Publications by authors named "Husnu Çelik"

58 Publications

Feasibility of hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) in ovarian cancer during COVID-19 pandemic.

Int J Gynecol Cancer 2021 06 15;31(6):883-887. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Koç University, Istanbul, Turkey.

Objective: This study aims to evaluate the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic and related restrictions on patients who underwent cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) for ovarian cancer.

Methods: We retrospectively evaluated ovarian cancer patients who underwent HIPEC following complete cytoreductive surgery performed during the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in three different centers specializing in gynecological oncology. All patients who underwent cytoreduction plus HIPEC for a primary, interval, and recurrent surgery were evaluated. Primary outcomes was postoperative 30-day morbidity and mortality. The secondary outcome was infection of patient and/or related staff with COVID-19 during the perioperative or early postoperative period.

Results: We performed a total of 35 HIPEC procedures during the pandemic: 15 (42.9%) patients underwent primary/interval surgery, while 20 (57.1%) patients had recurrent disease. Grade 3-4 complications occurred in one patient (2.9%) (chronic renal failure), while mortality did not occur in any patient. Neither the patients nor related staff were infected with the coronavirus during the perioperative or early postoperative period. One patient, who was diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia on postoperative day 80 died from the infection. Another patient died on postoperative day 85 due to progressive ovarian cancer, a disorder in vital functions, and organ failure.

Conclusion: HIPEC during the COVID-19 pandemic seems a safe and feasible procedure, with acceptable morbidity and mortality rates. Careful selection of patients is important and precautions should be taken before the procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ijgc-2021-002511DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8054827PMC
June 2021

Prognostic factors and survival outcomes of women with uterine leiomyosarcoma: A Turkish Uterine Sarcoma Group Study-003.

Curr Probl Cancer 2021 Feb 9:100712. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Ankara State Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, University of Health Sciences, Ankara, Turkey.

To assess the clinicopathological features, prognostic factors, and survival rates associated with uterine leiomyosarcoma (uLMS). Databases from 15 participating gynecological oncology centers in Turkey were searched retrospectively for women who had been treated for stage I-IV uLMS between 1996 and 2018. Of 302 consecutive women with uLMS, there were 234 patients with Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage I disease and 68 with FIGO stage II-IV disease. All patients underwent total hysterectomy. Lymphadenectomy was performed in 161 (54.5%) cases. A total of 195 patients received adjuvant treatment. The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 42% and 54%, respectively. Presence of lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI), higher degree of nuclear atypia, and absence of lymphadenectomy were negatively correlated with DFS, while LVSI, mitotic count, higher degree of nuclear atypia, FIGO stage II-IV disease, and suboptimal surgery significantly decreased OS. LVSI and higher degree of nuclear atypia appear to be prognostic indicators for uLMS. Lymphadenectomy seems to have a significant effect on DFS but not on OS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.currproblcancer.2021.100712DOI Listing
February 2021

Impact of cytoreductive surgery on survival of patients with low-grade serous ovarian carcinoma: A multicentric study of Turkish Society of Gynecologic Oncology (TRSGO-OvCa-001).

J Surg Oncol 2021 May 3;123(8):1801-1810. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, School of Medicine, Ankara Baskent University, Ankara, Turkey.

Background And Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyze the factors affecting recurrence-free (RFS) and overall survival (OS) rates of women diagnosed with low-grade serous ovarian cancer (LGSOC).

Methods: Databases from 13 participating centers in Turkey were searched retrospectively for women who had been treated for stage I-IV LGSOC between 1997 and 2018.

Results: Overall 191 eligible women were included. The median age at diagnosis was 49 years (range, 21-84 years). One hundred seventy-five (92%) patients underwent primary cytoreductive surgery. Complete and optimal cytoreduction was achieved in 148 (77.5%) and 33 (17.3%) patients, respectively. The median follow-up period was 44 months (range, 2-208 months). Multivariate analysis showed the presence of endometriosis (p = .012), lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI) (p = .022), any residual disease (p = .023), and the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage II-IV disease (p = .045) were negatively correlated with RFS while the only presence of residual disease (p = .002) and FIGO stage II-IV disease (p = .003) significantly decreased OS.

Conclusions: The maximal surgical effort is warranted for complete cytoreduction as achieving no residual disease is the single most important variable affecting the survival of patients with LGSOC. The prognostic role of LVSI and endometriosis should be evaluated by further studies as both of these parameters significantly affected RFS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jso.26450DOI Listing
May 2021

Accuracy of intra-operative frozen section in guiding surgical staging of endometrial cancer.

Arch Gynecol Obstet 2021 Feb 20. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Faculty of Medicine, Department of Gynecology and Obsterics, Başkent University, Adana Application and Research Hospital, Adana, Turkey.

Purpose: Surgery consists the main treatment of endometrial cancer; however, decision of lypmhadenectomy is controversial. Intra-operative frozen section (FS) is commonly used in guiding surgical staging; nevertheless, there are different reports regarding its adequacy and reliability. Aim of this study is to assess accuracy of FS in predicting paraffin section (PS) results in patients with endometrium cancer.

Methods: Data of 223 cases, who were operated for endometrial cancer at a tertiary hospital in 2012-2019, were analyzed retrospectively. Histological type, grade, tumor diameter, depth of myometrial invasion, and cervical and adnexal involvement in frozen and paraffin section were evaluated. Positive and negative predictive values and accuracy of frozen results in predicting paraffin results for each parameter was assessed. Statistical significance was taken as 0.05 in all tests.

Results: Accuracy of FS in predicting PS results were 76.23% for histology, 75.45% for grade, 85.31% for depth of myometrial invasion, and 95.45% for tumor diameter. Surgery, based on FS results, caused undertreatment in 4 patients, while metastatic lymph node ratios were found in only 35.3-50.0% of cases who had high risk parameters at FS.

