Publications by authors named "Huisheng Zhang"

33 Publications

Cigarette smoking and all-cause mortality in rural Chinese male adults: 15-year follow-up of the Anqing cohort study.

BMC Public Health 2021 04 9;21(1):696. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Food Nutrition and Human Health, College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing, China.

Background: According to the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017, smoking is one of the leading four risk factors contributing to deaths in China. We aimed to evaluate the associations of smoking with all-cause mortality in a Chinese rural population.

Methods: Male participants over age 45 (n = 5367) from a large familial aggregation study in rural China, were included in the current analyses. A total of 528 former smokers and 3849 current smokers accounted for 10 and 71.7% of the cohort, respectively. Generalized Estimating Equations were used to evaluate the association between baseline smoking status and mortality, adjusting for pertinent covariates.

Results: There were 579 recorded deaths during the 15-year follow-up. Current smokers (odds ratio [OR],1.60; 95% CI,1.23-2.08) had higher all-cause mortality risks than nonsmokers. Relative to nonsmokers, current smokers of more than 40 pack-years ([OR],1.85; 95% CI,1.33-2.56) had a higher all-cause mortality risk. Compared to nonsmokers, current smokers who started smoking before age 20 ([OR],1.91; 95% CI,1.43-2.54) had a higher all-cause mortality risk, and former smokers in the lower pack-year group who quit after age 41 (median) ([OR],3.19; 95% CI,1.83-5.56) also had a higher risk of death after adjustment. Furthermore, former smokers who were also former drinkers had the highest significant risk of mortality than never smokers or drinkers. (P for interaction = 0.034).

Conclusions: This study provides evidence that current smokers and former smokers have a higher mortality risk than nonsmokers and would benefit from cessation at a younger age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-10691-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8034075PMC
April 2021

Convergence of the RMSProp deep learning method with penalty for nonconvex optimization.

Neural Netw 2021 Jul 23;139:17-23. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ London, UK. Electronic address:

A norm version of the RMSProp algorithm with penalty (termed RMSPropW) is introduced into the deep learning framework and its convergence is addressed both analytically and numerically. For rigour, we consider the general nonconvex setting and prove the boundedness and convergence of the RMSPropW method in both deterministic and stochastic cases. This equips us with strict upper bounds on both the moving average squared norm of the gradient and the norm of weight parameters throughout the learning process, owing to the penalty term within the proposed cost function. In the deterministic (batch) case, the boundedness of the moving average squared norm of the gradient is employed to prove that the gradient sequence converges to zero when using a fixed step size, while with diminishing stepsizes, the minimum of the gradient sequence converges to zero. In the stochastic case, due to the boundedness of the weight evolution sequence, it is further shown that the weight sequence converges to a stationary point with probability 1. Finally, illustrative simulations are provided to support the theoretical analysis, including a comparison with the standard RMSProp on MNIST, CIFAR-10, and IMDB datasets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neunet.2021.02.011DOI Listing
July 2021

Binary and Ternary Colloidal Cu-Sn-Te Nanocrystals for Thermoelectric Thin Films.

Small 2021 Mar 24;17(11):e2006729. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Buffalo, NY, 14260-4200, USA.

Recent advances in copper chalcogenide-based nanocrystals (NCs), copper sulfide, and copper selenide derived nanostructures, have drawn considerable attention. However, reports of crystal phase and shape engineering of binary or ternary copper telluride NCs remain rare. Here, a colloidal hot-injection approach for producing binary copper/tin telluride, and ternary copper tin telluride NCs with controllable compositions, crystal structures, and morphologies is reported. The crystal phase and growth behavior of these tellurides are systematically studied from both experimental and theoretical perspectives. The morphology of Cu Te NCs is modified from 1D nanorods with different aspect ratios to 2D nanosheets and 3D nanocubes, by controlling the preferential growth of specific crystalline facets. A controllable phase transition from Cu Te to Cu Te NCs is also demonstrated. The latter can be further converted into Cu SnTe and SnTe through Sn incorporation. Temperature dependent thermoelectric properties of metal (Cu and Sn) telluride nanostructure thin films are also studied, including Cu Te, Cu Te, Cu SnTe , and SnTe. Cu SnTe is a low carrier density semimetal with compensating electron and hole Fermi surface pockets. The engineering of crystal phase and morphology control of colloidal copper tin telluride NCs opens a path to explore and design new classes of copper telluride-based nanomaterials for thermoelectrics and other applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.202006729DOI Listing
March 2021

Microengineered Flexural Post Rings for Effective Blood Sample Fencing and High-Throughput Measurement of Clot Retraction Force.

