Publications by authors named "Hwi-Ho Lee"

23 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Improved tumor-suppressive effect of OZ-001 combined with cisplatin mediated by mTOR/p70S6K and STAT3 inactivation in A549 human lung cancer cells.

Biomed Pharmacother 2021 Jul 28;142:111961. Epub 2021 Jul 28.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biochemistry, College of Pharmacy, Kyung Hee University, 26, Kyungheedae-ro, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea; Department of Life and Nanopharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, 26, Kyungheedae-ro, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

We previously reported the anticancer activity of 4-(4-fluorobenzylcarbamoylmethyl)-3-(4-cyclohexylphenyl)-2-[3-(N,N-dimethylureido)-N'-methylpropylamino]-3,4-dihydroquinazoline (OZ-001), a T-type calcium channel (TTCC) blocker, against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in vitro and in vivo. Here, we evaluated the synergistic effect of OZ-001 and cisplatin on A549 human lung cancer cells and A549 xenograft mice. Our study demonstrated that treatment with OZ-001 and cisplatin sensitized A549 cells to cisplatin and significantly inhibited cell growth, increased the number of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells, and induced poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage in A549 cells and an A549 xenograft tumor mouse model. Moreover, our findings showed that mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p70S6K), and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3) inactivation was required for apoptosis induced by the combination of OZ-001 and cisplatin in in vitro and in vivo experiments. Our results suggest that combined treatment with OZ-001 and cisplatin could potentiate antiproliferative effects via suppression of the mTOR/p70S6K and STAT3 pathways and may be considered a potential therapeutic agent for NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2021.111961DOI Listing
July 2021

Nc886, a Novel Suppressor of the Type I Interferon Response Upon Pathogen Intrusion.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Feb 18;22(4). Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Cancer Biomedical Science, Graduate School of Cancer Science and Policy, National Cancer Center, Goyang 10408, Korea.

Interferons (IFNs) are a crucial component in the innate immune response. Especially the IFN-β signaling operates in most cell types and plays a key role in the first line of defense upon pathogen intrusion. The induction of IFN-β should be tightly controlled, because its hyperactivation can lead to tissue damage or autoimmune diseases. Activation of the IFN-β promoter needs Interferon Regulatory Factor 3 (IRF3), together with Nuclear Factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and Activator Protein 1 (AP-1). Here we report that a human noncoding RNA, nc886, is a novel suppressor for the IFN-β signaling and inflammation. Upon treatment with several pathogen-associated molecular patterns and viruses, nc886 suppresses the activation of IRF3 and also inhibits NF-κB and AP-1 via inhibiting Protein Kinase R (PKR). These events lead to decreased expression of IFN-β and resultantly IFN-stimulated genes. nc886's role might be to restrict the IFN-β signaling from hyperactivation. Since nc886 expression is regulated by epigenetic and environmental factors, nc886 might explain why innate immune responses to pathogens are variable depending on biological settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22042003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7922379PMC
February 2021

Standardized hot water extract from the leaves of Hydrangea serrata (Thunb.) Ser. alleviates obesity via the AMPK pathway and modulation of the gut microbiota composition in high fat diet-induced obese mice.

Food Funct 2021 Mar 3;12(6):2672-2685. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biochemistry, College of Pharmacy, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, 02447, Republic of Korea.

Obesity is an increasing health problem worldwide as it is the major risk factor for metabolic diseases. In the present study, we investigated the anti-obesity effects of WHS by examining its effects on high fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed either a normal diet (ND) or a high fat diet (HFD) with or without WHS. At the end of the experiment, we observed the changes in their body weight and white adipose tissue (WAT) weight and lipid profiles in plasma. We performed western blot and histological analyses of WAT and liver to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of action. We also conducted fecal 16S rRNA analysis for investigating the gut microbiota. Our results indicated that pre- and post-oral administration of WHS significantly prevented body weight gain and reduced body fat weight in HFD-induced obese mice. In addition, WHS was found to improve adipocyte hypertrophy and liver fat accumulation by regulating the AMPK and AKT/mTOR pathways. WHS ameliorated hyperlipidemia by reducing total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and decreased the energy metabolism-related hormones, leptin and insulin, in mouse plasma. Furthermore, we found that WHS modulated gut dysbiosis by normalizing HFD-induced changes. Taken together, our in vivo data implicate that WHS can be considered as a potential dietary supplement for alleviating obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0fo02185gDOI Listing
March 2021

Immunostimulatory Effects of Live K040706 on the CYP-Induced Immunosuppression Mouse Model.

