Publications by authors named "Hwang-Ju Jeon"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Developmental toxicity of 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA) and endosulfan sulfate derived from insecticidal active ingredients: Abnormal heart formation by 3-PBA in zebrafish embryos.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Aug 26;224:112689. Epub 2021 Aug 26.

Department of Integrative Biology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Republic of Korea; Department of Applied Biosciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Pyrethroid and organochlorine insecticides are enormously used to control agricultural and indoor insect pests. The metabolites of pyrethroid and endosulfan were used to evaluate environmental toxicities using a representative animal model, zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos in this study. The LC values in 3-phenoxy benzoic acid (3-PBA) and endosulfan sulfate (ES) were 1461 μg/L and 1459 μg/L, respectively. At the concentration of 2000 μg/L, spine curvature was observed in the ES-treated embryos. ES showed seizure-like events with an EC value of 354 μg/L. At the concentration of 1000 μg/L, the pericardial edema was observed in 3-PBA-treated embryos. The inhibition of heart development and the reduction of beating rates were observed in Tg(cmlc2:EGFP) embryos after the exposure to 3-PBA. Down-regulation of the vmhc gene coding ventricular myosin during heart development was significantly found in 3-PBA-treated embryos at 48 hpf, but recovered afterward. It indicates that ventricular malformation occurred at the initial stage of 3-PBA exposure. Considered together, both 3-PBA and ES need public concerns with periodic monitoring of these metabolites in households and agricultural areas to prevent humans and environmental organisms from their unexpected attacks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112689DOI Listing
August 2021

Acute toxicity of the insecticide EPN upon zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos and its related adverse effects: Verification of abnormal cardiac development and seizure-like events.

Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 2021 Oct 26;222:112544. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Applied Biosciences, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Republic of Korea; Department of Integrative Biology, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Toxicological studies of O-ethyl-O-(4-nitrophenyl) phenylphosphonothioate (EPN) to aquatic vertebrates have been reported, but no reports on toxic mechanism was reported. As zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were exposed to EPN, no changes in their survival and hatching rates were observed until 96 h post fertilization (hpf), even at the highest treated concentration of 500 μg/L. In both 250 μg/L and 500 μg/L, edemas were observed in the heart and yolk sac, and a blood pool was also found. Acridine orange staining confirmed apoptotic phynotype, which was the strongest in embryos at 48 hpf. No noticeable difference in the formation and the shape of blood vessels of Tg(fli1a:EGFP) was observed. However, the total body length and number of somite were decreased. Heart formation in Tg(cmlc2:EGFP) were not properly proceeded, and the ventricle did not beat normally at 500 μg/L level. Cardiac development-related genes, myl7 and nppa, were significantly down- and up-regulated in a concentration-dependent manner. The slowed heartbeat was confirmed using Tg(gata1:EGFP), showing stagnant blood flow and seizure-like events were observed. Altogether, EPN can be the cause for the abnormal heart development accompanied by blood stagnation in embryos, interfering normal development with their inner circulatory system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2021.112544DOI Listing
October 2021

Transcriptomic evaluation on methyl bromide-induced phytotoxicity in Arabidopsis thaliana and its mode of phytotoxic action via the occurrence of reactive oxygen species and uneven distribution of auxin hormones.

J Hazard Mater 2021 10 17;419:126419. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Department of Applied Biosciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Republic of Korea; Department of Integrative Biology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The increase in worldwide trade has caused the quality maintenance of commercialized agriproducts to be crucial in keeping its economic value. In recent years, methyl bromide (MB) has been used dominantly during quarantine and pre-shipment, despite it being an environmental hazard with global repercussions. Through this study, it was shown that Arabidopsis thaliana's 2 h exposure to the MB treatment displayed no signs of phytotoxicity, whereas its 4 h exposure significantly interfered with growth. The transcriptomic analysis found the molecular modifications in A. thaliana after the MB fumigation with the up-regulation of genes specifically relative to the abiotic and oxidative stress, and the down-regulation of auxin transporter genes. Some important gene expressions were verified by RT-qPCR and their expression patterns were similar. Oxidative stresses via the reactive oxygen species (ROS) in relation to MB phytotoxicity were confirmed with the increased malondialdehyde in MB-4h-treated A. thaliana. Uneven distribution of auxins via lower expression of auxin transporter genes was also determined using UPLC-ESI-QqQ MS. Application of two ROS scavengers such as N-acetyl-cysteine and L-glutathione minimized MB phytotoxic effect in A. thaliana. Therefore, MB caused severe oxidative stress, and alternatives regarding the use of MB should be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126419DOI Listing
October 2021

Molecular Mechanisms of Anti-Melanogenic Gedunin Derived from Neem Tree () Using B16F10 Mouse Melanoma Cells and Early-Stage Zebrafish.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Feb 9;10(2). Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Applied Biosciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Korea.

