Publications by authors named "Hwa Young Lee"

240 Publications

Role of Dendritic Cell in Diabetic Nephropathy.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jul 14;22(14). Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Laboratory of Cytokine Immunology, Department of Biomedical Science and Technology, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea.

Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most significant microvascular complications in diabetic patients. DN is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease, accounting for approximately 50% of incident cases. The current treatment options, such as optimal control of hyperglycemia and elevated blood pressure, are insufficient to prevent its progression. DN has been considered as a nonimmune, metabolic, or hemodynamic glomerular disease initiated by hyperglycemia. However, recent studies suggest that DN is an inflammatory disease, and immune cells related with innate and adaptive immunity, such as macrophage and T cells, might be involved in its development and progression. Although it has been revealed that kidney dendritic cells (DCs) accumulation in the renal tissue of human and animal models of DN require activated T cells in the kidney disease, little is known about the function of DCs in DN. In this review, we describe kidney DCs and their subsets, and the role in the pathogenesis of DN. We also suggest how to improve the kidney outcomes by modulating kidney DCs optimally in the patients with DN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22147554DOI Listing
July 2021

Mobility restrictions were associated with reductions in COVID-19 incidence early in the pandemic: evidence from a real-time evaluation in 34 countries.

Sci Rep 2021 07 2;11(1):13717. Epub 2021 Jul 2.

London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, 15-17 Tavistock Place, London, WC1H 9SH, UK.

Most countries have implemented restrictions on mobility to prevent the spread of Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), entailing considerable societal costs but, at least initially, based on limited evidence of effectiveness. We asked whether mobility restrictions were associated with changes in the occurrence of COVID-19 in 34 OECD countries plus Singapore and Taiwan. Our data sources were the Google Global Mobility Data Source, which reports different types of mobility, and COVID-19 cases retrieved from the dataset curated by Our World in Data. Beginning at each country's 100th case, and incorporating a 14-day lag to account for the delay between exposure and illness, we examined the association between changes in mobility (with January 3 to February 6, 2020 as baseline) and the ratio of the number of newly confirmed cases on a given day to the total number of cases over the past 14 days from the index day (the potentially infective 'pool' in that population), per million population, using LOESS regression and logit regression. In two-thirds of examined countries, reductions of up to 40% in commuting mobility (to workplaces, transit stations, retailers, and recreation) were associated with decreased cases, especially early in the pandemic. Once both mobility and incidence had been brought down, further restrictions provided little additional benefit. These findings point to the importance of acting early and decisively in a pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-92766-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8253807PMC
July 2021

Platycodin D attenuates airway inflammation via suppression Th2 transcription factor in a murine model of acute asthma.

J Asthma 2021 Jun 23:1-11. Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Bronchial asthma is a common chronic inflammatory condition of the airway tissue. Platycodin D (PLD) has antiinflammatory effects in a mouse model of allergic asthma. In this work, the anti-asthma potential of PLD was studied by investigation of its effect to suppress airway inflammation and mucin production, a murine model of asthma and the possible mechanisms. Mice were randomly assigned to five experimental groups: control, ovalbumin (OVA), OVA+ICS (intranasal fluticasone), OVA+PLD and OVA+PLD/ICS. Airway histological studies were evaluated by the H&E staining; IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were evaluated by ELISA; GATA3 and IRF4 mRNA of airway were measured by RT-PCR and their protein level were measured by Western blotting. Our study showed that PLD suppressed eosinophilic inflammation and mucin production in bronchial mucosa. Moreover, PLD inhibited production of Th2 cytokines such as IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. Protein production of GATA3 and IRF4, were also decreased in PLD treated OVA asthma model. Taken together, our results provided evidence that PLD inhibits the airway inflammation via suppression of Th2 transcription factor production. These findings suggest that PLD may effectively ameliorate the progression of asthma. These results suggest that PLD could be used as a therapy for allergic asthma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02770903.2021.1941084DOI Listing
June 2021

Public Preferences in Resource Allocation for Insurance Coverage of Dental Implant Service in South Korea: Citizens' Jury.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 04 14;18(8). Epub 2021 Apr 14.

Department of Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 03080, Korea.

The Korean government sought to include dental implant services for the elderly in the benefits package of the national health insurance. In 2014, the Citizens' Jury was held to discuss the topic, during which thirty jurors, randomly selected from the 2665 applicants, participated in a day-long deliberation process after having an information session on the topic by a team of experts. There was a substantial shift in opinion during the deliberation session toward a more cost-conscious view. Most jurors supported limiting the coverage of dental implant to only one tooth per individual given the extent of the financial burden that will be imposed on the population. They opposed covering implant services for the front teeth, given that the implant of front teeth generally serves aesthetic purposes rather than restoring mastication function. The government's final decision in 2014 was to offer coverage up to two teeth, regardless of tooth location. This scheme based on the jury's recommendations in 2014 has been implemented without policy failure to date, which shows that the lay public can meaningfully contribute to a decision-making process regarding controversial agendas such as benefits packages for expensive health services.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18084135DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8070823PMC
April 2021

Clinical Characteristics and Outcome of Pathologic N0 Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Patients With False Positive Mediastinal Lymph Node Metastasis on FDG PET-CT.

In Vivo 2021 May-Jun;35(3):1829-1836

Division of Pulmonology, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea;

Background/aim: Preoperative fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET-CT) is a non-invasive and useful diagnostic tool to evaluate mediastinal lymph node (LN) metastasis in lung cancer. However, there are often false-positive LN cases in FDG PET-CT. This study aimed to explore the clinical characteristics and outcome of pathologic N0 non-small cell lung cancer patients with false-positive mediastinal LN on FDG PET-CT.