ACS Sens 2020 12 16;5(12):3949-3955. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China.

During blood clotting, clot retraction alters its mechanical properties and critically affects hemostasis. Despite that, existing clot retraction assays hold limitations such as large footprint and low throughput. In this work, we report the design of flexural post rings for a miniaturized assay of clot retraction force (CRF) with high throughput. Leveraging surface tensions, the post rings hold blood samples in a highly reproducible fashion while simultaneously serving as cantilever beams to measure the CRF. We investigated the effect on the device performance of major parameters, namely, surface hydrophobicity, post number, and post stiffness. We then tested the devices using 14 patient samples and revealed the correlation between CRF and fibrinogen levels. We further implemented an automated liquid handler and developed a high-throughput platform for clot retraction assay. The device's small sample consumption, simple operation, and good compatibility with existing automation facilities make it a promising high-throughput clot retraction assay.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acssensors.0c01596DOI Listing
December 2020

High-temperature and multichannel quantum anomalous Hall effect in pristine and alkali-metal-doped CrBr monolayers.

Nanoscale 2020 Jul 24;12(26):13964-13972. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Key Laboratory of Magnetic Molecules and Magnetic Information Materials of the Ministry of Education, Research Institute of Materials Science, and College of Physics and Electronic Information, Shanxi Normal University, Linfen 041004, China.

The realization of the high-temperature and multichannel quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) has been a central research area in the development of low-power-consumption electronics and quantum computing. Recently discovered two-dimensional (2D) ferromagnetic (FM) materials provide unprecedented opportunities for the exploration of the high-temperature QAHE. Based on first-principles approaches, we first reveal that a FM CrBr monolayer harbors topologically nontrivial conduction bands with a high Chern number of C = 2. Then, we reveal that the interesting conduction bands can be moved downwards to the Fermi levels by electron and alkali-metal-doping; meanwhile, the QAHE characteristics can be preserved. Most strikingly, the Na-doped CrBr system possesses a higher Chern number of C = -4 with a transition temperature of ∼54 K, which is attributed to the constructive coupling effect of the quadratic non-Dirac and linear Dirac band dispersions. The present study, together with recent achievements in the field of 2D FM materials, provides an experimentally achievable guide for realizing the high-temperature and multichannel QAHE based purely on 2D FM systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0nr02829kDOI Listing
July 2020

Solution Synthesis of Layered van der Waals (vdW) Ferromagnetic CrGeTe Nanosheets from a Non-vdW CrTeTemplate.

J Am Chem Soc 2020 Mar 3;142(9):4438-4444. Epub 2020 Feb 3.

School of Chemistry and Materials Science of Shanxi Normal University & Key Laboratory of Magnetic Molecules and Magnetic Information Materials of Ministry of Education, Linfen 041004, China.

CrGeTe has recently emerged as a new class of two-dimensional (2D) materials due to its intrinsic long-range ferromagnetic order. However, almost all the reported synthesis methods for CrGeTe nanosheets are based on the conventional mechanical exfoliation from single-crystalline CrGeTe, which is prepared by the complicated self-flux technique. Here we report a solution-processed synthesis of CrGeTe nanosheets from a non-van der Waals (vdW) CrTe template. This structure evolution from non-vdW to vdW is originated from the substitution of Ge atoms on the Cr sites surrounded by fewer Te atoms in the CrTe lattice due to their smaller steric hindrance and lower energy barrier. These CrGeTe nanosheets present regular hexagonal structures with a diameter larger than 1 μm and excellent stability. They exhibit soft magnetic behavior with a Curie temperature lower than 67.5 K. This non-vdW to vdW synthesis strategy promotes the development of CrGeTe in ferromagnetism while providing an effective route to synthesize other 2D materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacs.9b13492DOI Listing
March 2020

Possible realization of the high-temperature and multichannel quantum anomalous Hall effect in graphene/CrBr heterostructures under pressure.

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2019 Aug 24;21(31):17087-17095. Epub 2019 Jul 24.

Key Laboratory of Magnetic Molecules and Magnetic Information Materials of the Ministry of Education, Research Institute of Materials Science, and College of Physics and Information Engineering, Shanxi Normal University, Linfen 041004, China.