Nutrients 2020 Nov 22;12(11). Epub 2020 Nov 22.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biochemistry, College of Pharmacy Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea.

Our previous studies have shown that heat-killed K040706 exerts immunostimulatory and anti-inflammatory activities in macrophages, cyclophosphamide (CYP)-treated mice, and dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis mice. However, the immunostimulatory effects of live K040706 (live K040706) against CYP-induced immunosuppression and its underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Therefore, we investigated the immunostimulatory effects of live K040706 (10 or 10 colony forming unit (CFU)/day, p.o.) in CYP-induced immunosuppressed mice. Oral administration of live K040706 prevented the CYP-induced decreases in body weight, thymus index, natural killer (NK) cell activity, T and B cell proliferation, and cytokine (interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-2, and IL-12) production. The administration of live K040706 also exerted positive effects on the gut microbiota of CYP-induced mice, resulting in a microbiota composition similar to that of normal mice. Moreover, live K040706 significantly enhanced IL-6 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) production in the splenocytes and Peyer's patch (PP) cells of mice and increased bone marrow (BM) cell proliferation. Taken together, our data indicate that live K040706 may effectively accelerate recovery from CYP-induced immunosuppression, leading to activation of the immune system. Therefore, live K040706 may serve as a potential immunomodulatory agent against immunosuppression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12113573DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7700367PMC
November 2020

Anti-inflammatory potential of Patrineolignan B isolated from Patrinia scabra in LPS-stimulated macrophages via inhibition of NF-κB, AP-1, and JAK/STAT pathways.

Int Immunopharmacol 2020 Sep 24;86:106726. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biochemistry, College of Pharmacy, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea; Department of Life and Nanopharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Patrineolignan B (PB), a lignan compound isolated from the radix and rhizomes of Patrinia scabra, was previously reported to possess a strong tumor-specific cytotoxic activity and beneficial effects on nitric oxide (NO) levels in macrophages induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In this study, we assessed the effects of PB on LPS-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 cells and clarified its molecular mechanisms. PB reversed LPS-induced increase in NO levels and prostaglandin E (PGE) production, as well as inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein and mRNA levels in macrophages. Besides, PB prevented the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 in a concentration-dependent manner. The regulatory effects of PB on LPS-induced inflammatory mediators and overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines were shown to depend partly on the suppression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB)-mediated transcription and AP-1 activation regulated by a c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK). Its anti-inflammatory activity was also mediated by regulating the phosphorylation of Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducers and activators of transcription 1/3 (STAT1/3) signaling pathway. Taken together, our results suggest that PB exhibits anti-inflammatory potency through interfering with the NF-κB, AP-1, and JAK/STAT signaling pathway in LPS-stimulated macrophages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2020.106726DOI Listing
September 2020

KCP10043F Represses the Proliferation of Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells by Caspase-Mediated Apoptosis via STAT3 Inactivation.

J Clin Med 2020 Mar 5;9(3). Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biochemistry, College of Pharmacy, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea.

We previously reported that 4-(4-fluorobenzylcarbamoylmethyl)-3-(4-cyclohexylphenyl)-2-[3-(-dimethylureido)--methylpropylamino]-3,4-dihydroquinazoline (KCP10043F) can induce G-phase arrest and synergistic cell death in combination with etoposide in lung cancer cells. Here, we investigated the underlying mechanism by which KCP10043F induces cell death in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Propidium iodide (PI) and annexin V staining revealed that KCP10043F-induced cytotoxicity was caused by apoptosis. KCP10043F induced a series of intracellular events: (1) downregulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and upregulation of Bax and cleaved Bid; (2) loss of mitochondrial membrane potential; (3) increase of cytochrome release; (4) cleavage of procaspase-8, procaspase-9, procaspase-3, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). In addition, KCP10043F exhibited potent inhibitory effects on constitutive or interleukin-6 (IL-6)-induced signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3) phosphorylation and STAT3-regulated genes including survivin, Mcl-1, and cyclin D. Furthermore, STAT3 overexpression attenuated KCP10043F-induced apoptosis and the cleavage of caspase-9, caspase-3, and PARP. Docking analysis disclosed that KCP10043F could bind to a pocket in the SH2 domain of STAT3 and prevent STAT3 phosphorylation. The oral administration of KCP10043F decreased tumor growth in an A549 xenograft mouse model, as associated with the reduced phosphorylated STAT3, survivin, Mcl-1, and Bcl-2 expression and increased TUNEL staining and PARP cleavage in tumor tissues. Collectively, our data suggest that KCP10043F suppresses NSCLC cell growth through apoptosis induction via STAT3 inactivation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9030704DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7141374PMC
March 2020