Patients And Methods: We enrolled 147 patients who underwent preoperative FDG PET-CT scan and mediastinal LN dissection. These patients were re-evaluated for post-operative pathologic nodal metastasis and divided into a false-positive group and a group of others.

Results: Among 40 patients diagnosed with clinical N1-3 on FDG PET-CT, 19 (47.5%) patients were pathologic N0, meaning false-positive LN by PET-CT. Preoperative absolute platelet count and platelet-lymphocyte ratio were significantly higher in patients with pathologic N0. The presence of lymphatic invasion was significantly lower in patients with pathologic N0 than in the group of others. Recurrence-free survival was significantly shorter in patients with false positive LN than in patients with true positive LN or true negative LN at the same pathologic stage.

Conclusion: Higher absolute platelet count and PLR, lower proportion of lymphatic invasion and shorter recurrence-free survival were associated with false positive mediastinal LN on preoperative FDG PET-CT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21873/invivo.12444DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8193318PMC
June 2021

Heat-inactivated Lactobacillus plantarum nF1 promotes intestinal health in Loperamide-induced constipation rats.

PLoS One 2021 19;16(4):e0250354. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Non-Clinical Evaluation Center, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Jeonbuk National University, Biomedical Research Institute of Jeonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju, South Korea.

Constipation is a common condition that affects individuals of all ages, and prolonged constipation needs to be prevented to avoid potential complications and reduce the additional stress on individuals with pre-medical conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of heat-inactivated Lactobacillus plantarum (HLp-nF1) on loperamide-induced constipation in rats. Constipation-induced male rats were treated orally with low to high doses of HLp-nF1 and an anti-constipation medication Dulcolax for five weeks. Study has 8 groups, control group; loperamide-treated group; Dulcolax-treated group; treatment with 3.2 × 1010, 8 × 1010 and 1.6 × 1011, cells/mL HLp-nF1; Loperamide + Dulcolax treated group. HLp-nF1 treated rats showed improvements in fecal pellet number, weight, water content, intestinal transit length, and contractility compared to the constipation-induced rats. Also, an increase in the intestine mucosal layer thickness and the number of mucin-producing crypt epithelial cells were observed in HLp-nF1-treated groups. Further, the levels of inflammatory cytokines levels were significantly downregulated by treatment with HLp-nF1 and Dulcolax. Notably, the metagenomics sequencing analysis demonstrated a similar genus pattern to the pre-preparation group and control with HLp-nF1 treatment. In conclusion, the administration of >3.2 × 1010 cells/mL HLp-nF1 has a positive impact on the constipated rats overall health.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0250354PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8055018PMC
April 2021

Heat-inactivated Lactobacillus plantarum nF1 promotes intestinal health in Loperamide-induced constipation rats.

PLoS One 2021 19;16(4):e0250354. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Non-Clinical Evaluation Center, Research Institute of Clinical Medicine of Jeonbuk National University, Biomedical Research Institute of Jeonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju, South Korea.

Constipation is a common condition that affects individuals of all ages, and prolonged constipation needs to be prevented to avoid potential complications and reduce the additional stress on individuals with pre-medical conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of heat-inactivated Lactobacillus plantarum (HLp-nF1) on loperamide-induced constipation in rats. Constipation-induced male rats were treated orally with low to high doses of HLp-nF1 and an anti-constipation medication Dulcolax for five weeks. Study has 8 groups, control group; loperamide-treated group; Dulcolax-treated group; treatment with 3.2 × 1010, 8 × 1010 and 1.6 × 1011, cells/mL HLp-nF1; Loperamide + Dulcolax treated group. HLp-nF1 treated rats showed improvements in fecal pellet number, weight, water content, intestinal transit length, and contractility compared to the constipation-induced rats. Also, an increase in the intestine mucosal layer thickness and the number of mucin-producing crypt epithelial cells were observed in HLp-nF1-treated groups. Further, the levels of inflammatory cytokines levels were significantly downregulated by treatment with HLp-nF1 and Dulcolax. Notably, the metagenomics sequencing analysis demonstrated a similar genus pattern to the pre-preparation group and control with HLp-nF1 treatment. In conclusion, the administration of >3.2 × 1010 cells/mL HLp-nF1 has a positive impact on the constipated rats overall health.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0250354PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8055018PMC
April 2021

Specialist Perception of Severe Asthma in Korea: A Questionnaire Survey.

Allergy Asthma Immunol Res 2021 May;13(3):507-514

Department of Internal Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon, Korea.

The Working Group on Severe Asthma of the Korean Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology recently published an expert opinion paper on the management of severe asthma in Korea. When developing a consensus, the working group encountered several diagnostic and treatment issues and decided to perform a questionnaire survey of Korean specialists with regard to severe asthma. An e-mail with a uniform resource locator link to the questionnaire was sent to 121 asthma specialists, of whom 44.6% responded. The most commonly accepted definitions of severe asthma were a history of fatal exacerbation or an asthma-triggered need for mechanical ventilation, 3-4 oral corticosteroid (OCS) bursts/year, and maintenance of OCS therapy for 3-6 months per year. Before diagnosing severe asthma, most physicians contemplate chest computed tomography, seek to control chronic rhinosinusitis, and consider poor inhaler compliance. For patients with uncontrolled severe asthma accompanied by type 2 (T2)-high inflammation, most biologics available in Korea were considered appropriate, but gaps were apparent in terms of T2-low asthma treatments. These findings about specialist perception of diagnosis and treatment of severe asthma will inform the use of emerging new drugs and facilitate personalized therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4168/aair.2021.13.3.507DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7984944PMC
May 2021

Association between the type of provider and Cesarean section delivery in India: A socioeconomic analysis of the National Family Health Surveys 1999, 2006, 2016.

