Publications by authors named "Huy Nguyen"

548 Publications

2D-quantitative structure-activity relationships model using PLS method for anti-malarial activities of anti-haemozoin compounds.

Malar J 2021 Jun 11;20(1):264. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Department of Immunogenetics, Institute of Tropical Medicine (NEKKEN), Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki, 852-8523, Japan.

Background: Emergence of cross-resistance to current anti-malarial drugs has led to an urgent need for identification of potential compounds with novel modes of action and anti-malarial activity against the resistant strains. One of the most promising therapeutic targets of anti-malarial agents related to food vacuole of malaria parasite is haemozoin, a product formed by the parasite through haemoglobin degradation.

Methods: With this in mind, this study developed two-dimensional-quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) models of a series of 21 haemozoin inhibitors to explore the useful physicochemical parameters of the active compounds for estimation of anti-malarial activities. The 2D-QSAR model with good statistical quality using partial least square method was generated after removing the outliers.

Results: Five two-dimensional descriptors of the training set were selected: atom count (a_ICM); adjacency and distance matrix descriptor (GCUT_SLOGP_2: the third GCUT descriptor using atomic contribution to logP); average total charge sum (h_pavgQ) in pKa prediction (pH = 7); a very low negative partial charge, including aromatic carbons which have a heteroatom-substitution in "ortho" position (PEOE_VSA-0) and molecular descriptor (rsynth: estimating the synthesizability of molecules as the fraction of heavy atoms that can be traced back to starting material fragments resulting from retrosynthetic rules), respectively. The model suggests that the anti-malarial activity of haemozoin inhibitors increases with molecules that have higher average total charge sum in pKa prediction (pH = 7). QSAR model also highlights that the descriptor using atomic contribution to logP or the distance matrix descriptor (GCUT_SLOGP_2), and structural component of the molecules, including topological descriptors does make for better anti-malarial activity.

Conclusions: The model is capable of predicting the anti-malarial activities of anti-haemozoin compounds. In addition, the selected molecular descriptors in this QSAR model are helpful in designing more efficient compounds against the P. falciparum 3D7A strain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12936-021-03775-2DOI Listing
June 2021

Association between radiotherapy and obstructive sleep apnea in head and neck cancer patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Auris Nasus Larynx 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

School of Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8523, Japan. Electronic address:

Objective: Our aim was to investigate association between OSA and radiotherapy in head and neck cancer patients.

Methods: On 9th of September 2018, we have searched 12 electronic databases to retrieve relevant studies. All eligible studies that assessed association between OSA and radiotherapy in head and neck cancer patients were included in our meta-analysis. Quality assessment of included studies was done using the NIH tools for cohort, cross-sectional and case series studies.

Results: Fourteen studies met our study selection criteria, and six studies were eligible for our meta-analysis. There was no significant association between occurrence of OSA and radiotherapy in head and neck cancer patients (Odds ratio 1.54, 95% CI [0.66-3.60]; P  =  0.322).

Conclusion: These findings point to no significant association between OSA risk and radiotherapy in head and neck cancer patients. We suggest more studies to be conducted to investigate any confounders that may influence the effect of radiotherapy on development of OSA in head and neck cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anl.2021.04.014DOI Listing
June 2021

Stable expression of the human thrombomodulin transgene in pig endothelial cells is associated with a reduction in the inflammatory response.

Cytokine 2021 Jun 4:155580. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Xenotransplantation Program, Department of Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.

Background: Xenotransplantation is associated with an inflammatory response. The proinflammatory cytokine, TNF-α, downregulates the expression of thrombomodulin (TBM), and induces coagulation dysfunction. Although human (h) TBM-transgenic pigs (p) have been developed to reduce coagulation dysfunction, the effect of TNF-α on the expression of hTBM and its functional activity has not been fully investigated. The aims of this study were to investigate (i) whether the expression of hTBM on pig (p) cells is down-regulated during TNF-α stimulation, and (ii) whether cells from hTBM pigs regulate the inflammatory response.

Methods: TNF-α-producing T, B, and natural killer cells in blood from baboons with pig heart or kidney xenografts were investigated by flow cytometry. TNF-α staining in the grafts was detected by immunohistochemistry. Aortic endothelial cells (AECs) from GTKO/CD46 and GTKO/CD46/hTBM pigs were stimulated by hTNF-α, and the expression of the inflammatory/coagulation regulatory protein, TBM, was investigated.

Results: After pig organ xenotransplantation, there was a trend to increases in TNF-α-producing T and natural killer cells in the blood of baboons. In vitro observations demonstrated that after hTNF-α stimulation, there was a significant reduction in the expression of endogenous pTBM on pAECs, and a significant increase in the expression of inflammatory molecules. Blocking of NF-κB signaling significantly up-regulated pTBM expression, and suppressed the inflammatory response induced by hTNF-α in pAECs. Whereas the expression of pTBM mRNA was significantly reduced by hTNF-α stimulation, hTBM expression on the GTKO/CD46/hTBM pAECs was not affected. Furthermore, after hTNF-α stimulation, there was significant suppression of expression of inflammatory molecules on GTKO/CD46/hTBM pAECs compared to GTKO/CD46 pAECs.

Conclusions: The stable expression of hTBM in pig cells may locally regulate the inflammatory response. This will help suppress the inflammatory response and prevent coagulation dysregulation after xenotransplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2021.155580DOI Listing
June 2021

Rising incidence of mucormycosis in patients with COVID-19: another challenge for India amidst the second wave?

Lancet Respir Med 2021 Jun 3. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

School of Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(21)00265-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8175046PMC
June 2021

Evidence that sensitization to triple-knockout pig cells will not be detrimental to subsequent allotransplantation.

Xenotransplantation 2021 May 30:e12701. Epub 2021 May 30.

Xenotransplantation Program, Department of Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.

The current evidence is that sensitization to a pig xenograft does not result in the development of antibodies that cross-react with alloantigens, and therefore, sensitization to a pig xenograft would not be detrimental to the outcome of a subsequent allograft. This evidence relates almost entirely to the transplantation of cells or organs from wild-type or α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene-knockout (GTKO) pigs. However, it is not known whether recipients of triple-knockout (TKO) pig grafts who become sensitized to TKO pig antigens develop antibodies that cross-react with alloantigens and thus be detrimental to a subsequent organ allotransplant. We identified a single baboon (B1317) in which no (or minimal) serum anti-TKO pig antibodies could be measured-in our experience unique among baboons. We sensitized it by repeated subcutaneous injections of TKO pig peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in the absence of any immunosuppressive therapy. After TKO pig PBMC injection, there was a transient increase in anti-TKO pig IgM, followed by a sustained increase in IgG binding to TKO cells. In contrast, there was no serum IgM or IgG binding to PBMCs from any of a panel of baboon PBMCs (n = 8). We conclude that sensitization to TKO pig PBMCs in the baboon did not result in the development of antibodies that also bound to baboon cells, suggesting that there would be no detrimental effect of sensitization on a subsequent organ allotransplant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/xen.12701DOI Listing
May 2021

Evidence suggesting that deletion of expression of N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) in the organ-source pig is associated with increased antibody-mediated rejection of kidney transplants in baboons.

Xenotransplantation 2021 May 25:e12700. Epub 2021 May 25.

Xenotransplantation Program, Department of Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.

Pigs deficient in three glycosyltransferase enzymes (triple-knockout [TKO] pigs) and expressing "protective" human transgenes are likely sources of organs for transplantation into human recipients. Testing of human sera against red blood cells (RBCs) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from TKO pigs has revealed minimal evidence of natural antibody binding. However, unlike humans, baboons exhibit natural antibody binding to TKO pig cells. The xenoantigen specificities of these natural antibodies are postulated to be one or more carbohydrate moieties exposed when N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) is deleted. The aim of this study was to compare the survival of renal grafts in baboons from pigs that either expressed Neu5Gc (GTKO pigs; Group1, n = 5) or did not express Neu5Gc (GTKO/CMAHKO [DKO] or TKO pigs; Group2, n = 5). An anti-CD40mAb-based immunosuppressive regimen was administered in both groups. Group1 kidneys functioned for 90-260 days (median 237, mean 196 days), with histopathological features of antibody-mediated rejection in two kidneys. Group2 kidneys functioned for 0-183 days (median 35, mean 57), with all of the grafts exhibiting histologic features of antibody-mediated rejection. These findings suggest that the absence of expression of Neu5Gc on pig kidneys impacts graft survival in baboon recipients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/xen.12700DOI Listing
May 2021

Predicting atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery using a simplified risk index.

J Electrocardiol 2021 Apr 23;67:45-49. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Online Research Club (http://www.onlineresearchclub.org), Nagasaki, Japan; School of Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8523, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: Postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) is a common complication after cardiac surgery and can lead to increased risk of postoperative adverse events. However, atrial fibrillation and postoperative adverse events are preventable. In this study, a risk index was developed to predict atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery.