Melanogenesis represents a series of processes that produce melanin, a protective skin pigment (against ultraviolet rays), and determines human skin color. Chemicals reducing melanin production have always been in demand in the cosmetic market because of skincare interests, such as whitening. The main mechanism for inhibiting melanin production is the inhibition of tyrosinase (TYR), a key enzyme for melanogenesis. Here, we evaluated gedunin (Ged), a representative limonoid, for its anti-melanogenesis action. Melanin production in vitro was stimulated by alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) in B16F10 mouse melanoma cells. Ged reduced α-MSH-stimulated melanin production, inhibiting TYR activity and protein amount. We confirmed this result in vivo in a zebrafish model for melanogenesis. There was no sign of toxicity and malformation of zebrafish embryos during development in all treated concentrations. Ged reduced the number of produced zebrafish embryo pigment dots and melanin contents of embryos. The highly active concentration of Ged (100 µM) was much lower than the positive control, kojic acid (8 mM). Hence, Ged could be a fascinating candidate for anti-melanogenesis reagents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10020330DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7914499PMC
February 2021

Molecular mechanisms of developmental toxicities of azoxystrobin and pyraclostrobin toward zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos: Visualization of abnormal development using two transgenic lines.

Environ Pollut 2021 Feb 17;270:116087. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Department of Integrative Biology, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 41566, Republic of Korea; School of Applied Biosciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 41566, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Azoxystrobin (AZ) and pyraclostrobin (PY) are strobilurin fungicides that inhibit fungal mitochondrial respiration. In this study, a representative model, zebrafish (Danio rerio), was used as a test species for acute and developmental toxicity. Survival and malformation rates were observed only PY-treated embryos, with an LC value of 77.75 ppb accompanied by a dramatic decrease in hatching rate, while AZ did not show great mortality. Morphological changes were observed in PY-treated embryos with the occurrence of pericadial edema at 25 ppb. A delay in growth was observed after treatment with pyraclostrobin at 50 ppb. Use of genetically engineered Tg(cmlc:EGFP) allowed fluorescence observation during heart development. PY interfered with normal heart development via upregulation of the nppa gene responsible for the expression of natriuretic peptides. Heart function was dramatically reduced as indicated by reduced heart rates. Increased expression of the nppa gene was also seen in AZ-treated embryos. The expression level of cyp24a1 was also up-regulated, while ugt1a1 and sult1st6 were down-regulated after treatment of zebrafish embryos with AZ or PY. Overall, strobilurin fungicides might inhibit normal heart formation and function within the range of concentrations tested.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.116087DOI Listing
February 2021

Acute toxicities of fluorene, fluorene-1-carboxylic acid, and fluorene-9-carboxylic acid on zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio): Molecular mechanisms of developmental toxicities of fluorene-1-carboxylic acid.

Chemosphere 2020 Dec 11;260:127622. Epub 2020 Jul 11.

School of Applied Biosciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 41566, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

In this study, fluorene (FL), FL-1-carboxylic acid (FC-1), and FL-9-carboxylic acid (FC-9) were investigated to understand their acute toxicity by measuring inhibitory effects on hatching rates and developmental processes of zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio). For exposure concentrations up to 3000 μg/L, FC-1 alone showed acute toxicity at 1458 μg/L for LC value. FC-1 caused yolk sac and spinal deformities, and pericardial edema. Molecular studies were undertaken to understand FC-1 toxicity examining 61 genes after exposure to 5 μM (equivalent to LC value of FC-1) in embryos. In the FC-1-treated embryos, the expression of the cyp7a1 gene, involved in bile acid biosynthesis, was dramatically decreased, while the expression of the Il-1β gene involved in inflammation was remarkably increased. In addition to these findings, in FC-1-treated embryos, the expression of nppa gene related to the differentiation of the myocardium was 3-fold increased. On the other hand, cyp1a, cyp3a, ugt1a1, abcc4, mdr1, and sult1st1 responsible for detoxification of xenobiotics were upregulated in FC-9-treated embryos. Taken together, carboxylation on carbon 1 of FL increased acute toxicity in zebrafish embryos, and its toxicity might be related to morphological changes with modification of normal biological functions and lowered defense ability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.127622DOI Listing
December 2020

Author Correction: B-cell translocation gene 2 enhances fibroblast growth factor 21 production by inducing Kruppel-like factor 15.