PLoS One 2021 8;16(3):e0248283. Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Harvard Center for Population & Development Studies, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Background: Prevalence of Cesarean section (C-section) is unequally distributed. Since both extremely low and high levels of C-section can not only cause adverse birth outcomes but also impose a double burden of inefficiency within maternal health care, it is important to monitor the dynamics of key factors associated with the use of C-section.

Objectives: To examine the association between type of provider and C-section in India in three-time points: 1999, 2006, and 2016, and also to assess whether this association differed across maternal education and wealth level.

Methods: Data were from three waves of cross-sectional and nationally representative Indian National Health Family Survey: Wave II (1999), III (2006), and IV (2016). Target population is women aged 15 and 49 who had an institutional delivery for the most recent live birth during the three or five years preceding the survey (depending on the survey round). Multivariate logistic regression models adjusting for state cluster effect were performed to determine the association between the type of providers and C-section. Differential association between the type of providers and C-section by maternal education and wealth level was examined by stratified analyses.

Results: The prevalence of C-section among institutional delivery increased from 20.5% in 1999 to 24.8% in 2006 while it declined to 19.4% in 2016. The positive association between private providers and C-section became stronger over the study period (Odds Ratio (OR) = 1.39, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.18-1.64 in 1999, OR = 3.71 95% CI 2.93-4.70 in 2016). The association was consistently significant across all states in 2016. The gap in C-section between public and private providers was greater among less-educated and poorer women. The ORs gradually increased from the poorest to the richest quintiles, and also from the least educated group (no formal education) to the most educated group (college graduate or above).

Conclusions: Our results suggest that disparity in C-section between private and public providers has increased over the last 15 years and was higher in lower SES women. The behavior of providers needs to be closely monitored to ensure that C-section is performed only when medically justified.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0248283PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7939292PMC
March 2021

Relieves Depressive-Like Behavior through the Restoration of Glial Loss in the Prefrontal Cortex.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 12;2021:8888841. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Department of Clinical Korean Medicine, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Republic of Korea.

, which is a halophyte and grows widely in Asian-Pacific regions, has been used for the treatment of digestive disorders in traditional oriental medicine. This study examined the potential antidepressant effect of in an astroglial degeneration model of depression, which was established based on the postmortem study of depressive patients' brain presenting diminished astrocytes in the prefrontal cortex. C57BL/6 male mice were exposed to glial ablation in the prefrontal cortex by the administration of the gliotoxin, L-alpha-aminoadipic acid (L-AAA) to induce depression. at doses of 100 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg, imipramine at a dose of 15 mg/kg, and distilled water were orally administrated to mice for 18 days. Behavioral tests including the open field test (OFT), sucrose preference test (SPT), forced swimming test (FST), and tail suspension test (TST) were carried out after 2 days of L-AAA injection. The expression levels of GFAP and NeuN in the prefrontal cortex were determined by immunohistochemistry. Mice subjected to glial ablation in the prefrontal cortex displayed decreased sucrose consumption in SPT and increased immobility time in FST and TST. Treatment with imipramine and remarkably ameliorated the behavioral despair induced by L-AAA. In addition, immunohistochemistry analysis showed that treatment with significantly restored the glial loss as indicated by the elevated GFAP expression level. These findings suggest that exerts an antidepressant effect through the restoration of glial loss under conditions of depression and can be a candidate for an antidepressant agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8888841DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7895589PMC
February 2021

Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist relieved asthmatic airway inflammation via suppression of NLRP3 inflammasome activation in obese asthma mice model.

Pulm Pharmacol Ther 2021 04 12;67:102003. Epub 2021 Feb 12.

Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Background: Obesity is a correctable factor for uncontrolled bronchial asthma. However, the effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist, a recently approved antiobestic drug, on airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and immune responses are not known.

Methods: Mice were fed with high-fat diet (HFD, 60% fat) for 8 weeks to induce obesity. Ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization and challenges were performed for 7 weeks. The mice were injected intraperitoneally with GLP-1R agonist 5 times a week for 4 weeks after OVA sensitization. After AHR measurement, expression of Th2, Th17 cytokines, and interleukin (IL)-33 were measured in BALF and lung tissues. Moreover, IL-1β and activity level of nucleotide oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) were analyzed to investigate the mechanism of GLP-1R agonist on asthmatic airway inflammation.

Results: HFD induced significant weight gain, OVA sensitization and challenge in obese mice made eosinophilic airway inflammation, and increased AHR. Treatment with GLP-1R agonist-induced weight loss suppressed eosinophilic airway inflammation and decreased AHR. Expression of IL-4, 5, and 33 was increased in BALF of obese asthma mice followed by a decrease in response to GLP-1R agonist treatment. Moreover, lung tissue H&E stain revealed that peribronchial inflammation induced by obesity and OVA was effectively suppressed by GLP-1R agonist. Expressions of NLRP3, activated caspase-1, and IL-1β were increased in lung tissues of obese asthma mice and demonstrated a decrease in response to GLP-1R agonist treatment.

Conclusions: GLP-1R agonist effectively induced weight loss, suppressed eosinophilic bronchial airway inflammation, and AHR in obese asthma mice. These effects were mediated by suppression of NLRP3 inflammasome activity and IL-1β. GLP-1R agonist is proposed as a novel anti-asthmatic agent targeting the obese asthmatics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pupt.2021.102003DOI Listing
April 2021

Corrigendum to "The correlation of IRE1α oxidation with Nox4 activation in aging-associated vascular dysfunction" [Redox Biology 37 (2020) 101727].

