Publications by authors named "Huma Shahzad"

8 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Myristic acid defends against testicular oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis: Restoration of spermatogenesis, steroidogenesis in diabetic rats.

Life Sci 2021 Aug 11;278:119605. Epub 2021 May 11.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Diabetes mellitus (DM) may lead to testicular-related infertility while Myristic acid (MA) is beneficial to lower hyperglycaemia. Thus, we hypothesized that MA could protect testes against hyperglycaemia-induced damage in DM. DM was induced in adult male rats by high-fat diet consumption for 12 weeks, accompanied by a single dose streptozotocin injection. Following DM confirmation, the rats were fed orally with 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight MA for 28 consecutive days. After completion of treatment, rats were sacrificed and blood, cauda epididymis and testes were harvested. Serum was separated, epididymal sperm was collected for analysis. Molecular studies of the testes were performed by qPCR, Western blotting and immunostaining. MA was found to protect the testes against oxidative stress via preventing the upregulation of RAGE, Keap1, and the downregulation of Nrf2, NQO1, HO1, SOD, CAT and GPx. MA also prevented increase in testicular inflammation and apoptosis, as indicated by low inflammatory (NF-κB p65, IKKβ, TNF-α, IL-1β and iNOS) and apoptosis (Bax and caspase-9), but high anti-apoptosis (Bcl-2) markers' levels. Besides, MA prevented the downregulation of testicular steroidogenic markers (3βHSD, 17βHSD, StAR, ARA-54 and CYP11A1). Sperm analysis revealed near normal sperm count, motility, viability, lower abnormal sperm morphology in diabetic rats received MA. MA also prevented the loss of germ cells via preventing the decreased in cell proliferative marker (PCNA) while maintaining near normal epithelial height, tubular and Leydig cell diameters in the testes in DM. MA protects the testes against damage in DM, thus maintaining spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis, consequently preserving male fertility in diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119605DOI Listing
August 2021

Frequency of Cognitive Impairment in Patients with Parkinson's Disease.

Cureus 2019 May 23;11(5):e4733. Epub 2019 May 23.

Family Medicine, Dr. Ruth K.M. Pfau, Civil Hospital, Karachi, PAK.

Introduction More than its motor symptoms, cognitive impairment is being increasingly identified as a cause of worse functional outcome, morbidity and mortality, and caregiver dependence in Parkinson's disease (PD). The aim of this study was to identify the frequency of cognitive decline and evaluate the factors associated with it. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 124 PD patients fulfilling the United Kingdom Parkinson's Disease Society Brain Bank Clinical Diagnostic Criteria were included. Motor and non-motor symptoms were recorded. Disease duration, age at the time of onset, and severity of disease on Hoehn and Yahr Scale (HY scale) were recorded. Data was entered and analyzed using SPSSs v. 22.0. Results The ratio of men to women was 7.2:1. The mean age of the participants was 64 ± 10 years (range: 38-82 years). Rigidity (= 121; 97.5%), bradykinesia (= 119; 95.9%), and tremor (= 11; 90.3%) were the three most common symptoms. Cognitive impairment was present in 45 (36.3%) patients. Cognitive decline was more frequent in patients of age less than 50 years at the time of disease onset (< 0.00001) and in those with disease duration more than 10 years (= 0.00001). Patients with longer disease duration had more severe disease (stage III or above on HY scale; = 0.008). Conclusion Motor symptoms such as rigidity, bradykinesia, and tremor remain the most frequent clinical presentation among Pakistani Parkinson's patients. One-third of these patients have cognitive dysfunction. Early age at the time of disease onset and longer duration of disease were associated with cognitive impairment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.4733DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6649883PMC
May 2019

Effect of Zinc Supplementation on the Frequency and Consistency of Stool in Children with Acute Diarrhea.

Cureus 2019 Mar 11;11(3):e4217. Epub 2019 Mar 11.

Internal Medicine, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi, PAK.

