Publications by authors named "Hui-Min Xu"

53 Publications

[Morin Improves Experimental Autoimmune Thyroiditis in Rats via NLRP3/Caspase-1 Pathway].

Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 2021 Mar;52(2):229-234

Department of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Huaihe Hospital Affiliated to Henan University, Kaifeng 475000, China.

Objective: To investigate the effects of morin-regulated NLRP3/Caspase-1 pathway on experimental autoimmune thyroiditis in rats.

Methods: The rats were randomly assigned to 6 groups: control group, experimental autoimmune thyroiditis group (EAT), low-, medium- and high-dose morin groups (post-modeling gavage of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg morin hydrate per day for 6 weeks) and tripterygium wilfordii polyglycosides group (LGT group, post-modeling gavage of 6.25 mg/kg tripterygium wilfordii polyglycosidesper day for 6 weeks). Except for the control group, the rat model of experimental autoimmune thyroiditis was established by subcutaneous injection of 0.1 mL incomplete Freund's adjuvant containing porcine thyroglobulin. The levels of serum thyroglobulin (TgAb), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), triiodothyronine (T3) and tetraiodothyronine (T4) in serum were detected by radioimmunoassay. The mRNA levels of interleukin-17 ( -17), interleukin-4 ( -4) and interferon γ ( - ) were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The levels of serum protein carbonyl content, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and malondialdehyde (MDA) activity were checked with test kits. Expressions of NLRP3, apoptosis-related speck-like protein (ASC), and Caspase-1 were detected by Western blot.

Results: Compared with the EAT group, serum levels of TPOAb, TgAb, T3, and T4 in low-, medium- and high-dose Morin groups and LGT group were reduced ( <0.01) and the mRNA levels of -17, and -4 were increased ( <0.01), the protein hydroxyl content, MDA activity, and 8-OHdG levels were reduced ( <0.01). The levels of NLRP3, ASC and Caspase-1 were reduced ( <0.01), the levels of 8-OHdG were significantly reduced ( <0.01), and the levels of NLRP3, ASC and Caspase-1 were significantly reduced ( <0.01). There were statistically significant differences between the data from the low-dose and the medium-dose Morin groups and the data of the LGT group ( <0.05), while data from the high-dose Morin group showed no significant difference compared with the data of the LGT group. Data from low-, medium- and high-dose Morin groups showed no statistically significant differences ( <0.05).

Conclusion: The findings suggest that Morin improved experimental autoimmune thyroiditis in rats through regulating NLRP3/Caspase-1 pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12182/20210160507DOI Listing
March 2021

Defending the homeland: microbiome molecules provide protection to their vertebrate hosts.

Future Microbiol 2020 12 22;15:1697-1712. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Laboratory of Biomembrane & Membrane Protein, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610041, China.

The resident bacterial microbiome may shape and protect the health of vertebrate host. An array of molecules secreted by microbiome may contribute to the ecological stability of the microbiome itself. ELISA, radioactivity, immunofluorescence and cytokines measurements were used to observe the bioactivity and stability of colicin Ia level in oviparous and viviparous animal circulation. Colicin Ia, a protein antimicrobial produced by , is not present in animals at birth, but increases in concentration with the establishment of a stable gut microbiome and drops when the microbiome is experimentally disrupted. Colicin introduced is transported to tissues at concentrations able to prevent or eliminate bacterial infection. Our findings suggest an unexpected benefit provided by the presence of a resident microbiome in the form of active, circulating, bacterially-synthesized antimicrobial molecules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/fmb-2020-0008DOI Listing
December 2020

Antiplatelet Activity of Tussilagone via Inhibition of the GPVI Downstream Signaling Pathway in Platelets.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2020 29;7:380. Epub 2020 Jul 29.

Department of Pharmacy, Zhumadian Central Hospital, Zhumadian, China.

Tussilagone is a sesquiterpenoid extracted from and is used as an oriental medicine for asthma and bronchitis. Although previous studies have shown that tussilagone has an inhibitory effect on platelet aggregation, no studies have been performed to investigate its precise effect on platelets, and the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we showed that tussilagone inhibited platelet aggregation induced by collagen, thrombin and ADP, as well as platelet release induced by collagen and thrombin, in mice. Tussilagone decreased P-selectin expression and αIIbβ3 activation (JON/A binding) in activated platelets, which indicated that tussilagone inhibited platelet activation. Moreover, tussilagone suppressed platelet spreading on fibrinogen and clot retraction. The levels of phosphorylated Syk, PLCγ2, Akt, GSK3β, and MAPK (ERK1/2 and P38) and molecules associated with GPVI downstream signaling were downregulated in the presence of tussilagone. In addition, tussilagone prolonged the occlusion time in a mouse model of FeCl-induced carotid artery thrombosis and had no effect on mouse tail bleeding time. These results indicate that tussilagone inhibits platelet function and and that the underlying mechanism involves the Syk/PLCγ2-PKC/MAPK and PI3K-Akt-GSK3β signaling pathways downstream of GPVI. This research suggests that tussilagone is a potential candidate antiplatelet drug for the prevention of thrombosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2020.00380DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7403204PMC
July 2020

Tri(pyridinyl)pyridine Viologen-Based Kagome Dual Coordination Polymer with Selective Chromic Response to Soft X-ray and Volatile Organic Amines.

Inorg Chem 2020 Jul 19;59(13):9047-9054. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Key Laboratory of Magnetic Molecules and Magnetic Information Materials (Ministry of Education), School of Chemistry and Material Science, Shanxi Normal University, Linfen 041004, People's Republic of China.