Patriscabrin F from the roots of Patrinia scabra attenuates LPS-induced inflammation by downregulating NF-κB, AP-1, IRF3, and STAT1/3 activation in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

Phytomedicine 2020 Mar 23;68:153167. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biochemistry, College of Pharmacy, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, South Korea; Department of Life and Nanopharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address:

Background: The roots of Partrinia scabra have been used as a medicinal herb in Asia. We previously reported that the inhibitory effect of patriscabrin F on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production was the most potent than that of other isolated iridoids from the roots of P. scabra.

Purpose: We investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of patriscabrin F as an active compound of P. scabra and related signaling cascade in LPS-activated macrophages.

Method: The anti-inflammatory activities of patriscabrin F were determined according to its inhibitory effects on NO, prostaglandin E (PGE), and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The molecular mechanisms were revealed by analyzing nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), activator protein-1 (AP-1), interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3), and Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway.

Results: Patriscabrin F inhibited the LPS-induced production of NO, PGE tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 in both bone-marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) and RAW 264.7 macrophages. Patriscabrin F downregulated LPS-induced inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 at the transcriptional level. Patriscabrin F suppressed LPS-induced NF-κB activation by decreasing p65 nuclear translocation, inhibitory κBα (IκBα) phosphorylation, and IκB kinase (IKK)α/β phosphorylation. Patriscabrin F attenuated LPS-induced AP-1 activity by inhibiting c-Fos phosphorylation. Patriscabrin F suppressed the LPS-induced phosphorylation of IRF3, JAK1/JAK2, and STAT1/STAT3.

Conclusion: Taken together, our findings suggest patriscabrin F may exhibit anti-inflammatory properties via the inhibition of NF-κB, AP-1, IRF3, and JAK-STAT activation in LPS-induced macrophages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2019.153167DOI Listing
March 2020

Inhibitory effects of triarylpyrazole derivatives on LPS-induced nitric oxide and PGE productions in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2020 02 10;30(4):126884. Epub 2019 Dec 10.

Department of Beauty Science, Hanseo University, Seosan 31962, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

In this article, a series of 22 triarylpyrazole derivatives were evaluated for in vitro antiinflammatory activity as inhibitors of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E (PGE) release induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. The synthesized compounds 1a-h, 2a-f and 3a-h were first examined for their cytotoxicity for determination of the non-toxic concentration for antiinflammatory screening, so that the inhibitory effects against NO and PGE production were not caused by non-specific cytotoxicity. Compounds 1h and 2f were the most active PGE inhibitors with IC values of 2.94 μM and 4.21 μM, respectively. Western blotting and cell-free COX-2 screening revealed that their effects were due to inhibition of COX-2 protein expression. Moreover, compound 1h exerted strong inhibitory effect on the expression of COX-2 mRNA in LPS-induced murine RAW 264.7 macrophages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2019.126884DOI Listing
February 2020

The Anti-Proliferative Activity of the Hybrid TMS-TMF-4f Compound Against Human Cervical Cancer Involves Apoptosis Mediated by STAT3 Inactivation.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Dec 3;11(12). Epub 2019 Dec 3.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biochemistry, College of Pharmacy, Kyung Hee University, 26, Kyungheedae-ro, Seoul 02447, Korea.

