Publications by authors named "Huijun Liao"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Patchouli alcohol ameliorates acute liver injury via inhibiting oxidative stress and gut-origin LPS leakage in rats.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Sep 25;98:107897. Epub 2021 Jun 25.

Laboratory Animal Center, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510006, PR China. Electronic address:

Alcoholism represents a predisposing factor for liver-related morbidity and mortality worldwide. Pogostemon cablin has been widely used in China for the treatment of digestive system diseases. Patchouli oil, the major active fraction of Pogostemon cablin, can ameliorate alcohol-induced acute liver injury (ALI). However, patchouli alcohol (PA),a principal bioactive ingredient of PO, exerts a protection against ALI remains elusive. Thepresentwork focused on the hepatoprotection of PA against acute ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. In this study, male Wistar rats orally received PA (10, 20, or 40 mg/kg), PO (400 mg/kg) and silymarin (200 mg/kg) for ten days. On the 8th day, the rats orally received 65% ethanol (10 mL/kg, 6.5 g/kg) every 12 h for 3 days. Results showed that PA wasfound to reduce alcohol-induced ALI, as evidenced bysignificantly alleviated histopathologicalalterations, decreased the elevation ofALT and AST levels, and enhancedthe alcoholdehydrogenase(ADH) andaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activities. Additionally, PA markedly suppressed ROS levels and increased antioxidant enzyme activities via the CYP2E1/ROS/Nrf2/HO-1 pathway. PA regulated lipid accumulation by markedly inhibiting the expression of lipogenesis-related genes and stimulating that of lipolysis-relatedgenes, which were associated with the activation of theAMPKpathway. What's more, PA pretreatment also restored acute alcohol-inducedalterationsin gut barrier function, colonic histopathology, and gut microbiota richness and evenness. PA pretreatment alleviated gut-origin LPS-inducedinflammation by inhibiting the MyD88/TLR4/NF-κB signal pathway. In general, PA ameliorates ethanol-induced ALI via restoration of CYP2E1/ROS/Nrf2/HO-1-mediatedoxidativestressand AMPK-mediated fat accumulation, as well as alleviation of gut-LPS-leakage-induced inflammation regulated by the MyD88/TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2021.107897DOI Listing
September 2021

Longitudinal changes in COVID-19 clinical measures and correlation with the extent of CT lung abnormalities.

Int J Med Sci 2021 16;18(5):1277-1284. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Department of Radiology, Union Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

To assess the longitudinal changes and relationships of clinical measures and extent of CT lung abnormalities in COVID-19. 81 patients with COVID-19 were prospectively enrolled and followed until discharge. CT scores were quantified on a basis of a CT scoring system where each lung was divided into 3 zones: upper (above the carina), middle, and lower (below the inferior pulmonary vein) zones; each zone was evaluated for percentage of lung involvement on a scale of 0-4 (0, 0%; 1, 0-24%; 2, 25% - 49%; 3, 50% -74%; 4, >74%).Temporal trends of CT scores and the laboratory parameters characteristic of COVID-19 were analyzed. Correlations between the two were determined at three milestones (initial presentation, worst CT manifestation, and recovery finding before discharge). Their correlations with duration to worst CT manifestation and discharge from symptom onset were evaluated. CT scores peaked during illness days 6-11 (median: 5), and stayed steady. C-reactive protein and lactate dehydrogenase increased, peaked on illness days 6-8 and 8-11 (mean: 23.5 mg/L, 259.9 U/L), and gradually declined. Continual decrease and increase were observed in hemoglobin and lymphocyte count, respectively. Albumin reduced and remained at low levels with a nadir on illness days 12-15 (36.6 g/L). Both initial (r = 0.58, 0.64, p < 0.05) and worst CT scores (r = 0.47, 0.65, p < 0.05) were correlated with C-reactive protein and lactate dehydrogenase; and CT scores before discharge, only with albumin (r = -0.41, p < 0.05). Duration to worst CT manifestation was associated with initial and worst CT scores (r = 0.33, 0.29, p < 0.05). No parameters were related to timespan to discharge. Our results illustrated the temporal changes of characteristic clinical measures and extent of CT lung abnormalities in COVID-19. CT scores correlated with some important laboratory parameters, and might serve as prognostic factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijms.51279DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7847610PMC
February 2021

Apoptotic activities of brusatol in human non-small cell lung cancer cells: Involvement of ROS-mediated mitochondrial-dependent pathway and inhibition of Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response.