Redox Biol 2021 Apr 9;40:101889. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Non-Clinical Evaluation Center Biomedical Research Institute, Jeonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju, Jeonbuk, 54907, South Korea; School of Pharmacy, Jeonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk, 54907, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.redox.2021.101889DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7897848PMC
April 2021

MicroRNA-21 Inhibition Suppresses Alveolar M2 Macrophages in an Ovalbumin-Induced Allergic Asthma Mice Model.

Allergy Asthma Immunol Res 2021 Mar;13(2):312-329

Division of Allergy, Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.

Purpose: MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) influences the Th2 immune pathway by suppressing the expressions of interleukin (IL)-12 and interferon (IFN)-γ. The effects of miR-21 suppression on alveolar macrophage polarization and airway inflammation are not known.

Methods: BALB/c and miR-21 knockout (KO) mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA). The anti-miR-21 antagomir was administered to BALB/c mice by intranasal inhalation from the day of OVA sensitization. Changes in cell counts, cytokine levels in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) were examined. Total, M1, and M2 macrophages were examined in the lung tissues by immunohistochemistry (IHC). M2 macrophages from the OVA mice lung were inhaled into the anti-miR-21 antagomir-treated asthmatic mice. Moreover, the polarization of M0 to M2 macrophages upon IL-4 stimulation was analyzed after anti-miR-21 antagomir transfection.

Results: The miR-21 KO mice showed decreases in AHR, total cell and eosinophil counts in BALF, and in the levels of IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13. Expression of IL-12 and IFN-γ were increased in the miR-21 KO mice. Peribronchial inflammation and goblet cell dysplasia were significantly decreased in the lung tissues of miR-21 KO OVA mice compared to the wild type OVA mice. IHC for M1, M2, and total macrophage in the lung tissues showed that miR-21 inhalation suppressed alveolar M2 macrophages in KO mice. M2 macrophage inhalation restored AHR and eosinophilic airway inflammation in the miR-21 antagomir-treated mice. Moreover, anti-miR-21 antagomir transfection decreased the expression of M2 markers and increased the expression of M1 markers in M0 macrophages after IL-4 stimulation.

Conclusions: The results suggest that miR-21 antagonism could suppress alveolar M2 macrophage polarization, decreasing not only the Th2 eosinophilic airway inflammation but also AHR and airway remodeling process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4168/aair.2021.13.2.312DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7840870PMC
March 2021

Network Analysis of the Symptoms of Depressive Disorders Over the Course of Therapy: Changes in Centrality Measures.

Psychiatry Investig 2021 Jan 19;18(1):48-58. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Neuropsychiatry, Hanyang University Guri Hospital, Guri, Republic of Korea.

Objective: Network analysis can be used in terms of a novel psychopathological approach for depressive syndrome. We aimed to estimate the successive network structures of depressive symptoms in patients with depressive disorder using data from the Clinical Research Center for Depression study.

Methods: We enrolled 1,152 South Korean adult patients with depressive disorders who were beginning treatment for first-onset or recurrent depressive episodes. We examined the network structure of the severities of the items on the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) at baseline and at weeks 2, 12, 25, and 52. The node strength centrality of all the HAMD items at baseline and at week 2, 12, 25, and 52 in terms of network analysis.

Results: In the severity networks, the anxiety (psychic) item was the most centrally situated in the initial period (baseline and week 2), while loss of weight was the most centrally situated item in the later period (weeks 25 and 52). In addition, the number of strong edges (i.e., edges representing strong correlations) increased in the late period compared to the initial period.

Conclusion: Our findings support a period-specific and symptom-focused therapeutic approach that can provide complementary information to the unidimensional total HAMD score.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30773/pi.2020.0367DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7897865PMC
January 2021

Chalcone suppresses tumor growth through NOX4-IRE1α sulfonation-RIDD-miR-23b axis.

Redox Biol 2021 04 6;40:101853. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

School of Pharmacy, Jeonbuk National University, Jeonju, 54896, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Chalcone is a polyphenolic compound found abundantly in natural plant components. They have been acclaimed as potential antitumor compounds in multiple tumor cells. However, not much attention has been paid to elucidate its antitumor mechanism of action. Here, chalcone was demonstrated to trigger endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis through sulfonation of IRE1α by ER-localized NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4). IRE1α-sulfonation at a cysteine residue was shown to induce "regulated IRE1α-dependent decay" (RIDD) of mRNA rather than specific splicing of XBP1. The IRE1α sulfonation-induced RIDD degraded miR-23b, enhancing the expression of NOX4. The expression of NOX4 was also upregulated in breast, and prostate cancer tissue. In chalcone-administered mice in vivo, tumor growth was regressed by the consistent mechanisms "NOX4-IRE1α sulfonation-RIDD". Similarly, NOX4 activation and IRE1α sulfonation were also highly increased under severe ER stress conditions. Together, these findings suggest chalcone as a lead anticancer compound where it acts through NOX4-IRE1α-RIDD-miR-23b axis providing a promising vision of chalcone derivatives' anticancer mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.redox.2021.101853DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7806525PMC
April 2021

Characteristics of Specialist-Diagnosed Asthma-COPD Overlap in Severe Asthma: Observations from the Korean Severe Asthma Registry (KoSAR).

Allergy 2021 01 28;76(1):223-232. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Department of Internal Medicine, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: While the clinical characteristics and outcomes of asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap (ACO) have been frequently compared with those of COPD or asthma, the prevalence and features of ACO in patients with severe asthma are unclear.