We previously reported the potential anti-proliferative activity of 3-(5,6,7-trimethoxy-4-oxo-4-chromen-2-yl)--(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl) benzamide (TMS-TMF-4f) against human cancer cells; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been investigated. In the present study, TMS-TMF-4f showed the highest cytotoxicity in human cervical cancer cells (HeLa and CaSki) and low cytotoxicity in normal ovarian epithelial cells. Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide (PI) double staining revealed that TMS-TMF-4f-induced cytotoxicity was caused by the induction of apoptosis in both HeLa and CaSki cervical cancer cells. The compound TMS-TMF-4f enhanced the activation of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 and regulated Bcl-2 family proteins, which led to mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) loss and resulted in the release of cytochrome and Smac/DIABLO into the cytosol. Also, TMS-TMF-4f suppressed both constitutive and IL-6-inducible levels of phosphorylated STAT3 (p-STAT3) and associated proteins such as Mcl-1, cyclin D1, survivin, and c-Myc in both cervical cancer cells. STAT-3 overexpression completely ameliorated TMS-TMF-4f-induced apoptotic cell death and PARP cleavage. Docking analysis revealed that TMS-TMF-4f could bind to unphosphorylated STAT3 and inhibit its interconversion to the activated form. Notably, intraperitoneal administration of TMS-TMF-4f (5, 10, or 20 mg/kg) decreased tumor growth in a xenograft cervical cancer mouse model, demonstrated by the increase in TUNEL staining and PARP cleavage and the reduction in p-STAT3, Mcl-1, cyclin D1, survivin, and c-Myc expression levels in tumor tissues. Taken together, our results suggest that TMS-TMF-4f may potentially inhibit human cervical tumor growth through the induction of apoptosis via STAT3 suppression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11121927DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6966466PMC
December 2019

Repurposing mosloflavone/5,6,7-trimethoxyflavone-resveratrol hybrids: Discovery of novel p38-α MAPK inhibitors as potent interceptors of macrophage-dependent production of proinflammatory mediators.

Eur J Med Chem 2019 Oct 9;180:253-267. Epub 2019 Jul 9.

Medicinal Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Seoul, 02447, Republic of Korea; Department of Life and Nanopharmaceutical Sciences, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Seoul, 02447, Republic of Korea; KHU-KIST Department of Converging Science and Technology, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Seoul, 02447, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Herein, we address repurposing hybrids of mosloflavone or 5,6,7-trimethoxyflavone with amide analogs of resveratrol from anticancer leads to novel potent anti-inflammatory chemical entities. To unveil the potent anti-inflammatory molecules, biological evaluations were initiated in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages at 1 μM concentration. Promising compounds were further evaluated at various concentrations. Multiple proinflammatory mediators were assessed including NO, PGE, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1β. Compound 5z inhibited the induced production of NO, PGE, IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1β at the low 1 μM concentration by 44.76, 35.71, 53.48, 29.39 and 41.02%, respectively. Compound 5z elicited IC values as low as 2.11 and 0.98 μM against NO and PGE production respectively. Compounds 5q and 5g showed potent submicromolar IC values of 0.31 and 0.59 μM respectively against PGE production. Reverse docking of compound 5z suggested p38-α MAPK, which is a key signaling molecule within the pathways controlling the transcription of proinflammatory mediators, as the molecular target. Biochemical testing confirmed these compounds as p38-α MAPK inhibitors explaining its potent inhibition of proinflammatory mediators' production. Collectively, the results presented 5z as a promising compound for further development of anti-inflammatory agents for treatment of macrophages-and/or immune mediated inflammatory diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2019.07.030DOI Listing
October 2019

A novel mPGES-1 inhibitor alleviates inflammatory responses by downregulating PGE in experimental models.

Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat 2019 10 20;144:106347. Epub 2019 Jun 20.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biochemistry, College of Pharmacy, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, 02447, Republic of Korea; Department of Life and Nanopharmaceutical Sciences, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, 02447, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

We previously reported the strong inhibitory potency of N-phenyl-N'-(4- benzyloxyphenoxycarbonyl)-4-chlorophenylsulfonyl hydrazide (PBCH) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced prostaglandin E (PGE) production in macrophages. Herein, we characterized PBCH as a microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) inhibitor and evaluated its anti-inflammatory effects using in vivo experimental models. PBCH inhibited PGE production in various activated cells in addition to inhibiting the mPGES-1 activity. In the ear edema and paw edema rat models, PBCH significantly reduced ear thickness and paw swelling, respectively. Besides, in adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) rat model, PBCH decreased paw swelling, plasma rheumatoid factor (RF), and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) ratio. Furthermore, while PBCH reduced the plasma prostaglandin E metabolite (PGEM) levels, it did not affect the plasma levels of prostacyclin (PGI) and thromboxane A (TXA). Our data suggest that PBCH downregulates PGE production by interfering with the mPGES-1 activity, thus reducing edema and arthritis in rat models.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prostaglandins.2019.106347DOI Listing
October 2019

EGFR inhibitors from cancer to inflammation: Discovery of 4-fluoro-N-(4-(3-(trifluoromethyl)phenoxy)pyrimidin-5-yl)benzamide as a novel anti-inflammatory EGFR inhibitor.