Toxicology 2021 03 16;451:152680. Epub 2021 Jan 16.

Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Clinical Research on Traditional Chinese Medicine Syndrome, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510120, P.R. China; The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510120, P.R. China; State Key Laboratory of Dampness Syndrome of Chinese Medicine, The Second Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510120, P.R. China.

Brusatol occurs as a characteristic bioactive principle of Brucea javanica (L.) Merr., a traditional medicinal herb frequently employed to tackle cancer in China. This work endeavored to unravel the potential anti-cancer activity and action mechanism of brusatol against non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. The findings indicated that brusatol remarkably inhibited the growth of wild-type NSCLC cell lines (A549 and H1650) and epidermal growth factor receptor-mutant cell lines (PC9 and HCC827) in a dose- and time-related fashion, and profoundly inhibited the clonogenic capability and migratory capacity of PC9 cells. Treatment with brusatol resulted in significant apoptosis in PC9 cells, as evidenced by Hoechst 33342 staining and flow cytometric analysis. The apoptotic effect was closely related to induction of G0-G1 cell cycle arrest, stimulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde, decrease of glutathione levels and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine, a typical ROS scavenger, markedly ameliorated the brusatol-induced inhibition of PC9 cells. Western blotting assay indicated that brusatol pronouncedly suppressed the expression levels of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway-associated proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl, accentuated the expression of Bax and Bak, and upregulated the protein expression of XIAP, cleaved caspase-3/pro caspase-3, cleaved caspase-8/pro caspase-8, and cleaved PARP/total PARP. In addition, brusatol significantly suppressed the expression of Nrf2 and HO-1, and abrogated tBHQ-induced Nrf2 activation. Combinational administration of brusatol with four chemotherapeutic agents exhibited marked synergetic effect on PC9 cells. Together, the inhibition of PC9 cells proliferation by brusatol might be intimately associated with the modulation of ROS-mediated mitochondrial-dependent pathway and inhibition of Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response. This novel insight might provide further evidence to buttress the antineoplastic efficacy of B. javanica, and support a role for brusatol as a promising anti-cancer candidate or adjuvant to current chemotherapeutic medication in the therapy of EGFR-mutant NSCLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2021.152680DOI Listing
March 2021

Associations Between Neurochemistry and Gait Performance Following Concussion in Collegiate Athletes.

J Head Trauma Rehabil 2020 Sep/Oct;35(5):342-353

Departments of Radiology (Mss Charney and Liao, Mr Starr, and Drs Coello, Breedlove, and Lin) and Psychiatry (Dr Koerte), Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; Sports Medicine Center, Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora (Dr Howell); Department of Orthopedics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora (Dr Howell); The Micheli Center for Sports Injury Prevention, Waltham, Massachusetts (Drs Howell and Meehan and Mr Lanois); Division of Sports Medicine, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (Mr Lanois and Dr Meehan); and Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatic, and Psychotherapy, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Munich, Germany (Dr Koerte).

Objective: To evaluate the strength of associations between single-task and dual-task gait measures and posterior cingulate gyrus (PCG) neurochemicals in acutely concussed collegiate athletes.

Setting: Participants were recruited from an NCAA Division 1 University.

Participants: Nineteen collegiate athletes acutely (<4 days) following sports-related concussion.

Design: We acquired magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in the PCG and gait performance measurements in the participants, acutely following concussion. Linear mixed-effects models were constructed to measure the effect of gait performance, in the single- and dual-task settings, and sex on the 6 neurochemicals quantified with MRS in mmol. Correlation coefficients were also calculated to determine the direction and strength of the relationship between MRS neurochemicals and gait performance, postconcussion symptom score, and number of previous concussions.