Introduction Acute diarrhea in young children is a prevalent and distressing pediatric illness. The role of zinc therapy in the improvement of stool consistency and the shortening of the duration of diarrhea is still controversial. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of oral zinc supplementation in acute diarrhea. Methods Children of age 28 days till five years presenting in the outpatient department with acute diarrhea were included. Oral zinc supplementation was included in the anti-diarrheal regime of half of the children (n=50); the other half (n=50) were not given zinc. Mean body weight and the frequency and consistency of stool were noted for both groups on Days 1 and 3. Results The zinc group showed a significantly reduced frequency of diarrheal episodes on the third day of intervention (p<.00001). More children in the zinc group had soft to firm stool consistency than in the non-zinc group (p=.01). Conclusion Oral zinc supplementation has a promising role in reducing the duration of diarrhea and improving stool consistency in children with acute diarrhea. Oral zinc supplementation should be made a mandatory part of the anti-diarrheal regime for Pakistani children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.4217DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6506273PMC
March 2019

Quercetin interferes with the fluid volume and receptivity development of the uterus in rats during the peri-implantation period.

Reprod Toxicol 2017 08 18;71:42-54. Epub 2017 Apr 18.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Lembah Pantai, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Hypothesis: Quercetin could induce changes to the fluid volume and receptivity development of the uterus during peri-implantation period.

Methods: Female rats were treated with quercetin (10, 25 and 50mg/kg/day) subcutaneously beginning from day-1 pregnancy. Uterus was harvested at day-4 (following three days quercetin treatment) for morphological, ultra-structural, protein and mRNA expressional changes and plasma sex-steroid levels analyses. In another cohort of rats, implantation rate was determined at day-6 (following five days quercetin treatment).

Results: Administration of 50mg/kg/day quercetin causes increased in uterine fluid volume and CFTR expression but decreased in γ-ENaC, AQP-5, AQP-9 claudin-4, occludin, E-cadherin, integrin αnβЗ, FGF, Ihh and Msx-1expression in the uterus. Pinopodes were poorly develop, tight junctions appear less complex and implantation rate decreased. Serum estradiol levels increased but serum progesterone levels decreased.

Conclusions: Interference in the fluid volume and receptivity development of the uterus during peri-implantation period by quercetin could adversely affect embryo implantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2017.04.004DOI Listing
August 2017

Quercetin alters uterine fluid volume and aquaporin (AQP) subunits (AQP-1, 2, 5 & 7) expression in the uterus in the presence of sex-steroids in rats.

Reprod Toxicol 2017 04 22;69:276-285. Epub 2017 Mar 22.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Lembah Pantai, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Electronic address:

Effects of quercetin on uterine fluid volume and aquaporin (AQP) expression in the uterus were investigated. Estradiol (E) or estradiol followed by progesterone (E+P) were given to ovariectomised rats with or without quercetin (10, 50 or 100mg/kg/day) treatment. Uteri were harvested and its inner/outer circumference ratio was determined. AQP-1, 2, 5 and 7 mRNA and protein levels in uterus were quantified by Real-time PCR and Western blotting respectively. Protein distribution was observed by immunohistochemistry. Administration of quercetin in E-treated rats decreased the uterine fluid volume and uterine AQP-2 expression. In E+P-treated rats, administration of 100mg/kg/day quercetin increased uterine fluid volume, AQP-1 and 2 expression but decreased AQP-7 expression in uterus. AQP-1 was distributed in stromal blood vessels while AQP-2, 5 and 7 were distributed in uterine epithelium.

Conclusions: Quercetin-induced changes in uterine fluid volume and AQP subunits expression in uterus could affect the uterine reproductive functions under different sex-steroid influence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2017.03.012DOI Listing
April 2017

Combinatorial effects of quercetin and sex-steroids on fluid and electrolytes' (Na+, Cl-, HCO3-) secretory mechanisms in the uterus of ovariectomised female Sprague-Dawley rats.

PLoS One 2017 2;12(3):e0172765. Epub 2017 Mar 2.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Dysregulation of uterine fluid environment could impair successful reproduction and this could be due to the effect of environmental estrogens. Therefore, in this study, effect of quercetin, an environmental estrogen on uterine fluid and electrolytes concentrations were investigated under sex-steroid influence. Ovariectomised adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were given 10, 50 or 100mg/kg/day quercetin subcutaneously with 17-β estradiol (E) for seven days or three days E, then three days E plus progesterone (P) (E+P) treatment. Uterine fluid secretion rate, Na+, Cl- and HCO3- concentrations were determined by in-vivo perfusion. Following sacrifice, uteri were harvested and levels of the proteins of interest were identified by Western blotting and Realtime PCR. Distribution of these proteins in the uterus was observed by immunofluorescence. Levels of uterine cAMP were measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay (EIA). Administration of quercetin at increasing doses increased uterine fluid secretion rate, Na+, Cl- and HCO3- concentrations, but to the levels lesser than that of E. In concordant, levels of CFTR, SLC4A4, ENaC (α, β and γ), Na+/K+-ATPase, GPα/β, AC and cAMP in the uterus increased following increased in the doses of quercetin. Co-administration of quercetin with E caused uterine fluid secretion rate, Na+, Cl- and HCO3- concentrations to decrease. In concordant, uterine CFTR, SLC26A6, SLC4A4, ENaC (α, β and γ), Na+/K+-ATPase, GPα/β, AC and cAMP decreased. Greatest effects were observed following co-administration of 10mg/kg/day quercetin with E. Co-administration of quercetin with E+P caused uterine fluid Na+ and HCO3- concentrations to increase but no changes in fluid secretion rate and Cl- concentration were observed. Co-administration of high dose quercetin (100 mg/kg/day) with E+P caused uterine CFTR, SLC26A6, AC, GPα/β and ENaC (α, β and γ) to increase. Quercetin-induced changes in the uterine fluid secretion rate and electrolytes concentrations could potentially affect the uterine reproductive functions under female sex-steroid influence.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0172765PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5333842PMC
August 2017