Sci Rep 2020 Feb 13;10(1):2827. Epub 2020 Feb 13.

School of Applied Biosciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 41566, Republic of Korea.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-59784-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7018980PMC
February 2020

Induction of SIRT1 by melatonin improves alcohol-mediated oxidative liver injury by disrupting the CRBN-YY1-CYP2E1 signaling pathway.

J Pineal Res 2020 Apr 28;68(3):e12638. Epub 2020 Feb 28.

School of Applied Biosciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea.

Alcoholic liver disease is the most prevalent chronic liver disease. Melatonin is known to control many vital processes. Here, we explored a novel molecular mechanism by which melatonin-induced SIRT1 signaling protects against alcohol-mediated oxidative stress and liver injury. Gene expression profiles and metabolic changes were measured in liver specimens of mice and human subjects. Expression levels of Cb1r, Crbn, Btg2, Yy1, pro-inflammatory cytokines, and Cyp2e1 were significantly enhanced in chronic alcohol-challenged mice and human subjects. Levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), hepatic CYP2E1 protein, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were elevated in alcohol-fed WT mice but not in Cb1r antagonist-treated, Crbn null, or Yy1-silenced mice. Importantly, alcohol-induced Yy1 and Cyp2e1 expression, ROS amount, and liver injury were markedly diminished by melatonin treatment and the transduction of Sirt1 in mice, whereas this phenomenon was prominently ablated by silencing of Sirt1. Notably, SIRT1 physically interacted with YY1 and attenuated YY1 occupancy on the Cyp2e1 gene promoter. Melatonin-SIRT1 signaling ameliorates alcohol-induced oxidative liver injury by disrupting the CRBN-YY1-CYP2E1 signaling pathway. The manipulation of CRBN-YY1-CYP2E1 signaling network by the melatonin-SIRT1 pathway highlights a novel entry point for treating alcoholic liver disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpi.12638DOI Listing
April 2020

B-cell translocation gene 2 enhances fibroblast growth factor 21 production by inducing Kruppel-like factor 15.

Sci Rep 2019 03 6;9(1):3730. Epub 2019 Mar 6.

School of Applied Biosciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 41566, Republic of Korea.

Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a hormone that is vital for the regulation of metabolic homeostasis. In the present study, we report that Kruppel-like factor 15 (KLF15) is a novel mediator of b-cell translocation gene 2 (BTG2)-induced FGF21 biosynthesis. The expression levels of hepatic Fgf21, Btg2, and Klf15, and the production of serum FGF21 increased significantly in fasted and forskolin (FSK)-treated mice. The overexpression of Btg2 using an adenoviral delivery system elevated FGF21 production by upregulating Klf15 transcription. Interaction studies indicated that BTG2 was co-immunoprecipitated with KLF15 and recruited by the Fgf21 promoter. The disruption of hepatic Btg2 and Klf15 genes markedly attenuated the induction of Fgf21 expression and FGF21 biosynthesis in fasted mice. Similarly, the FSK-mediated induction of Fgf21 promoter activity was strikingly ablated by silencing of Btg2 and Klf15. Taken together, these findings suggest that KLF15 and BTG2 are mediators of fasting-induced hepatic FGF21 expression. Therefore, targeting BTG2 and KLF15 might be a therapeutically important strategy for combat metabolic dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-40359-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6403367PMC
March 2019

Combined toxicity of endosulfan and phenanthrene mixtures and induced molecular changes in adult Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

Chemosphere 2018 Mar 23;194:30-41. Epub 2017 Nov 23.