Methods: A prospective cohort study of 405 patients who had undergone adult cardiac surgery from 2015 September to 2016 August at Heart Institute of HCMC and Cho Ray Hospital were obtained. In order to predict POAF, a logistic regression model was developed, and a risk score was derived and validated by bootstrap.

Results: In our study, 98 patients developed POAF (24.2%). The risk score included three significant risk factors (age ≥ 60, left atrial diameter > 41 mm, Coronary Artery Bypass Graft with concomitant mitral valve replacement or repair) that were consistent with other reports. Each of these risk factors was assigned one point. The total risk score ranges from 0 to 3 (AUC = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.63-0.75) with the best cutoff point at 1. According to this scoring system, the incidences of POAF in patients associated with each score of 0, 1, 2, and 3 were 8.6%, 30.1%, 40.8%, and 58.3% respectively. Bootstrapping with 5000 samples confirmed the final model provided was consistent with predictions.

Conclusions: We developed and validated a simple risk score based on clinical variables that can be obtained before surgery in order to accurately predict the risk of POAF in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jelectrocard.2021.03.012DOI Listing
April 2021

Saphenous vein harvesting techniques for coronary artery bypass grafting: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Coron Artery Dis 2021 May 18. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine Department of Medical Statistics and Informatics, Faculty of Public Health, University of Medicine and Pharmacy at Ho Chi Minh City, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam Online Research Club (http://www.onlineresearchclub.org), School of Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan Faculty of Medicine - University of Tripoli, Tripoli, Libya Milton Keynes University Hospital, Milton Keynes, UK School of Medicine, Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences, Sabzevar, Iran Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Sohag Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt Division of Hepato-Biliary-Pancreatic Surgery and Transplantation, Department of Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan School of Medicine, Tanta University, Tanta Faculty of Clinical Pharmacy, Fayoum university, Fayoum, Egypt Pediatric Department, Children's University Hospital, Damascus University, Damascus, Syria Department of Medical Oncology, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio, USA School of Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan.

The great saphenous vein (GSV) graft remains a frequently used conduit for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. The optimal technique for GSV harvesting has been the subject of on-going controversy. We therefore sought to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of all available GSV harvesting techniques in CABG. A systematic search of 12 electronic databases was performed to identify all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of any GSV harvesting technique, including conventional vein harvesting (CVH), no-touch, standard bridging technique (SBT) and endoscopic vein harvesting (EVH) techniques. We investigated safety and long-term efficacy outcomes. All outcomes were analyzed using the frequentist network meta-analysis. A total of 6480 patients from 34 RCTs were included. For safety outcomes, EVH reduced 91% and 77% risk of wound infection compared to no-touch and CVH, respectively. EVH and SBT also significantly reduced the risk of sensibility disorder and postoperative pain. The techniques were not significantly different regarding long-term efficacy outcomes, including mortality, myocardial infarction and graft patency. For GSV harvesting for CABG, EVH techniques are the most favorable, but in case of using an open technique, no-touch is more recommended than CVH. More effective and safer procedures should be investigated for GSV harvesting in CABG.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCA.0000000000001048DOI Listing
May 2021

Exchange transfusion in the management of critical pertussis in young infants: a case series.

Vox Sang 2021 May 18. Epub 2021 May 18.

School of Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, Japan.

Background And Objectives: It is proposed that severe leucocytosis mainly contributes to pulmonary hypertension by blocking pulmonary capillaries and restricting blood flow. Exchange transfusion (ET) in pertussis has been demonstrated as a safe and useful technique for depleting the leucocyte mass. We aim to discuss four cases of pertussis-induced respiratory distress and the effectiveness of ET in such a setting.

Materials And Methods: We conducted a retrospective case series at the Infectious Disease Department of Children's Hospital 2 in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, and included four pertussis patients that were confirmed by PCR tests on respiratory secretions, presented with severe leucocytosis and respiratory distress and required mechanical ventilation.

Results: Among the included patients, three underwent a double volume ET for leucodepletion, two of whom were discharged after the procedure with proper vitals and laboratory test results. On the other hand, one patient died despite ET, performed late in the course of the disease. Exchange transfusion was not performed in the last patient who died as well.

Conclusion: Early ET may be a useful and rapid life-saving treatment in children with critical pertussis and severe leucocytosis before cardiopulmonary complications appear.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vox.13085DOI Listing
May 2021

Quality assessment tools used in systematic reviews of in vitro studies: A systematic review.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2021 May 8;21(1):101. Epub 2021 May 8.

School of Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki, 852-8523, Japan.

Background: Systematic reviews (SRs) and meta-analyses (MAs) are commonly conducted to evaluate and summarize medical literature. This is especially useful in assessing in vitro studies for consistency. Our study aims to systematically review all available quality assessment (QA) tools employed on in vitro SRs/MAs.

Method: A search on four databases, including PubMed, Scopus, Virtual Health Library and Web of Science, was conducted from 2006 to 2020. The available SRs/MAs of in vitro studies were evaluated. DARE tool was applied to assess the risk of bias of included articles. Our protocol was developed and uploaded to ResearchGate in June 2016.

Results: Our findings reported an increasing trend in publication of in vitro SRs/MAs from 2007 to 2020. Among the 244 included SRs/MAs, 126 articles (51.6%) had conducted the QA procedure. Overall, 51 QA tools were identified; 26 of them (51%) were developed by the authors specifically, whereas 25 (49%) were pre-constructed tools. SRs/MAs in dentistry frequently had their own QA tool developed by the authors, while SRs/MAs in other topics applied various QA tools. Many pre-structured tools in these in vitro SRs/MAs were modified from QA tools of in vivo or clinical trials, therefore, they had various criteria.

Conclusion: Many different QA tools currently exist in the literature; however, none cover all critical aspects of in vitro SRs/MAs. There is a need for a comprehensive guideline to ensure the quality of SR/MA due to their precise nature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-021-01295-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8106836PMC
May 2021

TIRR inhibits the 53BP1-p53 complex to alter cell-fate programs.

Mol Cell 2021 Apr 29. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Department of Biological Chemistry & Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA; Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. Electronic address:

53BP1 influences genome stability via two independent mechanisms: (1) regulating DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair and (2) enhancing p53 activity. We discovered a protein, Tudor-interacting repair regulator (TIRR), that associates with the 53BP1 Tudor domain and prevents its recruitment to DSBs. Here, we elucidate how TIRR affects 53BP1 function beyond its recruitment to DSBs and biochemically links the two distinct roles of 53BP1. Loss of TIRR causes an aberrant increase in the gene transactivation function of p53, affecting several p53-mediated cell-fate programs. TIRR inhibits the complex formation between the Tudor domain of 53BP1 and a dimethylated form of p53 (K382me2) that is poised for transcriptional activation of its target genes. TIRR mRNA expression levels negatively correlate with the expression of key p53 target genes in breast and prostate cancers. Further, TIRR loss is selectively not tolerated in p53-proficient tumors. Therefore, we establish that TIRR is an important inhibitor of the 53BP1-p53 complex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2021.03.039DOI Listing
April 2021

Berectones A and B: Two new rotenoids from the aerial parts of .

Nat Prod Res 2021 May 7:1-6. Epub 2021 May 7.

Research Unit in Natural Products Chemistry and Bioactivities, Faculty of Science and Technology, Thammasat University Lampang Campus, Lampang, Thailand.

Two previously unreported rotenoids, berectones A and B ( and ), along with four known compounds, 3,3',4'-tri--methylellagic acid (), kaempferol (), 7,4'-dihydroxy-8-methoxyisoflavone (), and -caffeoyltyramine () were isolated from the aerial parts of . The structures of all isolated compounds were fully characterized using spectroscopic data, as well as comparison with the previous literature. Compound exhibited the strongest inhibitory activity toward glucosidase with IC value of 4.74 µM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2021.1920586DOI Listing
May 2021

From lockdown to vaccines: challenges and response in Nepal during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Lancet Respir Med 2021 Apr 28. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

School of Tropical Medicine and Global Health (TMGH), Nagasaki University, Nagasaki 852-8523, Japan. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2213-2600(21)00208-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8081397PMC
April 2021

Design and Implementation of 2D MIMO-Based Optical Camera Communication Using a Light-Emitting Diode Array for Long-Range Monitoring System.

Sensors (Basel) 2021 Apr 26;21(9). Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Department of Electronics Engineering, Kookmin University, Seoul 02707, Korea.