Conclusion: Our FS results have reasonable accuracy rates in predicting PS results, in comparison with the previous literature. However, even if the high risk parameters detected in FS predict PS accurately, absence of lymph node involvement in all cases with high risk parameters indicates that FS-based triage cannot prevent unnecessary lymphadenectomies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00404-021-05979-yDOI Listing
February 2021

Is the extent of lymphadenectomy a prognostic factor in International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage II endometrioid endometrial cancer?

J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2021 Mar 10;47(3):1134-1144. Epub 2021 Jan 10.

Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara, Turkey.

Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic significance of adequate lymph node dissection (LND) (≥10 pelvic lymph nodes (LNs) and ≥ 5 paraaortic LNs removed) in patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage II endometrioid endometrial cancer (EEC).

Methods: A multicenter department database review was performed to identify patients who had been operated and diagnosed with stage II EEC at seven centers in Turkey retrospectively. Demographic, clinicopathological, and survival data were collected and analyzed.

Results: We identified 284 women with stage II EEC. There were 170 (59.9%) patients in the adequate lymph node dissection (LND) group and 114 (40.1%) in the inadequate LND group. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate of the inadequate LND group was significantly lower than that of the adequate LND group (84.1% vs. 89.1%, respectively; p = 0.028). In multivariate analysis, presence of lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI) (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.39, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23-4.63; p = 0.009), age ≥ 60 (HR: 3.30, 95% CI: 1.65-6.57; p = 0.001], and absence of adjuvant therapy (HR: 2.74, 95% CI: 1.40-5.35; p = 0.003) remained as independent risk factors for decreased 5-year disease-free survival (DFS). Inadequate LND (HR: 2.34, 95% CI: 1.18-4.63; p < 0.001), age ≥ 60 (HR: 2.67, 95% CI: 1.25-5.72; p = 0.011), and absence of adjuvant therapy (HR: 4.95, 95% CI: 2.28-10.73; p < 0.001) were independent prognostic factors for decreased 5-year OS in multivariate analysis.

Conclusion: Adequate LND and adjuvant therapy were significant for the improvement of outcomes in FIGO stage II EEC patients. Furthermore, LVSI was associated with worse 5-year DFS rate in stage II EEC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jog.14648DOI Listing
March 2021

Half-dose bevacizumab experience in relapsed ovarian cancer patients in Turkey due to formal regulations: similar effectiveness with lower rate of hypertension.

J BUON 2020 Jul-Aug;25(4):1928-1934

Department of Medical Oncology, Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Adana, Turkey.

Purpose: Ovarian cancer is the fifth leading cause of cancer related death in women. Platin-based doublet regimens plus bevacizumab is standard treatment in relapse. Due to formal regulation of Turkish Ministry of Health, adjuvant bevacizumab has not been reimbursed and clinicians can use bevacizumab at a dose of 7.5 mg/kg/3wk in platin-resistant and sensitive relapse settings. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate 7.5 mg/kg/3wk bevacizumab dosing in platin-resistant and sensitive relapse ovarian cancer and compare these findings with the current literature.

Methods: A total of 106 patients with relapsed ovarian cancer and treated with bevacizumab (bevacizumab is not reimbursed as a part of adjuvant treatment in Turkey) on their first relapse were included.

Results: At a median follow-up of 32.1 months (5.3-110.8), 56 (52.8%) patients died. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated at 18.8 months (14.4-23.3) vs 29.7 months (24.3-35.1) of the whole group overall survival. We observed that 78.4% of patients treated with primary surgery without neoadjuvant treatment and 59 (57.8%) out of the 102 patients with debulking surgery relapsed. A significant number of patients (81%) treated with primary surgery without neoadjuvant treatment and 59 (76.6 %) had secondary debulking surgery at relapse. In relapse, 38 patients were treated with single agent liposomal doxorubicin (LPD) plus bevacizumab. On the other hand, 68 patients were treated with carboplatin and LPD plus bevacizumab. Multivariate analysis failed to show any clinicopathological characteristics with significant effect on PFS. However, cytoreductive surgery at relapse showed significant effect on OS. Bevacizumab-related toxicities were detected in 23 (21.7%) patients; hypertension, pulmonary embolism, perforation, and other toxicities (nephrotic syndrome in 2, osteonecrosis in 2, cerebrovascular and cardiac ischemia in 3 patients) were seen in 12 (11.3%), 3 (2.8%), 1 (0.9%) and 7 (6.6%) patients, respectively.

Conclusions: In conclusion, our findings showed that 7.5 mg/kg/3week dosing of bevacizumab in relapsed ovarian cancer could have similar effectiveness compared to standard 15 mg/kg/3week dosing. Increase of OS and PFS in patients treated with primary and secondary debulking surgery with no-visible disease was more pronounced. No new safety information was observed but lower rate of grade 3 or above hypertension with similar rate of severe vascular and intestinal complications were detected.
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October 2020

What is the predictive value of preoperative CA 125 level on the survival rate of type 1 endometrial cancer?

Turk J Med Sci 2021 02 26;51(1):335-341. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Başkent University, Dr. Turgut Noyan Application and Research Center, Adana, Turkey

Background/aim: To investigate the utility of preoperative serum cancer antigen 125 (CA 125) levels in type 1 endometrial carcinoma (EC) as a marker for determining poor prognostic factors and survival.

Material And Methods: All patients with endometrial cancer, who had been treated between 2012 and 2020, were retrospectively reviewed, and finally, 256 patients with type 1 endometrium carcinoma were included in the study. The relationship between the clinicopathological characteristics, CA 125 level, and survival rates were analyzed. The cut-off value for the preoperative serum CA 125 level was defined as 16 IU/L.