The recent studies of magno-assisted tunnelling in ferromagnetic van der Waals heterostructures formed by graphene and ultrathin CrBr films (D. Ghazaryan et al., Nat. Electron., 2018, 1, 344) offer broader opportunities for exploration of novel quantum phenomena, especially for realizing the graphene-based quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE). Based on first-principles approaches, we reveal that three types of graphene/CrBr (Gr/CrBr) heterostructures exhibit metallic band behavior due to strong charge-transfer at the interfaces of these heterosystems. Remarkably, the pressure-induced QAHE can be achieved in Gr/CrBr and CrBr/Gr/CrBr systems. Further low energy k·p model analyses show that the nontrivial topological properties are mainly attributed to the Rashba spin-orbit coupling (SOC), but not to the intrinsic SOC of graphene. Moreover, a multichannel device prototype is proposed in the superlattices composed of Gr/CrBr and normal insulator (such as hexagonal boron nitride) layers. Our work provides an experimentally feasible scheme for realizing the high-temperature and multichannel QAHE in graphene-based heterostructures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9cp03219cDOI Listing
August 2019

Topological phase transition induced by p and p band inversion in a honeycomb lattice.

Nanoscale 2019 Aug 11;11(29):13807-13814. Epub 2019 Jul 11.

Key Laboratory of Magnetic Molecules and Magnetic Information Materials of the Ministry of Education, Research Institute of Materials Science, and College of Physics and Electronic Information, Shanxi Normal University, Linfen 041004, China.

The search for more types of band inversion-induced topological states is of great scientific and experimental interest. Here, we proposed that the band inversion between p and p orbitals can produce a topological phase transition in honeycomb lattices based on tight-binding model analyses. The corresponding topological phase diagram was mapped out in the parameter space of orbital energy and spin-orbit coupling. Specifically, the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect could be achieved when ferromagnetism was introduced. Moreover, our first-principles calculations demonstrated that the two systems of half-iodinated silicene (SiI) and one-third monolayer of bismuth epitaxially grown on the Si(111)-√3 ×√3 surface are ideal candidates for realizing the QAH effect with Curie temperatures of ∼101 K and 118 K, respectively. The underlying physical mechanism of this scheme is generally applicable, offering broader opportunities for the exploration of novel topological states and high-temperature QAH effect systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9nr04268gDOI Listing
August 2019

Chemiluminescence immunoassay for sensing lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 in cardiovascular risk evaluation.

Clin Chim Acta 2019 Jan 7;488:143-149. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

Guangdong Key Laboratory for Biomedical Measurements and Ultrasound Imaging, School of Biomedical Engineering, Shenzhen University Health Science Center, Shenzhen 518060, China. Electronic address:

Background: Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA) is a novel inflammatory biomarker, which is useful as an adjunct identification tool for cardiovascular disease. However, the important limitation of the conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PLAC ELISA) for Lp-PLA assay is its relatively low sensitivity and time consuming. A method to measure the Lp-PLA simply, rapidly and sensitively is essential for predicting cardiovascular events in clinic.

Methods: We took advantage of magnetic separation integrated with chemiluminescence to detect Lp-PLA. The concentration of Lp-PLA was measured through a one-step process by mixing antibody labelled magnetic beads, antigen and antibody at one time.

Results: Our method realized the sample to answer within 17 min. The detection limit and measurement range were 0.18 ng/ml and 0.18-1350 ng/ml, respectively. The specificity assay showed that no appreciable interference was observed for the substances of bilirubin, triglyceride, hemoglobin, rheumatoid factor and human anti-mouse antibody up to the concentrations of 40 mg/dl, 1000 mg/dl, 2000 mg/dl, 1500 IU/ml and 30 ng/ml, separately. We also tested 122 clinical samples using our method, presenting good overall correlations (R = 0.979) to the PLAC ELISA. It is worth mentioning that, our method was faster, had a wider range of measurement and higher sensitivity compared with the PLAC ELISA.

Conclusions: The Lp-PLA assay is straightforward, sensitive and precise, which is highly suitable to further explore the clinical performance of Lp-PLA in studies of cardiovascular risk management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2018.11.013DOI Listing
January 2019

High-throughput blood sample preparation for single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping in less than 25 min.

Talanta 2019 Jan 18;191:119-125. Epub 2018 Aug 18.

