Publications by authors named "Huipin Yuan"

78 Publications

Coupling between macrophage phenotype, angiogenesis and bone formation by calcium phosphates.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2021 Mar 6;122:111948. Epub 2021 Feb 6.

Biomaterial Science and Technology, University of Twente, the Netherlands; Kuros Biosciences BV, the Netherlands; School of Engineering & Materials Science, Queen Mary University of London, UK. Electronic address:

The ability of calcium phosphate (CaP) materials to induce bone formation varies with their physicochemical properties, with surface topography as one of the most crucial triggers. In view of the natural wound healing processes (e.g., inflammation, angiogenesis, tissue formation and remodeling) initiated after surgical implantation, we here comparatively investigated the biological cascades occurring upon ectopic implantation of a tricalcium phosphate with submicron surface topography (TCP-S, osteoinductive) and a tricalcium phosphate with micron-scale topography (TCP-B, non-osteoinductive). In vitro, TCP-S facilitated M2 polarization of macrophages derived from a human leukemic cell line (THP-1) as shown by the enhanced secretion of TGF-β and CCL18. Interestingly, the conditioned media of polarized M2 macrophages on TCP-S enhanced tube formation by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), while had no influence on the osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells (HBMSCs). Following an intramuscular implantation in canines, TCP-S locally increased typical M2 macrophage markers (e.g., IL-10) at week 1 to 3 and enhanced blood vessel formation after week 3 as compared to TCP-B. Bone formation was observed histologically in TCP-S 6 weeks after implantation, and bone formation was inhibited when an angiogenesis inhibitor (KRN633) was loaded onto TCP-S. No bone formation was observed for TCP-B. The data presented herein suggest strong links between macrophage polarization, angiogenesis and CaP-induced bone formation. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: The ability of calcium phosphate (CaP) materials to induce bone formation varies with their physicochemical properties, and the key physicochemical properties relevant to CaP-induced bone formation have been outlined in the last two decades. However, the biological mechanism underlying this material-driven osteoinduction remains largely unknown. This manuscript presented demonstrates strong links between surface topography, macrophage polarization, angiogenesis and bone formation in CaP materials implanted in non-osseous sites. The finding may provide new clues for further exploring the possible mechanism underlying osteoinduction by CaP materials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2021.111948DOI Listing
March 2021

Macrophage polarization plays roles in bone formation instructed by calcium phosphate ceramics.

J Mater Chem B 2020 03;8(9):1863-1877

Kuros Biosciences BV, Prof. Bronkhorstlaan 10, 3723 MB Bilthoven, The Netherlands and MERLN Institute, Maastricht University, The Netherlands.

To investigate the roles of macrophages in material-instructed bone formation, two calcium phosphate (TCP) ceramics with the same chemistry but various scales of surface topography were employed in this study. After being implanted subcutaneously in FVB mice for 8 weeks, TCPs (TCP ceramics with submicron surface topography) gave rise to bone formation, while TCPb (TCP ceramics with micron surface topography) did not, showing the crucial role of surface topography scale in material-instructed bone formation. Depletion of macrophages with liposomal clodronate (LipClod) blocked such bone formation instructed by TCPs, confirming the role of macrophages in material-instructed bone formation. Macrophage cells (i.e. RAW 264.7 cells) cultured on TCPs in vitro polarized to tissue repair macrophages as evidenced by gene expression and cytokine production, while polarizing to pro-inflammatory macrophages on TCPb. Submicron surface topography of TCP ceramics directed macrophage polarization via PI3K/AKT pathways with the synergistic regulation of integrin β1. Finally, the tissue repair macrophage polarization on TCPs resulted in osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells in vitro. At early implantation in FVB mice, TCPs recruited more macrophages which polarized towards tissue repair macrophages with time. The present data demonstrate the important roles of macrophage polarization in bone formation instructed by calcium phosphate ceramics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9tb02932jDOI Listing
March 2020

Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4 Gene Therapy in Mice Inhibits Myeloma Tumor Growth, But Has a Negative Impact on Bone.

JBMR Plus 2020 Jan 22;4(1):e10247. Epub 2019 Nov 22.

Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) Trondheim Norway.

Multiple myeloma is characterized by accumulation of malignant plasma cells in the bone marrow. Most patients suffer from an osteolytic bone disease, caused by increased bone degradation and reduced bone formation. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4) is important for both pre- and postnatal bone formation and induces growth arrest and apoptosis of myeloma cells. BMP4-treatment of myeloma patients could have the potential to reduce tumor growth and restore bone formation. We therefore explored BMP4 gene therapy in a human-mouse model of multiple myeloma where humanized bone scaffolds were implanted subcutaneously in RAG2 γCmice. Mice were treated with adeno-associated virus serotype 8 BMP4 vectors (AAV8-BMP4) to express BMP4 in the liver. When mature BMP4 was detectable in the circulation, myeloma cells were injected into the scaffolds and tumor growth was examined by weekly imaging. Strikingly, the tumor burden was reduced in AAV8-BMP4 mice compared with the AAV8-CTRL mice, suggesting that increased circulating BMP4 reduced tumor growth. BMP4-treatment also prevented bone loss in the scaffolds, most likely due to reduced tumor load. To delineate the effects of BMP4 overexpression on bone per se, without direct influence from cancer cells, we examined the unaffected, non-myeloma femurs by μCT. Surprisingly, the AAV8-BMP4 mice had significantly reduced trabecular bone volume, trabecular numbers, as well as significantly increased trabecular separation compared with the AAV8-CTRL mice. There was no difference in cortical bone parameters between the two groups. Taken together, BMP4 gene therapy inhibited myeloma tumor growth, but also reduced the amount of trabecular bone in mice. Our data suggest that care should be taken when considering using BMP4 as a therapeutic agent. © 2019 The Authors. published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm4.10247DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6957984PMC
January 2020

Orbital floor repair using patient specific osteoinductive implant made by stereolithography.

Biomaterials 2020 03 23;233:119721. Epub 2019 Dec 23.