Bioorg Chem 2019 05 12;86:112-118. Epub 2019 Jan 12.

Chemical Kinomics Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), Seoul 02792, Republic of Korea; Division of Bio-Medical Science & Technology, KIST School, Korea University of Science and Technology, Seoul 02792, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

EGFR inhibitors are well-known as anticancer agents. Quite differently, we report our effort to develop EGFR inhibitors as anti-inflammatory agents. Pyrimidinamide EGFR inhibitors eliciting low micromolar IC and the structurally close non-EGFR inhibitor urea analog were synthesized. Comparing their nitric oxide (NO) production inhibitory activity in peritoneal macrophages and RAW 246.7 macrophages indicated that their anti-inflammatory activity in peritoneal macrophages might be a sequence of EGFR inhibition. Further evaluations proved that compound 4d significantly and dose-dependently inhibits LPS-induced iNOS expression and IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α production via NF-κB inactivation in peritoneal macrophages. Compound 4d might serve as a lead compound for development of a novel class of anti-inflammatory EGFR inhibitors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2019.01.017DOI Listing
May 2019

Kaempferol 7-O-β-D-glucoside isolated from the leaves of Cudrania tricuspidata inhibits LPS-induced expression of pro-inflammatory mediators through inactivation of NF-κB, AP-1, and JAK-STAT in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

Chem Biol Interact 2018 Mar 20;284:101-111. Epub 2018 Feb 20.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biochemistry, College of Pharmacy, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Department of Life and Nanopharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Kaempferol 7-O-β-D-glucoside (KPG), a natural flavonol isolated from Cudrania tricuspidata, has been reported to exert anti-cancer effects; however, its anti-inflammatory effects have not yet been reported. In this study, we demonstrate the suppressive effect of KPG on the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E (PGE), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages and mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages. KPG downregulated the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) at the protein level and iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 at the mRNA level in LPS-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Moreover, we elucidated the underlying molecular mechanism, demonstrating that KPG attenuated LPS-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation by decreasing p65 nuclear translocation, inhibiting κBα (IκBα) phosphorylation/degradation and IκB kinaseα/β (IKKα/β) phosphorylation. KPG additionally reduced LPS-induced activator protein-1 (AP-1) activity by inhibiting c-Fos expression in the nucleus, though c-Jun was not affected. Furthermore, we revealed that KPG significantly abrogated the LPS-induced phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1 (Ser 727, Tyr 701) and STAT3 (Tyr 705) through inhibiting the phosphorylation of Janus kinase (JAK) 1 and JAK2, its upstream activating proteins. Taken together, our data suggest that KPG induces anti-inflammatory activity by blocking NF-κB, AP-1, and JAK-STAT signaling pathways in LPS-treated RAW 264.7 macrophages, thus suppressing inflammatory mediators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2018.02.022DOI Listing
March 2018

p-Coumaroyl Anthocyanin Mixture Isolated from Tuber Epidermis of Solanum tuberosum Attenuates Reactive Oxygen Species and Pro-inflammatory Mediators by Suppressing NF-κB and STAT1/3 Signaling in LPS-Induced RAW264.7 Macrophages.

Biol Pharm Bull 2017 ;40(11):1894-1902

Department of Pharmaceutical Biochemistry College of Pharmacy, Kyung Hee University.