Guangdong Key Laboratory for Biomedical Measurements and Ultrasound Imaging, School of Biomedical Engineering, Shenzhen University Health Science Center, Shenzhen 518060, PR China. Electronic address:

Straightforward, rapid and high-throughput pretreatment for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) genotyping is critically needed in clinical practice. However, all existing SNP genotyping methods require DNA purification step, which is labor-intensive and time-consuming. We develop a protocol for SNP genotyping by combining whole blood lysis (WBL) with qPCR and justify the practicality of our method in blood samples from 140 donors, including 40 samples from healthy donors, and 100 samples from donors with either low white blood cell counts, high level of serum uric acid or triglyceride. When compared with Sanger sequencing, the gold standard for SNP genotyping, our method exhibits a 100% consistency in the aspect of sensitivity and specificity. In addition, our method can obtain amplifiable DNA within 25 mins (which is the fastest to the best of our knowledge) from 48 samples. The blood samples, even with low white blood cell counts, high level of serum uric acid or triglyceride could not affect the sensitivity and specificity of our method. Our study demonstrates that the combination of WBL and qPCR genotyping can serve as a high-throughput and robust approach for routine clinical SNP genotyping.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2018.08.051DOI Listing
January 2019

Scalable and Automated Fabrication of Conductive Tough-Hydrogel Microfibers with Ultrastretchability, 3D Printability, and Stress Sensitivity.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2018 Apr 21;10(13):11204-11212. Epub 2018 Mar 21.

HKU-Zhejiang Institute of Research and Innovation (HKU-ZIRI) , Hangzhou 310000 , Zhejiang , China.

Creating complex three-dimensional structures from soft yet durable materials enables advances in fields such as flexible electronics, regenerating tissue engineering, and soft robotics. Tough hydrogels that mimic the human skin can bear enormous mechanical loads. By employing a spider-inspired biomimetic microfluidic nozzle, we successfully achieve continuous printing of tough hydrogels into fibers, two-dimensional networks, and even three-dimensional structures without compromising their extreme mechanical properties. The resultant thin fibers demonstrate a stretch up to 21 times of their original length at a water content of 52%, and are intrinsically transparent, biocompatible, and conductive at high stretches. Moreover, the printed robust tough-hydrogel networks can sense strain that are orders of magnitude lower than stretchable conductors by percolations of conductive particles. To demonstrate their potential application, we use printed tough-hydrogel fiber networks as wearable sensors for detecting human motions. The capability to shape tough hydrogels into complex structures by scalable continuous printing opens opportunities for new areas of applications such as tissue scaffolds, large-area soft electronics, and smart textiles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.8b00379DOI Listing
April 2018

Determining the Physical Properties of Molecules with Nanometer-Scale Pores.

ACS Sens 2018 02 30;3(2):251-263. Epub 2018 Jan 30.

National Institute of Standards and Technology Physical Measurement Laboratory, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899, United States.

Nanometer-scale pores have been developed for the detection, characterization, and quantification of a wide range of analytes (e.g., ions, polymers, proteins, anthrax toxins, neurotransmitters, and synthetic nanoparticles) and for DNA sequencing. We describe the key requirements that made this method possible and how the technique evolved. Finally, we show that, despite sound theoretical work, which advanced both the conceptual framework and quantitative capability of the method, there are still unresolved questions that need to be addressed to further improve the technique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acssensors.7b00680DOI Listing
February 2018

Fluorescein-Inspired Near-Infrared Chemodosimeter for Luminescence Bioimaging.

Curr Med Chem 2019 ;26(21):4029-4041

School of Engineering, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, China.

Luminescence bioimaging is widely used for noninvasive monitoring of biological targets in real-time with high temporal and spatial resolution. For efficient bioimaging in vivo, it is essential to develop smart organic dye platforms. Fluorescein (FL), a traditional dye, has been widely used in the biological and clinical studies. However, visible excitation and emission limited their further application for in vivo bioimaging. Nearinfrared (NIR) dyes display advantages of bioimaging because of their minimum absorption and photo-damage to biological samples, as well as deep tissue penetration and low auto-luminescence from background in the living system. Thus, some great developments of near-infrared fluorescein-inspired dyes have emerged for bioapplication in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we highlight the advances in the development of the near-infrared chemodosimeters for detection and bioimaging based on the modification of fluoresceininspired dyes naphtho-fluorescein (NPF) and cyanine-fluorescein (Cy-FL).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/0929867324666171024101715DOI Listing
October 2019

FRET on lateral flow test strip to enhance sensitivity for detecting cancer biomarker.

Talanta 2018 Jan 1;176:444-449. Epub 2017 Aug 1.