Wireless technologies that use radio frequency (RF) waveforms are common in wireless communication systems, such as the mobile communication, satellite system, and Internet of Things (IoT) systems. It is more advantageous than wired communication because of the ease of installation. However, it can negatively impact human health if high frequencies are used to transmit data. Therefore, researchers are exploring the potential of optical wireless communication as an alternative, which uses the visible light bandwidth instead of RF waveforms. Three possibilities are being investigated: visible light communication, light fidelity, and optical camera communication. In this paper, we propose a multiple-input multiple-output modulation scheme using a light-emitting diode (LED) array, which is applicable to the IoT system, based on on-off keying modulation in the time domain. This scheme is compatible with the two popular types of camera in the market, rolling shutter cameras and global shutter cameras, as well as the closed-circuit television camera, which is used in factories, buildings, etc. Despite the small size of the LED array, implementing this scheme with 10 links in different positions at a communication distance of 20 m is possible for efficient performance (low error rate) by controlling the exposure time, shutter speed, focal length, channel coding and applying the matched filter.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s21093023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8123491PMC
April 2021

Immunological selection and monitoring of patients undergoing pig kidney transplantation.

Xenotransplantation 2021 Apr 21:e12686. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Xenotransplantation Program, Department of Surgery, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, USA.

Pig kidney xenotransplantation has the potential to alleviate the current shortage of deceased and living human organs and provide patients with end-stage renal disease with a greater opportunity for long-term survival and a better quality of life. In recent decades, advances in the genetic engineering of pigs and in immunosuppressive therapy have permitted the resolution of many historical obstacles to the success of pig kidney transplantation in nonhuman primates. Pig kidney xenotransplantation may soon be translated to the clinic. Given the potential risks of kidney xenotransplantation, particularly of immunologic rejection of the graft, potential patients must be carefully screened for inclusion in the initial clinical trials and immunologically monitored diligently post-transplantation. We provide an overview of the immunological methods we believe should be used to (i) screen potential patients for the first clinical trials to exclude those with a higher risk of rejection, and (ii) monitor patients with a pig kidney graft to determine their immunological response to the graft.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/xen.12686DOI Listing
April 2021

Discordance between quantitative ultrasound and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in bone mineral density: The Vietnam Osteoporosis Study.

Osteoporos Sarcopenia 2021 Mar 20;7(1):6-10. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

School of Biomedical Engineering, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Objectives: Calcaneal quantitative ultrasound measurement (QUS) has been considered an alternative to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) based bone mineral density (BMD) for assessing bone health. This study sought to examine the utility of QUS as an osteoporosis screening tool by evaluating the correlation between QUS and DXA.

Methods: The study was a part of the Vietnam Osteoporosis Study that involved 1270 women and 773 men aged 18 years and older. BMD at the femoral neck, total hip and lumbar spine was measured using DXA. Osteoporosis was diagnosed based on the femoral neck T-score using World Health Organization criteria. Broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) at the calcaneus was measured by QUS. The concordance between BUA and BMD was analyzed by the linear regression model.

Results: In all individuals, BUA modestly correlated with femoral neck BMD (r = 0.35; P < 0.0001) and lumbar spine BMD (r = 0.34; P < 0.0001) in both men and women. In individuals aged 50 years and older, approximately 16% (n = 92/575) of women and 3.2% (n = 10/314) of men were diagnosed to have osteoporosis. Only 0.9% (n = 5/575) women and 1.0% (n = 3/314) men were classified as "Low BUA". The kappa coefficient of concordance between BMD and BUA classification was 0.09 (95% CI, 0.04 to 0.15) for women and 0.12 (95% CI, 0.03 to 0.22) for men.

Conclusions: In this population-based study, QUS BUA modestly correlated with DXA BMD, suggesting that BUA is not a reliable method for screening of osteoporosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.afos.2021.03.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8044595PMC
March 2021

Pulmonary metastasis as a primary manifestation of gestational choriocarcinoma in a third trimester pregnancy.

Gynecol Oncol Rep 2021 May 31;36:100762. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Wayne State University School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 3980 John R, 7-Brush N, MB #165, Detroit, MI 48201, USA.

•Choriocarcinomas can follow molar, ectopic, or normal pregnancies.•The early diagnosis and treatment of choriocarcinomas is imperative.•Atypical symptoms in pregnancy should raise suspicion for choriocarcinoma.•Choriocarcinoma must always be in the differential in uncomplicated term pregnancies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gore.2021.100762DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8042422PMC
May 2021

Clinical features and outcomes of neonatal dengue at the Children's Hospital 1, Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam.

J Clin Virol 2021 May 9;138:104758. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

School of Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki, 852-8523, Japan; Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang 550000, Viet Nam. Electronic address:

Objectives Neonatal dengue has been reported in the literature with contradictory findings of clinical characteristics and diagnosis; thereby, misdiagnosis of neonatal dengue has been frequently reported. We aim to delve into the epidemiology, clinical features, and outcomes of neonatal dengue, thus avoid misdiagnosis and obtain early intervention. Study design A retrospective study was conducted at Children's Hospital 1, Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam with laboratory-confirmed dengue in neonates by positive viral antigen nonstructural protein one rapid test (NS1) and positive IgM antibody for dengue by MAC-ELISA. Results We have included 32 neonates in this study with 25% cases were misdiagnosed with neonatal sepsis, and 12.5% cases were misdiagnosed with neonatal immune thrombocytopenia at the beginning. The median time between the first day of the mother's onset of fever and childbirth was -1 days (IQR: -2, 2). The patient's clinical manifestation included: petechiae 87.5% (28/32), pharyngeal mucosal hemorrhage 6.3% (2/32), and hepatomegaly occurred 75% (24/32). In the febrile phase (day of illness 1-3), the mean white blood cell (WBC) counts were 7800 ± 800/mm and platelets were 97,111 ± 37,826/mm. In the critical phase (day of illness 4-6), the mean WBC counts were 13,400 ± 2800/mm, and platelets were 30,100 ± 5749/mm. All mothers (100%) had laboratory-confirmed dengue by NS1 positive in the perinatal period. Conclusions The findings emphasize that early diagnosis of neonatal dengue should be based on a history of maternal illness, NS1 rapid test, and clinical presentation such as petechiae, hepatomegaly, and low platelet counts in the febrile phase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2021.104758DOI Listing
May 2021

Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy among people living with HIV and associated high-risk behaviours and clinical characteristics: A cross-sectional survey in Vietnam.

Int J STD AIDS 2021 Apr 16:9564624211002405. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Graduate School of Public Health, 83911St Luke's International University, Tokyo, Japan.

Although Vietnam has promoted the utilisation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) towards HIV elimination targets, adherence to treatment has remained under-investigated. We aimed to describe high-risk behaviours and clinical characteristics by adherence status and to identify the factors associated with non-adherence. We included 426 people living with HIV (PLWH) currently or previously involved in HAART. Most participants were men (75.4%), young (33.6 years), with low income and low education levels. Non-adherent PLWH (11.5%) were more likely to have a larger number of sex partners (-value = 0.053), sex without condom use (-value = 0.007) and not receive result at hospital or voluntary test centre (-value = 0.001). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that demographic (education levels), sexual risk behaviours (multiple sex partners and sex without using condom) and clinical characteristics (time and facility at first time received HIV-positive result) were associated with HAART non-adherence. There are differences in associated factors between women (education levels and place of HIV testing) and men (multiple sex partners). Gender-specific programs, changing risky behaviours and reducing harms among PLWH may benefit adherence. We highlight the need to improve the quantity and quality of HIV/AIDS services in Vietnam, especially in pre- and post-test counselling, to achieve better HAART adherence, working towards ending AIDS in 2030.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/09564624211002405DOI Listing
April 2021

Effects of sleep intervention on glucose control: A narrative review of clinical evidence.

Prim Care Diabetes 2021 Apr 10. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang 550000, Viet Nam; Department of Clinical Product Development, Institute of Tropical Medicine (NEKKEN), Leading Graduate School Program, and Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: Optimizing sleep has been recently gained exposure as a promising lifestyle consideration to aid in the control of diabetes. The evidence to support the impact of sleep quantity and quality on blood glucose control is largely acknowledged. This study aimed to review all published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the relationship between sleep and glucose control to synthesize an accurate overview.

Method: Literature from PubMed and Google Scholar was searched using the listed search terms to obtain RCTs on the role of sleep in glucose homeostasis. Seven RCTs were eligible and included in our review. References in these RCTs were screened for the presentation of the pathophysiology of metabolic disturbances relating to the sleep duration, and the relevant factors affecting blood glucose concentration.

Results: Sleep deprivation and poor sleep quality are connected with blood glucose disturbance and reduction of insulin sensitivity. This leaves diabetic patients at an increased risk of glucose level fluctuations. However, the function of β-cells was likely to be conserved after 14-days of sleep deprivation. Sleep extension from 7 to 14 days improved blood glucose control and insulin sensitivity in both healthy and diabetes participants. Diabetes sleep education and personalized interventions that reduced stress and improved sleep quality contributed to glucose homeostasis in diabetic patients. Overall improving one's sleep hygiene was found to improve glucose control in diabetic patients.

