Publications by authors named "Huixia Cai"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Prevalence of Echinococcus Species in Wild Foxes and Stray Dogs in Qinghai Province, China.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 Nov 15. Epub 2021 Nov 15.

National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (Chinese Center for Tropical Diseases Research), NHC Key Laboratory of Parasite and Vector Biology, WHO Collaborating Center for Tropical Diseases, National Center for International Research on Tropical Diseases, Shanghai, China.

Echinococcosis is a zoonotic parasitic disease that is highly endemic to the Qinghai province of China. Limited data are available on the prevalence of the causal pathogen, Echinococcus spp., in definitive hosts in this region. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Echinococcus spp. in wild foxes and stray dogs in Qinghai province. Five hundred and twenty-eight feces from wild foxes and 277 from stray dogs were collected from 11 counties in the Golog, Yushu, and Haixi prefectures and screened for Echinococcus spp. using copro-DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In total, 5.5% of wild foxes and 15.2% of stray dogs tested positive for Echinococcus spp. The prevalence rates of Echinococcus spp. in wild foxes in Golog, Yushu, and Haixi were 7.3%, 5.2%, and 1.9%, respectively. In stray dogs, these rates were 13.3%, 17.3%, and 0%, respectively. Sequencing analysis determined that Echinococcus multilocularis was the most prevalent species, occurring in 4.0% and 12.6% of wild foxes and stray dogs, respectively. Echinococcus shiquicus was observed in 1.5% of wild foxes and 0.7% of stray dogs. Echinococcus granulosus was observed only in wild dogs, with a prevalence rate of 1.8%. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the prevalence of E. shiquicus in dogs in Qinghai province. The current results improve our understanding of the transmission and dissemination of human echinococcosis and suggest that exposure to the eggs of E. multilocularis harbored by wild foxes and stray dogs may pose a great risk of alveolar echinococcosis to humans in Qinghai province.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.21-0622DOI Listing
November 2021

Evaluation of fecal immunoassays for canine Echinococcus infection in China.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 03 15;15(3):e0008690. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Cirad, UMR 17, Intertryp, Campus international de Baillarguet, Montpellier Cedex 5, France.

Human echinococcosis is present worldwide but it is in China that disease prevalence is the highest. In western China, especially in the Tibetan Plateau, the burden of echinococcosis is the most important. Dogs are a major definitive host of Echinococcus and monitoring the presence of Echinococcus worms in dogs is therefore essential to efficiently control the disease. Detection kits based on three different technologies including sandwich ELISA, (indirect) ELISA, and gold immunodiffusion, are currently marketed and used in China. The objective of this work was to assess the efficacy of these kits, in particular with respect to sensitivity and specificity. Four fecal antigen detection kits for canine infection reflecting the three technologies were obtained from companies and tested in parallel on 220 fecal samples. The results indicate that the performance is lower than expected, in particular in terms of sensitivity. The best results were obtained with the sandwich ELISA technology. The gold immunofiltration yielded the poorest results. In all cases, further development is needed to improve the performance of these kits which are key components for the control of echinococcosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008690DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7993806PMC
March 2021

The complete plastome sequence of (Asteraceae: Cardueae), an important medicinal plant in East Asia.

Mitochondrial DNA B Resour 2020 Jan 31;5(1):951-952. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Hangzhou Botanical Garden, Hangzhou Academy of Landscape Science, Hangzhou, China.

is one of the most commonly used herbs in China, which is famous for its high medicinal value. In this study, we analyzed and characterized the complete plastome sequence of Sequence analysis indicated that the entire genome is 153,265 bp in length, consisting of a large single-copy (LSC, 84,311 bp) and a small single-copy (SSC, 18,674 bp) region separated by a pair of inverted repeat (IR) regions of 25,140 bp for each. The genome contains 107 unique genes, including 80 different protein-coding genes, 23 tRNA genes, and 4 rRNA genes. The overall GC content of the genome is 37.7%. The phylogenetic analysis revealed a monophyletic and Cardueae. This research reports the complete plastome genome of , which provides a better understanding of this important herb.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/23802359.2020.1719926DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7748879PMC
January 2020

The correlations between Th1 and Th2 cytokines in human alveolar echinococcosis.

BMC Infect Dis 2020 Jun 15;20(1):414. Epub 2020 Jun 15.