Main Measures: Average gait speed, average cadence, N-acetyl aspartate, choline, myo-inositol, glutathione, glutamate plus glutamine, and creatine.

Results: Single-task gait speed (P = .0056) and cadence (P = .0065) had significant effects on myo-inositol concentrations in the PCG, independent of sex, in concussed collegiate athletes. Single-task cadence (P = .047) also had a significant effect on glutathione in the PCG. No significant effects were observed between dual-task gait performance and PCG neurochemistry.

Conclusions: These findings indicate that increased concentrations of neuroinflammatory markers in the PCG are associated with slower single-task gait performance within 4 days of sports-related concussion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HTR.0000000000000616DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7479649PMC
September 2021

A magnetic resonance spectroscopy investigation in symptomatic former NFL players.

Brain Imaging Behav 2020 Oct;14(5):1419-1429

Center for Clinical Spectroscopy, Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 4 Blackfan Street HIM-820, Boston, MA, 02115, USA.

The long-term neurologic consequences of exposure to repetitive head impacts (RHI) are not well understood. This study used magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to examine later-life neurochemistry and its association with RHI and clinical function in former National Football League (NFL) players. The sample included 77 symptomatic former NFL players and 23 asymptomatic individuals without a head trauma history. Participants completed cognitive, behavior, and mood measures. N-acetyl aspartate, glutamate/glutamine, choline, myo-inositol, creatine, and glutathione were measured in the posterior (PCG) and anterior (ACG) cingulate gyrus, and parietal white matter (PWM). A cumulative head impact index (CHII) estimated RHI. In former NFL players, a higher CHII correlated with lower PWM creatine (r = -0.23, p = 0.02). Multivariate mixed-effect models examined neurochemical differences between the former NFL players and asymptomatic individuals without a history of head trauma. PWM N-acetyl aspartate was lower among the former NFL players (mean diff. = 1.02, p = 0.03). Between-group analyses are preliminary as groups were recruited based on symptomatic status. The ACG was the only region associated with clinical function, including positive correlations between glutamate (r = 0.32, p = 0.004), glutathione (r = 0.29, p = 0.02), and myo-inositol (r = 0.26, p = 0.01) with behavioral/mood symptoms. Other positive correlations between ACG neurochemistry and clinical function emerged (i.e., behavioral/mood symptoms, cognition), but the positive directionality was unexpected. All analyses controlled for age, body mass index, and education (for analyses examining clinical function). In this sample of symptomatic former NFL players, there was a direct effect between RHI and reduced cellular energy metabolism (i.e., lower creatine). MRS neurochemicals associated with neuroinflammation also correlated with behavioral/mood symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11682-019-00060-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6994233PMC
October 2020

Tai Chi Improves Brain Metabolism and Muscle Energetics in Older Adults.

J Neuroimaging 2018 07 17;28(4):359-364. Epub 2018 Apr 17.

Center for Clinical Spectroscopy, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Background And Purpose: Tai Chi is a mind-body exercise that has been shown to improve both mental and physical health. As a result, recent literature suggests the use of Tai Chi to treat both physical and psychological disorders. However, the underlying physiological changes have not been characterized. The aim of this pilot study is to assess the changes in brain metabolites and muscle energetics after Tai Chi training in an aging population using a combined brain-muscle magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) examination.

Methods: Six healthy older adults were prospectively recruited and enrolled into a 12-week Tai Chi program. A brain H MRS and a muscle P MRS were scanned before and after the training, and postprocessed to measure N-acetylaspartate to creatine (NAA/Cr) ratios and phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery time. Wilcoxon-signed rank tests were utilized to assess the differences between pre- and post-Tai Chi training.

Results: A significant within-subject increase in both the NAA/Cr ratios (P = .046) and the PCr recovery time (P = .046) was observed between the baseline and the posttraining scans. The median percentage changes were 5.38% and 16.51% for NAA/Cr and PCr recovery time, respectively.