Objectives: Evaluation of the prevalence and clinical features of ACO using the Korean severe asthma registry.

Methods: At the time of registration, ACO was determined in patients with severe asthma by attending specialists. Patients were classified into ACO and non-ACO groups, and the demographic and clinical characteristics of these two groups were compared.

Results: Of 482 patients with severe asthma, 23.7% had ACO. Patients in the ACO group were more likely to be male (P < .001), older (P < .001), and ex- or current smokers (P < .001) compared with those in the non-ACO group. Patients in the ACO group had lower mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (P < .001) and blood eosinophil percentage (P = .006), but higher blood neutrophil percentage (P = .027) than those in the non-ACO group. The ACO group used more inhaled long-acting muscarinic antagonist (P < .001), methylxanthine (P = .001), or sustained systemic corticosteroid (P = .002). In addition, unscheduled emergency department visits due to exacerbation were more frequent in the ACO group (P = .006).

Conclusion: Among patients with severe asthma, those with ACO were older, predominantly male, and were more likely to have a smoking history than those with asthma only. Patients with ACO used more systemic corticosteroid and had more frequent exacerbations related to emergency department visits than those with severe asthma only.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/all.14483DOI Listing
January 2021

Characteristics of Specialist-Diagnosed Asthma-COPD Overlap in Severe Asthma: Observations from the Korean Severe Asthma Registry (KoSAR).

Allergy 2021 01 28;76(1):223-232. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Department of Internal Medicine, Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.

Background: While the clinical characteristics and outcomes of asthma-chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) overlap (ACO) have been frequently compared with those of COPD or asthma, the prevalence and features of ACO in patients with severe asthma are unclear.

Objectives: Evaluation of the prevalence and clinical features of ACO using the Korean severe asthma registry.

Methods: At the time of registration, ACO was determined in patients with severe asthma by attending specialists. Patients were classified into ACO and non-ACO groups, and the demographic and clinical characteristics of these two groups were compared.

Results: Of 482 patients with severe asthma, 23.7% had ACO. Patients in the ACO group were more likely to be male (P < .001), older (P < .001), and ex- or current smokers (P < .001) compared with those in the non-ACO group. Patients in the ACO group had lower mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (P < .001) and blood eosinophil percentage (P = .006), but higher blood neutrophil percentage (P = .027) than those in the non-ACO group. The ACO group used more inhaled long-acting muscarinic antagonist (P < .001), methylxanthine (P = .001), or sustained systemic corticosteroid (P = .002). In addition, unscheduled emergency department visits due to exacerbation were more frequent in the ACO group (P = .006).

Conclusion: Among patients with severe asthma, those with ACO were older, predominantly male, and were more likely to have a smoking history than those with asthma only. Patients with ACO used more systemic corticosteroid and had more frequent exacerbations related to emergency department visits than those with severe asthma only.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/all.14483DOI Listing
January 2021

Association of community level social trust and reciprocity with mortality: a retrospective cohort study.

BMC Public Health 2020 Nov 25;20(1):1793. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Department of Family Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, South Korea.

Background: Whether community level social capital is associated with mortality within an Asian population is yet unclear.

Methods: The study population was derived from the Korean National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort. A total of 636,055 participants were followed-up during 2012-2013 for deaths from all causes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer, and other causes. Community level social trust and reciprocity at the administrative district level were derived from the Korean Community Health Survey. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to determine the adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for mortality according to levels of community level social trust and reciprocity.

Results: Compared to participants who reside in areas within the lower half of community level social trust, those who reside in areas within the upper half had lower risk of death from all causes (aHR 0.84, 95% CI 0.78-0.89), CVD (aHR 0.82, 95% CI 0.67-0.99), and cancer (aHR 0.85, 95% CI 0.73-0.98). Similarly, residing in areas in the upper half of community level social reciprocity was associated with reduced risk for all-cause mortality (aHR 0.80, 95% CI 0.75-0.86). The protective association of high community level social trust and reciprocity on mortality remained after additional adjustments for smoking, alcohol intake, and physical activity.

Conclusions: Residing in areas with high community level social trust and reciprocity may be associated with better population health status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09944-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7690021PMC
November 2020

An Examination of Burnout Predictors: Understanding the Influence of Job Attitudes and Environment.

Healthcare (Basel) 2020 Nov 20;8(4). Epub 2020 Nov 20.

Leadership Institute, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Burnout amongst healthcare employees is considered an epidemic; prior research indicates a host of associated negative consequences, though more research is needed to understand the predictors of burnout across healthcare employees. All employees in a cancer-focused academic healthcare institution were invited to participate in a bi-annual online confidential employee survey. A 72% response rate yielded 9979 complete responses. Participants completed demographic items, a validated single-item measure of burnout, and items measuring eight employee job attitudes toward their jobs and organization (agility, development, alignment, leadership, trust, resources, safety, and teamwork). Department-level characteristics, turnover, and vacancy were calculated for group level analyses. A univariate F test revealed differences in burnout level by department type ( (3, 9827) = 54.35, < 0.05) and post hoc Scheffe's tests showed employees in clinical departments reported more burnout than other departments. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that employee demographic and job-related variables (including department type) explained 8% of the variance of burnout ( (19, 7880) = 37.95, < 0.001), and employee job attitudes explained an additional 27% of the variance of burnout ( (8, 7872) = 393.18, < 0.001). Relative weights analysis at the group level showed that, of the constructs measured, alignment is the strongest predictor of burnout, followed by trust and leadership. The relationships are inverse in nature, such that more alignment is related to less burnout. Turnover and vacancy rates did not predict group level burnout. The results reported here provide evidence supporting a shift in the focus of research and practice from detection to prevention of employee burnout and from individual-focused interventions to organization-wide interventions to prevent burnout.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/healthcare8040502DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7711622PMC
November 2020

The Impact of Emotional Exhaustion on Psychological Factors in Workers with Secondary Traumatic Experiences: A Multi-Group Path Analysis.