Conclusion: Longer or short-term sleep deprivation may negatively affect glucose homeostasis, although the body temporarily compensates for the impaired function of β-cells when reduced sleep lasted up to 14 days. Thus, we recommend optimum sleep duration and optimistic sleep duration and sleep quality for decreasing risk and progression of diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pcd.2021.04.003DOI Listing
April 2021

Ultrafast nanometric imaging of energy flow within and between single carbon dots.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2021 Mar 8;118(11). Epub 2021 Mar 8.

Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801;

Time- and space-resolved excited states at the individual nanoparticle level provide fundamental insights into heterogeneous energy, electron, and heat flow dynamics. Here, we optically excite carbon dots to image electron-phonon dynamics within single dots and nanoscale thermal transport between two dots. We use a scanning tunneling microscope tip as a detector of the optically excited state, via optical blocking of electron tunneling, to record movies of carrier dynamics in the 0.1-500-ps time range. The excited-state electron density migrates from the bulk to molecular-scale (∼1 nm) surface defects, followed by heterogeneous relaxation of individual dots to either long-lived fluorescent states or back to the ground state. We also image the coupling of optical phonons in individual carbon dots with conduction electrons in gold as an ultrafast energy transfer mechanism between two nearby dots. Although individual dots are highly heterogeneous, their averaged dynamics is consistent with previous bulk optical spectroscopy and nanoscale heat transfer studies, revealing the different mechanisms that contribute to the bulk average.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2023083118DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7980384PMC
March 2021

Toxicity and Anti-Proliferative Properties of Ethanol Extract on Cervical Cancer HeLa Cells and Zebrafish Embryos.

Life (Basel) 2021 Mar 20;11(3). Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Faculty of Biology, VNU University of Science, Vietnam National University, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam.

In this study, we showed that crude extract of (AI-EtE) expressed its toxicity to HeLa cells with an IC50 dose of 38.8 µg/mL and to zebrafish embryos with malformations, lethality and hatching inhibition at 72-hpf at doses higher than 75 µg/mL. More interestingly, flow cytometry revealed that AI-EtE significantly promoted the number of cells entering apoptotic. Accordingly, the transcript levels of , , and in the cells treated with AI-EtE at IC50 dose were 1.55-, 1.62-, and 2.45-fold higher than those in the control cells, respectively. Moreover, treatment with AI-EtE caused cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase in a p53-independent manner. Particularly, percentages of AI-EtE-treated cells in G1, S, G2/M were, respectively 85%, 6.7% and 6.4%; while percentages of control cells in G1, S, G2/M were 64%, 15% and 19%, respectively. Consistent with cell cycle arrest, the expressions of and in AI-EtE-treated cells were up-regulated 1.9- and 1.64-fold, respectively. Significantly, treatment with AI-EtE also decreased anchorage-independent growth of HeLa cells. In conclusion, we suggest that can be considered as a medicinal plant with a possible use against cervical cancer cells; however, the used dose should be carefully monitored, especially when applying to pregnant women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/life11030257DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8003830PMC
March 2021

A review of the BCG vaccine and other approaches toward tuberculosis eradication.

Hum Vaccin Immunother 2021 Mar 26:1-17. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

College of Osteopathic Medicine of the Pacific, Western University of Health Sciences, Pomona, CA, USA.

Despite aggressive eradication efforts, Tuberculosis (TB) remains a global health burden, one that disproportionally affects poorer, less developed nations. The only vaccine approved for TB, the Bacillus of Calmette and Guérin (BCG) vaccine remains controversial because it's stated efficacy has been cited as anywhere from 0 to 80%. Nevertheless, there have been exciting discoveries about the mechanism of action of the BCG vaccine that suggests it has a role in immunization schedules today. We review recent data suggesting the vaccine imparts protection against both tuberculosis and non-tuberculosis pathogens via a newly discovered immune system called trained immunity. BCG's efficacy also appears to be tied to its affect on granulocytes at the epigenetic and hematopoietic stem cell levels, which we discuss in this article at length. We also write about how the different strains of the BCG vaccine elicit different immune responses, suggesting that certain BCG strains are more immunogenic than others. Finally, our review delves into how the current vaccine is being reformulated to be more efficacious, and track the development of the next generation vaccines against TB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2021.1885280DOI Listing
March 2021

Global Impact of COVID-19 on Stroke Care and IV Thrombolysis.