Previously, we first reported the identification of four p-coumaroyl anthocyanins (petanin, peonanin, malvanin, and pelanin) from the tuber epidermis of colored potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv JAYOUNG). In this study, we investigated the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of a mixture of peonanin, malvanin, and pelanin (10 : 3 : 3; CAJY). CAJY displayed considerable radical scavenging capacity of 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH), increased mRNA levels of the catalytic and modulatory subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase, and subsequent cellular glutathione content. These increases preceded the inhibition of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. CAJY inhibited inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in a concentration-dependent manner at the protein, mRNA, and promoter activity levels. These inhibitions caused attendant decreases in the production of prostaglandin E (PGE). CAJY suppressed the production and mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6. Molecular data revealed that CAJY inhibited the transcriptional activity and translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) and STAT3. Taken together, these results suggest that the anthocyanin mixture exerts anti-inflammatory effects in macrophages, at least in part by reducing ROS production and inactivating NF-κB and STAT 1/3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/bpb.b17-00362DOI Listing
June 2018

Identification and structure activity relationship of novel flavone derivatives that inhibit the production of nitric oxide and PGE in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2017 06 28;27(11):2613-2616. Epub 2017 Mar 28.

Department of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 130-701, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

In an effort to identify novel anti-inflammatory compounds, a series of flavone derivatives were synthesized and biologically evaluated for their inhibitory effects on the production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E (PGE), representative pro-inflammatory mediators, in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Their structure-activity relationship was also investigated. In particular, we found that compound 3g displayed more potent inhibitory activities on PGE production, similar inhibitory activities on NO production and less weak cytotoxicity than luteolin, a natural flavone known as a potent anti-inflammatory agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2017.03.057DOI Listing
June 2017

Synthesis, structure determination, and biological evaluation of phenylsulfonyl hydrazide derivatives as potential anti-inflammatory agents.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2016 11 29;26(21):5193-5197. Epub 2016 Sep 29.

Research Institute for Basic Sciences and Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea; KHU-KIST Department of Converging Science and Technology, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

In our previous research, a novel series of phenylsulfonyl hydrazide derivatives were found to reduce LPS-induced PGE levels in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells via an inhibition of mPGES-1 enzyme. Recently, it was found that a regioisomeric mixture of phenylsulfonyl hydrazide was formed depending on the reaction conditions, which favor either of two regioisomers. One regioisomer corresponds to a kinetic product (7a-7c) and the other regioisomer corresponds to a thermodynamic product (8a-8c). Among them, the structure of kinetic product 7b was confirmed by measuring single X-ray crystallography. In vitro PGE assay studies showed that the kinetic product (7a and 7b; IC=0.69 and 0.55μM against PGE) is generally more potent than the thermodynamic product (8a and 8b; IC=>10 and 0.79μM against PGE). A molecular docking study also exhibited that the kinetic product (7a) has a higher MolDock Score (-147.4) than that of 8a (-142.4), which is consistent with the PGE assay results. A new potent phenylsulfonyl hydrazide (7d; IC=0.06μM against PGE) without affecting COX-1 and COX-2 enzyme activities was identified based on these overall results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2016.09.070DOI Listing
November 2016

Biflorin, Isolated from the Flower Buds of Syzygium aromaticum L., Suppresses LPS-Induced Inflammatory Mediators via STAT1 Inactivation in Macrophages and Protects Mice from Endotoxin Shock.

J Nat Prod 2016 Apr 15;79(4):711-20. Epub 2016 Mar 15.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biochemistry, College of Pharmacy, ‡Department of Life and Nanopharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, §Reactive Oxygen Species Medical Research Center College of Pharmacy, and ⊥Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University , Seoul 130-701, Republic of Korea.

Two chromone C-glucosides, biflorin (1) and isobiflorin (2), were isolated from the flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum L. (Myrtaceae). Here, inhibitory effects of 1 and 2 on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in RAW 264.7 macrophages were evaluated, and 1 (IC50 = 51.7 and 37.1 μM, respectively) was more potent than 2 (IC50 > 60 and 46.0 μM). The suppression of NO and PGE2 production by 1 correlated with inhibition of iNOS and COX-2 protein expression. Compound 1 reduced inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA expression via inhibition of their promoter activities. Compound 1 inhibited the LPS-induced production and mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-6. Furthermore, 1 reduced p-STAT1 and p-p38 expression but did not affect the activity of nuclear factor κ light-chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) or activator protein 1 (AP-1). In a mouse model of LPS-induced endotoxemia, 1 reduced the mRNA levels of iNOS, COX-2, and TNF-α, and the phosphorylation-mediated activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), consequently improving the survival rates of mice. Compound 1 showed a significant anti-inflammatory effect on carrageenan-induced paw edema and croton-oil-induced ear edema in rats. The collective data indicate that the suppression of pro-inflammatory gene expression via p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and STAT1 inactivation may be a mechanism for the anti-inflammatory activity of 1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jnatprod.5b00609DOI Listing
April 2016

α-Solanine Isolated From Solanum Tuberosum L. cv Jayoung Abrogates LPS-Induced Inflammatory Responses Via NF-κB Inactivation in RAW 264.7 Macrophages and Endotoxin-Induced Shock Model in Mice.