AO Research Institute Davos, Clavadelerstrasse 8, CH 7270, Davos, Switzerland. Electronic address:

The orbital floor (OF) is an anatomical location in the craniomaxillofacial (CMF) region known to be highly variable in shape and size. When fractured, implants commonly consisting of titanium meshes are customized by plying and crude hand-shaping. Nevertheless, more precise customized synthetic grafts are needed to meticulously reconstruct the patients' OF anatomy with better fidelity. As alternative to titanium mesh implants dedicated to OF repair, we propose a flexible patient-specific implant (PSI) made by stereolithography (SLA), offering a high degree of control over its geometry and architecture. The PSI is made of biodegradable poly(trimethylene carbonate) (PTMC) loaded with 40 wt % of hydroxyapatite (called Osteo-PTMC). In this work, we developed a complete work-flow for the additive manufacturing of PSIs to be used to repair the fractured OF, which is clinically relevant for individualized medicine. This work-flow consists of (i) the surgical planning, (ii) the design of virtual PSIs and (iii) their fabrication by SLA, (iv) the monitoring and (v) the biological evaluation in a preclinical large-animal model. We have found that once implanted, titanium meshes resulted in fibrous tissue encapsulation, whereas Osteo-PMTC resulted in rapid neovascularization and bone morphogenesis, both ectopically and in the OF region, and without the need of additional biotherapeutics such as bone morphogenic proteins. Our study supports the hypothesis that the composite osteoinductive Osteo-PTMC brings advantages compared to standard titanium mesh, by stimulating bone neoformation in the OF defects. PSIs made of Osteo-PTMC represent a significant advancement for patients whereby the anatomical characteristics of the OF defect restrict the utilization of traditional hand-shaped titanium mesh.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2019.119721DOI Listing
March 2020

The role of calcium phosphate surface structure in osteogenesis and the mechanisms involved.

Acta Biomater 2020 04 9;106:22-33. Epub 2020 Jan 9.

Research Institute of Tissue Engineering and Stem Cells, Nanchong Central Hospital, The Second Clinical College of North Sichuan Medical College, Nanchong 637000, Sichuan, PR China. Electronic address:

Calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramics have been widely used for bone regeneration because of their ability to induce osteogenesis. Surface properties, including chemical composition and surface structure, are known to play a crucial role in osteoconduction and osteoinduction. This review systematically analyzes the effects of surface properties, in particular the surface structure, of CaP scaffolds on cell behavior and new bone formation. We also summarize the possible signaling pathways involved in the osteogenic differentiation of bone-related cells when cultured on surfaces with various structures in vitro. The significant immune response initiated by surface structure involved in osteogenic differentiation of cells is also discussed in this review. Taken together, the new biological principle for advanced biomaterials is not only to directly stimulate osteogenic differentiation of bone-related cells but also to modulate the immune response in vivo. Although the reaction mechanism responsible for bone formation induced by CaP surface structure is not clear yet, the insights on surface structure-mediated osteogenic differentiation and osteoimmunomodulation could aid the optimization of CaP-based biomaterials for bone regeneration. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: CaP ceramics have similar inorganic composition with natural bone, which have been widely used for bone tissue scaffolds. CaP themselves are not osteoinductive; however, osteoinductive properties could be introduced to CaP materials by surface engineering. This paper systematically summarizes the effects of surface properties, especially surface structure, of CaP scaffolds on bone formation. Additionally, increasing evidence has proved that the bone healing process is not only affected by the osteogenic differentiation of bone-related cells, but also relevant to the the cooperation of immune system. Thus, we further review the possible signaling pathways involved in the osteogenic differentiation and immune response of cells cultured on scaffold surface. These insights into surface structure-mediated osteogenic differentiation and osteoimmunomodulated-based strategy could aid the optimization of CaP-based biomaterials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2019.12.034DOI Listing
April 2020

Mussel-Inspired Tough Hydrogel with In Situ Nanohydroxyapatite Mineralization for Osteochondral Defect Repair.

Adv Healthc Mater 2019 11 14;8(22):e1901103. Epub 2019 Oct 14.

Key Lab of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan, 610031, China.

Repairing osteochondral defects is a considerable challenge because it involves the breakdown of articular cartilage and underlying bone. Traditional hydrogels with a homogenized single-layer structure cannot fully restore the function of osteochondral cartilage tissue. In this study, a mussel-inspired hydrogel with a bilayer structure is developed to repair osteochondral defects. The hydrogel is synthesized by simultaneously polymerizing two layers using a one-pot method. The resulting upper and lower gelatin methacryloyl-polydopamine hydrogel layers are used as cartilage and subchondral bone repair layers, respectively. Polydopamine-induced hydroxyapatite in situ mineralization takes place in the lower layer to mimic the structure of subchondral bone. The bilayer hydrogel exhibits good mechanical properties for the synergistic effect of covalent and noncovalent bonds, as well as nanoreinforcement of mineralized hydroxyapatite. To improve the tissue-inducibility of hydrogels, transforming growth factor β is immobilized in the upper layer to induce cartilage regeneration, while bone morphogenetic protein 2 is immobilized in the lower layer to induce bone regeneration. Bone and cartilage repair performance of the hydrogel is examined by implantation into a full-thickness cartilage defect of a rabbit knee joint. The bilayer-structure hydrogel promotes regeneration of osteochondral tissue, thus providing a new option for repair of osteochondral defects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adhm.201901103DOI Listing
November 2019

Biphasic calcium phosphate with submicron surface topography in an model of instrumented posterolateral spinal fusion.

JOR Spine 2018 Dec 28;1(4):e1039. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

Kuros Biosciences BV Bilthoven The Netherlands.