Results: The median serum CA 125 levels were significantly higher in patients with deep myometrial invasion, lymph node metastasis, lymphovascular space invasion, cervical stromal and adnexal involvement, advanced stage, positive peritoneal cytology, recurrence, and adjuvant therapy requirement. Serum CA 125 cut-off values determined according to clinicopathologic factors ranged from 15.3 to 22.9 IU/L (sensitivity 61%–77%, specificity 52%–73%). The disease-specific survival rate was significantly higher in patients with CA 125 levels < 16 IU/L (P = 0.047).

Conclusion: The data showed that choosing a lower threshold value for the CA 125 level (16 IU/L) instead of 35 IU/L, could be more useful in type 1 EC patients with negative prognostic factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3906/sag-2005-331DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7991883PMC
February 2021

Laparoscopic para-aortic lymphadenectomy: Technique and surgical outcomes.

J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod 2021 May 19;50(5):101917. Epub 2020 Sep 19.

Başkent University Faculty of Medicine, Adana Application and Research Hospital, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Adana, Turkey.

Objective: Pelvic and para-aortic lymph node dissection is an important part of staging surgery. Aim of this study is to evaluate perioperative outcomes of patients, who underwent laparoscopic para-aortic lymphadenectomy for gynecological cancer in a single center over a period of 7 years, based on body mass index (BMI), and to present the surgical technique in steps.

Methods: Data of patients who underwent para-aortic lymphadenectomy at gynecological oncology department of a tertiary center in between March 2013 and July 2020 were analyzed retrospectively. Patients were evaluated in two groups according to their BMI (< 30 kg/m as non-obese and ≥ 30 kg/m as obese groups). Surgical technique is described in steps. Perioperative outcomes of the two groups were evaluated.

Results: A total of 230 patients were included in the study. BMI was ≥30 at 58.46 % of the patients. Peri-operative features were not significantly affected by the patient's BMI with the presented surgical technique, however, collected para-aortic lymph node numbers were higher in the group with BMI < 30, though sufficient number of lymph nodes were achieved in both groups.

Conclusion: Although some technical difficulties may be encountered, laparoscopic para-aortic lymphadenectomy is feasable in gynecologic oncological surgery independent of BMI. However, surgical experience is important.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jogoh.2020.101917DOI Listing
May 2021

RAB25 confers resistance to chemotherapy by altering mitochondrial apoptosis signaling in ovarian cancer cells.

Apoptosis 2020 12 8;25(11-12):799-816. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Department of Immunology, Baskent University, Adana Dr. Turgut Noyan Medical and Research Center, Adana, Turkey.

Ovarian cancer remains one of the most frequent causes of cancer-related death in women. Many patients with ovarian cancer suffer from de novo or acquired resistance to chemotherapy. Here, we report that RAB25 suppresses chemotherapy-induced mitochondrial apoptosis signaling in ovarian cancer cell lines and primary ovarian cancer cells. RAB25 blocks chemotherapy-induced apoptosis upstream of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization by either increasing antiapoptotic BCL-2 proteins or decreasing proapoptotic BCL-2 proteins. In particular, BAX expression negatively correlates with RAB25 expression in ovarian cancer cells. BH3 profiling assays corroborated that RAB25 decreases mitochondrial cell death priming. Suppressing RAB25 by means of RNAi or RFP14 inhibitory hydrocarbon-stapled peptide sensitizes ovarian cancer cells to chemotherapy as well as RAB25-mediated proliferation, invasion and migration. Our data suggest that RAB25 is a potential therapeutic target for ovarian cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10495-020-01635-zDOI Listing
December 2020

Lumbosacral discitis as a rare complication of laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy.

Int Urogynecol J 2020 Nov 4;31(11):2431-2433. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Başkent University Adana Dr. Turgut Noyan Application and Research Hospital, Adana, Turkey.

Introduction And Hypothesis: Sacrocolpopexy is considered to be the gold-standard procedure for apical compartment prolapse. However, complications such as sacral hemorrhage, small bowel obstruction, port site herniation, mesh erosion, mesh exposure, and occasionally discitis may occur. The aim of this study is to show laparoscopic treatment of L5-S1 discitis 3 months following laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy.

Methods: Two surgical interventions of a case with narrated video footage is presented.

Results: Laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy following hysterectomy in the first part and re-laparoscopy because of a diagnosis of discitis refractory to medical treatment, and removal of mesh along with anterior L5-S1 discectomy for curative debridement in the second part is demonstrated.

Conclusion: Frequency of postoperative discitis has been increased by the widespread use of a laparoscopic approach. In order to reduce the complication rate, surgical technique allowing the needle to penetrate only the depth of the anterior longitudinal ligament and usage of monofilament suture for mesh attachment is recommended. In treatment, removal of the sacral mesh, and even extensive tissue debridement, may be necessary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00192-020-04331-3DOI Listing
November 2020

Outcomes of nerve-sparing laparoscopic sacropexy on one hundred fifteen cases.

J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod 2020 Sep 28;49(7):101795. Epub 2020 May 28.

Baskent University Medical School Adana Dr. Turgut Noyan Teaching Hospital, Turkey. Electronic address:

Study Objective: To evaluate the postoperative anatomic and functional outcomes of patients who underwent laparoscopic nerve-sparing sacrocolpopexy or sacrocervicopexy for pelvic organ prolapse (POP) POP-Q stage III and IV apical prolapse, and to delineate the contributing factors for recurrence.

Study Design And Classification: The file records of patients who underwent sacropexy in the last five years were reviewed retrospectively and compared in terms of preoperative and postoperative anatomic findings and symptoms.

