit Akt phosphorylation and EGFR tyrosine kinases were determined. The results emphasized the influence of the linkers' length on the elicited bioactivity. The long chain linkers possessing conjugates were more active regarding both of the elicited antiproliferative effect and inhibition of Akt phosphorylation, while maintained the ability to inhibit EGFR tyrosine kinases. Their cytotoxic activities were superior or comparable to erlotinib and miltefosine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12272-017-0977-zDOI Listing
January 2018

Biclustered Independent Component Analysis for Complex Biomarker and Subtype Identification from Structural Magnetic Resonance Images in Schizophrenia.

Front Psychiatry 2017 26;8:179. Epub 2017 Sep 26.

The Mind Research Network, Albuquerque, NM, United States.

Clinical and cognitive symptoms domain-based subtyping in schizophrenia (Sz) has been critiqued due to the lack of neurobiological correlates and heterogeneity in symptom scores. We, therefore, present a novel data-driven framework using biclustered independent component analysis to detect subtypes from the reliable and stable gray matter concentration (GMC) of patients with Sz. The developed methodology consists of the following steps: source-based morphometry (SBM) decomposition, selection and sorting of two component loadings, subtype component reconstruction using group information-guided ICA (GIG-ICA). This framework was applied to the top two group discriminative components namely the insula/superior temporal gyrus/inferior frontal gyrus (I-STG-IFG component) and the superior frontal gyrus/middle frontal gyrus/medial frontal gyrus (SFG-MiFG-MFG component) from our previous SBM study, which showed diagnostic group difference and had the highest effect sizes. The aggregated multisite dataset consisted of 382 patients with Sz regressed of age, gender, and site voxelwise. We observed two subtypes (i.e., two different subsets of subjects) each heavily weighted on these two components, respectively. These subsets of subjects were characterized by significant differences in positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) positive clinical symptoms ( = 0.005). We also observed an overlapping subtype weighing heavily on both of these components. The PANSS general clinical symptom of this subtype was trend level correlated with the loading coefficients of the SFG-MiFG-MFG component ( = 0.25;  = 0.07). The reconstructed subtype-specific component using GIG-ICA showed variations in voxel regions, when compared to the group component. We observed deviations from mean GMC along with conjunction of features from two components characterizing each deciphered subtype. These inherent variations in GMC among patients with Sz could possibly indicate the need for personalized treatment and targeted drug development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2017.00179DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5623192PMC
September 2017

A synthetic Nitraria alkaloid, isonitramine protects pancreatic β-cell and attenuates postprandial hyperglycemia.

Metabolism 2017 05 10;70:107-115. Epub 2017 Feb 10.

College of Pharmacy and Inje Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Inje University, 607 Obang-dong, Gimhae, Gyungnam, 621-749, South Korea; u-Healthcare & Anti-aging Research Center (u-HARC), Inje University, Gyeongnam, South Korea. Electronic address:

Objective: The extracts of Nitraria genus are composed of Nitraria alkaloids and have been used traditionally as a hypoglycemic medicine. However, the efficacy and precise mechanism of Nitraria alkaloids remain largely unknown.

Methods: Previously, we reported the total synthesis of (+)-isonitramine, one of Nitraria alkaloids. In this study, we investigated the anti-diabetic potential of isonitramine in diabetes mellitus and its underlying molecular mechanism in carbohydrate catabolism in vitro and in vivo.

Results: Isonitramine exerted significant inhibitory effect on α-glucosidases but not α-amylase in vitro. In zebrafish, isonitramine alleviated the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced postprandial hyperglycemia and protected the pancreatic damages against alloxan-induced oxidative stress in vivo. Also, isonitramine induced insulin without any toxicities and downregulated phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), which catalyzes the first committed step in gluconeogenesis.

Conclusion: Taken together, isonitramine inhibited α-glucosidase activity and PEPCK expression, while increased insulin expression, resulting in attenuating the postprandial hyperglycemia. Also, isonitramine protected the pancreas from ROS-mediated toxicities. Therefore, isonitramine may be a new drug candidate for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2017.02.002DOI Listing
May 2017

Spermidine Protects against Oxidative Stress in Inflammation Models Using Macrophages and Zebrafish.

Biomol Ther (Seoul) 2018 Mar;26(2):146-156

Anti-Aging Research Center and Department of Biochemistry, Dongeui University College of Korean Medicine, Busan 47227, Republic of Korea.

Spermidine is a naturally occurring polyamine compound that has recently emerged with anti-aging properties and suppresses inflammation and oxidation. However, its mechanisms of action on anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects have not been fully elucidated. In this study, the potential of spermidine for reducing pro-inflammatory and oxidative effects in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages and zebrafish was explored. Our data indicate that spermidine significantly inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E (PGE), and cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β in RAW 264.7 macrophages without any significant cytotoxicity. The protective effects of spermidine accompanied by a marked suppression in their regulatory gene expression at the transcription levels. Spermidine also attenuated the nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 subunit and reduced LPS-induced intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Moreover, spermidine prevented the LPS-induced NO production and ROS accumulation in zebrafish larvae and was found to be associated with a diminished recruitment of neutrophils and macrophages. Although more work is needed to fully understand the critical role of spermidine on the inhibition of inflammation-associated migration of immune cells, our findings clearly demonstrate that spermidine may be a potential therapeutic intervention for the treatment of inflammatory and oxidative disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4062/biomolther.2016.272DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5839493PMC
March 2018

Toward an analysis of emotion regulation in children using late positive potential.

Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc 2016 Aug;2016:279-282

The ability of emotion regulation and emotional responses in children is a main component of emotional competence through the development process. We had employed electroencephalography (EEG) a well-known noninvasive method for recording of brain emotion signals in order to analyze the emotion regulations in children. The international affective picture system (IAPS) pictures dataset was used for selection of stimuli presentation. The stimulus presentation was commonly practiced to induce the emotional responses from human brain. Brain signals were recorded using EEG electrodes and analyzed after preprocessing. There are rare studies available for detection of emotion regulation in children using late positive potential (LPP) analysis. The event related potential (ERP) is well known for analysis in cognitive neuroscience that was used in this paper for analysis of LPP. In this paper, we proposed the LPP as a neural marker for physiatrists and neurophysiologists to detect the mood disruption in children. We employed 21 subjects in this investigation, which were aged from 12 to 14 years. The ERP was analyzed through stimulus lock strategy which includes 180 stimuli of four emotions (arousal-valence). Each stimulus time duration was 1.5 s following of 0.5 s of rest time. Results show the increased modulation of LPP amplitude under all brain regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/EMBC.2016.7590694DOI Listing
August 2016

Towards Building a Computer Aided Education System for Special Students Using Wearable Sensor Technologies.

Sensors (Basel) 2017 Feb 8;17(2). Epub 2017 Feb 8.

Division of Computer Science and Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju 54896, Korea.

Human computer interaction is a growing field in terms of helping people in their daily life to improve their living. Especially, people with some disability may need an interface which is more appropriate and compatible with their needs. Our research is focused on similar kinds of problems, such as students with some mental disorder or mood disruption problems. To improve their learning process, an intelligent emotion recognition system is essential which has an ability to recognize the current emotional state of the brain. Nowadays, in special schools, instructors are commonly use some conventional methods for managing special students for educational purposes. In this paper, we proposed a novel computer aided method for instructors at special schools where they can teach special students with the support of our system using wearable technologies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s17020317DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5335943PMC
February 2017
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