Neurology 2021 06 25;96(23):e2824-e2838. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Neurology (R.G.N., M.H.M., M.Frankel, D.C.H.), Marcus Stroke and Neuroscience Center, Grady Memorial Hospital, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta; Department of Radiology (M.M.Q., M.A., T.N.N., A.K.) and Radiation Oncology (M.M.Q.), Boston Medical Center, Boston University School of Medicine, Massachusetts; Department of Neurology (S.O.M.), Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre; Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre (S.O.M.), Brazil; Department of Stroke Neurology (H. Yamagami), National Hospital Organization, Osaka National Hospital, Japan; Department of Neurology (Z.Q.), Xinqiao Hospital of the Army Medical University, Chongqing, China; Department of Neurology (O.Y.M.), Stroke and Neurointervention Division, Alexandria University Hospital, Alexandria University, Egypt; Boston University School of Medicine (A.S.), Massachusetts; 2nd Department of Neurology (A.C.), Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw, Poland; Department of Neurology (G.T., L.P.), National & Kapodistrian University of Athens, School of Medicine, Attikon University Hospital, Athens, Greece; Faculdade de Medicina (D.A.d.S.), Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal; Department of Neurology (J.D., R.L.), Leuven University Hospital, Belgium; International Clinical Research Center and Department of Neurology (R.M.), St. Anne´s University Hospital in Brno and Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic; Department of Neurology (P.V.), Groeninge Hospital, Kortrijk; Department of Neurology (P.V.), University Hospitals Antwerp; Department of Translational Neuroscience (P.V.), University of Antwerp, Belgium; Department of Neurology (J.E.S., T.G.J.), Cooper Neurological Institute, Cooper University Hospital, Camden, New Jersey; Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery (J. Kõrv), University of Tartu, Estonia; Department of Neurology (J.B., R.V.,S.R.), Loyola University Chicago Stritch School of Medicine, Illinois; Department of Neurosurgery (C.W.L.), Kaiser Permanente Fontana Medical Center; Department of Neurology (N.S.S.), Kaiser Permanente Los Angeles Medical Center; Department of Neurology (A.M.Z., S.A.S.), UT Health McGovern Medical School, Houston, Texas; Department of Neurology (A.L.Z.), Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston; Department of Internal Medicine (G.N.), School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, Larissa, Greece; Department of Neurology (K.M., A.T.), Allegheny Health Network, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Department of Neurology (A.L.), Ohio Health Riverside Methodist Hospital Columbus; Department of Medicine and Neurology (A.R.), University of Otago and Wellington Hospital, New Zealand; Department of Neurology (E.A.M.), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee; Department of Neurology (A.W.A., D. Alsbrook), University of Tennessee Health Center, Memphis; Department of Neurology (D.Y.H.), University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill; Departments of Neurology (S.Y.) and Radiology (E.R.), New York University Grossman School of Medicine; Douala Gynaeco-Obstetric and Pediatric Hospital (E.G.B.L.), University of Douala, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Science, Cameroon; Ain Shams University Specialized Hospital (H.M.A., H.M.S., A.E., T.R.); Cairo University Affiliated MOH Network (F.H.); Department of Neurology (TM.), Nasser Institute for Research and Treatment, Cairo; Mansoura University Affiliated Private Hospitals Network (W.M.), Egypt; Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (F.S.S.), Kumasi, Ghana; Stroke Unit (T.O.A., K.W.), University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital; Neurology Unit (B.A.), Department of Medicine, Lagos State University Teaching Hospital; Department of Medicine (E.O.N.), Federal Medical Centre Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria; Neurology Unit (T.A.S.), Department of Medicine, Federal Medical Centre, Owo, Ondo State, Nigeria; University College Hospital (J.Y.), Ibadan, Nigeria; The National Ribat University Affiliated Hospitals (H.H.M.), Khartoum, Sudan; Neurology Section (P.B.A.), Department of Internal Medicine, Aga-Khan University, Medical College East Africa, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Tunis El Manar University (A.D.R.), Military Hospital of Tunis; Department of Neurology (S.B.S.), Mongi Ben Hmida National Institute of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine of Tunis, University Tunis El Manar, Tunisia; Department of Physiology (L.G.), Parirenyatwa Hospital, and Departments of Physiology and Medicine (G.W.N.), University of Zimbabwe, Harare; Department of Cerebrovascular/Endovascular Neurosurgery Division (D.S.), Erebouni Medical Center, Yerevan, Armenia; Department of Neurology (A.R.), Sir Salimulah College, Dhaka, Bangladesh; Department of Neurology (Z.A.), Taihe Hospital of Shiyan City, Hubei; Department of Neurology (F.B.), Nanyang Central Hospital, Henan; Department of Neurology (Z.D.), Wuhan No. 1 Hospital, Hubei, China; Department of Neurology (Y. Hao.), Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine; Department of Neurology (W.H.), Traditional Chinese Medicine Hospital of Maoming, Guangdong; Department of Neurology (G.Li.), Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University, Shandong; Department of Neurology (W.L), The First Affiliated Hospital of Hainan Medical College; Department of Neurology (G.Liu.), Wuhan Central Hospital, Hubei; Department of Neurology (J.L.), Mianyang 404th Hospital, Sichuan; Department of Neurology (X.S.), Yijishan Hospital of Wannan Medical College, Anhui; Department of Neurology and Neuroscience (Y.S.), Shenyang Brain Institute, Shenyang First People's Hospital, Shenyang Medical College Affiliated Brain Hospital; Department of Neurology (L.T.), Affiliated Yantai Yuhuangding Hospital of Qingdao University, Shandong; Department of Neurology (H.W.), Xiangyang Central Hospital, Hubei; Department of Neurology (B.W., Y.Yan), West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu; Department of Neurology (Z.Y.), Affiliated Hospital of Southwest Medical University, Sichuan; Department of Neurology (H.Z.), Affiliated Hangzhou First People's Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine; Department of Neurology (J.Z.), The First Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University; Department of Neurology (W.Z.), First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University, China; Acute Stroke Unit (T.W.L.), The Prince of Wales Hospital, Kwok Tak Seng Centre for Stroke Research and Intervention, The Chinese University of Hong Kong; Interventional Neurology (C.C.), MAX Superspecialty Hospital, Saket, New Delhi; NH Institute of Neurosciences (V.H.), NH Mazumdar Shaw Medical Center, Bangalore; Department of Neurology (B.M.), Apollo Speciality Hospitals Nellore; Department of Neurology (J.D.P.), Christian Medical College, Ludhiana, Punjab; Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology (P.N.S.), Kerala, India; Stroke Unit (F.S.U.), Pelni Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia; Neurosciences Research Center (M. Farhoudi, E.S.H.), Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; Beer Sheva Hospital (A.H.); Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Rambam Healthcare Campus, Haifa, Israel (A.R., R.S.H.); Departments of Neurology (N.O.) and Neurosurgery (N.S.), Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital, Kobe; Department of Stroke and Neurovascular Surgery (D.W.), IMS Tokyo-Katsushika General Hospital; Yokohama Brain and Spine Center (R.Y.); Iwate Prefectural Central (R.D.); Department of Neurology and Stroke Treatment (N.T.), Japanese Red Cross Kyoto Daiichi Hospital; Department of Neurology (T.Y.), Kyoto Second Red Cross Hospital; Department of Neurology (T.T.), Japanese Red Cross Kumamoto Hospital; Department of Stroke Neurology (Y. Yazawa), Kohnan Hospital, Sendai; Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine (T.U.), Saga-Ken Medical Centre; Department of Neurology (T.D.), Saitama Medical Center, Kawagoe; Department of Neurology (H.S.), Nara City Hospital; Department of Neurology (Y.S.), Toyonaka Municipal Hospital, Osaka; Department of Neurology (F. Miyashita), Kagoshima City Hospital; Department of Neurology (H.F.), Japanese Red Cross Matsue Hospital, Shimane; Department of Neurology (K.M.), Shiroyama Hospital, Osaka; Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine (J.E.S.), Niigata City General Hospital; Department of Neurology (Y.S.), Sugimura Hospital, Kumamoto; Stroke Medicine (Y. Yagita), Kawasaki Medical School, Okayama; Department of Neurology (Y.T.), Osaka Red Cross Hospital; Department of Stroke Prevention and Treatment (Y.M.), Department of Neurosurgery, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki; Department of Neurology (S.Y.), Stroke Center and Neuroendovascular Therapy, Saiseikai Central Hospital, Tokyo; Department of Neurology (R.K.), Kin-ikyo Chuo Hospital, Hokkaido; Department of Cerebrovascular Medicine (T.K.), NTT Medical Center Tokyo; Department of Neurology and Neuroendovascular Treatment (H. Yamazaki), Yokohama Shintoshi Neurosurgical Hospital; Department of Neurology (M.S.), Osaka General Medical Center; Department of Neurology (K.T.), Osaka University Hospital; Department of Advanced Brain Research (N.Y.), Tokushima University Hospital Tokushima; Department of Neurology (K.S.), Saiseikai Fukuoka General Hospital, Fukuoka; Department of Neurology (T.Y.), Tane General Hospital, Osaka; Division of Stroke (H.H.), Department of Internal Medicine, Osaka Rosai Hospital; Department of Comprehensive Stroke (I.N.), Fujita Health University School of Medicine, Toyoake, Japan; Department of Neurology (A.K.), Asfendiyarov Kazakh National Medical University; Republican Center for eHealth (K.F.), Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kazakhstan; Department of Medicine (S.K.), Al-Farabi Kazakh National University; Kazakh-Russian Medical University (M.Z.), Kazakhstan; Department of Neurology (J.