School of Applied Biosciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 41566, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Individual and combined toxicities of endosulfan (ENDO) with phenanthrene (PHE) were evaluated using zebrafish (Danio rerio) adults. The 96-h LC values for ENDO and PHE were 4.6 μg L and 920 μg L, respectively. To evaluate the mixture toxicity, LC and LC concentrations were grouped into four combinations as ENDO-LC + PHE-LC, ENDO-LC + PHE-LC, ENDO-LC + PHE-LC, and ENDO-LC + PHE-LC, and their acute toxicities were determined. The combination of LC-ENDO and LC-PHE exhibited a synergistic effect. In addition, acetylcholinesterase activity decreased in zebrafish bodies exposed to ENDO with or without PHE. Combined treatments induced higher glutathione S-transferase activity compared to individual treatments. Carboxylesterase activity increased in both heads and bodies of ENDO-treated fishes compared with PHE-treated fishes. Using RT-qPCR technique, CYP1A gene expression significantly up-regulated in all combinations, whereas CYP3A was unchanged, suggesting that enzymes involved in defense may play different roles in the detoxification. CYP7A1 gene responsible for bile acid biosynthesis is dramatically down-regulated after exposure to the synergistic combination exposure, referring that the synergistic effect may be resulted from the reduction of bile production in zebrafishes. Among gender-related genes, CYP11A1 and CYP17A1 genes in female zebrafish decreased after treatment with ENDO alone and combination of LC-ENDO and LC-PHE. This might be related to a reduction in cortisol production. The overall results indicated that ENDO and PHE were toxic to zebrafish adults both individually and in combination, and that their co-presence induced changes in the expression of genes responsible for metabolic processes and defense mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.11.128DOI Listing
March 2018

Monitoring and risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in agricultural soil from two industrialized areas.

Environ Geochem Health 2017 Apr 14;39(2):279-291. Epub 2017 Feb 14.

School of Applied Biosciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 41566, Republic of Korea.

For monitoring and risk assessment, levels and distributions of Σ PCBs in paddy soil samples collected from Gwangyang (10 sites) and Ulsan (20 sites), heavily industrialized cities in Korea, were investigated using high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. Overall, total concentrations of Σ PCBs in Gwangyang (216.4-978.6 pg g dw) and Ulsan (273.8-1824.1 pg g dw) were higher than those (106.6-222.6 pg g dw) in agricultural soil from Anseong in Korea. The TEQ (toxic equivalency) values from Gwangyang (0.06-0.40 ng TEQ kg dw) and Ulsan (0.06-0.22 ng TEQ kg dw) were higher than those (0.04-0.11 ng TEQ kg dw) in Anseong but lower than the WHO threshold level (20 ng TEQ kg). However, one of the most toxic congeners, PCB 126, gave the highest concentration, possibly posing a risk to the biota. Seven indicator PCB congeners contributed to 50-80% of the total concentration of Σ PCBs, indicating the 7 PCBs can be used as valuable indicators for monitoring. The principal component analysis and cluster analysis for the homologue profiles of PCBs indicated that all the samples from both cities had the similar PCB contamination patterns, and the major sources of the PCB contamination were most likely from the usage of Aroclor 1254 than those of Aroclors 1242 and 1260. These PCB technical mixtures were possibly significantly used by various industries including iron and steel industries in Gwangyang and petrochemical and shipbuilding industries in Ulsan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10653-017-9920-yDOI Listing
April 2017

Genomic and phenotypic analyses of Serratia fonticola strain GS2: a rhizobacterium isolated from sesame rhizosphere that promotes plant growth and produces N-acyl homoserine lactone.

J Biotechnol 2017 Jan 5;241:158-162. Epub 2016 Dec 5.

School of Applied Biosciences, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 41566, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The genus Serratia incorporates many agriculturally important species. Serratia fonticola strain GS2, isolated from a sesame rhizosphere, can produce N-acyl homoserine lactone quorum sensing signal molecules and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Here we report the complete genome sequence and phenotypic characteristics based on genomic information of this bacterium. The complete genome sequence of S. fonticola strain GS2 consists of a chromosome of 6.1 Mbp and two plasmids of 132 kbp and 94 kbp. The genome clusters for IAA and N-acyl homoserine lactone biosynthesis were identified in the genome. Subsequently, the Salkowski test and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis also revealed that the strain GS2 produces indolic compounds (27.1μgmL) and IAA (6.7μgmL) in its culture broth. HPLC analysis confirmed that the strain GS2 produced the quorum sensing signal molecules N-hexanoyl--homoserine lactone and N-octanoyl--homoserine lactone. This new information on the genome sequence and phenotype features will inform future ecological studies related to plant-microbe interactions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiotec.2016.12.002DOI Listing
January 2017

Biomarkers indicate mixture toxicities of fluorene and phenanthrene with endosulfan toward earthworm (Eisenia fetida).