J Cell Biochem 2016 10 11;117(10):2327-39. Epub 2016 Mar 11.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biochemistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

α-Solanine, a trisaccharide glycoalkaloid, has been reported to possess anti-cancer effects. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of α-solanine isolated from "Jayoung" a dark purple-fleshed potato by examining its in vitro inhibitory effects on inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and pro-inflammatory cytokines in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages and its in vivo effects on LPS-induced septic shock in a mouse model. α-Solanine suppressed the expression of iNOS and COX-2 both at protein and mRNA levels and consequently inhibited nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. α-Solanine also reduced the production and mRNA expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) induced by LPS. Furthermore, molecular mechanism studies indicated that α-solanine inhibited LPS-induced activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) by reducing nuclear translocation of p65, degradation of inhibitory κBα (IκBα), and phosphorylation of IκB kinaseα/β (IKKα/β). In an in vivo experiment of LPS-induced endotoxemia, treatment with α-solanine suppressed mRNA expressions of iNOS, COX-2, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β, and the activation of NF-κB in liver. Importantly, α-solanine increased the survival rate of mice in LPS-induced endotoxemia and polymicrobial sepsis models. Taken together, our data suggest that the α-solanine may be a promising therapeutic against inflammatory diseases by inhibiting the NF-κB signaling pathway. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2327-2339, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.25530DOI Listing
October 2016

Hit-to-lead optimization of phenylsulfonyl hydrazides for a potent suppressor of PGE2 production: Synthesis, biological activity, and molecular docking study.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2016 Jan 10;26(1):94-9. Epub 2015 Nov 10.

Research Institute for Basic Sciences and Department of Chemistry, College of Sciences, Kyung Hee University, 26 Kyungheedae-ro, Dongdaemun-gu, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Preliminary hit-to-lead optimization of a novel series of phenylsulfonyl hydrazide derivatives, which were derived from the high throughput screening hit compound 1 (IC50=5700nM against PGE2 production), for a potent suppressor of PGE2 production is described. Subsequent optimization led to the identification of the potent lead compound 8n with IC50 values of 4.5 and 6.9nM, respectively, against LPS-induced PGE2 production and NO production in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. In addition, 8n was about 30- and >150-fold more potent against mPGES-1 enzyme in a cell-free assay (IC50=70nM) than MK-886 and hit compound 1, respectively. Molecular docking suggests that compound 8n could inhibit PGE2 production by blocking the PGH2 binding site of human mPGES-1 enzyme.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2015.11.024DOI Listing
January 2016

Fulgidic Acid Isolated from the Rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus Suppresses LPS-Induced iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-6 Expression by AP-1 Inactivation in RAW264.7 Macrophages.

Biol Pharm Bull 2015 ;38(7):1081-6

Department of Pharmaceutical Biochemistry, Kyung Hee University.

To identify bioactive natural products possessing anti-inflammatory activity, the potential of fulgidic acid from the rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus and the underlying mechanisms involved in its anti-inflammatory activity were evaluated in this study. Fulgidic acid reduced the production of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 macrophages. Consistent with these findings, fulgidic acid suppressed the LPS-induced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) at the protein level, as well as iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-6 at mRNA levels. Fulgidic acid suppressed the LPS-induced transcriptional activity of activator protein-1 (AP-1) as well as the phosphorylation of c-Fos and c-Jun. On the other hand, fulgidic acid did not show any effect on LPS-induced nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activity. Taken together, these results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effect of fulgidic acid is associated with the suppression of iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-6 expression through down-regulating AP-1 activation in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/bpb.b15-00186DOI Listing
April 2016

α-Chaconine isolated from a Solanum tuberosum L. cv Jayoung suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced pro-inflammatory mediators via AP-1 inactivation in RAW 264.7 macrophages and protects mice from endotoxin shock.

Chem Biol Interact 2015 Jun 23;235:85-94. Epub 2015 Apr 23.