-H.B.), Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul; Department of Neurology (Y. Hwang), Kyungpook National University Hospital, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University; Ajou University Hospital (J.S.L.); Department of Neurology (S.B.L.), Uijeongbu St. Mary's Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea; Department of Neurology (J.M.), National Medical Center, Seoul; Department of Neurology (H.P., S.I.S.), Keimyung University School of Medicine, Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu; Department of Neurology (J.H.S.), Busan Paik Hospital, School of Medicine, Inje University, Busan; Department of Neurology (K.-D.S.), National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital, Goyang; Asan Medical Center (C.J.Y.), Seoul, South Korea; Department of Neurology (R.A.), LAU Medical Center-Rizk Hospital, Beirut, Lebanon; Department of Medicine (W.A.W.Z., N.W.Y.), Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur; Sultanah Nur Zahirah (Z.A.A., K.A.I.), Kuala Terengganu; University Putra Malaysia (H.b.B.); Sarawak General Hospital, Kuching (L.W.C.); Hospital Sultan Abdul Halim (A.B.I.), Sungai Petani Kedah; Hospital Seberang Jaya (I.L.), Pulau Pinang; Thomson Hospital Kota Damansara (W.Y.T.), Malaysia; "Nicolae Testemitanu" State University of Medicine and Pharmacy (S.G., P.L.), and Department of Neurology, Emergency Medicine Institute, Chisinau, Republic of Moldova; Department of Stroke Unit (A.M.A.H.), Royal Hospital Muscat, Oman; Neuroscience Institute (Y.Z.I., N.A.), Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar; St. Luke's Medical Center-Institute of Neurosciences (M.C.P.-F., C.O.C.), Quezon City, Philippines; Endovascular Neurosurgery (D.K.), Saint-Petersburg Dzhanelidze Research Institute of Emergency Medicine, St. Petersburg, Russia; Department of Neurology (A.A.), Stroke Unit, King Saud University, College of Medicine, Riyadh; Department of Neurosurgery (H.A.-J.), Interventional Radiology, and Critical Care Medicine, King Fahad Hospital of the University, Imam Abdulrahman bin Faisal University, Saudi Arabia; Singapore National Neuroscience Institute (C.H.T.); Changi General Hospital (M.J.M.), Singapore; Neuroscience Center, Raffles Hospital (N.V.), Singapore; Department of Neurology (C.-H.C., S.-C.T.), National Taiwan University Hospital; Department of Radiology (A.C.), Faculty of Medicine Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; Dicle University Medical School and Hospital (E.A.), Diyarbakir; Stroke and Neurointervention Unit (O.A., A.O.O.), Eskisehir Osmangazi University; Gaziantep University Faculty of Medicine (S.G.), Turkey; Department of Neurology (S.I.H., S.J.), Neurological Institute at Cleveland Clinic Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates; Stroke Center (H.L.V., A.D.C.), Hue Central Hospital, Hue, Vietnam; Stroke Department (H.H.N., T.N.P.), Da Nang Hospital, Da Nang City; 115 People's Hospital (T.H.N., T.Q.N.), Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam; Department of Neurology (T.G., C.E.), Medical University of Graz; Department of Neurology (M. K.-O.), Research Institute of Neurointervention, University Hospital Salzburg/Paracelsus Medical University, Austria; Department of Neurology (F.B., A.D.), Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Charleroi, Belgium; Department of Neurology (S.D.B., G.V.), Sint Jan Hospital, Bruges; Department of Neurology (S.D.R.), Brussels University Hospital (UZ Brussel); Department of Neurology (N.L.), ULB Erasme Hospitals Brussels; Department of Neurology (M.P.R.), Europe Hospitals Brussels; Department of Neurology (L.Y.), Antwerp University Hospital, Belgium; Neurology Clinic (F.A., T.S.), St. Anna University Hospital, Sofia, Bulgaria; Department of Neurology (M.R.B.), Sestre Milosrdnice University Hospital, Zagreb; Department of Neurology (H.B.), Sveti Duh University Hospital, Zagreb; Department of Neurology (I.C.), General Hospital Virovitica; Department of Neurology (Z.H.), General Hospital Zabok; Department of Radiology (F. Pfeifer), University Hospital Centre Zagreb, Croatia; Regional Hospital Karlovy Vary (I.K.); Masaryk Hospital Usti nad Labem (D.C.); Military University Hospital Praha (M. Sramek); Oblastní Nemocnice Náchod (M. Skoda); Regional Hospital Pribram (H.H.); Municipal Hospital Ostrava (L.K.); Hospital Mlada Boleslav (M. Koutny); Hospital Vitkovice (D.V.); Hospital Jihlava (O.S.); General University Hospital Praha (J.F.); Hospital Litomysl (K.H.); Hospital České Budejovice (M.N.); Hospital Pisek (R.R.); Hospital Uherske Hradiste (P.P.); Hospital Prostejov (G.K.); Regional Hospital Chomutov (J.N.); Hospital Teplice (M.V.); Mining Hospital Karvina (H.B.); Thomayer Hospital Praha (D.H.); Hospital Blansko (D.T.); University Hospital Brno (R.J.); Regional Hospital Liberec (L.J.); Hospital Ceska Lipa (J.N.); Hospital Sokolov (A.N.); Regional Hospital Kolin (Z.T.); Hospital Trutnov (P. Fibrich); Hospital Trinec (H.S.); Department of Neurology (O.V.), University Hospital Ostrava, Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic; Bispebjerg Hospital (H.K.C.), University of Copenhagen; Stroke Center (H.K.I., T.C.T.), Rigshospitalet, University of Copenhagen; Aarhus University Hospital (C.Z.S.), Aarhus; Neurovascular Center, Zealand University Hospital, University of Copenhagen (T.W.), Roskilde, Denmark; Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery (R.V.), University of Tartu, Estonia; Neurology Clinic (K.G.-P.), West Tallinn Central Hospital; Center of Neurology (T.T.), East Tallinn Central Hospital, School of Natural Sciences and Health, Tallinn University; Internal Medicine Clinic (K.A.), Pärnu Hospital, Estonia; Université Lille, Inserm, CHU Lille, Lille Neuroscience & Cognition (C.C., F.C.); Centre Hospitalier d'Arcachon (M.D.), Gujan-Mestras; Centre Hospitalier d'Agen (J.-M.F.); Neurologie Vasculaire (L.M.) and Neuroradiologie (O.E.), Hospices Civils de Lyon, Hôpital Pierre Wertheimer, Bron; Centre Hospitalier et Universitaire de Bordeaux (E.L., F.R.); Centre Hospitalier de Mont de Marsan (B.O.); Neurologie (R.P.), Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild; Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines University (F. Pico); Neuroradiologie Interventionelle (M.P.), Fondation Ophtalmologique Adolphe de Rothschild; Neuroradiologie Interventionelle (R.P.), Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, France; K. Eristavi National Center of Experimental and Clinical Surgery (T.G.), Tbilisi; Department of Neurosurgery (M. Khinikadze), New Vision University Hospital, Tbilisi; Vivamedi Medical Center (M. Khinikadze), Tbilisi; Pineo Medical Ecosystem (N.L.), Tbilisi; Ivane Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University (A.T.), Tbilisi, Georgia; Department of Neurology (S.N., P.A.R.), University Hospital Heidelberg; Department of Neurology (M. Rosenkranz), Albertinen Krankenhaus, Hamburg; Department of Neurology (H.S.), Elbe Klinken Stade, University Medical Center Göttingen; Department of Neurology (T.S.), University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Dresden; Kristina Szabo (K.S.), Department of Neurology, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University Heidelberg, Mannheim; Klinik und Poliklinik für Neurologie (G.T.), Kopf- und Neurozentrum, Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Germany; Department of Internal Medicine (D.S.), School of Health Sciences, University of Thessaly, Larissa; Second Department of Neurology (O.K.), Stroke Unit, Metropolitan Hospital, Piraeus, Greece; University of Szeged (P.K.), Szeged; University of Pecs (L.S., G.T.), Hungary; Stroke Center (A.A.), IRCCS Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico, Negrar, Verona; Department of Neurology (F.B.), Ospedale San Paolo, Savona,; Institute of Neurology (P.C., G.F.), Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli, Rome; Interventional Neurovascular Unit (L.R.), Careggi University Hospital, Florence; Stroke Unit (D.S.), Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale (ASST) di Lecco, Italy; Maastricht University Medical Center; Department of Neurology (M.U.), Radiology, University Medical Center Groningen; Department of Neurology (I.v.d.W.), Haaglanden Medical Center, the Hague, the Netherlands; Department of Neurology (E.S.K.), Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog, General Practice, HELSAM, University of Oslo, Norway; Neurological Ward with Stroke Unit (W.B.), Specialist Hospital in Konskie, Gimnazjalna, Poland and Collegium Medicum, Jan Kochanowski University, Kielce, Poland; Neurological Ward with Stroke Unit (M.F.), District Hospital in Skarzysko-Kamienna; Department of Neurology (E.H.L.), Szpitala im T. Marciniaka in Wroclaw; 2nd Department of Neurology (M. Karlinski), Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw; Department of Neurology and Cerebrovascular Disorders (R.K., P.K.), Poznan University of Medical Sciences; 107th Military Hospital with Polyclinic (M.R.), Walcz; Department of Neurology (R.K.), St. Queen Jadwiga, Clinical Regional Hospital No. 2, Rzeszow; Department of Neurology (P.L.), Medical University of Lublin; 1st Department of Neurology (H.S.-J.), Institute of Psychiatry and Neurology, Warsaw; Department of Neurology and Stroke Unit (P.S.), Holy Spirit Specialist Hospital in Sandomierz, Collegium Medicum Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce; Copernicus PL (W.F.), Neurology and Stroke Department, Hospital M. Kopernik, Gdansk; Stroke Unit (M.W.), Neurological Department, Stanislaw Staszic University of Applied Sciences, Pila, Poland; Hospital São José (Patricia Ferreira), Centro Hospitalar Universitário de Lisboa Central, Lisbon; Stroke Unit (Paulo Ferreira, V.T.C.), Hospital Pedro Hispano, Matosinhos; Stroke Unit, Internal Medicine Department (L.F.), Neuroradiology Department, Centro Hospitalar Universitário de São João, Porto; Department of Neurology (J.P.M.), Hospital de Egas Moniz, Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Ocidental, Lisbon, Portugal; Department of Neurosciences (T.P.e.M.), Hospital de Santa Maria-CHLN, North Lisbon University Hospital; Hospital São José (A.P.N.), Centro Hospitalar Universitário de Lisboa Central, Lisbon; Department of Neurology (M. Rodrigues), Hospital Garcia de Orta, Portugal; Department of Neurology (C.F.