As spinal fusions require large volumes of bone graft, different bone graft substitutes are being investigated as alternatives. A subclass of calcium phosphate materials with submicron surface topography has been shown to be a highly effective bone graft substitute. In this work, a commercially available biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP) with submicron surface topography (MagnetOs; Kuros Biosciences BV) was evaluated in an model of instrumented posterolateral fusion. The material was implanted stand-alone, either as granules (BCP) or as granules embedded within a fast-resorbing polymeric carrier (BCP) and compared to autograft bone (AG). Twenty-five adult, female Merino sheep underwent posterolateral fusion at L2-3 and L4-5 levels with instrumentation. After 6, 12, and 26 weeks, outcomes were evaluated by manual palpation, range of motion (ROM) testing, micro-computed tomography, histology and histomorphometry. Fusion assessment by manual palpation 12 weeks after implantation revealed 100% fusion rates in all treatment groups. The three treatment groups showed a significant decrease in lateral bending at the fusion levels at 12 weeks ( < 0.05) and 26 weeks ( < 0.001) compared to the 6 week time-point. Flexion-extension and axial rotation were also reduced over time, but statistical significance was only reached in flexion-extension for AG and BCP between the 6 and 26 week time-points ( < 0.05). No significant differences in ROM were observed between the treatment groups at any of the time-points investigated. Histological assessment at 12 weeks showed fusion rates of 75%, 92%, and 83% for AG, BCP and BCP, respectively. The fusion rates were further increased 26 weeks postimplantation. Similar trends of bone growth were observed by histomorphometry. The fusion mass consisted of at least 55% bone for all treatment groups 26 weeks after implantation. These results suggest that this BCP with submicron surface topography, in granules or putty form, is a promising alternative to autograft for spinal fusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsp2.1039DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6686792PMC
December 2018

The role of ENPP1/PC-1 in osteoinduction by calcium phosphate ceramics.

Biomaterials 2019 07 23;210:12-24. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Instructive Biomaterials Engineering, MERLN Institute for Technology-Inspired Regenerative Medicine, Maastricht University, Universiteitssingel 40, 6229 ER, Maastricht, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

In the past decade, calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramics have emerged as alternatives to autologous bone grafts for the treatment of large, critical-sized bone defects. In order to be effective in the regeneration of such defects, ceramics must show osteoinductive behaviour, defined as the ability to induce de novo heterotopic bone formation. While a set of osteoinductive CaP ceramics has been developed, the exact processes underlying osteoinduction, and the role of the physical and chemical properties of the ceramics, remain largely unknown. Previous studies have focused on the role of the transcriptome to shed light on the mechanism of osteoinduction at the mRNA level. To complement these studies, a proteomic analysis was performed to study the behaviour of hMSCs on osteoinductive and non-osteoinductive CaPs. The results of this analysis suggest that plasma cell glycoprotein 1 (PC-1), encoded by the ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1) gene, plays a key role in the process of osteoinduction by CaP ceramics. Validation experiments have confirmed that indeed, the mRNA expression of ENPP1 and the production of PC-1 are higher on osteoinductive than on non-osteoinductive CaP ceramics, a trend that was also observed for other osteogenic markers such as bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and osteopontin (OPN), but not for alkaline phosphatase (ALP). Our results also showed that the expression of PC-1 is restricted to those cells which are in direct contact with the CaP ceramic surface, plausibly due to the localised depletion of calcium and inorganic phosphate ions from the supersaturated cell culture medium as CaP crystallises on the ceramic surface. Replicating the surface of the osteoinductive ceramic in polystyrene resulted in a significant decrease in ENPP1 expression, suggesting that surface structural properties alone are not sufficient to induce ENPP1 expression. Finally, knocking down ENPP1 expression in hMSCs resulted in increased BMP2 expression, both at the mRNA and protein level, suggesting that ENPP1 is a negative regulator of BMP-2 signalling. Taken together, this study shows, for the first time, that ENPP1/PC-1 plays an important role in CaP-induced osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs and thus possibly osteoinduction by CaP ceramics. Furthermore, we have identified a crucial role for the interfacial (chemical) events occurring on the CaP ceramic surface in the process of osteoinduction. This knowledge can contribute to the development of new bone graft substitutes, with improved osteoinductive potential.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2019.04.021DOI Listing
July 2019

Combined CD28 and 4-1BB Costimulation Potentiates Affinity-tuned Chimeric Antigen Receptor-engineered T Cells.

Clin Cancer Res 2019 07 12;25(13):4014-4025. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

Department of Haematology, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, Cancer Center Amsterdam, Location VUmc, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Purpose: Targeting nonspecific, tumor-associated antigens (TAA) with chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) requires specific attention to restrict possible detrimental on-target/off-tumor effects. A reduced affinity may direct CAR-engineered T (CAR-T) cells to tumor cells expressing high TAA levels while sparing low expressing normal tissues. However, decreasing the affinity of the CAR-target binding may compromise the overall antitumor effects. Here, we demonstrate the prime importance of the type of intracellular signaling on the function of low-affinity CAR-T cells.

Experimental Design: We used a series of single-chain variable fragments (scFv) with five different affinities targeting the same epitope of the multiple myeloma-associated CD38 antigen. The scFvs were incorporated in three different CAR costimulation designs and we evaluated the antitumor functionality and off-tumor toxicity of the generated CAR-T cells and .

Results: We show that the inferior cytotoxicity and cytokine secretion mediated by CD38 CARs of very low-affinity ( < 1.9 × 10 mol/L) bearing a 4-1BB intracellular domain can be significantly improved when a CD28 costimulatory domain is used. Additional 4-1BB signaling mediated by the coexpression of 4-1BBL provided the CD28-based CD38 CAR-T cells with superior proliferative capacity, preservation of a central memory phenotype, and significantly improved antitumor function, while preserving their ability to discriminate target antigen density.

Conclusions: A combinatorial costimulatory design allows the use of very low-affinity binding domains ( < 1 μmol/L) for the construction of safe but also optimally effective CAR-T cells. Thus, very-low-affinity scFvs empowered by selected costimulatory elements can enhance the clinical potential of TAA-targeting CARs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-18-2559DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7477921PMC
July 2019

Efficacy of a synthetic calcium phosphate with submicron surface topography as autograft extender in lapine posterolateral spinal fusion.

J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2019 08 7;107(6):2080-2090. Epub 2019 Jan 7.

Kuros Biosciences BV, Bilthoven, the Netherlands.