Guangdong Key Laboratory for Biomedical Measurements and Ultrasound Imaging, School of Biomedical Engineering, Health Science Center, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China. Electronic address:

Fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) is introduced in the lateral flow strip to detect cancer biomarker CEA with the color and fluorescence dual-readout. Anti-CEA monoclonal antibody coated Au NPs were on the conjugate pad and FITC labelled antibody (FITC-Ab) for CEA was coated on the test line. All the reagents were general in the lateral flow strip or commercially available and no new materials or technique were involved, which make our proposal a more universal method and easier to operate. With the addition of CEA on the sample pad, anti-CEA monoclonal antibody coated Au NPs-CEA-FITC-Ab complex formed on the test line, leading to a megascopic red line and simultaneous quenched fluorescence of FITC via FRET. The visual limit of detection (LOD) through distinguishing red color change was 10ng/mL and the LOD by differentiating fluorescence intensity was 0.1ng/mL, which was two orders of magnitude lower than that without considering fluorescence in the strip. And the linear range changed from 10-80ng/mL to 5-80ng/mL with the analysis of fluorescence change. Meanwhile, the feasibility of our method applied in real clinical samples was also confirmed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2017.07.096DOI Listing
January 2018

Pulsation of electrified jet in capillary microfluidics.

Sci Rep 2017 07 18;7(1):5673. Epub 2017 Jul 18.

Guangdong Key Laboratory for Biomedical Measurements and Ultrasound Imaging, Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen, China.

In this work, we investigate the pulsation of an electrically charged jet surrounded by an immiscible dielectric liquid in flow-focusing capillary microfluidics. We have characterized a low-frequency large-amplitude pulsation and a high-frequency small-amplitude pulsation, respectively. The former, due to the unbalanced charge and fluid transportation is responsible for generating droplets with a broad size distribution. The latter is intrinsic and produces droplets with a relatively narrow size distribution. Moreover, the average size of the final droplets can be tuned via the intrinsic pulsating frequency through changing the diameter of the emitted liquid jet. Our results provide degree of control over the emulsion droplets with submicron sizes generated in microfluidic-electrospray platform.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-05477-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5515837PMC
July 2017

Flexible and Highly Photosensitive Electrolyte-Gated Organic Transistors with Ionogel/Silver Nanowire Membranes.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2017 May 17;9(21):18134-18141. Epub 2017 May 17.

Department of Biomedical and Engineering, School of Medicine, ‡Guangdong Key Laboratory for Biomedical Measurements and Ultrasound Imaging, and §National-Regional Key Technology Engineering Laboratory for Medical Ultrasound, Shenzhen University , Shenzhen 518060, China.

Flexible and low-voltage photosensors with high near-infrared (NIR) sensitivity are critical for realization of interacting humans with robots and environments by thermal imaging or night vision techniques. In this work, we for the first time develop an easy and cost-effective process to fabricate flexible and ultrathin electrolyte-gated organic phototransistors (EGOPTs) with high transparent nanocomposite membranes of high-conductivity silver nanowire (AgNW) networks and large-capacitance iontronic films. A high responsivity of 1.5 × 10 A·W, high sensitivity of 7.5 × 10, and 3 dB bandwidth of ∼100 Hz can be achieved at very low operational voltages. Experimental studies in temporal photoresponse characteristics reveal the device has a shorter photoresponse time at lower light intensity since strong interactions between photoexcited hole carriers and anions induce extra long-lived trap states. The devices, benefiting from fast and air-stable operations, provide the possibility of the organic photosensors for constructing cost-effective and smart optoelectronic systems in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.7b04470DOI Listing
May 2017

An algorithm for judging and generating multivariate quadratic quasigroups over Galois fields.

Springerplus 2016 22;5(1):1845. Epub 2016 Oct 22.

Department of Mathematics, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, 116024 China.

As the basic cryptographic structure for multivariate quadratic quasigroup (MQQ) scheme, MQQ has been one of the latest tools in designing MQ cryptosystem. There have been several construction methods for MQQs in the literature, however, the algorithm for judging whether quasigroups of any order are MQQs over Galois fields is still lacking. To this end, the objective of this paper is to establish a necessary and sufficient condition for a given quasigroup of order to be an MQQ over [Formula: see text]. Based on this condition, we then propose an algorithm to justify whether or not a given quasigroup in the form of multiplication table of any order is an MQQ over [Formula: see text], and generate the Boolean functions of the MQQ if the quasigroup is an MQQ. As a result, we can obtain all the MQQs over [Formula: see text] in theory using the proposed algorithm. Two examples are provided to illustrate the validity of our method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40064-016-3525-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5075337PMC
October 2016

Structural-Engineering Rationales of Gold Nanoparticles for Cancer Theranostics.