Qinghai Institute for Endemic Disease Prevention and Control, Xining, 811602, Qinghai Province, China.

Background: Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a zoonotic parasitic disease caused by Echinococcus multilocularis larval tapeworm infections in humans that severely impairs the health of affected patients in the northern hemisphere.

Methods: The expression levels of 20 cytokines associated with AE infection were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the correlations between these cytokines were analysed in the R programming language.

Results: Serum cytokine levels differed among individuals in both the AE patient and healthy control groups. The results of the correlations among the cytokines showed obvious differences between the two groups. In the AE patients group, Th1 and Th2 cytokines formed a more complicated network than that in the healthy control group.

Conclusions: The altered correlations between Th1 and Th2 cytokines may be closely associated with AE infection, which may provide a new explanation for the essential differences between AE patients and healthy individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12879-020-05135-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7294603PMC
June 2020

Analysis of Factors Influencing Cystic Echinococcosis in Northwest Non-Qinghai Tibetan Plateau Regions of China.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 03;102(3):567-573

Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing, China.

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is an important health problem in northwest non-Qinghai Tibetan Plateau regions of China. Understanding CE risk factors may help in formulating effective prevention and control measures. In the current study, negative binomial regression was used to analyze CE-related factors using prevalence data from 147 counties (cities, districts, and banners) in northwest non-Qinghai Tibetan Plateau regions of China gathered from a national survey conducted in 2012, county economic data, and livestock production data for 2012. The negative binomial regression models indicated infection rate in livestock (odds ratio [OR]: 1.0471, 95% CI: 1.0128-1.0825, = 0.0067), the mean number of dogs per family (OR: 3.0589, 95% CI: 1.5116-6.1900, = 0.0019), the mean number of sheep per family (OR: 1.0431, 95% CI: 1.0027-1.0852, = 0.0365), and the source of drinking water (OR: 0.9808, 95% CI: 0.9627-0.9992, = 0.0413) were correlated with human CE prevalence, whereas altitude, surface temperature, economy, and mean number of cattle per family had a negative association. We found that the positive rate of dog stool coproantigen of was associated with human CE prevalence using the univariate analysis but not after controlling for covariates including the number of dogs per family. This might be partially due to the deworming campaigns that were carried out in most of the researched areas. Therefore, the positive rate of dog stool coproantigen of could not reflect the dog infection rate under natural conditions. These findings indicate that dogs and livestock play the most important role in CE transmission. Further studies should be carried out at the township or village level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0703DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7056441PMC
March 2020

Survey of echinococcoses in southeastern Qinghai Province, China, and serodiagnostic insights of recombinant Echinococcus granulosus antigen B isoforms.

Parasit Vectors 2019 Jun 26;12(1):323. Epub 2019 Jun 26.

Department of Molecular Parasitology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon, 16419, Korea.

Background: Echinococcoses, caused by metacestodes of Echinococcus granulosus (cystic echinococcosis; CE) and E. multilocularis (alveolar echinococcosis; AE), represent major emerging parasitic diseases. These enzootic helminthiases invoke significant public health concerns and social burdens in endemic areas. The diseases are prevalent in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, China, while community-based epidemiological studies have been scarcely reported. We surveyed echinococcosis patients in the southeastern Qinghai Province, China, to better understand the concurrent epidemiological situation in this area.

Methods: During July and August of 2013 and 2014, we screened echinococcosis patients at Yushu and Golog Prefectures, Qinghai Province, China, in a diagnostic campaign. A total of 2856 people (male:female ratio, 1:1.12; mean age, 34.6 years; age range, 6-88 years) were ultrasonographically examined for the presence of hepatic echinococcal cysts. We also collected serum samples from patients and analyzed antibody reactivity against recombinant forms of diverse E. granulosus antigen Bs (rEgAgB1-5) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

Results: We detected 134 patients whose imaging scans were compatible with CE (115 cases) and AE (20 patients). One patient might have been infected with both CE and AE. The overall incidence was 4.7% (CE, 4.0%; AE, 0.7%). A large proportion (67.5%) of CE patients was diagnosed at active and transitional CE1-CE3 stages in their late 30s. The AE cases were generally detected at advanced stage in patients at early 20s (60%). Analysis of the receiver operating characteristic curve and Youden's index indicated that rEgAgB2 was the most promising biomarker, followed by rEgAgB3 and rEgAgB1. Overall, sensitivity and specificity of rEgAgB1-3 were 84.5-92.7% and 91.9-94.6%, respectively. rEgAgB4 and 5 showed low sensitivity with high cross-reactivity.