Quercetin Induces Dose-Dependent Differential Morphological and Proliferative Changes in Rat Uteri in the Presence and in the Absence of Estrogen.

J Med Food 2015 Dec 2;18(12):1307-16. Epub 2015 Jul 2.

1 Department of Physiology, University of Malaya , Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia .

Quercetin could have profound effects on uterine morphology and proliferation, which are known to be influenced by estrogen. This study investigated the effect of quercetin on these uterine parameters in the presence and in the absence of estrogen. Ovariectomized adult female rats received peanut oil, quercetin (10, 50, and 100 mg/kg/day), estrogen, or estrogen+quercetin (10, 50, or 100 mg/kg/day) treatment for 7 consecutive days. At the end of the treatment, uteri were harvested for histological and molecular biological analyses. Distribution of proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein in the uterus was observed by immunohistochemistry. Levels of expression of PCNA protein and mRNA in uterine tissue homogenates were determined by Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Our findings indicated that administration of 10 mg/kg/day of quercetin either alone or with estrogen resulted in decreased uterine expression of PCNA protein and mRNA with the percentage of PCNA-positive cells in uterine luminal and glandular epithelia markedly reduced compared with estrogen-only treatment. Changes in uterine morphology were the opposite of changes observed following estrogen treatment. Treatment with 100 mg/kg/day of quercetin either alone or with estrogen resulted in elevated PCNA protein and mRNA expression. In addition, the percentages of PCNA-positive cells in the epithelia, which line the lumen and glands, were increased with morphological features mimicking changes that occur following estrogen treatment. Following 50 mg/kg/day quercetin treatment, the changes observed were in between those changes that occur following 10 and 100 mg/kg/day quercetin treatment. In conclusion, changes in uterine morphology and proliferation following 10 mg/kg/day quercetin treatment could be attributed to quercetin's antiestrogenic properties, while changes that occur following 100 mg/kg/day quercetin treatment could be attributed to quercetin's estrogenic properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2014.3293DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4685494PMC
December 2015

Quercetin induces morphological and proliferative changes of rat's uteri under estrogen and progesterone influences.

Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2014 15;7(9):5484-94. Epub 2014 Aug 15.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya Lembah Pantai 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

This study investigated the effect of 10 or 100 mg/kg/day quercetin on the uterus of ovariectomized adult female rats receiving sex-steroid replacement regime mimicking changes in hormonal profiles during the reproductive cycle. Following seven days of treatment with estrogen and progesterone with or without quercetin, uteri were harvested for histological and proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) protein and mRNA expression and PCNA protein distribution analyses. Our findings indicated that co-administration of 10 mg/kg/day quercetin with estrogen and progesterone caused a significant decrease in the size of uterine lumen and epithelial heights with lower PCNA protein and mRNA expression as compared to estrogen plus progesterone-only treatment (P < 0.05). Concomitant treatment with estrogen and progesterone with 100 mg/kg/day quercetin resulted in a marked increase in the number of glands with increased PCNA protein and mRNA expression. Significantly higher PCNA distribution was observed in the stroma and glands as compared to estrogen plus progesterone-only treatment (P < 0.05). In conclusion, at 10 mg/kg/day, quercetin affects uterine morphology but not proliferation, however at 100 mg/kg/day, quercetin induced significant stromal and glandular proliferation which could predispose the uterus towards neoplastic development.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4203161PMC
July 2015