Adv Mater 2016 Oct 27;28(39):8567-8585. Epub 2016 Jul 27.

National-Regional Key Technology Engineering Laboratory for Medical Ultrasound, Guangdong Key Laboratory for Biomedical Measurements and Ultrasound Imaging, School of Biomedical Engineering, Shenzhen University, No. 3688 Nanhai Road, Nanshan District, Shenzhen, 518060, Guangdong, P. R. China.

Personalized theranostics of cancer is increasingly desired, and can be realized by virtue of multifunctional nanomaterials with possible high performances. Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) are a type of especially promising candidate for cancer theranostics, because their synthesis and modification are facile, their structures and physicochemical properties are flexibly controlled, and they are also biocompatible. Especially, the localized surface plasmon resonance and multivalent coordination effects on the surface endow them with NIR light-triggered photothermal imaging and therapy, controlled drug release, and targeted drug delivery. Although the structure, properties, and theranostic application of GNPs are considerably plentiful, no expert review systematically explains the relationships among their structure, property. and application and induces the engineering rationales of GNPs for cancer theranostics. Hence, there are no clear rules to guide the facile construction of optimal GNP structures aiming at a specific theranostic application. A series of structural-engineering rationales of GNPs for cancer theranostics is proposed through digging out the deep relationships between the structure and properties of GNPs. These rationales will be inspiring for guiding the engineering of specific and advanced GNPs for personalized cancer theranostics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.201602080DOI Listing
October 2016

Is a Complex-Valued Stepsize Advantageous in Complex-Valued Gradient Learning Algorithms?

IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst 2016 12 5;27(12):2730-2735. Epub 2015 Nov 5.

Complex gradient methods have been widely used in learning theory, and typically aim to optimize real-valued functions of complex variables. The stepsize of complex gradient learning methods (CGLMs) is a positive number, and little is known about how a complex stepsize would affect the learning process. To this end, we undertake a comprehensive analysis of CGLMs with a complex stepsize, including the search space, convergence properties, and the dynamics near critical points. Furthermore, several adaptive stepsizes are derived by extending the Barzilai-Borwein method to the complex domain, in order to show that the complex stepsize is superior to the corresponding real one in approximating the information in the Hessian. A numerical example is presented to support the analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TNNLS.2015.2494361DOI Listing
December 2016

Analytical applications for pore-forming proteins.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2016 Mar 22;1858(3):593-606. Epub 2015 Oct 22.

NIST, Physical Measurement Laboratory, Gaithersburg, MD 20899, United States.

Proteinaceous nanometer-scale pores are ubiquitous in biology. The canonical ionic channels (e.g., those that transport Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), and Cl(-) across cell membranes) play key roles in many cellular processes, including nerve and muscle activity. Another class of channels includes bacterial pore-forming toxins, which disrupt cell function, and can lead to cell death. We describe here the recent development of these toxins for a wide range of biological sensing applications. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Pore-Forming Toxins edited by Mauro Dalla Serra and Franco Gambale.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbamem.2015.09.023DOI Listing
March 2016

A Cross-Modality Learning Approach for Vessel Segmentation in Retinal Images.

IEEE Trans Med Imaging 2016 Jan 17;35(1):109-18. Epub 2015 Jul 17.

This paper presents a new supervised method for vessel segmentation in retinal images. This method remolds the task of segmentation as a problem of cross-modality data transformation from retinal image to vessel map. A wide and deep neural network with strong induction ability is proposed to model the transformation, and an efficient training strategy is presented. Instead of a single label of the center pixel, the network can output the label map of all pixels for a given image patch. Our approach outperforms reported state-of-the-art methods in terms of sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. The result of cross-training evaluation indicates its robustness to the training set. The approach needs no artificially designed feature and no preprocessing step, reducing the impact of subjective factors. The proposed method has the potential for application in image diagnosis of ophthalmologic diseases, and it may provide a new, general, high-performance computing framework for image segmentation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TMI.2015.2457891DOI Listing
January 2016

Quantum Spin-Quantum Anomalous Hall Insulators and Topological Transitions in Functionalized Sb(111) Monolayers.

Nano Lett 2015 Aug 16;15(8):5149-55. Epub 2015 Jul 16.

†State Key Laboratory of Surface Physics and Key Laboratory for Computational Physical Sciences (MOE) and Department of Physics and ‡Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China.