Patients: Patients who underwent laparoscopic nerve-sparing surgery for treatment of POP-Q Stage III and IV/prolapse of uterine or vaginal cuff were included.

Interventions: Postoperative anatomic and functional outcomes were evaluated using POP-Q classification and urinary/anal function by questioning during visits.

Results: The mean follow-up duration was 24.2 ± 17.6 months. Anatomic recovery was achieved in 104 (90.4 %) cases. Advanced age (≥70 years), longer duration of symptoms, and low body mass index were determined as parameters related to recurrence risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jogoh.2020.101795DOI Listing
September 2020

Frontline fighters: the continued fight against COVID-19.

Int J Gynecol Cancer 2020 07 23;30(7):1077-1078. Epub 2020 May 23.

Gynecology and Obstetrics, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/ijgc-2020-001534DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7398225PMC
July 2020

Multi-institutional validation of the ESMO-ESGO-ESTRO consensus conference risk grouping in Turkish endometrial cancer patients treated with comprehensive surgical staging.

J Obstet Gynaecol 2021 Apr 29;41(3):414-420. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Hacettepe University Medical School, Ankara, Turkey.

In this study, 683 patients with endometrial cancer (EC) after comprehensive surgical staging were classified into four risk groups as low (LR), intermediate (IR), high-intermediate (HIR) and high-risk (HR), according to the recent consensus risk grouping. Patients with disease confined to the uterus, ≥50% myometrial invasion (MI) and/or grade 3 histology were treated with vaginal brachytherapy (VBT). Patients with stage II disease, positive/close surgical margins or extra-uterine extension were treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT)±VBT. The median follow-up was 56 months. The overall survival (OS) was significantly different between LR and HR groups, and there was a trend between LR and HIR groups. Relapse-free survival (RFS) was significantly different between LR and HIR, LR and HR and IR and HR groups. There was no significant difference in OS and RFS rates between the HIR and HR groups. In HR patients, the OS and RFS rates were significantly higher in stage IB - grade 3 and stage II compared to stage III and non-endometrioid histology without any difference between the two uterine-confined stages and between stage III and non-endometrioid histology. The current risk grouping does not clearly discriminate the HIR and IR groups. In patients with comprehensive surgical staging, a further risk grouping is needed to distinguish the real HR group.Impact statement The standard treatment for endometrial cancer (EC) is surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) and/or chemotherapy is recommended according to risk factors. The recent European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO), European Society of Gynaecological Oncology (ESGO) and European Society for Radiotherapy and Oncology (ESTRO) guideline have introduced a new risk group. However, the risk grouping is still quite heterogeneous. This study demonstrated that the current risk grouping recommended by ESMO-ESGO-ESTRO does not clearly discriminate the intermediate risk (IR) and high-intermediate risk (HIR) groups. Based on the results of this study, a new risk grouping can be made to discriminate HIR and IR groups clearly in patients with comprehensive surgical staging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01443615.2020.1737661DOI Listing
April 2021

An analysis of 635 consequetive laparoscopic hysterectomy patients in a tertiary referral hospital.

J Gynecol Obstet Hum Reprod 2020 Jan 11;49(1):101645. Epub 2019 Oct 11.

Baskent University Adana Dr. Turgut Noyan Teaching Hospital, Turkey.

Objective: The objective of this retrospective observational study is to analyse the properties of laparoscopic hysterectomy cases that are performed for benign indications and also endometrial cancer indications. Operation time, postoperative complicaton rate, blood transfusion need, and hospitalization time are compared according to benign and malign indications and also body mass index of the patients.

Material And Methods: Patients who were operated between September 2012 and December 2017 are included in this study. Patients' age, body mass index, medical histories, operation indications, operation time, pathology reports, pre and postoperative hemoglobine values and postoperative complications are obtained from medical records.Body mass index is classified as underweight for <19 ; normal for 19-25 ; overweight for 25-30 and obese for ≥30.

Results: Operation and hospitalization times were significantly higher for high BMI and malign gynecologic indication groups than lower BMI and benign gynecologic indication groups (p:0.0001). Complication rates and transfusion needs were similar in between malign and benign gynecologic disease groups (p :0.443; P:0.670 respectively) and also in between high and lower BMI groups (P:0.813 ; P:0.468 respectively).

Conclusion: Laparoscopic approach for hysterectomy operations in high BMI patients and endometrial cancer patients seem to be safe in terms of postoperative complication and bleeding that necessitate transfusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jogoh.2019.101645DOI Listing
January 2020

Clinicopathologic importance of atypical glandular cells in cervico-vaginal cytology

J Turk Ger Gynecol Assoc 2020 06 27;21(2):102-106. Epub 2019 Aug 27.

Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Başkent University, Adana Dr. Turgut Noyan Practice and Research Center, Adana, Turkey

Objective: To analyze the histopathologic outcomes of patients with atypical glandular cells (AGC) in cervicovaginal cytology examinations.

Material And Methods: Patients with AGC in cervicovaginal cytology were included in this study between March 2011 and March 2018 and patient data were collected retrospectively among all cytology results. AGC classification of cervicovaginal cytology were based on the Bethesda 2001 classification system.

Results: The total prevalence of cervical epithelial cell abnormality and AGC were found as 4.2% and 0.2%, respectively, in the study cohort. AGC-favor neoplasia (AGC-FN) was the subgroup of AGC with the highest malignancy rate with 62.5% (p=0.06). The incidence of malignancy in the postmenopausal group (33.3%) was detected higher than in the premenopausal group (8.3%) (p=0.07).