Psychiatry Investig 2020 Nov 17;17(11):1064-1072. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Department of Psychiatry, Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan, Republic of Korea.

Objective: The objective of the present study was to explore causal pathways to understand how second traumatic experiences could affect the development of emotional exhaustion and psychiatric problems.

Methods: A total of 582 workers who had jobs vulnerable to secondary traumatic experiences were enrolled for this study. Emotional exhaustion, secondary trauma, resilience, perceived stress, depression, anxiety, and sleep problems were evaluated. A model with pathways from secondary traumatic experience score to depression and anxiety was proposed. The participants were divided into three groups according to the resilience: the low, middle and high resilience group.

Results: Resilience was a meaningful moderator between secondary traumatic experiences and psychiatric problems. In the path model, the secondary trauma and perceived stress directly and indirectly predicted perceived stress, emotional exhaustion, depression, anxiety, and sleep problems in all three groups. Direct effects of perceived stress on depression and anxiety were the largest in the low resilience group. However, direct effects of secondary trauma on perceived stress and emotional exhaustion were the largest in the high resilience group.

Conclusion: Understanding the needs of focusing for distinct psychological factors offers a valuable direction for the development of intervention programs to prevent emotional exhaustion among workers with secondary traumatic experiences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30773/pi.2019.0313DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7711118PMC
November 2020

The Impact of Emotional Exhaustion on Psychological Factors in Workers with Secondary Traumatic Experiences: A Multi-Group Path Analysis.

Psychiatry Investig 2020 Nov 17;17(11):1064-1072. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Department of Psychiatry, Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan, Republic of Korea.

Objective: The objective of the present study was to explore causal pathways to understand how second traumatic experiences could affect the development of emotional exhaustion and psychiatric problems.

Methods: A total of 582 workers who had jobs vulnerable to secondary traumatic experiences were enrolled for this study. Emotional exhaustion, secondary trauma, resilience, perceived stress, depression, anxiety, and sleep problems were evaluated. A model with pathways from secondary traumatic experience score to depression and anxiety was proposed. The participants were divided into three groups according to the resilience: the low, middle and high resilience group.

Results: Resilience was a meaningful moderator between secondary traumatic experiences and psychiatric problems. In the path model, the secondary trauma and perceived stress directly and indirectly predicted perceived stress, emotional exhaustion, depression, anxiety, and sleep problems in all three groups. Direct effects of perceived stress on depression and anxiety were the largest in the low resilience group. However, direct effects of secondary trauma on perceived stress and emotional exhaustion were the largest in the high resilience group.

Conclusion: Understanding the needs of focusing for distinct psychological factors offers a valuable direction for the development of intervention programs to prevent emotional exhaustion among workers with secondary traumatic experiences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30773/pi.2019.0313DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7711118PMC
November 2020

The Relationship Between Response-Inhibitory Event-Related Potentials and Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adult Patients with Major Depressive Disorder.

Psychiatry Investig 2020 Oct 13;17(10):996-1005. Epub 2020 Oct 13.

Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan, Republic of Korea.

Objective: Attention-deficit and poor impulse control have frequently been observed in major depressive disorder (MDD) and attention-deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Altered event-related potential (ERP) performance, such as GoNogo tasks, has been regarded as a neurocognitive process associated with attention and behavioral inhibition. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between Nogo ERP and adult ADHD in MDD.

Methods: A total of 64 participants with MDD (32 comorbid with ADHD) and 32 healthy controls aged 19-45 years were recruited; they performed GoNogo paradigms during electroencephalogram measurement. Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) were evaluated. Clinical measures and GoNogo ERP were compared between three groups: depression with ADHD, depression without ADHD, and healthy controls.

Results: MDD subjects with ADHD showed significantly decreased Nogo P3 amplitude at frontal electrode, compared with those without ADHD and healthy controls. MDD subjects with ADHD showed significantly longer Nogo N2 latency at frontal and frontocentral electrodes, compared with those without ADHD and healthy controls. In MDD subjects with ADHD, the Nogo P3 amplitude at the frontal electrode was negatively correlated with the ASRS score and inattention. The Nogo N2 latency at the frontal electrode was positively correlated with false alarm rate.

Conclusion: The decreased Nogo P3 amplitude in the frontal area might be a potential biological marker for inattention in depressed patients with ADHD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30773/pi.2020.0074DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7596285PMC
October 2020

The correlation of IRE1α oxidation with Nox4 activation in aging-associated vascular dysfunction.