Conclusions: Our results strongly suggest that disability-adjusted life years related to echinococcoses in Qinghai-Tibetan areas might be more serious than previously considered. Control and prevention strategy against CE and AE are highly required in these areas. In addition to ultrasonography, serological tests might provide supportive data. However, serological data should be carefully interpreted for differential diagnosis, especially in areas where both CE and AE are co-endemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-019-3569-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6593596PMC
June 2019

Case Report: Rare Presentation of Multivisceral Echinococcosis.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2019 05;100(5):1204-1207

Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, People's Hospital of Qinghai Province, Xining, China.

Cystic echinococcosis (CE) is a common, chronic, and endemic zoonotic disease usually localized in a single organ; multivisceral cases are rare, especially outside the liver or lung. Here, we describe an unusual case of a 43-year-old Tibetan man with echinococcosis of the infratemporal fossa, heart, liver, pancreas, abdomen, and pelvic cavity. He only presented with diminished vision of the left eye, especially when chewing. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed multivisceral CE. The patient underwent surgery for the excision of a cyst in the infratemporal fossa, as well as chemotherapy, and the diagnosis was confirmed by histopathological examination. The diagnosis, clinical features, treatment, and follow-up in this case are discussed. In areas with high echinococcosis prevalence, examination by full imaging is necessary for an accurate diagnosis, especially in cases of atypical localization. Chemotherapy for treatment, as well as prophylaxis against recurrence, can be effective when surgery is not possible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.18-0673DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6493931PMC
May 2019

Epidemiology of Echinococcosis Among Schoolchildren in Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai, China.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2017 03 6;96(3):674-679. Epub 2017 Apr 6.

National Institute of Parasitic Diseases, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Key Laboratory of Parasite and Vector Biology, Ministry of Health, WHO Collaborating Center of Malaria, Schistosomiasis and Filariasis, Shanghai, China.

Echinococcosis is a serious zoonotic parasitic disease that is highly endemic in Qinghai Province. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of echinococcosis among schoolchildren in Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture to improve early diagnosis and treatment of patients and to provide information for echinococcosis prevention and control. A total of 11,260 schoolchildren from five counties (Maqin, Gander, Dari, Jiuzhi, and Banma) in Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Qinghai Province, were screened for echinococcosis. Screening involved ultrasound imaging combined with serologic examination as an auxiliary diagnostic test. The prevalence of echinococcosis in the schoolchildren was 2.1% (235/11,260), with a rate of 0.8% for cystic echinococcosis (CE; 89/11,260) and 1.3% for alveolar echinococcosis (AE; 146/11,260). Additionally, one child had a mixed infection. The prevalence ranged between 1.1% and 4.1% among the five investigated counties, and was highest in Dari County (4.1%). The prevalence of echinococcosis was higher in girls than in boys and gradually increased with age. In addition, children with CE mainly had type 1 (CE1) and type 3 (CE3) lesions, and children with AE mainly had small-diameter calcified lesions, suggesting that they were in the early asymptomatic stage of echinococcosis. In conclusion, children of Golog Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture appear to exhibit the highest recorded prevalence of CE and AE globally. Ultrasound is useful for screening populations in regions where both CE and AE are endemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.16-0479DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5361544PMC
March 2017

An Echinococcus multilocularis Antigen B3 Proteoform That Shows Specific Antibody Responses to Active-Stage Alveolar Echinococcosis.

J Clin Microbiol 2015 Oct 12;53(10):3310-7. Epub 2015 Aug 12.