Conclusion: The probability of malignancy in AGC-FN cytology is more commonly associated with malignancy in the postmenopausal group. Therefore, histopathologic examination is strongly recommended in these patients with AGC smears because of the high risk for malignancy in this group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4274/jtgga.galenos.2019.2019.0059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7294838PMC
June 2020

Comparison of survival outcomes in optimally and maximally cytoreduced stage IIIC ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma: Women with only peritoneal tumor burden versus women with both peritoneal and lymphogenous dissemination.

J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2019 Oct 1;45(10):2074-2081. Epub 2019 Aug 1.

Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara, Turkey.

Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze the survival outcomes of stage IIIC ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) patients with both peritoneal and lymphatic dissemination (IP+/RP+) who had undergone maximal or optimal cytoreduction followed by intravenous carboplatin/paclitaxel chemotherapy compared to those women with stage IIIC ovarian HGSC with only peritoneal involvement (IP+/RP-) who were treated similarly.

Methods: We performed a retrospective, multicenter study with the participation of five gynecological cancer centers. First, the stage IIIC ovarian HGSC patients were classified into optimally or maximally debulked cohorts. Then, in each cohort, the patients were divided into two groups; the IP+/RP- group included those women with transcoelomic spreading outside the pelvis with no nodal disease, and the IP+/RP+ group included those patients with transcoelomic dissemination outside the pelvis in addition to a positive nodal status. The survival outcomes were compared between the two groups in each cohort.

Results: A total of 405 ovarian HGSC patients were analyzed. In the optimally debulked cohort (n = 257), the progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) medians for the IP+/RP- group (n = 69) were 24 and 57 months, respectively, compared to 21 and 58 months, respectively, for the IP+/RP+ group (n = 188) (P = 0.78 and P = 0.40, respectively). In the maximally debulked cohort (n = 148), the PFS and OS medians for the IP+/RP- group (n = 55) were 35 and 63 months, respectively, compared to 25 and 51 months, respectively, for the IP+/RP+ group (n = 93) (P = 0.49 and P = 0.31, respectively).

Conclusion: Our findings indicated no survival differences between the IP+/RP- and the IP+/RP+ groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jog.14075DOI Listing
October 2019

Risk Factors for Lymph Node Metastasis among Lymphovascular Space Invasion-Positive Women with Endometrioid Endometrial Cancer Clinically Confined to the Uterus.

Oncol Res Treat 2018 13;41(12):750-754. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Introduction: We aimed to assess risk factors for lymph node (LN) metastasis among lymphovascular space invasion(LVSI)-positive women with pure endometrioid endometrial cancer (EC) clinically confined to the uterus.

Methods: Medical records of women who underwent primary surgery for EC between 2007 and 2016 at either of 2 gynecological oncology centers were retrospectively reviewed. Patient data were analyzed with respect to LN involvement, and predictive factors for LN metastasis were investigated.

Results: 280 patients with surgically staged endometrioid-type EC with LVSI were identified. LN involvement was detected in 88 patients (31.4%) with a systematic LN dissection. In multivariate analysis, elevated baseline serum CA 125 levels, deep myometrial invasion (MMI), adnexal involvement and positive peritoneal cytology were found to be independent risk factors for LN metastasis. In women without deep MMI and elevated baseline serum CA 125 levels, the rate of LN metastasis was 19%. The presence of solely deep MMI increased this probability up to 29.1%. The rate of LN metastasis was found to be 46.8% for women with both deep MMI and elevated baseline serum CA 125 levels.

Conclusion: These findings may be useful in the decision-making process for LVSI-positive women who are unstaged.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000492585DOI Listing
August 2019

Impact of lymph node ratio on survival in stage IIIC endometrioid endometrial cancer: a Turkish Gynecologic Oncology Group study.

J Gynecol Oncol 2018 Jul 13;29(4):e48. Epub 2018 Mar 13.

Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Zekai Tahir Burak Women's Health Training and Research Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, University of Health Sciences, Ankara, Turkey.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of lymph node ratio (LNR) in women with stage IIIC endometrioid endometrial cancer (EC).

Methods: A multicenter, retrospective department database review was performed to identify patients with stage IIIC pure endometrioid EC at 6 gynecologic oncology centers in Turkey. A total of 207 women were included. LNR, defined as the percentage of positive lymph nodes (LNs) to total nodes recovered, was stratified into 2 groups: LNR1 (≤0.15), and LNR2 (>0.15). Kaplan-Meier method was used to generate survival data. Factors predictive of outcome were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards models.

Results: One hundred and one (48.8%) were classified as stage IIIC1 and 106 (51.2%) as stage IIIC2. The median age at diagnosis was 58 (range, 30-82) and the median duration of follow-up was 40 months (range, 1-228 months). There were 167 (80.7%) women with LNR ≤0.15, and 40 (19.3%) women with LNR >0.15. The 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) rates for LNR ≤0.15 and LNR >0.15 were 76.1%, and 58.5%, respectively (p=0.045). An increased LNR was associated with a decrease in 5-year overall survival (OS) from 87.0% for LNR ≤0.15 to 62.3% for LNR >0.15 (p=0.005). LNR >0.15 was found to be an independent prognostic factor for both PFS (hazard ratio [HR]=2.05; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.07-3.93; p=0.03) and OS (HR=3.35; 95% CI=1.57-7.19; p=0.002).

Conclusion: LNR seems to be an independent prognostic factor for decreased PFS and OS in stage IIIC pure endometrioid EC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3802/jgo.2018.29.e48DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5981100PMC
July 2018

Prognostic factors for maximally or optimally cytoreduced stage III nonserous epithelial ovarian carcinoma treated with carboplatin/paclitaxel chemotherapy.

J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2018 Jul 4;44(7):1284-1293. Epub 2018 May 4.

Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara, Turkey.

Objective: To identify factors predictive of poor prognosis in women with stage III nonserous epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) who had undergone maximal or optimal primary cytoreductive surgery (CRS) followed by six cycles of intravenous carboplatin/paclitaxel chemotherapy.