Redox Biol 2020 10 14;37:101727. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Non-Clinical Evaluation Center Biomedical Research Institute, Jeonbuk National University Hospital, Jeonju, Jeonbuk, 54907, South Korea; School of Pharmacy, Jeonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk, 54907, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Oxidative stress attributable to the activation of a Nox4-containing NADPH oxidase is involved in aging-associated vascular dysfunction. However, the Nox4-induced signaling mechanism for the vascular alteration in aging remains unclear. In an aged aorta, the expression of Nox4 mRNA and protein by Nox family of genes was markedly increased compared with a young aorta. Nox4 localization mainly to ER was also established. In the aorta of Nox4 WT mice aged 23-24 months (aged), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER)/oxidative stress were markedly increased compared with the counter KO mice. Furthermore, endothelial functions including eNOS coupling process and acetylcholine-induced vasodilation were significantly disturbed in the aged WT, slightly affected in the counter KO aorta. Consistently, in d-galactose-induced in vitro aging condition, ER-ROS and its associated ER Nox4 expression and activity were highly increased. Also, in chronic d-galactose-treated condition, IRE1α phosphorylation and XBP-1 splicing and were transiently increased, but IRE1α sulfonation was robustly increased in the aging Nox4 WT condition when compared to the counter KO condition. In vitro D-gal-induced aging study, the phenomenon were abrogated with Nox4 knock-down condition and was significantly decreased in GKT, Nox4 inhibitor and 4-PBA, ER chemical chaperone-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells. The state of Nox4-based ER redox imbalance/ROS accumulation is suggested to determine the pathway "the UPR; IRE1α phosphorylation and XBP-1 splicing and the UPR failure; IRE1α cysteine-based oxidation, especially sulfonation, finally controlling aging-associated vascular dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.redox.2020.101727DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7530295PMC
October 2020

Evaluation and Management of Difficult-to-Treat and Severe Asthma: An Expert Opinion From the Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, the Working Group on Severe Asthma.

Allergy Asthma Immunol Res 2020 Nov;12(6):910-933

Department of Internal Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon, Korea.

Severe asthma (SA) presents in about 3%-5% of adult asthmatics and is responsible for over 60% of asthma-related medical expenses, posing a heavy socioeconomic burden. However, to date, a precise definition of or clear diagnostic criteria for SA have not been established, and therefore, it has been challenging for clinicians to diagnose and treat this disease. Currently, novel biologics targeting several molecules, such as immunoglobulin E, interleukin (IL)5, and IL4/IL13, have emerged, and many new drugs are under development. These have brought a paradigm shift in understanding the mechanism of SA and have also provided new treatment options. However, we need to agree on a precise definition of and its diagnostic criteria for SA. Additionally, it is necessary to explain the diagnostic criteria and to summarize current standard and additional treatment options. This review is an experts' opinion on SA from the Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy, and Clinical Immunology, the Working Group on Severe Asthma, and aims to provide a definition of and diagnostic criteria for SA, and propose future direction for SA diagnosis and management in Korea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4168/aair.2020.12.6.910DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7492516PMC
November 2020

Evaluation and Management of Difficult-to-Treat and Severe Asthma: An Expert Opinion From the Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, the Working Group on Severe Asthma.

Allergy Asthma Immunol Res 2020 Nov;12(6):910-933

Department of Internal Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon, Korea.

Severe asthma (SA) presents in about 3%-5% of adult asthmatics and is responsible for over 60% of asthma-related medical expenses, posing a heavy socioeconomic burden. However, to date, a precise definition of or clear diagnostic criteria for SA have not been established, and therefore, it has been challenging for clinicians to diagnose and treat this disease. Currently, novel biologics targeting several molecules, such as immunoglobulin E, interleukin (IL)5, and IL4/IL13, have emerged, and many new drugs are under development. These have brought a paradigm shift in understanding the mechanism of SA and have also provided new treatment options. However, we need to agree on a precise definition of and its diagnostic criteria for SA. Additionally, it is necessary to explain the diagnostic criteria and to summarize current standard and additional treatment options. This review is an experts' opinion on SA from the Korean Academy of Asthma, Allergy, and Clinical Immunology, the Working Group on Severe Asthma, and aims to provide a definition of and diagnostic criteria for SA, and propose future direction for SA diagnosis and management in Korea.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4168/aair.2020.12.6.910DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7492516PMC
November 2020

Altered cortical functional network in drug-naive adult male patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A resting-state electroencephalographic study.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2021 03 8;106:110056. Epub 2020 Aug 8.

Department of Psychiatry, Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Relatively little is known about the neurophysiology of adult Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Brain network analysis can yield important insights into the neuropathology in adult ADHD. The objective of this study was to investigate source-level cortical functional network using resting-state electroencephalography (EEG) in drug-naive adult patients with ADHD. Resting-state EEG was performed for 30 adult male patients with ADHD and 27 male healthy controls. Source-level weighted functional networks based on graph theory were evaluated, including strength, clustering coefficient (CC) and path length (PL) in six frequency bands. At the global level, strength (η = 0.167) and CC (η = 0.156) were lower while PL (η = 0.159) was higher for the high beta band in the ADHD patient group compared to healthy controls. At the nodal level, CCs of the high beta band were lower in the left middle temporal gyrus (η = 0.244), right inferior occipital cortex (η = 0.214), right posterior transverse collateral sulcus (η = 0.237), and right anterior occipital sulcus (η = 0.251) for the adult ADHD group. Furthermore, the nodal-level high beta band CCs of the left middle temporal gyrus and right anterior occipital sulcus were significantly negatively correlated with ADHD symptoms. The altered cortical functional network showed inefficient connectivity in the left middle temporal gyrus, belonging to the default mode network, the right inferior occipital cortex, belonging to the extrastriate visual resting state network, the right posterior transverse collateral sulcus, belonging to the visual network, and the anterior occipital sulcus, reflecting visual attention, which might affect the pathophysiology of ADHD. Taken together, these attenuated network inefficiencies in adult patients with ADHD may lead to suboptimal information processing and affect symptoms of ADHD, such as inattention and hyperactivity. Our findings should be further replicated using longitudinal study designs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpbp.2020.110056DOI Listing
March 2021

Mismatch negativity indices and functional outcomes in unipolar and bipolar depression.

Sci Rep 2020 07 30;10(1):12831. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Department of Psychiatry, College of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital, 31 Suncheonhyang 6-gil, Dongnam-gu, Cheonan, 31151, Republic of Korea.