Electronic and topological behaviors of Sb(111) monolayers decorated with H and certain magnetic atoms are investigated by using ab initio methods. The drastic exchange field induced by the magnetic atoms, together with strong spin-orbit coupling (SOC) of Sb atoms, generates one new category of valley polarized topological insulators, called quantum spin-quantum anomalous Hall (QSQAH) insulators in the monolayer, with a band gap up to 53 meV. The strong SOC is closely related to Sb px and py orbitals, instead of pz orbitals in usual two-dimensional (2D) materials. Topological transitions from quantum anomalous Hall states to QSQAH states and then to time-reversal-symmetry-broken quantum spin Hall states are achieved by tuning the SOC strength. The behind mechanism is revealed. Our work is helpful for future valleytronic and spintronic applications in 2D materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.nanolett.5b01373DOI Listing
August 2015

Convergence analysis of an augmented algorithm for fully complex-valued neural networks.

Neural Netw 2015 Sep 27;69:44-50. Epub 2015 May 27.

Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ London, UK. Electronic address:

This paper presents an augmented algorithm for fully complex-valued neural network based on Wirtinger calculus, which simplifies the derivation of the algorithm and eliminates the Schwarz symmetry restriction on the activation functions. A unified mean value theorem is first established for general functions of complex variables, covering the analytic functions, non-analytic functions and real-valued functions. Based on so introduced theorem, convergence results of the augmented algorithm are obtained under mild conditions. Simulations are provided to support the analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neunet.2015.05.003DOI Listing
September 2015

Deterministic convergence of chaos injection-based gradient method for training feedforward neural networks.

Cogn Neurodyn 2015 Jun 1;9(3):331-40. Epub 2015 Jan 1.

Research Center of Information and Control, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, 116024 People's Republic of China.

It has been shown that, by adding a chaotic sequence to the weight update during the training of neural networks, the chaos injection-based gradient method (CIBGM) is superior to the standard backpropagation algorithm. This paper presents the theoretical convergence analysis of CIBGM for training feedforward neural networks. We consider both the case of batch learning as well as the case of online learning. Under mild conditions, we prove the weak convergence, i.e., the training error tends to a constant and the gradient of the error function tends to zero. Moreover, the strong convergence of CIBGM is also obtained with the help of an extra condition. The theoretical results are substantiated by a simulation example.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11571-014-9323-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4427592PMC
June 2015

[An algorithm for separating overlapped protein spots based on valley characteristics].

Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi 2014 Oct;31(5):1018-22

To separate the overlapped protein spots in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) images, we proposed an auto-separating algorithm based on valley characteristics. Firstly, the marker-controlled watershed algorithm was used to detect the initial outlines of the object regions. Secondly, medial axis transform and hierarchical branch pruning method were applied to the main skeletons of the object regions, and each main skeleton was fitted into line segments to describe the overlap directions. Then, the 3-dimensional model of the object region was scanned on the normal planes of the line segments to find the valley locations. And finally, a validation model was adopted to construct separation lines. The experiments on 2 real scanned 2-DE images showed that the true overlap separate (TOSs) were 78.95% and 85.71%, respectively. The results indicated that the proposed algorithm was better than the existing algorithms and could be used in engineering practice.
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October 2014

Convergence analysis of fully complex backpropagation algorithm based on Wirtinger calculus.

Cogn Neurodyn 2014 Jun 3;8(3):261-6. Epub 2014 Jan 3.

Department of Mathematics, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, 116026 People's Republic of China.

This paper considers the fully complex backpropagation algorithm (FCBPA) for training the fully complex-valued neural networks. We prove both the weak convergence and strong convergence of FCBPA under mild conditions. The decreasing monotonicity of the error functions during the training process is also obtained. The derivation and analysis of the algorithm are under the framework of Wirtinger calculus, which greatly reduces the description complexity. The theoretical results are substantiated by a simulation example.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11571-013-9276-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4012068PMC
June 2014

Determining the concentration of procalcitonin using a magnetic particles-based chemiluminescence assay for the clinical diagnosis of sepsis.

Anal Sci 2013 ;29(8):805-10

National-Reginoal Key Technology Engineering Laboratory for Medical Ultrasound, Guangdong Key Laboratory for Biomedical Measurements and Ultrasound Imaging, Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, PR China.