Methods: A multicenter, retrospective department database review was performed to identify patients with stage III nonserous EOC who had undergone maximal or optimal primary CRS followed by six cycles of carboplatin/paclitaxel chemotherapy at seven gynecological oncology centers in Turkey. Demographic, clinicopathological and survival data were collected.

Results: A total of 218 women met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 64 (29.4%) patients had endometrioid, 61 (28%) had mucinous, 54 (24.8%) had clear-cell and 39 (17.9%) had mixed epithelial tumors. Fifty-five (25.2%) patients underwent maximal CRS, whereas 163 (74.8%) had optimal debulking. With a median follow-up of 31.5 months, the 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 34.8% and 44.2%, respectively. Bilaterality (hazard ratio [HR] 1.44, 95% CI 1.01-2.056; P = 0.04), age (HR 2.25, 95% CI 1.176-4.323; P = 0.014) and maximal cytoreduction (HR 0.34, 95% CI 0.202-0.58; P < 0.001) were found to be independent prognostic factors for PFS. However, age (HR 2.6, 95% CI 1.215-5.591; P = 0.014) and maximal cytoreduction (HR 0.31, 95% CI 0.166-0.615; P < 0.001) were defined as independent prognostic factors for OS.

Conclusion: The extent of CRS seems to be the only modifiable prognostic factor associated with stage III nonserous EOC. Complete cytoreduction to no gross residual disease should be the main goal of management in these women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jog.13663DOI Listing
July 2018

Prognostic factors and patterns of recurrence in lymphovascular space invasion positive women with stage IIIC endometriod endometrial cancer.

J Obstet Gynaecol Res 2018 Jun 8;44(6):1140-1149. Epub 2018 Mar 8.

Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara, Turkey.

Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the prognostic factors and patterns of failure in lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI)-positive women with stage IIIC endometrioid endometrial cancer (EC).

Methods: A multicenter, retrospective, department database review was performed to identify LVSI-positive patients with stage IIIC endometrioid EC at five gynecological oncology centers in Turkey. Demographic, clinicopathological and survival data were collected.

Results: We identified 172 LVSI-positive women with stage IIIC endometrioid EC during the study period; 75 (43.6%) were classified as Stage IIIC and 97 (56.4%) as Stage IIIC . The median age at diagnosis was 59 years, and the median duration of follow up was 34.5 months. The total number of recurrences was 46 (26.7%). We observed 14 (8.1%) locoregional recurrences, 12 (7.0%) retroperitoneal failures and 20 (11.6%) distant relapses. For the entire study cohort, 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 67.4%, while the 5-year overall survival (OS) rate was 75.1%. Grade 3 histology (hazard ratio [HR] 2.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.34-5.12; P = 0.005), cervical stromal invasion (HR 2.33, 95% CI 1.09-4.99; P = 0.028) and myometrial invasion (MMI) ≥50% (HR 4.0, 95% CI 1.16-13.69; P = 0.028) were found to be independent prognostic factors for decreased OS.

Conclusion: Uterine factors such as grade 3 disease, cervical stromal invasion and deep MMI seem to be independently associated with decreased OS in LVSI-positive women with stage IIIC endometrioid EC. The high distant recurrence rate in this subgroup of patients warrants further studies in order to identify the most effective treatment strategy for those patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jog.13615DOI Listing
June 2018

Is the presence of endometriosis associated with a survival benefit in pure ovarian clear cell carcinoma?

Arch Gynecol Obstet 2018 Apr 30;297(4):1005-1013. Epub 2018 Jan 30.

Department of Gynecologic Oncology, School of Medicine, Baskent University, Y. Bahcelievler Mah Mareşal Fevzi Çakmak Cad., No: 45, Çankaya, Ankara, Turkey.

Background: The purpose of this study was to compare the prognoses of women with pure ovarian clear cell carcinoma (OCCC) arising from endometriosis to those of women with pure OCCC not arising from endometriosis treated in the same manner.

Methods: A dual-institutional, retrospective database review was performed to identify patients with pure OCCC who were treated with maximal or optimal cytoreductive surgery (CRS) followed by paclitaxel/carboplatin chemotherapy between January 2006 and December 2016. Patients were divided into two groups according to the detection of cancer arising in endometriosis or not, on the basis of pathological findings. Demographic, clinicopathological, and survival data were collected, and prognosis was compared between the two groups.

Results: Ninety-three women who met the inclusion criteria were included. Of these patients, 48 (51.6%) were diagnosed with OCCC arising in endometriosis, while 45 (48.4%) had no concomitant endometriosis. OCCC arising in endometriosis was found more frequently in younger women and had a higher incidence of early stage disease when compared to OCCC patients without endometriosis. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate of the patients with OCCC arising in endometriosis was found to be significantly longer than that of women who had OCCC without endometriosis (74.1 vs. 46.4%; p = 0.003). Although univariate analysis revealed the absence of endometriosis (p = 0.003) as a prognostic factor for decreased OS, the extent of CRS was identified as an independent prognostic factor for both recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio (HR) 8.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.15-24.38; p < 0.001) and OS (HR 11.7, 95% CI 3.68-33.71; p < 0.001) on multivariate analysis.

Conclusion: Our results suggest that endometriosis per se does not seem to affect the prognosis of pure OCCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00404-018-4651-6DOI Listing
April 2018

Impact of lymph node ratio on survival in stage III ovarian high-grade serous cancer: a Turkish Gynecologic Oncology Group study.

J Gynecol Oncol 2018 Jan;29(1):e12

Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Zekai Tahir Burak Women's Health Training and Research Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, University of Health Sciences, Ankara, Turkey.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of lymph node ratio (LNR) in patients with stage III ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC).