Conclusions: Our pilot study demonstrates significant increase of NAA/Cr ratios in posterior cingulate gyrus and significantly improved PCr recovery time in leg muscles in older adults following short-term Tai Chi training, and thus provides insight into the beneficial mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jon.12515DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6055800PMC
July 2018

Diagnostic accuracy of 2-hydroxyglutarate magnetic resonance spectroscopy in newly diagnosed brain mass and suspected recurrent gliomas.

Neuro Oncol 2018 08;20(9):1262-1271

Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical College, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Background: Isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations result in abnormal accumulation of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) in gliomas that can be detected by MRS. We examined the diagnostic accuracy of 2HG single-voxel spectroscopy (SVS) and chemical shift imaging (CSI) in both newly diagnosed and posttreatment settings.

Methods: Long echo time (97 ms) SVS and CSI were acquired in 85 subjects, including a discovery cohort of 39 patients who had postoperative residual or recurrent glioma with confirmed IDH-mutation status and 6 normal volunteers, a prospective preoperative validation cohort of 24 patients with newly diagnosed brain mass, and a prospective recurrent-lesion validation cohort of 16 previously treated IDH-mutant glioma patients with suspected tumor recurrence. The optimal thresholds for both methods in diagnosing IDH status were determined by receiver operating characteristic analysis in the discovery cohort and then applied to the 2 validation cohorts to assess the diagnostic performance.

Results: The optimal 2HG/creatine thresholds of SVS and 75th percentile CSI for IDH mutations were 0.11 and 0.23, respectively. When applied to the validation sets, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy in distinguishing IDH-mutant gliomas in the preoperative cohort were 85.71%, 100.00%, and 94.12% for SVS, and 100.00%, 69.23%, and 81.82% for CSI, respectively. In the recurrent-lesion cohort, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for discriminating IDH-positive recurrent gliomas were 40.00%, 62.50%, and 53.85% for SVS, and 66.67%, 100.00%, and 86.67% for CSI, respectively.

Conclusions: 2HG MRS provides diagnostic utility for IDH-mutant gliomas both preoperatively and at time of suspected tumor recurrence. SVS has a better diagnostic performance for untreated IDH-mutant gliomas, whereas CSI demonstrates greater performance in identifying recurrent tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/noy022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6071662PMC
August 2018

Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy as a Biomarker for Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy.

Semin Neurol 2017 10 5;37(5):503-509. Epub 2017 Dec 5.

Department of Radiology, Center for Clinical Spectroscopy, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0037-1608764DOI Listing
October 2017

Correcting for Frequency Drift in Clinical Brain MR Spectroscopy.

J Neuroimaging 2017 01 7;27(1):23-28. Epub 2016 Sep 7.

Center for Clinical Spectroscopy, Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA.

Purpose: Averaging multiple repetitions to improve signal-to-noise ratio is common practice in magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). However, temporal variations in scanner B0 due to motion or gradient heating may cause spectra to become misaligned, broadening and distorting peaks and impacting on processing and quantification. We present a comparison using in vivo data of different methods for correcting these errors.

Methods: Three different correction methods were applied to 53 brain scans: residual water peak alignment, creatine fitting, and spectral registration. In 32 of 53 subjects, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was acquired prior to the MRS scan. We compared the resulting linewidths to find the most effective technique. In addition, the impact on metabolite concentration estimates was evaluated.

Results: MRS data acquired after DTI imaging exhibited a frequency drift four times higher than data without DTI, resulting in changes to metabolite concentrations, particularly glutamate/glutamine. All three correction methods produced significantly improved linewidths relative to uncorrected data, with spectral registration performing best by a small margin.

Conclusion: Frequency correction is an important step in processing MRS data, significantly impacting metabolite quantification, particularly after echo-planar imaging that often occurs with MRS scans in clinical studies. Spectral registration proved most effective at frequency correction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jon.12388DOI Listing
January 2017

Spectral improvement by fourier thresholding of in vivo dynamic spectroscopy data.