-P.), Transilvania University, Brasov, Romania; Department of Neurology (G.K., M. Mako), Faculty Hospital Trnava, Slovakia; Department of Neurology and Stroke Center (M.A.d.L., E.D.T.), Hospital Universitario La Paz, Madrid; Department of Neurology (J.F.A.), Hospital Clínico Universitario, Universidad de Valladolid; Department of Neurology (O.A.-M.), Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Albacete; Department of Neurology (A.C.C.), Unidad de Ictus, Hospital Universitario Ramon y Cajal, Madrid; Department of Neurology (S.P.-S), Hospital Universitario Virgen Macarena & Neurovascular Research Laboratory (J.M.), Instituto de Biomedicina de Sevilla-IbiS; Rio Hortega University Hospital (M.A.T.A.), University of Valladolid; Cerebrovascular Diseases (A.R.V.), Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, Spain; Department of Neurology (M. Mazya), Karolinska University Hospital and Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Interventional Neuroradiology (G.B.), University Hospitals of Geneva; Department of Interventional and Diagnostic Neuroradiology (A.B., M.-N.P.), Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Basel; Department of Neurology (U.F.), University of Bern; Department of Neuroradiology (J.G.), University of Bern; Department of Neuroscience (P.L.M., D.S.), Lausanne University Hospital, Switzerland; Department of Stroke Medicine (S.B., J. Kwan), Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, Charing Cross Hospital, London; Department of Neurology (K.K.), Queen's Medical Centre, Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust, United Kingdom; Department of Neurology (A.B., A. Shuaib), University of Alberta, Edmonton; Department of Neurology (L.C., A. Shoamanesh), McMaster University, Hamilton; Department of Clinical Neurosciences and Hotchkiss Brain Institute (A.M.D., M.D.H.), University of Calgary; Department of Neurology (T.F., S.Y.), University of British Columbia, Vancouver; Mackenzie Health (J.H., C.A.S.) Richmond Hill, Ontario; Department of Neurology (H.K.), Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto; Department of Neurology (A. Mackey), Hopital Enfant Jesus, Centre Hospitalier de l'Universite Laval, Quebec City; Department of Neurology (A.P.), University of Toronto; Medicine (G.S.), St. Michael's Hospital, University of Toronto, Canada; Department of Neurosciences (M.A.B.), Hospital Dr. Rafael A. Calderon Guardia, CCSS. San Jose, Costa Rica; Neurovascular Service (J.D.B.), Hospital General San Juan de Dios, Guatemala City; Department of Neurología (L.I.P.R.), Hospital General de Enfermedades, Instituto Guatemalteco de Seguridad Social, Guatemala City, Guatemala; Department of Neurology (F.G.-R.), University Hospital Jose Eleuterio Gonzalez, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon, Mexico; Pacífica Salud-Hospital Punta Pacífica (N.N.-E., A.B., R.K.), Panama; Department of Neurology, Radiology (M.A.), University of Kansas Medical Center; Department of Neurointerventional Neurosurgery (D. Altschul), The Valley Baptist Hospital, Ridgewood, New Jersey; Palmetto General Hospital (A.J.A.-O.), Tenet, Florida; Neurology (I.B., P.K.), University Hospital Newark, New Jersey Medical School, Rutgers, Newark, New Jersey; Community Healthcare System (A.B.), Munster, Indiana; Department of Neurology (N.B., C.B.N.), California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco; Department of Neurology (C.B.), Mount Sinai South Nassau, New York; University of Toledo (A.C.), Ohio; Department of Neurology (S.C.), University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; Neuroscience (S.A.C.), Inova Fairfax Hospital, Virginia; Department of Neurology (H.C.), Abington Jefferson Hospital, Pennsylvania; Department of Neurology (J.H.C.), Mount Sinai South Nassau, New York; Baptist Health Medical Center (S.D.), Little Rock, Arkansas; Department of Neurology (K.D.), HCA Houston Healthcare Clearlake, Texas; Department of Neurology (T.G.D., R.S.), Erlanger, Tennessee; Wilmington North Carolina (V.T.D.); Department of Vascular and Neurointerventional Services (R.E.), St. Louis University, Missouri; Department of Neurology (M.E.), Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston; Department of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Radiology (M.F., S.O.-G., N.R.), University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City; Department of Radiology (D.F.), Swedish Medical Center, Englewood, Colorado; Department of Radiology (D.G.), Neurosurgery, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; Adventist Health Glendale Comprehensive Stroke Center (M.G.), Los Angeles, California; Wellstar Neuroscience Institute (R.G.), Marietta, Georgia; Department of Neurology (A.E.H.), University of Texas Rio Grande Valley-Valley Baptist Medical Center, Texas; Department of Neurology (J.H., B.V.), Lahey Hospital & Medical Center, Beth Israel Lahey Health, Burlington, Massachusetts; Department of Neurology (A.M.K.), Wayne State, Detroit, Michigan; HSHS St. John's Hospital (N.N.K.), Southern Illinois University School of Medicine, Springfield; Virginia Hospital Center (B.S.K.), Arlington; Department of Neurology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor; Weill-Cornell Medical College (D.O.K.), New York-Presbyterian Queens; Department of Neurology (V.H.L.), Ohio State University, Columbus; Department of Neurology (L.Y.L.), Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts; Vascular and Neurointerventional Services (G.L.), St. Louis University, Missouri; Miami Cardiac & Vascular Institute (I.L., A.K.S.), Florida; Department of Neurology (H.L.L.), Oregon Health & Science University, Portland; Department of Emergency Medicine (L.M., M.S.), Steward Holy Family Hospital, Methuen, MA; Vidant Medical Center (S.M.), Greenville, North Carolina; Department of Neurology (A.M.M., D.R.Y.) and Neurosurgery (D.R.Y.), University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Florida; Department of Neurology (H.M.), SUNY Upstate New York, Syracuse; Memorial Neuroscience Institute (B.P.M.), Pembroke Pines, Florida; Neurosciences (J.M., J.P.T.), Spectrum Health, Michigan State University College of Medicine, Grand Rapids, Michigan; Sutter Health (M.M.), Sacramento, California; Department of Neurology (J.G.M.), Maine Medical Center, Portland; Department of Neurology (S.S.M.), Bayhealth, Dover, Delaware; Department of Neurology and Pediatrics (F.N.), Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia; Department of Neurology (K.N.), University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock; Department of Radiology and Neurology (R.N.-W.), UT Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas; Ascension St. John Medical Center (R.H.R.), Tulsa, Oklahoma; Riverside Regional Medical Center (P.R.), Newport, Virginia; Department of Neurology (J.R.R., T.N.N.), Boston University School of Medicine, MA; Department of Neurology (A.R.), Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia; Department of Neurology (M.S.), University of Washington School Medicine, Seattle; Department of Neurology (B.S.), University of Massachusetts Medical Center, Worcester; Department of Neurology (A.S.), CHI-Immanuel Neurological Institute, Creighton University, Omaha, Nebraska; Holy Cross Hospital (S.L.S.), Fort Lauderdale, Florida; Department of Neurology (V.S.), Interventional Neuroradiology, University of California in Los Angeles; Banner Desert Medical Center (M.T.), Mesa, Arizona; Hospital de Agudos Dr. Ignacio Privano (O.B., A.L.), Argentina; Institute for Neurological Research, FLENI (V.A.P.L.), Buenos Aires, Argentina; Hospital das Clinicas/São Paulo University (M.S.A., A.C.); Sumare State Hospital (F.B.C., L.V.), São Paulo; Hospital Vera Cruz (L.D.D.S.), Deus Campinas; Irmanandade Santa Casa de Porto Alegre (L.V.G.); Stroke Unit (F.O.L., F. Mont'alverne), Hospital Geral de Fortaleza; Stroke Unit (A.L.L., P.S.C.M.), Hospital Sao Jose, Joinville, Santa Catarina; Stroke Unit (R.T.M.), Neurology, Nossa Senhora da Conceição Hospital, Porto Alegre; Department of Neurology (D.L.M.C.), Hospital Moinhos de Vento, Porto Alegre; Department of Neurology (L.C.R.), Hospital de Base do Distrito Federal; Hospital Ana (V.F.C.), Hospital Juliane, Federal University of Parana, Curitiba, Brazil; Vascular Neurology Unit (P.M.L., V.V.O.), Neurology Service, Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Clínica Alemana, Universidad del Desarrollo, Santiago; Hospital Padre Hurtado (V.N., J.M.A.T.) Santiago, Chile; Fundación Valle del Lili (P.F.R.A.), Cali; Stroke Center (H.B.), Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá; Department of Neurology (A.B.C.-Q.), Hospital Departamental Universitario del Quindio San Juan de Dios, Armenia; Clinica Universitaria Colombia (C.E.R.O.), Bogotá; University Hospital of San Vicente Foundation (D.K.M.B.), Medellin; Barranquilla, Colombia (O.L.); Hospital Infantil Universitario de San Jose (M.R.P.), Bogota; Stroke Unit (L.F.D.-E.), Hospital de Clínicas, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Nacional de Asunción; Neurology Service (D.E.D.M.F., A.C.V.), Hospital Central del Instituto de Prevision Social, Paraguay; Internal Medicine Service (A.J.Z.Z.), Hospital Central de Policia "Rigoberto Caballero", Paraguay; National Institute of Neurological Sciences of Lima Peru (D.M.B.I.); Hospital Edgardo Rebagliati Martins Lima-Peru (L.R.K.); Department of Neurology (B.C.), Royal Melbourne Hospital; Department of Neurology (G.J.H.), Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital and Medical School, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, The University of Western Australia, Perth; University of Melbourne (C.H., R.S.), Ballarat Health Service, Australia University of Melbourne; Department of Neurology (T.K.), Royal Adelaide Hospital; Department of Neurosurgery (A. Ma), Royal North Shore Hospital, Sydney; Department of Neurology (R.T.M.), Mater Hospital, Brisbane; Department of Neurology (R.S.), Austin Health, Victoria; Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health (R.S.), Parkville, Melbourne, Australia; Greymouth Base Hospital (D.S.), New Zealand; Department of Neurology (T.Y.-H.W.), Christchurch Hospital, New Zealand; Department of Neurology (D.L.), University of California in Los Angeles; and Department of Neurology (O.O.Z.), Mercy Health Neurosciences, Toledo, Ohio.