Methods: A multicenter, retrospective department database review was performed to identify patients with ovarian HGSC at 6 gynecologic oncology centers in Turkey. A total of 229 node-positive women with stage III ovarian HGSC who had undergone maximal or optimal cytoreductive surgery plus systematic lymphadenectomy followed by paclitaxel plus carboplatin combination chemotherapy were included. LNR, defined as the percentage of positive lymph nodes (LNs) to total nodes recovered, was stratified into 3 groups: LNR1 (<10%), LNR2 (10%≤LNR<50%), and LNR3 (≥50%). Kaplan-Meier method was used to generate survival data. Factors predictive of outcome were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards models.

Results: Thirty-one women (13.6%) were classified as stage IIIA1, 15 (6.6%) as stage IIIB, and 183 (79.9%) as stage IIIC. The median age at diagnosis was 56 (range, 18-87), and the median duration of follow-up was 36 months (range, 1-120 months). For the entire cohort, the 5-year overall survival (OS) was 52.8%. An increased LNR was associated with a decrease in 5-year OS from 65.1% for LNR1, 42.5% for LNR2, and 25.6% for LNR3, respectively (p<0.001). In multivariate analysis, women with LNR≥0.50 were 2.7 times more likely to die of their tumors (hazard ratio [HR]=2.7; 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.42-5.18; p<0.001).

Conclusion: LNR seems to be an independent prognostic factor for decreased OS in stage III ovarian HGSC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3802/jgo.2018.29.e12DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5709522PMC
January 2018

Factors associated with survival after relapse in patients with low-risk endometrial cancer treated with surgery alone.

J Gynecol Oncol 2017 Sep 16;28(5):e65. Epub 2017 Jun 16.

Department of Gynecologic Oncology, Tepecik Education and Research Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, University of Health Sciences, Izmir, Turkey.

Objective: To determine factors influencing overall survival following recurrence (OSFR) in women with low-risk endometrial cancer (EC) treated with surgery alone.

Methods: A multicenter, retrospective department database review was performed to identify patients with recurrent "low-risk EC" (patients having less than 50% myometrial invasion [MMI] with grade 1 or 2 endometrioid EC) at 10 gynecologic oncology centers in Turkey. Demographic, clinicopathological, and survival data were collected.

Results: We identified 67 patients who developed recurrence of their EC after initially being diagnosed and treated for low-risk EC. For the entire study cohort, the median time to recurrence (TTR) was 23 months (95% confidence interval [CI]=11.5-34.5; standard error [SE]=5.8) and the median OSFR was 59 months (95% CI=12.7-105.2; SE=23.5). We observed 32 (47.8%) isolated vaginal recurrences, 6 (9%) nodal failures, 19 (28.4%) peritoneal failures, and 10 (14.9%) hematogenous disseminations. Overall, 45 relapses (67.2%) were loco-regional whereas 22 (32.8%) were extrapelvic. According to the Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) Trial-99, 7 (10.4%) out of 67 women with recurrent low-risk EC were qualified as high-intermediate risk (HIR). The 5-year OSFR rate was significantly higher for patients with TTR ≥36 months compared to those with TTR <36 months (74.3% compared to 33%, p=0.001). On multivariate analysis for OSFR, TTR <36 months (hazard ratio [HR]=8.46; 95% CI=1.65-43.36; p=0.010) and presence of HIR criteria (HR=4.62; 95% CI=1.69-12.58; p=0.003) were significant predictors.

Conclusion: Low-risk EC patients recurring earlier than 36 months and those carrying HIR criteria seem more likely to succumb to their tumors after recurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3802/jgo.2017.28.e65DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5540724PMC
September 2017

A rare lesion of the clitoris: atypical cellular blue naevus: case report.

J Obstet Gynaecol 2017 Jan 7;37(1):121-122. Epub 2016 Dec 7.

a Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics , Başkent University School of Medicine , Adana , Turkey.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01443615.2016.1225021DOI Listing
January 2017

Effect of surgical staging on 539 patients with borderline ovarian tumors: a Turkish Gynecologic Oncology Group study.

Gynecol Oncol 2013 Dec 7;131(3):546-50. Epub 2013 Sep 7.

Celal Bayar University School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Manisa, Turkey. Electronic address:

Objective: The objectives of this study were to examine demographic and clinicopathologic characteristics and to determine the effects of primary surgery, surgical staging and the extensiveness of staging.

Methods: In a retrospective Turkish multicenter study, 539 patients, from 14 institutions, with borderline ovarian tumors were investigated. Some of the demographic, clinical and surgical characteristics of the cases were evaluated. The effects of type of surgery, surgical staging; complete or incomplete staging on survival rates were calculated by using Kaplan-Meier method.

Results: The median age at diagnosis was 40 years (range 15-84) and 71.1% of patients were premenopausal. The most common histologic types were serous and mucinous. Majority of the staged cases were in Stage IA (73.5%). 242 patients underwent conservative surgery. Recurrence rates were significantly higher in conservative surgery group (8.3% vs. 3%). Of all patients in this study, 294 (54.5%) have undergone surgical staging procedures. Of the patients who underwent surgical staging, 228 (77.6%) had comprehensive staging including lymphadenectomy. Appendectomy was performed on 204 (37.8%) of the patients. The median follow-up time was 36 months (range 1-120 months). Five-year survival rate was 100% and median survival time was 120 months. Surgical staging, lymph node sampling or dissection and appendectomy didn't cause any difference on survival.

Conclusion: Comprehensive surgical staging, lymph node sampling or dissection and appendectomy are not beneficial in borderline ovarian tumors surgical management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2013.08.038DOI Listing
December 2013

Mullerian inhibiting substance expression in papillary thyroid cancer.