Posterolateral spinal fusion (PLF) is a common procedure in orthopedic surgery that is performed to fuse adjacent vertebrae to reduce symptoms related to spinal conditions. In the current study, a novel synthetic calcium phosphate with submicron surface topography was evaluated as an autograft extender in a validated rabbit model of PLF. Fifty-nine skeletally mature New Zealand white rabbits were divided into three groups and underwent single-level intertransverse process PLF at L4-5 using (1) autologous bone graft (ABG) alone or in a 1:1 combination with (2) calcium phosphate granules (ABG/BCP ), or (3) granules embedded in a fast-resorbing polymeric carrier (ABG/BCP ). After 6, 9, and 12 weeks, animals were sacrificed and spinal fusion was assessed by manual palpation, Radiographs, micro-CT, mechanical testing (12 weeks only), histology, and histomorphometry. Based on all endpoints, all groups showed a gradual progression in bone formation and maturation during time, leading to solid fusion masses between the transverse processes after 12 weeks. Fusion assessments by manual palpation, radiography and histology were consistent and demonstrated equivalent fusion rates between groups, with high bilateral fusion rates after 12 weeks. Mechanical tests after 12 weeks indicated substantially lower range of motion for all groups, compared to non-operated controls. By histology and histomorphometry, the gradual formation and maturation of bone in the fusion mass was confirmed for each graft type. With these results, we describe the equivalent performance between autograft and a novel calcium phosphate material as an autograft extender in a rabbit model of PLF using an extensive range of evaluation techniques. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater 107B: 2080-2090, 2019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.b.34301DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6690075PMC
August 2019

Modulating Bone Regeneration in Rabbit Condyle Defects with Three Surface-Structured Tricalcium Phosphate Ceramics.

ACS Biomater Sci Eng 2018 Sep 26;4(9):3347-3355. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Kuros Biosciences BV, 3723 MB Bilthoven, The Netherlands.

Tricalcium phosphate (TCP) ceramics are used as bone void fillers because of their bioactivity and resorbability, while their performance in bone regeneration and material resorption vary with their physical properties (e.g., the dimension of the crystal grain). Herein, three TCP ceramic bone substitutes (TCP-S, TCP-M, and TCP-L) with gradient crystal grain size (0.77 ± 0.21 μm for TCP-S, 1.21 ± 0.35 μm for TCP-M and 4.87 ± 1.90 μm for TCP-L), were evaluated in a well-established rabbit lateral condylar defect model (validated with sham) with respect to bone formation and material resorption up to 26 weeks. Surface structure-dependent bone regeneration was clearly shown after 4 weeks implantation with TCP-S having most mineralized bone (20.2 ± 3.4%), followed by TCP-M (14.0 ± 3.5%), sham (8.1 ± 4.2%), and TCP-L (6.6 ± 2.6%). Afterward, the amount of mineralized bone was similar in all the three groups, but bone marrow and material resorption varied. After 26 weeks, TCP-S induced most bone tissue formation (mineralized bone + bone marrow) (61.6 ± 7.8%) and underwent most material resorption (80.1 ± 9.0%), followed by TCP-M (42.9 ± 5.2% and 61.4 ± 8.0% respectively), TCP-L (28.3 ± 5.5% and 45.6 ± 9.7% respectively), and sham (25.7 ± 4.2%). Given the fact that the three ceramics are chemically identical, the results indicate that the surface structure (especially, the crystal grain size) of TCP ceramics can greatly tune their bone regeneration potential and the material resorption in rabbit condyle defect model, with the submicron surface structured TCP ceramic performing the best.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsbiomaterials.8b00630DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6134343PMC
September 2018

Mussel-Inspired Tissue-Adhesive Hydrogel Based on the Polydopamine-Chondroitin Sulfate Complex for Growth-Factor-Free Cartilage Regeneration.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2018 Aug 10;10(33):28015-28026. Epub 2018 Aug 10.

Key Lab of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering , Southwest Jiaotong University , Chengdu 610031 Sichuan , China.

Glycosaminoglycan-based hydrogels are widely used for cartilage repair because glycosaminoglycans are the main component of the cartilage extracellular matrix and can maintain chondrocyte functions. However, most of the glycosaminoglycan-based hydrogels are negatively charged and cell-repellant, and they cannot host cells or favor tissue regeneration. Inspired by mussel chemistry, we designed a polydopamine-chondroitin sulfate-polyacrylamide (PDA-CS-PAM) hydrogel with tissue adhesiveness and super mechanical properties for growth-factor-free cartilage regeneration. Thanks to the abundant reactive catechol groups on the PDA, a cartilage-specific PDA-CS complex was formed by the self-assembly of PDA and CS, and then the PDA-CS complex was homogenously incorporated into an elastic hydrogel network. This catechol-group-enriched PDA-CS complex endowed the hydrogel with good cell affinity and tissue adhesiveness to facilitate cell adhesion and tissue integration. Compared with bare CS, the PDA-CS complex in the hydrogel was more effective in exerting its functions on adhered cells to upregulate chondrogenic differentiation. Because of the synergistic effects of noncovalent interactions caused by the PDA-CS complex and covalently cross-linked PAM network, the hydrogel exhibited super resilience and toughness, meeting the mechanical requirement of cartilage repair. Collectively, this tissue-adhesive and tough PDA-CS-PAM hydrogel with good cell affinity creates a growth-factor-free and biomimetic microenvironment for chondrocyte growth and cartilage regeneration and sheds light on the development of growth-factor-free biomaterials for cartilage repair.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.8b05314DOI Listing
August 2018

Corrigendum to "Tailoring surface nanoroughness of electrospun scaffolds for skeletal tissue engineering" Acta Biomater. 59 (2017) 82-93.

Acta Biomater 2018 04 14;71:525. Epub 2018 Feb 14.

Department of Complex Tissue Regeneration, MERLN Institute for Technology Inspired Regenerative Medicine, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2018.01.030DOI Listing
April 2018

Variation of the bone forming ability with the physicochemical properties of calcium phosphate bone substitutes.

Biomater Sci 2017 Dec;6(1):136-145

Biomaterials Science and Technology, MIRA Institute, University of Twente, 7500 AE, Enschede, the Netherlands.