Department of Molecular Parasitology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine and Center for Molecular Medicine, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Suwon, South Korea

Alveolar echinococcosis (AE), caused by the Echinococcus multilocularis metacestode, represents one of the most frequently fatal zoonoses. Early diagnosis significantly reduces morbidity and mortality associated with AE. Diagnosis of AE largely depends on a combination of imaging and serological tests due to its minimal clinical manifestations. Several antigens derived from the whole worm and protoscolex have been targeted for AE serodiagnosis, while the antigenic properties of E. multilocularis hydatid fluid (EmHF) are unclear. We observed two AE-specific 6- and 8-kDa antigen proteoforms through an immunoproteome array of the EmHF. We identified these proteins as representing an E. multilocularis antigen B3 (EmAgB3) isoform, and the proteins were shown to be encoded by the same gene. We cloned the gene and expressed the recombinant EmAgB3 protein (rEmAgB3) in Escherichia coli. rEmAgB3 exhibited sensitivity of 90.9% (80/88 cases) and specificity of 98.5% (597/606 samples) by immunoblotting. The positive and negative predictive values were 89.9% and 98.6%, respectively. The protein did not show antibody responses to 33 AE sera collected during posttreatment follow-up monitoring. Mouse sera experimentally infected with AE protoscoleces began to demonstrate specific antibody responses to native and recombinant EmAgB3 6 months after infection. At that stage, fully mature metacestode vesicles that harbored the brood capsule, primary cell, and protoscolex were observed within an AE mass(es). The response declined along with worm degeneration. Our results demonstrate that the immune responses to this EmAgB3 isoform were highly correlated with worm viability accompanied with AE progression. rEmAgB3 is a promising biomarker for serological assessment of AE patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.01362-15DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4572566PMC
October 2015

Alteration of immunoproteome profile of Echinococcus granulosus hydatid fluid with progression of cystic echinococcosis.

Parasit Vectors 2015 Jan 8;8:10. Epub 2015 Jan 8.

Department of Molecular Parasitology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine and Center for Molecular Medicine, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Suwon, 440-746, Korea.

Background: Cystic echinococcosis (CE), caused by Echinococcus granulosus metacestode, invokes a serious public health concern. Early diagnosis has great impacts on reduction of disability-adjusted life years. Several antigen B-related molecules (EgAgB; EgAgB1-5) are known to be immunopotent, but detection of EgAgB is variable in many patients and may not allow reliable interpretation of its immunological relevance. More importantly, the immunoproteome profile of hydatid fluid (HF) has not been addressed.

Methods: We conducted a proteome analysis of the HF of a single fertile cyst of CE1 and CE2 stages through two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Each protein spot was analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). We subsequently determined the immunoproteome profile employing patient sera of entire disease spectrum from CE1 to CE5 stages.

Results: We identified 40 parasite proteins, of which EgAgB (28 spots) and antigen 5 (EgAg5; 5 molecules) were abundant. EgAgB proteoforms constituted the majority, mostly EgAgB1 (24 spots), followed by EgAgB2 and EgAgB4 (2 spots each). EgAgB3 was detected only by liquid chromatography-MS/MS. EgAgB5 was not recognized. We also detected 38 host proteins, which were largely composed of serum components, antioxidant/xenobiotic enzymes, and enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism. CE1 and CE2 HF exhibited comparable spotting patterns, but CE2 HF harbored greater amounts of EgAgB and EgAg5 complexes. CE sera demonstrated complicated immune recognition patterns according to the disease progression; CE2 and CE3 stages exhibited strong antibody responses against diverse EgAgB and EgAg5 proteoforms, while CE1, CE4, and CE5 stages mainly reacted to EgAg5 and cathepsin B. Patient sera of alveolar echinococcosis (AE) cross-reacted with diverse EgAgB isoforms (36%). EgAg5 and cathepsin B also demonstrated cross-reactions with sera from neurocysticercosis and sparganosis.

Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that detection of a single defined molecule may not properly diagnose CE, since specific immunodominant epitopes changed as the disease progresses. Immunoproteome analysis combined with imaging studies may be practical in the differential diagnosis of CE from AE and other cystic lesions, as well as for staging CE, which are pertinent to establish appropriate patient management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-014-0610-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4311513PMC
January 2015

Surveillance of Echinococcus isolates from Qinghai, China.

Vet Parasitol 2015 Jan 22;207(1-2):44-8. Epub 2014 Nov 22.

Qinghai Institute for Endemic Disease Prevention and Control, Xining 811602, China.