Asian J Surg 2013 Jul 20;36(3):126-9. Epub 2013 Feb 20.

Department of General Surgery, Fırat University, Medical School, Elazig, Turkey.

Objective: To examine the expression of Mullerian inhibiting substance (MIS) in papillary thyroid cancer.

Materials And Methods: The MIS expression was examined by studying the immunohistochemistry in deparafinized sections prepared from tissue blocks of patients who were diagnosed with papillary thyroid cancer, as given in the pathology archive records (n = 23).

Results: In all the cases studied, 50% (n = 10) showed strong staining and 50% showed moderate staining. The percentage of staining was found to be 94.2 ± 3.1% in strongly stained cases and 92.2 ± 2.1% in moderately stained cases. Normal thyroid tissues neighboring the tumor did not display any staining.

Conclusion: The MIS expression can be used as a significant tool in differential diagnosis of papillary thyroid cancer and also to shed light on its etiopathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.asjsur.2012.11.009DOI Listing
July 2013

Ghrelins, obestatin, nesfatin-1 and leptin levels in pregnant women with and without hyperemesis gravidarum.

Clin Biochem 2013 Jun 1;46(9):828-30. Epub 2013 Feb 1.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Firat University Hospital, 23119 Elazig, Turkey.

Objectives: The goal of this study was to compare levels of acyl and des-acyl ghrelin, obestatin, nesfatin-1 and leptin in healthy gravidas to hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) patients.

Design And Methods: Twenty pregnant women with HG and twenty healthy pregnant women all of similar ages, BMI and all at similar pregnancy development comprised the study cohort. Fasting serum samples were obtained and measured for acyl and des-acyl ghrelin, leptin, obestatin and nesfatin-1.

Results: Nesfatin-1 concentrations in the HG group were higher compared to the control group whereas; leptin concentrations during pregnancy were lower in the HG group as compared to the control group. The two groups did not differ with regard to acyl and des-acyl ghrelin and obestatin.

Conclusion: This pilot study suggests a possible role of leptin and nesfatin-1, which might be involved in the pathology of the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2013.01.015DOI Listing
June 2013

Ghrelin and obestatin expression in serous ovarian tumours.

Gynecol Endocrinol 2012 Dec 7;28(12):941-4. Epub 2012 Sep 7.

Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, Firat University Medical School, Elazig, Turkey.

Objective: To investigate ghrelin and obestatin expression in serous ovarian tumours.

Materials And Methods: Preparations of deparaffinized blocks obtained from the pathology archives of a total of 47 previously diagnosed cases of benign serous tumour (n = 20), borderline serous tumour (n = 7) and malignant serous tumour (n = 20) were subjected to immunohistochemical examination to find out ghrelin and obestatin expressions.

Results: Mean ghrelin expressions decreased significantly in the benign group, relative to the malignant group (p < 0.05), while there was no significant change in mean obestatin expression. It was established that rates of preparations with moderate and severe ghrelin and obestatin expression displayed a significant increase from benign to malignant ones (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: The fact that rates of preparations with severe expression correlated with an increase in malignancy suggests that ghrelin and obestatin may be effective in the malignant transformation in at least some cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/09513590.2011.650753DOI Listing
December 2012

Nesfatin-1 and other hormone alterations in polycystic ovary syndrome.

Endocrine 2012 Dec 25;42(3):694-9. Epub 2012 Feb 25.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Firat University Hospital, Elazig, Turkey.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is commonly characterised by obesity, insulin resistance (IR), hyperandrogenemia and hirsutism. Nesfatin-1 a recently discovered hormone, acts upon energy balance, glucose metabolism, obesity and probably gonadal functions. This study was to evaluate the circulating levels of nesfatin-1 in patients with PCOS (n = 30) and in age and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls (n = 30). PCOS patients had significantly lower levels of nesfatin-1 (0.88 ± 0.36 ng/mL) than healthy controls (2.22 ± 1.14 ng/mL). PCOS patients also had higher gonadotropin and androgen plasma concentrations, Ferriman-Gallwey scores, blood glucose levels and a homeostasis model of assessment-IR index (HOMA-IR) index than in healthy women. Correlation tests in PCOS subjects detected a negative correlation between nesfatin-1 levels and BMI, fasting blood glucose, insulin levels and a HOMA-IR index. Lower nesfatin-1 concentration may plays a very important role in the development of PCOS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12020-012-9638-7DOI Listing
December 2012

Changes in serum obestatin, preptin and ghrelins in patients with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

Clin Biochem 2012 Feb 25;45(3):198-202. Epub 2011 Aug 25.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Firat University Hospital, Elazig, Turkey.

Objectives: The present study aims to establish the levels of acylated ghrelin, desacylated ghrelin, obestatin and preptin, during pregnancy and the postpartum period in pregnant women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) and healthy pregnancy women.

Design And Methods: The study registered 20 pregnant women with GDM and 20 healthy pregnant women. Fasting venous blood samples were collected from all cases between weeks 24 and 28 of pregnancy and after 24h postpartum. Hormones were analyzed using ELISA method.

Results: Serum acylated ghrelin (p:0.001), desacylated ghrelin (p:0.001), obestatin (p:0.006) and preptin (p:0.001) levels were all found statistically higher in both groups during the postpartum period, when compared to the pregnancy period. A positive correlation was established between desacylated ghrelin and acylated ghrelin (p:0.008), desacylated ghrelin and preptin (p:0.012) and preptin and insulin (p:0.039) in the GDM group during pregnancy.

Conclusions: The studied hormones (especially desacylated ghrelin and obestatin) are critical in GDM pathophysiology based on the comparison of measure after and before the delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2011.08.1131DOI Listing
February 2012