Environ Geochem Health 2017 Apr 1;39(2):307-317. Epub 2016 Oct 1.

School of Applied Biosciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 702-701, Korea.

α-Endosulfan and some polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAHs) are persistent in the environment and can reach crop products via contaminated agricultural soils. They may even be present as mixtures in the soil and induce mixture toxicity in soil organisms such as earthworms. In this study, the combined toxicities of PAHs with α-endosulfan were determined in Eisenia fetida adults using an artificial soil system. α-Endosulfan and five PAHs were tested for their acute toxicity toward E. fetida in artificial soils. Only α-endosulfan, fluorene, and phenanthrene showed acute toxicities, with LC values of 9.7, 133.2, and 86.2 mg kg, respectively. A mixture toxicity assay was conducted using α-endosulfan at LC and fluorene or phenanthrene at LC in the artificial soils. Upon exposure to the mixture of fluorene and α-endosulfan, earthworms were killed in increasing numbers owing to their synergistic effects, while no other mixture showed any additional toxicity toward the earthworms. Along with the acute toxicity results, the biochemical and molecular changes in the fluorene- and phenanthrene-treated earthworms with or without α-endosulfan treatment demonstrated that enhancement of glutathione S-transferase activity was dependent on the addition of PAH chemicals, and the HSP70 gene expression increased with the addition of α-endosulfan. Taken together, these findings contribute toward understanding the adverse effects of pollutants when present separately or in combination with other types of chemicals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10653-016-9876-3DOI Listing
April 2017

Integrated biomarkers induced by chlorpyrifos in two different life stages of zebrafish (Danio rerio) for environmental risk assessment.

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2016 Apr 15;43:166-74. Epub 2016 Mar 15.

School of Applied Biosciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

This study was performed to understand how chlorpyrifos (CHL) affects zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos and adults, by exposing this model organism to various concentrations of the insecticide. The 96-h acute toxicity test to determine the effect of CHL on adult zebrafish yielded a LC50 of 709.43μg/L(-1). Small molecular weight proteins less than 25kDa and phospholipids were analyzed with MALDI-TOF MS/MS in order to compare expression patterns, revealing that some peaks were dramatically altered after CHL treatment. Whereas no acute toxicity was detected in the embryo toxicity test, malformation of zebrafish larvae was observed, with many individuals harboring curved spines. In an angiogenesis test on larvae of transgenic zebrafish, CHL did not have an inhibitory effect. Relative gene expression analyses using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of DNA from zebrafish embryos revealed that different subtypes of cytochrome P450 (CYP450), such as CYP1A and CYP3A, were significantly up-regulated in response to CHL at a concentration of 400μg/L(-1) compared to the control. The expression level of NR1I2, a CYP gene transcriptional regulator, UGT1a1, and MDR1 were all up-regulated in the CHL-treated embryos. Finally, the expression level of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and catalase (CAT) decreased, whereas that of superoxide dismutase (SOD) did not differ significantly. Our results suggest that the up-regulation of metabolic enzymes including CYP450 and MDR1 may be involved in CHL resistance in zebrafish.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2016.03.010DOI Listing
April 2016

Chlorpyrifos-induced biomarkers in Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2016 Jan 14;23(2):1071-80. Epub 2015 May 14.

School of Applied Biosciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 702-701, Korea.