Our objective is to develop an assay based on magnetic particles (MPs) to determine the concentration of procalcitonin (PCT) using a chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA). Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and N-(aminobutyl)-N-(ethylisoluminol) (ABEI) were used to label two different anti-procalcitonin (PCT) monoclonal antibodies. The labeled antibodies, the PCT antigen, and the anti-FITC antibody-coated MPs formed a double-sandwiched immunocomplex. The measured relative light units (RLUs) of ABEI in the substrate solution were directly proportional to the amount of PCT present in the samples. The proposed method was linear to 600 ng/mL with a detection limit of 0.03 ng/mL. The coefficient of variation (CV) was <5% and <6% for the intra- and inter-assay precision, respectively. The average recoveries were between 95 and 107%. The linearity-dilution effect gave a linear correlation coefficient of 0.9912. This proposed assay provided an alternative method to quantitatively measure PCT in serum for the diagnosis of sepsis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2116/analsci.29.805DOI Listing
October 2013

Continuous detection of muscle aspect ratio using keypoint tracking in ultrasonography.

IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 2013 Aug 4;60(8):2361-9. Epub 2013 Apr 4.

National-Regional Key Technology Engineering Laboratory for Medical Ultrasound, Guangdong Key Laboratory for Biomedical Measurements and Ultrasound Imaging, Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060, China.

Muscle aspect ratio of cross-sectional area is one of the most widely used parameters for quantifying muscle function in both diagnosis and rehabilitation assessment. Ultrasound imaging has been frequently used to noninvasively study the characteristics of human muscles as a reliable method. However, the aspect ratio measurement is traditionally conducted by the manual digitization of reference points; thus, it is subjective, time-consuming, and prone to errors. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to continuously detect the muscle aspect ratio. Two keypoint pairs are manually digitized on the lateral and longitudinal borders at the first frame, and automatically tracked by an optical flow technique at the subsequent frames. The muscle aspect ratio is thereby obtained based on the estimated muscle width and thickness. Six ultrasound sequences from different subjects are used to evaluate this method, and the overall coefficient of multiple correlation of the results between manual and proposed methods is 0.97 ± 0.02. The linear regression shows that a good linear correlation between the results of the two methods is obtained (R(2) = 0.974), with difference -0.01 ± 0.16. The method proposed here provides an accurate, high repeatable, and efficient approach for estimating muscle aspect ratio during human motion, thus justifying its application in biological sciences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TBME.2013.2256786DOI Listing
August 2013

[The development and transplantation of LCD module-based interface for medical diagnosis instrument].

Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi 2012 Nov;36(6):400-6

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060.

Based on LCD Module and Visual C++ development environment, this paper proposes a new method which can quickly develop the human-machine interface .We define a LCD module programming interface by designing Serial Communication Class(SCS). On this basis,we achieve the transplantation on an Embedded ARM Platform to fulfil the requirements of Medical Diagnostic Instruments (MDI). Experimental results show that this method has advantages of short development cycle and high level transplantation which has broad application prospects in the field of Medical Diagnosis Instrument.
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November 2012

Development of a rapid and high-performance chemiluminescence immunoassay based on magnetic particles for protein S100B in human serum.

Luminescence 2013 Nov-Dec;28(6):927-32. Epub 2013 Jan 15.

National-Reginoal Key Technology Engineering Laboratory for Medical Ultrasound, Guangdong Key Laboratory for Biomedical Measurements and Ultrasound Imaging, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical School, Shenzhen University, Guangdong, 518020, People's Republic of China.

Protein S100B is a clinically useful non-invasive biomarker for brain cell damage. A rapid chemiluminescence immunoassay (CLIA) for S100B in human serum has been developed. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) and N-(aminobutyl)-N-(ethylisoluminol) (ABEI) are used to label two different monoclonal antibodies of anti-S100B. Protein S100B in serum combines with labeled antibodies and can form a sandwiched immunoreaction. A simplified separation procedure based on the use of magnetic particles (MPs) that were coated with anti-FITC antibody is performed to remove the unwanted materials. After adding the substrate solution, the relative light unit (RLU) of ABEI is measured and is found to be directly proportional to the concentration of S100B in serum. The relevant variables involved in the CLIA signals are optimized and the parameters of the proposed method are evaluated. The results demonstrate that the method is linear to 25 ng/mL S100B with a detection limit of 0.02 ng/mL. The coefficient of variation (CV) is < 5% and < 6% for intra- and interassay precision, respectively. The average recoveries are between 97 and 107%. The linearity-dilution effect produces a linear correlation coefficient of 0.9988. Compared with the commercial kit, the proposed method shows a correlation of 0.9897. The proposed method displays acceptable performance for quantification of S100B and is appropriate for use in clinical diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bio.2461DOI Listing
October 2014