Magn Reson Med 2016 09 7;76(3):978-85. Epub 2015 Oct 7.

Center for Clinical Spectroscopy, Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Purpose: MR spectroscopy (MRS) typically requires averaging of multiple acquisitions to achieve adequate signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). In systems undergoing dynamic changes this can compromise the temporal resolution of the measurement. One such example is (31) P MRS of exercising skeletal muscle. Spectral improvement by Fourier thresholding (SIFT) offers a way of suppressing noise without averaging. In this study, we evaluate the performance of SIFT in healthy subjects and clinical cases.

Methods: (31) P MRS of the calf or thigh muscle of subjects (n = 12) was measured continuously before, during, and after exercise. The data were processed conventionally and with the addition of SIFT before quantifying peak amplitudes and frequencies. The postexercise increase in the amplitude of phosphocreatine was also characterized by fitting with an exponential function to obtain the recovery time constant.

Results: Substantial reductions in the uncertainty of peak fitting for phosphocreatine (73%) and inorganic phosphate (60%) were observed when using SIFT relative to conventional processing alone. SIFT also reduced the phosphocreatine recovery time constant uncertainty by 38%.

Conclusion: SIFT considerably improves SNR, which improved quantification and parameter estimation. It is suitable for any type of time varying MRS and is both straightforward and fast to apply. Magn Reson Med 76:978-985, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrm.25976DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4824679PMC
September 2016

A review of neuroimaging findings in repetitive brain trauma.

Brain Pathol 2015 May;25(3):318-49

Psychiatry Neuroimaging Laboratory, Departments of Psychiatry and Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatic and Psychotherapy, Dr. von Hauner Children's Hospital, Ludwig-Maximilian University, Munich, Germany.

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is a neurodegenerative disease confirmed at postmortem. Those at highest risk are professional athletes who participate in contact sports and military personnel who are exposed to repetitive blast events. All neuropathologically confirmed CTE cases, to date, have had a history of repetitive head impacts. This suggests that repetitive head impacts may be necessary for the initiation of the pathogenetic cascade that, in some cases, leads to CTE. Importantly, while all CTE appears to result from repetitive brain trauma, not all repetitive brain trauma results in CTE. Magnetic resonance imaging has great potential for understanding better the underlying mechanisms of repetitive brain trauma. In this review, we provide an overview of advanced imaging techniques currently used to investigate brain anomalies. We also provide an overview of neuroimaging findings in those exposed to repetitive head impacts in the acute/subacute and chronic phase of injury and in more neurodegenerative phases of injury, as well as in military personnel exposed to repetitive head impacts. Finally, we discuss future directions for research that will likely lead to a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms separating those who recover from repetitive brain trauma vs. those who go on to develop CTE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12249DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5699448PMC
May 2015

Altered Neurochemistry in Former Professional Soccer Players without a History of Concussion.

J Neurotrauma 2015 Sep 14;32(17):1287-93. Epub 2015 May 14.

1 Psychiatry Neuroimaging Laboratory, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and Harvard Medical School , Boston, Massachusetts.

Soccer is played by more than 250 million people worldwide. Repeatedly heading the ball may place soccer players at high risk for repetitive subconcussive head impacts (RSHI). This study evaluates the long-term effects of RSHI on neurochemistry in athletes without a history of clinically diagnosed concussion, but with a high exposure to RSHI. Eleven former professional soccer players (mean age 52.0±6.8 years) and a comparison cohort of 14 age- and gender-matched, former non-contact sport athletes (mean age 46.9±7.9 years) underwent 3T magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and neurocognitive evaluation. In the soccer players a significant increase was observed in both choline (Cho), a membrane marker, and myo-inositol (ml), a marker of glial activation, compared with control athletes. Additionally, ml and glutathione (GSH) were significantly correlated with lifetime estimate of RSHI within the soccer group. There was no significant difference in neurocognitive tests between groups. Results of this study suggest an association between RSHI in soccer players and MRS markers of neuroinflammation, suggesting that even subconcussive head impacts affect the neurochemistry of the brain and may precede neurocognitive changes. Future studies will need to determine the role of neuroinflammation in RSHI and the effect on neurocognitive function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/neu.2014.3715DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4545372PMC
September 2015

RNA interference targeting CD147 inhibits the proliferation, invasiveness, and metastatic activity of thyroid carcinoma cells by down-regulating glycolysis.

Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2015 1;8(1):309-18. Epub 2015 Jan 1.

Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Chenzhou NO. 1 People's Hospital Chenzhou, Hunan 423000, China.

A high rate of glycolytic flux, even in the presence of oxygen, is a key metabolic hallmark of cancer cells. Lactate, the end product of glycolysis, decreases the extracellular pH and contributes to the proliferation, invasiveness and metastasis of tumor cells. CD147 play a crucial role in tumorigenicity, invasion and metastasis; and CD147 also interacts strongly and specifically with monocarboxylate transporter1 (MCT1) that mediates the transport of lactate. The objective of this study was to determine whether CD147 is involved, via its association with MCT1 to transport lactate, in glycolysis, contributing to the progression of thyroid carcinoma. The expression levels of CD147 in surgical specimens of normal thyroid, nodular goiter (NG), well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma (WDTC), and undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UDTC) were determined using immunohistochemical techniques. The effects of CD147 silencing on cell proliferation, invasiveness, metastasis, co-localization with MCT1, glycolysis rate and extracellular pH of thyroid cancer cells (WRO and FRO cell lines) were measured after CD147 was knocked-down using siRNA targeting CD147. Immunohistochemical analysis of thyroid carcinoma (TC) tissues revealed significant increases in signal for CD147 compared with normal tissue or NG, while UDTC expressed remarkably higher levels of CD147 compared with WDTC. Furthermore, silencing of CD147 in TC cells clearly abrogated the expression of MCT1 and its co-localization with CD147 and dramatically decreased both the glycolysis rate and extracellular pH. Thus, cell proliferation, invasiveness, and metastasis were all significantly decreased by siRNA. These results demonstrate in vitro that the expression of CD147 correlates with the degree of dedifferentiation of thyroid cancer, and show that CD147 interacts with MCT1 to regulate tumor cell glycolysis, resulting in the progression of thyroid carcinoma.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4348865PMC
December 2015

Maximum entropy estimation of glutamate and glutamine in MR spectroscopic imaging.

Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv 2014 ;17(Pt 2):749-56

Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) is often used to estimate the concentration of several brain metabolites. Abnormalities in these concentrations can indicate specific pathology, which can be quite useful in understanding the disease mechanism underlying those changes. Due to higher concentration, metabolites such as N-acetylaspartate (NAA), Creatine (Cr) and Choline (Cho) can be readily estimated using standard Fourier transform techniques. However, metabolites such as Glutamate (Glu) and Glutamine (Gln) occur in significantly lower concentrations and their resonance peaks are very close to each other making it difficult to accurately estimate their concentrations (separately). In this work, we propose to use the theory of 'Spectral Zooming' or high-resolution spectral analysis to separate the Glutamate and Glutamine peaks and accurately estimate their concentrations. The method works by estimating a unique power spectral density, which corresponds to the maximum entropy solution of a zero-mean stationary Gaussian process. We demonstrate our estimation technique on several physical phantom data sets as well as on in-vivo brain spectroscopic imaging data. The proposed technique is quite general and can be used to estimate the concentration of any other metabolite of interest.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4386877PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-10470-6_93DOI Listing
January 2015

Protective effects of pogostone from Pogostemonis Herba against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

Fitoterapia 2015 Jan 3;100:110-7. Epub 2014 Dec 3.