Department of pharmaceutical Biochemistry, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Department of Life and Nanopharmaceutical Science, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effects of α-chaconine in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages and in LPS-induced septic mice. α-Chaconine inhibited the expressions of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) at the transcriptional level, and attenuated the transcriptional activity of activator protein-1 (AP-1) by reducing the translocation and phosphorylation of c-Jun. α-Chaconine also suppressed the phosphorylation of TGF-β-activated kinase-1 (TAK1), which lies upstream of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 7 (MKK7)/Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling. JNK knockdown using siRNA prevented the α-chaconine-mediated inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators. In a sepsis model, pretreatment with α-chaconine reduced the LPS-induced lethality and the mRNA and production levels of pro-inflammatory mediators by inhibiting c-Jun activation. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of α-chaconine are associated with the suppression of AP-1, and support its possible therapeutic role for the treatment of sepsis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cbi.2015.04.015DOI Listing
June 2015

Resveratrol analogue (E)-8-acetoxy-2-[2-(3,4-diacetoxyphenyl)ethenyl]-quinazoline induces G₂/M cell cycle arrest through the activation of ATM/ATR in human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells.

Oncol Rep 2015 May 20;33(5):2639-47. Epub 2015 Mar 20.

Department of Pharmaceutical Biochemistry, College of Pharmacy, Kyung Hee University, Hoegi-Dong, Seoul 130-701, Republic of Korea.

Styrylquinazolines are synthetic analogues of resveratrol and have been suggested to cause anti-inflammatory activity by modulating prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) production. In the present study, we evaluated cytotoxic effects of various styrylquinazoline derivatives and found that (E)-8-acetoxy-2-[2-(3,4-diacetoxyphenyl)ethenyl]-quinazoline (8-ADEQ) most potently inhibited the proliferation of the human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells. Exploring the growth-inhibitory mechanisms of 8-ADEQ, we found that it causes a cell cycle arrest at the G₂/M phase by DNA flow cytometric analysis, which was accompanied by upregulation of cyclin B1 expression and cyclin-dependent protein kinase 1 (Cdk1) phosphorylation. In addition, we observed that 8-ADEQ causes phosphorylation of the cell division cycle 25C (Cdc25C) protein through the activation of checkpoint kinases 1 (Chk1) and Chk2, which in turn were activated via ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)/ataxia telangiectasia-Rad3-related (ATR) kinases in response to the DNA damage. Furthermore, ATM/ATR inhibitor caffeine, p53- or ATM/ATR-specific siRNA significantly attenuated 8-ADEQ-induced G₂/M arrest. These results suggest that the 8-ADEQ inhibits the proliferation of human cervical cancer HeLa cells by DNA damage-mediated G₂/M cell cycle arrest. 8-ADEQ‑induced G₂/M arrest is mediated by the activation of both Chk1/2-Cdc25 and p53-p21CIP1/WAF1 via ATM/ATR pathway, and indicates that 8-ADEQ appears to have potential in the treatment of cervical cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/or.2015.3871DOI Listing
May 2015

Synthesis and PGE₂ production inhibition of s-triazine derivatives as a novel scaffold in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2014 Dec;24(23):5418-22

We present the synthesis and biological evaluation of a collection of s-triazine derivatives as a novel scaffold of compounds with the capability to inhibit the PGE₂ production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. A total of 12 derivatives were synthesized and assayed for PGE₂ reduction at 10 μM concentration. Two compounds (7b and 7i) exhibiting >90% inhibition of PGE₂ production were found to have IC₅₀ values of 5.76 and 5.52 μM, respectively. They were counter screened for inhibition on COX-2 activity in a cell free assay. Specifically, compound 7i (R¹ = 4-Bn-Ph, R² = Cl, R³ = Ph, R⁵ = CO₂Me) was highly active in cells while maintaining little COX-2 inhibition (∼0% at 10 μM). Molecular docking study provides the possibility that compound 7i could inhibit PGE₂ production by blocking the PGH₂ binding site of mPGES-1 instead of COX-2 enzyme. Based on this result, our synthetic efforts will focus on intensive structure-activity relationship (SAR) study of s-triazine scaffold to discovery a potential PGE₂ synthesis inhibitor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2014.10.031DOI Listing
December 2014
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