Because of their bioactive properties and chemical similarity to the inorganic component of bone, calcium phosphate (CaP) materials are widely used for bone regeneration. Six commercially available CaP bone substitutes (Bio-Oss, Actifuse, Bi-Ostetic, MBCP, Vitoss and chronOs) as well as two tricalcium phosphate (TCP) ceramics with either a micron-scale (TCP-B) or submicron-scale (TCP-S) surface structure are characterized and their bone forming potential is evaluated in a canine ectopic implantation model. After 12 weeks of implantation in the paraspinal muscle of four beagles, sporadic bone (0.1 ± 0.1%) is observed in two Actifuse implants (2/4), limited bone (2.1 ± 1.4%) in four MBCP implants (4/4) and abundant bone (21.6 ± 4.5%) is formed in all TCP-S implants (4/4). Bone is not observed in any of the Bio-Oss, Bi-Ostetic, Vitoss, chronOs and TCP-B implants (0/4). When correlating the bone forming potential with the physicochemical properties of each material, we observe that the physical characteristics (e.g. grain size and micropore size at the submicron scale) might be the dominant trigger of material directed bone formation via specific mechanotransduction, instead of protein adsorption, surface mineralization and calcium ion release.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c7bm00717eDOI Listing
December 2017

Tailoring surface nanoroughness of electrospun scaffolds for skeletal tissue engineering.

Acta Biomater 2017 09 6;59:82-93. Epub 2017 Jul 6.

Department of Complex Tissue Regeneration, MERLN Institute for Technology Inspired Regenerative Medicine, 6200 MD Maastricht, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Electrospun scaffolds provide a promising approach for tissue engineering as they mimic the physical properties of extracellular matrix. Previous studies have demonstrated that electrospun scaffolds with porous features on the surface of single fibers, enhanced cellular attachment and proliferation. Yet, little is known about the effect of such topographical cues on cellular differentiation. Here, we aimed at investigating the influence of surface roughness of electrospun scaffolds on skeletal differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis showed that the surface nanoroughness of fibers was successfully regulated via humidity control of the electrospinning environment. Gene expression analysis revealed that a higher surface roughness (roughness average (Ra)=71.0±11.0nm) supported more induction of osteogenic genes such as osteopontin (OPN), bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), while a lower surface roughness (Ra=14.3±2.5nm) demonstrated higher expression of other osteogenic genes including bone sialoprotein (BSP), collagen type I (COL1A1) and osteocalcin (OCN). Interestingly, a lower surface roughness (Ra=14.3±2.5nm) better supported chondrogenic gene expression of hMSCs at day 7 compared to higher surface roughness (Ra=71.0±11.0nm). Taken together, modulating surface roughness of 3D scaffolds appears to be a significant factor in scaffold design for the control of skeletal differentiation of hMSCs.

Statement Of Significance: Tissue engineering scaffolds having specific topographical cues offer exciting possibilities for stimulating cells differentiation and growth of new tissue. Although electrospun scaffolds have been extensively investigated in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, little is known about the influence of introducing nanoroughness on their surface for cellular differentiation. The present study provides a method to engineer electrospun scaffolds with tailoring surface nanoroughness and investigates the effect of such topographical cues on the process of human mesenchymal stromal cells differentiation into osteoblasts and chondrocytes linages. This strategy may help the design of nanostructured scaffolds for skeletal tissue engineering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2017.07.003DOI Listing
September 2017

Mining for osteogenic surface topographies: In silico design to in vivo osseo-integration.

Biomaterials 2017 Aug 12;137:49-60. Epub 2017 May 12.

MERLN Institute for Technology-Inspired Regenerative Medicine, Department of Cell Biology -Inspired Tissue Engineering, Maastricht, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Stem cells respond to the physicochemical parameters of the substrate on which they grow. Quantitative material activity relationships - the relationships between substrate parameters and the phenotypes they induce - have so far poorly predicted the success of bioactive implant surfaces. In this report, we screened a library of randomly selected designed surface topographies for those inducing osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Cell shape features, surface design parameters, and osteogenic marker expression were strongly correlated in vitro. Furthermore, the surfaces with the highest osteogenic potential in vitro also demonstrated their osteogenic effect in vivo: these indeed strongly enhanced bone bonding in a rabbit femur model. Our work shows that by giving stem cells specific physicochemical parameters through designed surface topographies, differentiation of these cells can be dictated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2017.05.020DOI Listing
August 2017

A Rational Strategy for Reducing On-Target Off-Tumor Effects of CD38-Chimeric Antigen Receptors by Affinity Optimization.

Mol Ther 2017 08 13;25(8):1946-1958. Epub 2017 May 13.

Department of Hematology, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081HV Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) can effectively redirect cytotoxic T cells toward highly expressed surface antigens on tumor cells. The low expression of several tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) on normal tissues, however, hinders their safe targeting by CAR T cells due to on-target/off-tumor effects. Using the multiple myeloma (MM)-associated CD38 antigen as a model system, here, we present a rational approach for effective and tumor-selective targeting of such TAAs. Using "light-chain exchange" technology, we combined the heavy chains of two high-affinity CD38 antibodies with 176 germline light chains and generated ∼124 new antibodies with 10- to >1,000-fold lower affinities to CD38. After categorizing them into three distinct affinity classes, we incorporated the single-chain variable fragments of eight antibodies from each class into new CARs. T cells carrying these CD38-CARs were extensively evaluated for their on-tumor/off-tumor cytotoxicity as well as CD38-dependent proliferation and cytokine production. We identified CD38-CAR T cells of ∼1,000- fold reduced affinity, which optimally proliferated, produced Th1-like cytokines, and effectively lysed CD38 MM cells, but spared CD38 healthy hematopoietic cells in vitro and in vivo. Thus, this systematic approach is highly suitable for the generation of optimal CARs for effective and selective targeting of TAAs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ymthe.2017.04.024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5542711PMC
August 2017

Ectopic bone formation by aggregated mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow and adipose tissue: A comparative study.

J Tissue Eng Regen Med 2018 01 21;12(1):e150-e158. Epub 2017 Aug 21.

Department of Tissue Regeneration, MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, University of Twente, Enschede, the Netherlands.