The aim of the study was to explore the association between functional outcomes and mismatch negativity (MMN) activity in participants with mood disorders. The study participants were 27 subjects with major depressive disorder (MDD), 29 subjects with bipolar disorder (BD), and 33 healthy controls who performed a passive auditory oddball paradigm while electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded. Peak amplitudes and source activity of the MMN were compared across groups. Mood and anxiety symptoms were evaluated. The functional levels were the lowest in the BD group, followed by the MDD and healthy control groups. The subjects with BD had significantly lower MMN amplitudes at the frontal and frontocentral electrodes than the healthy controls. The source activity of the MMN from the left anterior cingulate cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, and middle frontal gyrus was significantly increased in the BD group compared to the MDD group. Significant correlations were detected between the functional outcomes and MMN amplitudes at frontal and frontocentral sites. The functional outcome was significantly correlated with left frontal regions. In conclusion, MMN activity appears to be a promising candidate as an evaluation tool for functional outcomes in mood disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-69776-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7393365PMC
July 2020

Urban particulate matter regulates tight junction proteins by inducing oxidative stress via the Akt signal pathway in human nasal epithelial cells.

Toxicol Lett 2020 Oct 17;333:33-41. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

Division of Pulmonary, Allergy and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Recent studies have revealed that increased reactive oxidative stress (ROS) induced by particulate matter (PM) affects tight junction (TJ) functions; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect have not been evaluated fully. Cultured human epithelial cells obtained from inferior turbinate tissues were exposed to an urban PM (UPM) standard reference material (SRM 1648a). Intracellular ROS level and expression of proinflammatory cytokines and TJ proteins were examined. Expression level of phosphorylated (p)-Akt, p38, p65 were compared between exposed and unexposed cells. Cells were pretreated with the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or Akt inhibitor MK-2206 before exposure to determine whether the changes in cellular ROS and TJ protein expression could be reversed. Exposure to UPM significantly increased ROS levels and inflammatory cytokine expression levels, and decreased expression of TJ proteins zonula occludins (ZO)-1, occludin, claudin-1, and E-cadherin. UPM exposure increased p-Akt, p-p38, and p65 expression levels, and NAC pretreatment reversed these effects. Akt inhibition decreased UPM-induced ROS formation and p38 and p65 protein phosphorylation, and restored the decreased ZO-1 and E-cadherin expression. Akt inhibition and ROS scavenging may provide targets for maintaining epithelial integrity by restoring decreased TJ protein expression during exposure to UPM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2020.07.017DOI Listing
October 2020

Antidepressant effects of ginsenoside Rf on behavioral change in the glial degeneration model of depression by reversing glial loss.

J Ginseng Res 2020 Jul 22;44(4):603-610. Epub 2019 Aug 22.

College of Korean Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: Depression is a common neuropsychiatric disease that shows astrocyte pathology. Ginsenoside Rf (G-Rf) is a saponin found in which has been used to treat neuropsychiatric diseases. We aimed to investigate antidepressant properties of G-Rf when introduced into the L-alpha-aminoadipic acid (L-AAA)-infused mice model which is representative of a major depressive disorder that features diminished astrocytes in the brain.

Methods: L-AAA was infused into the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of mice to induce decrease of astrocytes. Mice were orally administered G-Rf (20 mg/kg) as well as vehicle only or imipramine (20 mg/kg) as controls. Depression-like behavior of mice was evaluated using forced swimming test (FST) and tail suspension test (TST). We observed recovery of astroglial impairment and increased proliferative cells in the PFC and its accompanied change in the hippocampus by Western blot and immunohistochemistry to assess the effect of G-Rf.

Results: After injection of L-AAA into the PFC, mice showed increased immobility time in FST and TST and loss of astrocytes without significant neuronal change in the PFC. G-Rf-treated mice displayed significantly more decreased immobility time in FST and TST than did vehicle-treated mice, and their immobility time almost recovered to those of the sham mice and imipramine-treated mice. G-Rf upregulated glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression and Ki-67 expression in the PFC reduced by L-AAA and also alleviated astroglial change in the hippocampus.

Conclusion: G-Rf markedly reversed depression-like behavioral changes and exhibited protective effect against the astrocyte ablation in the PFC induced by L-AAA. These protective properties suggest that G-Rf might be a therapeutic agent for major depressive disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgr.2019.08.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7322760PMC
July 2020

Development of End Stage Renal Disease after Long-Term Ingestion of Chaga Mushroom: Case Report and Review of Literature.

J Korean Med Sci 2020 May 18;35(19):e122. Epub 2020 May 18.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea.

Chaga mushrooms are widely used in folk remedies and in alternative medicine. Contrary to many beneficial effects, its adverse effect is rarely reported. We here report a case of end-stage renal disease after long-term taking Chaga mushroom. A 49-year-old Korean man with end stage renal disease (ESRD) was transferred to our hospital. Review of kidney biopsy finding was consistent with chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis with oxalate crystal deposits and drug history revealed long-term exposure to Chaga mushroom powder due to intractable atopic dermatitis. We suspected the association between Chaga mushroom and oxalate nephropathy, and measured the oxalate content of remained Chaga mushroom. The Chaga mushroom had extremely high oxalate content (14.2/100 g). Estimated daily oxalate intake of our case was 2 times for four years and 5 times for one year higher than that of usual diet. Chaga mushroom is a potential risk factor of chronic kidney disease considering high oxalate content. Nephrologist should consider oxalate nephropathy in ESRD patients exposed to Chaga mushrooms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e122DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7234858PMC
May 2020
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