Objective: To measure the global impact of COVID-19 pandemic on volumes of IV thrombolysis (IVT), IVT transfers, and stroke hospitalizations over 4 months at the height of the pandemic (March 1 to June 30, 2020) compared with 2 control 4-month periods.

Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, observational, retrospective study across 6 continents, 70 countries, and 457 stroke centers. Diagnoses were identified by their ICD-10 codes or classifications in stroke databases.

Results: There were 91,373 stroke admissions in the 4 months immediately before compared to 80,894 admissions during the pandemic months, representing an 11.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] -11.7 to -11.3, < 0.0001) decline. There were 13,334 IVT therapies in the 4 months preceding compared to 11,570 procedures during the pandemic, representing a 13.2% (95% CI -13.8 to -12.7, < 0.0001) drop. Interfacility IVT transfers decreased from 1,337 to 1,178, or an 11.9% decrease (95% CI -13.7 to -10.3, = 0.001). Recovery of stroke hospitalization volume (9.5%, 95% CI 9.2-9.8, < 0.0001) was noted over the 2 later (May, June) vs the 2 earlier (March, April) pandemic months. There was a 1.48% stroke rate across 119,967 COVID-19 hospitalizations. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection was noted in 3.3% (1,722/52,026) of all stroke admissions.

Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with a global decline in the volume of stroke hospitalizations, IVT, and interfacility IVT transfers. Primary stroke centers and centers with higher COVID-19 inpatient volumes experienced steeper declines. Recovery of stroke hospitalization was noted in the later pandemic months.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000011885DOI Listing
June 2021

Antitumor activities of Aspiletrein A, a steroidal saponin from Aspidistra letreae, on non-small cell lung cancer cells.

BMC Complement Med Ther 2021 Mar 9;21(1):87. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, 10330, Thailand.

Background: Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide due to its strong proliferative and metastatic capabilities. The suppression of these aggressive behaviors is of interest in anticancer drug research and discovery. In recent years, many plants have been explored in order to discover new bioactive secondary metabolites to treat cancers or enhance treatment efficiency. Aspiletrein A (AA) is a steroidal saponin isolated from the whole endemic species Aspidistra letreae in Vietnam. Previously, elucidation of the structure of AA and screening of its cytotoxic activity against several cancer cell lines were reported. However, the antitumor activities and mechanisms of action have not yet been elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated the anti-proliferative, anti-migrative and anti-invasive effects of AA on H460, H23 and A549 human lung cancer cells.

Methods: MTT, wound healing and Transwell invasion assays were used to evaluate the anti-proliferation, anti-migration and anti-invasion effects of AA, respectively. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of AA on the activity of protein kinase B (Akt), a central mediator of cancer properties, and apoptotic regulators in the Bcl-2 family proteins were investigated by Western blotting.

Results: AA exhibits antimetastatic effects in human lung cancer cells through the inhibition of the pAkt/Akt signaling pathway, which in turn resulted in a significant inhibitory effect of AA on the migration and invasion of the examined lung cancer cells.

Conclusions: Aspiletrein A may be a potent inhibitor of protein kinase B (Akt). Hence, AA could be further explored as a potential antimetastatic lead compound.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-021-03262-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7941985PMC
March 2021

Identifying SARS-CoV2 transmission cluster category: An analysis of country government database.

J Infect Public Health 2021 Apr 18;14(4):461-467. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, Da Nang 550000, Viet Nam; School of Tropical Medicine and Global Health, Nagasaki University, 1-12-4 Sakamoto, Nagasaki 852-8523, Japan. Electronic address:

Background: As a result of the high contagiousness and transmissibility of SARS-CoV-2, studying the location of the case clusters that will follow, will help understand the risk factors related to the disease transmission. In this study, we aim to identify the transmission cluster category and settings that can guide decision-makers which areas to be opened again.

Methods: A thorough review of the literature and the media articles were performed. After data verification, we included cluster data from eight countries as of 16th May 2020. Clusters were further categorized into 10 categories and analysis was performed. The data was organized and presented in an easily accessible online sheet.

Results: Among the eight included countries, we have found 3905 clusters and a total number of 1,907,944 patients. Indoor settings (mass accommodation and residential facilities) comprised the highest number of both number of clusters (3315/3905) and infected patients (1,837,019/1,907,944), while the outdoor ones comprised 590 clusters and 70,925 patients. Mass accommodation was associated with the highest number of cases in 5 of the 7 countries with data available. Social events and residential settings were responsible for the highest number of cases in the two remaining countries. In the USA, workplace facilities have reported 165 clusters of infection including 122 food production facilities.

Conclusions: Lockdown could truly be a huge burden on a country's economy. However, with the proper knowledge concerning the transmissibility and the behaviour of the disease, better decisions could be made to guide the appropriate removal of lockdown across the different fields and regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jiph.2021.01.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7813483PMC
April 2021

Progress toward HIV elimination goals: trends in and projections of annual HIV testing and condom use in Africa.

AIDS 2021 Jul;35(8):1253-1262

Graduate School of Public Health, St. Luke's International University, Tokyo.

Objectives: To estimate trends in and projections of annual HIV testing and condom use at last higher-risk sex and to calculate the probability of reaching key United Nations Programme on AIDS (UNAIDS)'s target.

Design: We included 114 nationally-representative datasets in 38 African countries from Demographic and Health Surveys and Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys with 1 456 224 sexually active adults age 15-49 from 2003 to 2018.

Methods: We applied Bayesian mixed effect models to estimate the coverage of annual HIV testing and condom use at last higher-risk sex for every country and year to 2030 and the probability of reaching UNAIDS testing and condom use targets of 95% coverage by 2030.

Results: Seven countries saw downward trends in annual HIV testing and four saw decreases in condom use at higher-risk sex, whereas most countries have upward trends in both indicators. The highest coverage of testing in 2030 is predicted in Swaziland with 92.6% (95% credible interval: 74.5-98.1%), Uganda with 90.5% (72.2-97.2%), and Lesotho with 90.5% (69.4%-97.6%). Meanwhile, Swaziland, Lesotho, and Namibia will have the highest proportion of condom use in 2030 at 85.0% (57.8-96.1%), 75.6% (42.3-93.6%), and 75.5% (42.4-93.2%). The probabilities of reaching targets were very low for both HIV testing (0-28.5%) and condom use (0-12.1%).

Conclusions: We observed limited progress on annual HIV testing and condom use at last higher-risk sex in Africa and little prospect of reaching global targets for HIV/AIDS elimination. Although some funding agencies are considering withdrawal from supporting Africa, more attention to funding and expanding testing and treatment is needed in this region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/QAD.0000000000002870DOI Listing
July 2021

Protocol for Peptide Synthesis on Spectrally Encoded Beads for MRBLE-pep Assays.

Bio Protoc 2020 Jul 5;10(13):e3669. Epub 2020 Jul 5.

Department of Genetics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, USA.

Every living cell relies on signal transduction pathways comprised of protein-protein interactions (PPIs). In many cases, these PPIs are between a folded protein domain and a short linear motif (SLiM) within an unstructured region of a protein. As a result of this small interaction interface (3-10 amino acids), the affinities of SLiM-mediated interactions are typically weak (s of ~1-10 µM), allowing physiologically relevant changes in cellular concentrations of either protein partner to dictate changes in occupancy and thereby transmit cellular signals. However, these weak affinities also render detection and quantitative measurement of these interactions challenging and labor intensive. To address this, we recently developed MRBLE-pep, a technology that employs peptide libraries synthesized on spectrally encoded hydrogel beads to allow multiplexed affinity measurements between a protein and many different peptides in parallel. This approach dramatically reduces both the amount of protein and peptide as well as the time required to measure protein-peptide affinities compared to traditional methods. Here, we provide a detailed protocol describing how to: (1) functionalize polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEG-DA) MRBLE beads with free amine groups, (2) synthesize peptide libraries on functionalized MRBLEs, (3) validate synthesized peptide sequences via MALDI mass spectrometry and quantify evenness of peptide coverage on MRBLEs, (4) use MRBLE-bound peptide libraries in multiplexed protein binding assays, and (5) analyze binding data to determine binding affinities. We anticipate that this protocol should prove useful for other researchers seeking to use MRBLE-pep in their own laboratories as well as for researchers broadly interested in solid-phase peptide synthesis and protein-protein binding assay development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21769/BioProtoc.3669DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7842318PMC
July 2020