College of Chinese Medicines, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510006, People's Republic of China; Dongguan Mathematical Engineering Academy of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Dongguan 523808, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

We examined the protective effect of pogostone (PO), a chemical constituent isolated from Pogostemonis Herba, on the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Administration of PO at doses of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg body weight prior to ethanol ingestion effectively protected the stomach from ulceration. The gastric lesions were significantly ameliorated by all doses of PO as compared to the vehicle group. Pre-treatment with PO prevented the oxidative damage and the decrease of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) content. In addition, PO pretreatment markedly increased the mucosa levels of glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and decreased gastric malonaldehyde (MDA), relative to the vehicle group. In the mechanistic study, significant elevation of non-protein-sulfhydryl (NP-SH) was observed in the gastric mucosa pretreated by PO. Analysis of serum cytokines indicated that PO pretreatment obviously elevated the decrease of interleukin-10 (IL-10) level, while markedly mitigated the increment of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) secretions in ethanol-induced rats. Taken together, these results strongly indicate that PO could exert a gastro-protective effect against gastric ulceration, and the underlying mechanism might be associated with the stimulation of PGE2, improvement of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory status, as well as preservation of NP-SH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2014.11.017DOI Listing
January 2015

Neuroimaging in repetitive brain trauma.

Alzheimers Res Ther 2014 24;6(1):10. Epub 2014 Feb 24.

Psychiatric Neuroimaging Laboratory, Departments of Psychiatry and Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 1249 Boylston Street, Boston, MA 02215, USA ; Research and Development, VA Boston Healthcare System, 850 Belmont Street, Brockton, MA 02130, USA.

Sports-related concussions are one of the major causes of mild traumatic brain injury. Although most patients recover completely within days to weeks, those who experience repetitive brain trauma (RBT) may be at risk for developing a condition known as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). While this condition is most commonly observed in athletes who experience repetitive concussive and/or subconcussive blows to the head, such as boxers, football players, or hockey players, CTE may also affect soldiers on active duty. Currently, the only means by which to diagnose CTE is by the presence of phosphorylated tau aggregations post-mortem. Non-invasive neuroimaging, however, may allow early diagnosis as well as improve our understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of RBT. The purpose of this article is to review advanced neuroimaging methods used to investigate RBT, including diffusion tensor imaging, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, functional magnetic resonance imaging, susceptibility weighted imaging, and positron emission tomography. While there is a considerable literature using these methods in brain injury in general, the focus of this review is on RBT and those subject populations currently known to be susceptible to RBT, namely athletes and soldiers. Further, while direct detection of CTE in vivo has not yet been achieved, all of the methods described in this review provide insight into RBT and will likely lead to a better characterization (diagnosis), in vivo, of CTE than measures of self-report.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/alzrt239DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3978843PMC
July 2014

[Fingerprint research and multi-component quantitative analysis of Kumu injection by HPLC].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2011 Jul;36(13):1739-43

New Drug R&D Department, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou 510006, China.

Objective: To establish the HPLC chromatographic fingerprint of Kumu injection and to simultaneously determine the contents of three beta-carboline alkaloids, comprehensively evaluating the immanent quality of Kumu injection.

Method: The chromatographic analysis was performed on a Phenomenex Gemini C18 ( 4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) column with the gradient elution solvent system composed of methanol and 30 mmol x L(-1) aqueous ammonium acetate (adjusted with glacial acetic acid to pH 4.5). Similarity evaluation system for chromatographic fingerprint of traditional Chinese medicine (2004 A) was used in data analysis.

Result: Sixteen co-possessing peaks were selected as the fingerprints of Kumu injection, and 7 peaks were identified by chemical reference substances. There were good similarities between the standard fingerprint chromatogram and each fingerprint chromatogram from the eleven samples for their similarity coefficients were not less than 0.9. Three kinds of beta-carboline alkaloids were separated well. The correlation coefficients were 0.999 9. The linear ranges of three components were 0.020 0-0.300 0, 0.102 0-1.530 0, 0.015 2-0. 228 0 microg, respectively, and the average recoveries ranged were from 99.5% to 102%.

Conclusion: The method of fingerprint combined with quantitative analysis is sensitive, selective, and provide scientific basis for quality control of Kumu Injection.
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July 2011
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