Tissue engineered constructs (TECs) based on spheroids of bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) combined with calcium phosphate microparticles and enveloped in a platelet-rich plasma hydrogel showed that aggregation of MSCs improves their ectopic bone formation potential. The stromal vascular fraction (SVF) and adipose-derived MSCs (ASCs) have been recognized as an interesting MSC source for bone tissue engineering, but their ectopic bone formation is limited. We investigated whether aggregation of ASCs could similarly improve ectopic bone formation by ASCs and SVF cells. The formation of aggregates with BM-MSCs, ASCs and SVF cells was carried out and gene expression was analysed for osteogenic, chondrogenic and vasculogenic genes in vitro. Ectopic bone formation was evaluated after implantation of TECs in immunodeficient mice with six conditions: TECs with ASCs, TECs with BM-MSC, TECs with SVF cells (with and without rhBMP2), no cells and no cells with rhBMP2. BM-MSCs showed consistent compact spheroid formation, ASCs to a lesser extent and SVF showed poor spheroid formation. Aggregation of ASCs induced a significant upregulation of the expression of osteogenic markers like alkaline phosphatase and collagen type I, as compared with un-aggregated ASCs. In vivo, ASC and SVF cells both generated ectopic bone in the absence of added morphogenetic proteins. The highest incidence of bone formation was seen with BM-MSCs (7/9) followed by SVF + rhBMP2 (4/9) and no cells + rhBMP2 (2/9). Aggregation can improve ectopic bone tissue formation by adipose-derived cells, but is less efficient than rhBMP2. A combination of both factors should now be tested to investigate an additive effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/term.2453DOI Listing
January 2018

Genetically engineered mesenchymal stromal cells produce IL-3 and TPO to further improve human scaffold-based xenograft models.

Exp Hematol 2017 07 26;51:36-46. Epub 2017 Apr 26.

Department of Experimental Hematology, Cancer Research Centre Groningen, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Recently, NOD-SCID IL2Rγ (NSG) mice were implanted with human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in the presence of ceramic scaffolds or Matrigel to mimic the human bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. This approach allowed the engraftment of leukemic samples that failed to engraft in NSG mice without humanized niches and resulted in a better preservation of leukemic stem cell self-renewal properties. To further improve our humanized niche scaffold model, we genetically engineered human MSCs to secrete human interleukin-3 (IL-3) and thrombopoietin (TPO). In vitro, these IL-3- and TPO-producing MSCs were superior in expanding human cord blood (CB) CD34 hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. MLL-AF9-transduced CB CD34 cells could be transformed efficiently along myeloid or lymphoid lineages on IL-3- and TPO-producing MSCs. In vivo, these genetically engineered MSCs maintained their ability to differentiate into bone, adipocytes, and other stromal components. Upon transplantation of MLL-AF9-transduced CB CD34 cells, acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) developed in engineered scaffolds, in which a significantly higher percentage of myeloid clones was observed in the mouse compartments compared with previous models. Engraftment of primary AML, B-cell ALL, and biphenotypic acute leukemia (BAL) patient samples was also evaluated, and all patient samples could engraft efficiently; the myeloid compartment of the BAL samples was better preserved in the human cytokine scaffold model. In conclusion, we show that we can genetically engineer the ectopic human BM microenvironment in a humanized scaffold xenograft model. This approach will be useful for functional study of the importance of niche factors in normal and malignant human hematopoiesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exphem.2017.04.008DOI Listing
July 2017

Topography of calcium phosphate ceramics regulates primary cilia length and TGF receptor recruitment associated with osteogenesis.

Acta Biomater 2017 07 27;57:487-497. Epub 2017 Apr 27.

Complex Tissue Regeneration Department, MERLN Institute for Technology Inspired Regenerative Medicine, Maastricht University, Universiteitsingel 40, 6229 ER, The Netherlands; Xpand Biotechnology BV, Bilthoven, The Netherlands; National Engineering Research Center for Biomaterials, Sichuan University, 610064 Chengdu, China. Electronic address:

The surface topography of synthetic biomaterials is known to play a role in material-driven osteogenesis. Recent studies show that TGFβ signalling also initiates osteogenic differentiation. TGFβ signalling requires the recruitment of TGFβ receptors (TGFβR) to the primary cilia. In this study, we hypothesize that the surface topography of calcium phosphate ceramics regulates stem cell morphology, primary cilia structure and TGFβR recruitment to the cilium associated with osteogenic differentiation. We developed a 2D system using two types of tricalcium phosphate (TCP) ceramic discs with identical chemistry. One sample had a surface topography at micron-scale (TCP-B, with a bigger surface structure dimension) whilst the other had a surface topography at submicron scale (TCP-S, with a smaller surface structure dimension). In the absence of osteogenic differentiation factors, human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) were more spread on TCP-S than on TCP-B with alterations in actin organization and increased primary cilia prevalence and length. The cilia elongation on TCP-S was similar to that observed on glass in the presence of osteogenic media and was followed by recruitment of transforming growth factor-β RII (p-TGFβ RII) to the cilia axoneme. This was associated with enhanced osteogenic differentiation of hBMSCs on TCP-S, as shown by alkaline phosphatase activity and gene expression for key osteogenic markers in the absence of additional osteogenic growth factors. Similarly, in vivo after a 12-week intramuscular implantation in dogs, TCP-S induced bone formation while TCP-B did not. It is most likely that the surface topography of calcium phosphate ceramics regulates primary cilia length and ciliary recruitment of p-TGFβ RII associated with osteogenesis and bone formation. This bioengineering control of osteogenesis via primary cilia modulation may represent a new type of biomaterial-based ciliotherapy for orthopedic, dental and maxillofacial surgery applications.

Statement Of Significance: The surface topography of synthetic biomaterials plays important roles in material-driven osteogenesis. The data presented herein have shown that the surface topography of calcium phosphate ceramics regulates mesenchymal stromal cells (e.g., human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells, hBMSCs) with respect to morphology, primary cilia structure and TGFβR recruitment to the cilium associated with osteogenic differentiation in vitro. Together with bone formation in vivo, our results suggested a new type of biomaterial-based ciliotherapy for orthopedic, dental and maxillofacial surgery by the bioengineering control of osteogenesis via primary cilia modulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2017.04.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5489417PMC
July 2017

Laser peripheral iridotomy versus laser peripheral iridotomy plus laser peripheral iridoplasty in the treatment of multi-mechanism angle closure: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Trials 2017 03 17;18(1):130. Epub 2017 Mar 17.