Echinococcosis is highly endemic over large parts of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP), China. Based on a large number of samples, we present data on the current presence, host distribution, and genetic diversity of Echinococcus in the Qinghai Province, located in the northeastern corner of the QTP and constituting >25% of the area of the plateau. We used 521 samples (including 451 newly collected samples and 70 samples from our previous study) from humans, yaks, sheep, goats, dogs, fox, plateau pikas, and voles in 36 counties, and genotyped them using the mitochondrial DNA marker cytochrome oxidase subunit I (cox1) gene and the maximum parsimony and Bayesian reconstruction methods. Based on the 792 bp sequence matrix, we recorded 177 variable sites; 157 were parsimony-informative. A total of 105 haplotypes (H1-H105) were detected, of which H1-H15 and H90-H104, H16-H17, H18-H89, and H105 belonged to Echinococcus shiquicus, Echinococcus multilocularis, Echinococcus granulosus, and Echinococcus canadensis, respectively. Our results showed that, (i) the Qinghai Province was under a high burden of Echinococcus epidemiology; (ii) E. granulosus was the main echinococcosis threat to the local people, and the followed is E. multilocularis; (iii) there are a considerable number of haplotypes shared by domestic animals (sheep, yaks, and dogs) and humans, demonstrating the close relationship between human and domestic animals epidemiology; (iv) the threat of E. shiquicus on humans and livestock can be mostly ignored, while the infection risk of E. canadensis echinococcosis should not be neglected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2014.11.012DOI Listing
January 2015

[Simultaneous determination of residues of 12 amide herbicides in soybeans by high performance liquid chromatography].

Se Pu 2006 Nov;24(6):585-8

Institute of Food Safety, Chinese Academy of Inspection and Quarantine, Beijing 100025, China.

An analytical method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 12 amide herbicide residues in soybeans. The 12 amide herbicides were extracted with acetone from soybean samples. The extract was cleaned up using a Florisil cartridge, and then determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Kromasil 100-5 C18 column (4.6 mm i. d. x 250 mm, 5 microm) as analytical column, pure water-acetonitrile as mobile phase with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and gradient elution, and a diode array detector set at 210 nm were used. The recoveries of amide herbicides from soybeans spiked at levels of 0.05, 0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg were in the range of 75% - 102% with relative standard deviations of 1.9% - 16.1%. The method has good linear in the range of 0.05 - 1.0 mg/L for each analyte (nu > 0.999). The detection limit for each amide herbicide was less than 0.05 mg/kg. The method is simple, rapid and accurate. It can be used for the inspection of amide herbicide residues in soybeans.
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November 2006

[Simultaneous determination of chloramphenicol, thiamphenicol, and florfenicol residues in animal tissues by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry].

Se Pu 2006 Jan;24(1):14-8

Chinese Academy of Inspection and Quarantine, Beijing 100025, China.

A method was developed for the simultaneous determination of chloramphenicol (CAP), thiamphenicol (TAP), and florfenicol (FF) residues in animal tissues using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) with chemical ionization source in negative mode. The homogenized samples were extracted with ethyl acetate and the extracts were partitioned with n-hexane to remove lipids. Further cleanup was performed on a florisil cartridge and the purified samples were derivatized with Sylon BFT [N, O-bis (trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA)-trimethylchlorosilane (TMCS), 99: 1, v/v] in toluene. Meta-nitrochloramphenicol (m-CAP) was used as the internal standard for the determination. Selected ion monitoring (SIM) was used for detection, ions were chosen, respectively, for the monitoring at m/z 432, 466, 468, 470 for m-CAP, m/z 376, 378, 466, 468 for CAP, m/z 409, 411, 499, 501 for TAP, and m/z 339, 341, 429, 431 for FF. Quantitative ions were selected at m/z 466 for CAP and m-CAP, at m/z 339 for FF and at m/z 409 for TAP. The detection limits were 0.03 microg/kg for CAP, 0.2 microg/kg for FF and TAP. The correlation coefficients were above 0.99 for the calibration curves of the medicines. The linear ranges were 0.1 - 8.0 microg/kg for CAP and 0.2 - 4.0 microg/kg for FF and TAP. The reproducibilities of the compounds within a batch were 5.5%, 10.4%, and 8.8% for CAP, FF, and TAP respectively, while the corresponding values between the batches were 7.4%, 20.7%, and 19.1%. The recoveries were 80.0% - 111.5%, and the relative standard deviations were 1.2% - 15.4%. The method is applicable for detection of the residues in animal derived food, such as pork, poultry and aquatic products.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1872-2059(06)60002-3DOI Listing
January 2006
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