Chlorpyrifos (CHL) is an organophosphate compound that is widely used as an insecticide. Due to its repeated use and high environmental residual property, CHL is frequently passed into aquatic environments by runoff. Consequently, there may be an adverse effect on aquatic vertebrate animals, including fish. Therefore, in this study, we assessed how CHL affected Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). The acute toxicity of CHL in adult fish after 96 h of exposure was determined to be 212.50, 266.79, and 412.28 μg L(-1) (LC25, LC50, and LC95, respectively). Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), glutathione S-transferase (GST), and carboxylesterase (CE) activities were obtained from the livers of dead or surviving fish, and the results showed 4.8-fold lower, 4.5-fold higher, and 18.6-fold lower activities for the AChE, GST, and CE, respectively, for 64-h exposure at a concentration of 400 μg L(-1) of CHL. In the embryo toxicity test, curved spines were observed in embryos that were exposed to CHL for 48 h in a concentration-dependent manner. With identification of biomarkers for CHL in the fish, two protein peaks, 5550.86 and 5639.79 m/z, were found to be upregulated. These two proteins can be used as protein biomarkers for CHL contamination in aquatic systems. A phosphatidyl choline with an m/z ratio of 556.32 dramatically decreased after CHL exposure in the fish; thus, it may be considered as a lipid biomarker for CHL. It is assumed as the first report to identify a phospholipid biomarker using a lipidomics approach in fish toxicology. Taken together, these results demonstrated the adverse effects of CHL on Japanese medaka and reveal several candidate biomarkers that can be used as diagnostic tools for determining CHL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-015-4598-0DOI Listing
January 2016

Determination of biomarkers for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) toxicity to earthworm (Eisenia fetida).

Environ Geochem Health 2015 Dec 29;37(6):943-51. Epub 2015 Apr 29.

School of Applied Biosciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, 702-701, Korea.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds are persistent, carcinogenic, and mutagenic. When PAHs enter agricultural soils through sewage sludge, they pose an environmental risk to soil organisms, including earthworms. Therefore, we aimed to determine the toxic effects of PAHs on earthworms. Five PAHs were used: fluorene, anthracene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene. Only fluorene and phenanthrene exhibited toxicity (LC50 values 394.09 and 114.02 g L(-1), respectively) against the earthworm Eisenia fetida. None of the other PAHs tested in this study enhanced the mortality of adult earthworm until the concentrations reached to 1000 g L(-1). After exposure to PAHs, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in E. fetida decreased in a concentration-dependent manner, and phenanthrene exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on AChE, followed by fluorene. Activity of a representative detoxifying enzyme, carboxylesterase, was dramatically reduced in E. fetida exposed to all tested PAHs in comparison with that observed in the control test. The remaining glutathione S-transferase activity significantly decreased in E. fetida after exposure to PAHs. To profile small proteins <20 kDa, SELDI-TOF MS with Q10 ProteinChips was used, and 54 proteins were identified as being significantly different from the control (p = 0.05). Among them, the expressions of three proteins at 4501.8, 4712.4, and 4747.9 m/z were only enhanced in E. fetida exposed to anthracene and pyrene. One protein with 16,174 m/z was selectively expressed in E. fetida exposed to fluorene, phenanthrene, and fluoranthene. These proteins may be potential biomarkers for the five PAHs tested in E. fetida.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10653-015-9706-zDOI Listing
December 2015

Highly selective biomarkers for pesticides developed in Eisenia fetida using SELDI-TOF MS.

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2015 Mar 8;39(2):635-42. Epub 2015 Jan 8.

School of Applied Biosciences, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702-701, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

The repeated use of pesticides, and their subsequent residues, has contributed to severe adverse effects on the environment, including risks to human health. Therefore, it is important to assess the quality of the environment to ensure it remains free from pesticide residues. The six pesticides tested in this study showed high mortality on Eisenia fetida with LC50 values ranging from 7.7 to 37.9 g L(-1). The strongest lethal effect resulted from the organochlorine insecticide endosulfan (LC50=7.7 g L(-1)). Following exposure to the carbamate pesticides, acetylcholinesterase activity in E. fetida decreased dramatically in comparison to the control. Carboxylesterase activity was only lowered in E. fetida exposed to propoxur, when compared to the control. The remaining five pesticides had no significant effect on carboxylesterase activity in E. fetida. In order to discover pesticide-specific biomarkers with differentially expressed proteins after exposure to pesticides, protein patterns of pesticide-treated E. fetida were analyzed using SELDI-TOF MS with Q10 ProteinChips. Protein patterns were compared with their intensities at the same mass-to-charge ratios (m/z). All 42 peaks had intensities with associated p-values less than 0.089, and 40 of these peaks had associated p-values of 0.05. Using SELDI-TOF MS technology, selective biomarkers for the six pesticides tested were found in E. fetida; four proteins with 5425, 5697, 9523, and 9868 m/z were consistently observed in the earthworms following exposure to the carbamates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2014.12.020DOI Listing
March 2015
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