Beijing Tongren Eye Center, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing Ophthalmology and Visual Science Key Laboratory, No. 1 Dong Jiao Min Xiang Street, Dongcheng District, Beijing, People's Republic of China.

Background: China has the largest burden of primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) worldwide. The mechanism of the angle closure is complex and includes pupillary block and non-pupillary block. Currently, opinion is that laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) alone is not sufficient to prevent disease progression. Laser peripheral iridoplasty (LPIP) is an alternative and effective way of widening the angle recess in eyes that are affected by primary angle closure (PAC). However, it is not known if greater benefit would be achieved using LPI plus LPIP for PAC with multiple mechanisms (MAC). Thus, the aim of this study is to demonstrate if LPI plus LPIP would be more effective than single LPI in controlling the progression of PAC with multiple mechanisms, based on ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) classification. A secondary aim is to determine whether or not this would result in the use of less medication and/or prolong the time to antiglaucoma surgery.

Methods: This multiple-mechanism angle-closure study will comprise a 3-year, multicenter, randomized, parallel-group, open-label, superiority trial, the aim of which will be to evaluate the safety and efficacy of LPI plus LPIP versus LPI for PAC. It is anticipated that 240 adults, diagnosed with PAC (the mechanism of angle closure will be assessed by UBM and it will be determined whether or not it involves multiple mechanisms) will be recruited from ten ophthalmic centers in China. Participants will be randomly allocated to receive either single LPI or LPI plus LPIP. Participant assessment will be designed to test the rate of disease progression and who will be followed up for 3 years. The primary outcome will be the disease progression rate and a comparison will be made between the LPI and LPI plus LPIP groups using Pearson's χ test. Logistic regression analysis will be performed to account for the central effect.

Discussion: If the LPI plus LPIP is found to significantly decrease the rate of PAC progression, this intervention could potentially be a standard therapy to be used to treat PAC when multiple mechanisms are involved in angle closure. Subsequently, this would have the potential to delay the rate of PAC progression to PACG and delay the time to the administration of antiglaucoma medication or trabeculectomy surgery.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02613013 . Registered on 24 November 2015. In fact, the study was due to start in late October 2015, however, there were no patients recruited in October, and when we registered at ClinicalTrials.gov on 5 November 2015, we received suggestions on the English translation of our protocol from the PRS Team at Clinicaltrial.gov, so the final successful registration date was on 24 November 2015.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-017-1860-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5356270PMC
March 2017

Cells responding to surface structure of calcium phosphate ceramics for bone regeneration.

J Tissue Eng Regen Med 2017 11 8;11(11):3273-3283. Epub 2017 Feb 8.

Department of Tissue Regeneration, MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, University of Twente, 7500AE Enschede, the Netherlands.

Surface structure largely affects the inductive bone-forming potential of calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramics in ectopic sites and bone regeneration in critical-sized bone defects. Surface-dependent osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) partially explained the improved bone-forming ability of submicron surface structured CaP ceramics. In this study, we investigated the possible influence of surface structure on different bone-related cells, which may potentially participate in the process of improved bone formation in CaP ceramics. Besides BMSCs, the response of human brain vascular pericytes (HBVP), C2C12 (osteogenic inducible cells), MC3T3-E1 (osteogenic precursors), SV-HFO (pre-osteoblasts), MG63 (osteoblasts) and SAOS-2 (mature osteoblasts) to the surface structure was evaluated in terms of cell proliferation, osteogenic differentiation and gene expression. The cells were cultured on tricalcium phosphate (TCP) ceramics with either micron-scaled surface structure (TCP-B) or submicron-scaled surface structure (TCP-S) for up to 14 days, followed by DNA, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and quantitative polymerase chain reaction gene assays. HBVP were not sensitive to surface structure with respect to cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation, but had downregulated angiogenesis-related gene expression (i.e. vascular endothelial growth factor) on TCP-S. Without additional osteogenic inducing factors, submicron-scaled surface structure enhanced ALP activity and osteocalcin gene expression of human (h)BMSCs and C2C12 cells, favoured the proliferation of MC3T3-E1, MG63 and SAOS-2, and increased ALP activity of MC3T3-E1 and SV-HFO. The results herein indicate that cells with osteogenic potency (either osteogenic inducible cells or osteogenic cells) could be sensitive to surface structure and responded to osteoinductive submicron-structured CaP ceramics in cell proliferation, ALP production or osteogenic gene expression, which favour bone regeneration. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/term.2236DOI Listing
November 2017

Comparison of Two Moldable Calcium Phosphate-Based Bone Graft Materials in a Noninstrumented Canine Interspinous Implantation Model.

Tissue Eng Part A 2017 12 28;23(23-24):1310-1320. Epub 2017 Feb 28.

1 Biomaterial Science and Technology, MIRA Institute, University of Twente , Enschede, The Netherlands .

There is a continuing search for novel synthetic materials as an alternative to autologous bone grafting. Different technologies are explored to promote bone formation, which include the addition of BioGlass™ particles in calcium phosphate (CaP)-based materials and the use of surface modification in the form of submicron surface topographies. In this work, we aimed at comparing the bone formation in a noninstrumented canine interspinous model of moldable formulations of a submicron-surface structured tricalcium phosphate/alkylene oxide copolymer (CaP/AOC) or a tricalcium phosphate/BioGlass/collagen (CaP/BG/C) bone graft material. Intramuscular implantation was carried out as well to evaluate soft tissue responses. Eight mature male mongrel dogs underwent single-level, noninstrumented interspinous implantation, where the bone graft materials were implanted at either side of the spinous processes (L3-L4), with separation by the interspinous ligament ensuring comparison of both materials in each animal (n = 8 per material). The materials were also implanted in paraspinal muscle pouches. Animals were euthanized 12 weeks after surgery and the lumbar spines excised and intramuscular implants retrieved. Undecalcified sections were prepared for histological evaluation and histomorphometry was performed to quantify bone formation and material resorption. After 12 weeks, all submicron structured CaP/AOC implants showed abundant bone formation in the (L3-L4) interspinous space (20.8% ± 6.8%), whereas bone was not found in the CaP/BG/C implants (0% ± 0%). Intramuscularly, the CaP/AOC material triggered significant bone formation (12.0% ± 7.8%), whereas CaP/BG/C did not form any bone. In both the spinal and muscular sites, resorption of the CaP/AOC material was evident by a decrease in Feret diameter of the CaP granules as well as in their histological surface compared with the starting material, whereas CaP/BG/C material had a milder resorption. This study shows that a submicron-surface structured CaP/AOC bone graft material has superior bone-forming properties in both an interspinous implantation model and intramuscularly, as compared with a CaP/BG/C bone graft material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ten.TEA.2016.0347DOI Listing
December 2017

Biohybrid methacrylated gelatin/polyacrylamide hydrogels for cartilage repair.

J Mater Chem B 2017 Jan 3;5(4):731-741. Epub 2017 Jan 3.

Key Lab of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, Sichuan, China.

Articular cartilage defect repair is challenging for clinics because of the lack of self-regenerative ability of avascular tissue. Gelatin-based hydrogels are widely used in the field of tissue engineering because of their good biodegradability, excellent biocompatibility, and cell/tissue affinity. However, gelatin-based hydrogels exhibit poor thermal stability and low mechanical strength, which limit their application in cartilage repair. In this study, methacrylic anhydride (MA) was employed to modify gelatin to obtain photo-crosslinkable methacrylated gelatin (GelMA). The GelMA-based natural-synthetic polymer biohybrid hydrogel was prepared by co-polymerizing acrylamide (AM) and GelMA under ultraviolet radiation in the presence of a photo-initiator. The GelMA/PAM biohybrid hydrogel simultaneously possessed the advantages of both PAM hydrogels and GelMA hydrogels. The GelMA block provided specific biological functions for cell adhesion and proliferation, while the flexible PAM chains reinforced the brittle gelatin network and sustained the load during deformation. Compared with pure PAM hydrogel and GelMA, the GelMA/PAM biohybrid hydrogels showed enhanced compression strength (0.38 MPa) and improved elasticity (storage modulus of 1000 Pa). The GelMA/PAM biohybrid hydrogel showed a favorable degradation rate and sustained protein release. In vitro cell culture showed that the chondrocytes remained viable and proliferated on the biohybrid hydrogel, demonstrating that the biohybrid hydrogels had good cell adhesion and excellent biocompatibility. In a rabbit knee cartilage defect model, we evaluated the cartilage repair ability of the biohybrid hydrogel in vivo. In summary, this study demonstrated that hybridization of synthetic polymers considerably improves the performance and expands the application of the gelatin-based hydrogels. The biohybrid hydrogel is a good candidate material to be applied in articular cartilage tissue engineering and may have great potential in various soft tissue engineering applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c6tb02348gDOI Listing
January 2017

Linking the Transcriptional Landscape of Bone Induction to Biomaterial Design Parameters.

Adv Mater 2017 Mar 19;29(10). Epub 2016 Dec 19.

Department of Tissue Regeneration, University of Twente, Drienerlolaan 5, 7522, NB, Enschede, The Netherlands.

New engineering possibilities allow biomaterials to serve as active orchestrators of the molecular and cellular events of tissue regeneration. Here, the molecular control of tissue regeneration for calcium phosphate (CaP)-based materials is established by defining the parameters critical for tissue induction and those are linked to the molecular circuitry controlling cell physiology. The material properties (microporosity, ion composition, protein adsorption) of a set of synthesized osteoinductive and noninductive CaP ceramics are parameterized and these properties are correlated to a transcriptomics profile of osteogenic cells grown on the materials in vitro. Using these data, a genetic network controlling biomaterial-induced bone formation is built. By isolating the complex material properties into single-parameter test conditions, it is verified that a subset of these genes is indeed controlled by surface topography and ions released from the ceramics, respectively. The gene network points to a decisive role for extracellular matrix deposition in osteoinduction by genes such as tenascin C and hyaluronic acid synthase 2, which are controlled by calcium and phosphate ions as well as surface topography. This work provides insight into the biomaterial composition and material engineering aspects of bone void filling and can be used as a strategy to explore the interface between biomaterials and tissue regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/adma.201603259DOI Listing
March 2017

A Mussel-Inspired Conductive, Self-Adhesive, and Self-Healable Tough Hydrogel as Cell Stimulators and Implantable Bioelectronics.

Small 2017 Jan 25;13(2). Epub 2016 Oct 25.

College of Physical Science and Technology, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610064, Sichuan, China.

A graphene oxide conductive hydrogel is reported that simultaneously possesses high toughness, self-healability, and self-adhesiveness. Inspired by the adhesion behaviors of mussels, our conductive hydrogel shows self-adhesiveness on various surfaces and soft tissues. The hydrogel can be used as self-adhesive bioelectronics, such as electrical stimulators to regulate cell activity and implantable electrodes for recording in vivo signals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/smll.201601916DOI Listing
January 2017

Establishing human leukemia xenograft mouse models by implanting human bone marrow-like scaffold-based niches.

Blood 2016 12 12;128(25):2949-2959. Epub 2016 Oct 12.

Department of Experimental Hematology, Cancer Research Center Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, The Netherlands.

To begin to understand the mechanisms that regulate self-renewal, differentiation, and transformation of human hematopoietic stem cells or to evaluate the efficacy of novel treatment modalities, stem cells need to be studied in their own species-specific microenvironment. By implanting ceramic scaffolds coated with human mesenchymal stromal cells into immune-deficient mice, we were able to mimic the human bone marrow niche. Thus, we have established a human leukemia xenograft mouse model in which a large cohort of patient samples successfully engrafted, which covered all of the important genetic and risk subgroups. We found that by providing a humanized environment, stem cell self-renewal properties were better maintained as determined by serial transplantation assays and genome-wide transcriptome studies, and less clonal drift was observed as determined by exome sequencing. The human leukemia xenograft mouse models that we have established here will serve as an excellent resource for future studies aimed at exploring novel therapeutic approaches.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2016-05-719021DOI Listing
December 2016