The development of new responsive smart materials has been highly desirable in the recent decade due to growing demand in our daily life, and extended viologen-based coordination polymers are regarded as proper and promising candidates for stimuli-responsive study. A tri(pyridinyl)pyridine viologen-based Kagome dual () topological coordination polymer, [MnCl(tpptb)]·Cl·(HO), (tpptb = N,N',N″-tri(3-carboxybenzyl)-2,4,6-tri(pyridinium-4-yl)pyridine; ) has been solvothermally synthesized, which can selectively respond to soft X-ray Al-Kα (λ = 8.357 Å) irradiation but not to UV light and hard X-rays of λ < 1.5418 Å at room temperature. Appealingly, is very sensitive and convenient for the visual detection of various volatile amine vapors, especially ethylamine vapors at a low concentration of 100 ppm, and the vapochromic sample can be recovered after exposure in the air at room temperature. The sequence of amines in vapochromism could be rationalized by combined consideration of vapor pressure, the molecular size, and electron-donor ability of various amine molecules as well as the void spaces of . In addition, exhibits an obvious hydrochromic transformation upon heating in the air and an anhydrous atmosphere. Combined XPS and EPR confirmed that these physical and chemical stimuli can cause electron transfer from electron-rich groups to quaternary nitrogen atoms of the ligand to generate charge-separated radicals, leading to soft X-ray-induced photochromic and selective vapochromic behavior of . Such behavior indicates that it will become a convenient, recyclable, and practical multifunctional material for chemical and environmental sensing. These results provide an effective avenue for the rational design and synthesis of multifunctional chromic materials for potential use in sensing devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.inorgchem.0c00922DOI Listing
July 2020

Association of atherosclerotic plaque features with collateral circulation status in elderly patients with chronic carotid stenosis.

J Geriatr Cardiol 2020 Apr;17(4):202-209

Department of Radiology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China.

Objective: To determine the association of carotid plaque features with collateral circulation status in elderly patients with moderate to severe carotid stenosis.

Methods: Elderly patients (> 60 years) with moderate to severe carotid stenosis were recruited and categorized into good and poor collateral circulation groups, and underwent magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography imaging. The carotid plaque features including lipid-rich necrotic core, intraplaque hemorrhage, calcification, and fibrous cap rupture (FCR) were evaluated, and maximum wall thickness, normalized wall index (NWI), and luminal stenosis were measured. The association between these variables and collateral circulation status was analyzed.

Results: Of the 97 patients (78 males, mean age: 69.0 ± 6.1 years), 19 (19.6%) had poor collaterals. The poor collateral group had a significantly higher NWI (93.7% ± 5.0% 89.0% ± 7.9%, = 0.011), a greater extent of stenosis (80.0% ± 11.4% 75.3% ± 9.4%, = 0.036) and FCR (84.2% 55.1%, = 0.020) compared with good collateral group. Carotid NWI (OR = 3.83, 95% CI: 1.36-10.82, = 0.011) and more FCR (OR = 6.77, 95% CI: 1.35-33.85, = 0.020) were associated with poor collateral circulation after adjustment for the confounding factors. The combination of NWI, FCR, systolic blood pressure, and triglycerides had the highest area-under-the-curve (AUC = 0.85) for detection of poor collaterals.

Conclusions: Carotid plaque features, specifically NWI and FCR, are independently associated with poor collateral circulation, and the combination of carotid plaque features and traditional risk factors has a stronger predictive value for poor collateral circulation than plaque features alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11909/j.issn.1671-5411.2020.04.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7189263PMC
April 2020

A SIRPα-Fc fusion protein enhances the antitumor effect of oncolytic adenovirus against ovarian cancer.

Mol Oncol 2020 03 7;14(3):657-668. Epub 2020 Feb 7.

Laboratory of Viral and Gene Therapy, Shanghai Eastern Hepatobiliary Surgery Hospital, China.

Oncolytic viruses armed with therapeutic transgenes of interest show great potential in cancer immunotherapy. Here, a novel oncolytic adenovirus carrying a signal regulatory protein-α (SIRPα)-IgG1 Fc fusion gene (termed SG635-SF) was constructed, which could block the CD47 'don't eat me' signal of cancer cells. A strong promoter sequence (CCAU) was chosen to control the expression of the SF fusion protein, and a 5/35 chimeric fiber was utilized to enhance the efficiency of infection. As a result, SG635-SF was found to specifically proliferate in hTERT-positive cancer cells and largely increased the abundance of the SF gene. The SF fusion protein was effectively detected, and CD47 was successfully blocked in SK-OV3 and HO8910 ovarian cancer cells expressing high levels of CD47. Although the ability to induce cell cycle arrest and cell death was comparable to that of the control empty SG635 oncolytic adenovirus in vitro, the antitumor effect of SG635-SF was significantly superior to that of SG635 in vivo. Furthermore, CD47 was largely blocked and macrophage infiltration distinctly increased in xenograft tissues of SK-OV3 cells but not in those of CD47-negative HepG2 cells, indicating that the enhanced antitumor effect of SG635-SF was CD47-dependent. Collectively, these findings highlight a potent antitumor effect of SG635-SF in the treatment of CD47-positive cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/1878-0261.12628DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7053234PMC
March 2020

Protein sequence information extraction and subcellular localization prediction with gapped k-Mer method.

BMC Bioinformatics 2019 Dec 30;20(Suppl 22):719. Epub 2019 Dec 30.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hainan Normal University, Haikou, 571158, China.

Background: Subcellular localization prediction of protein is an important component of bioinformatics, which has great importance for drug design and other applications. A multitude of computational tools for proteins subcellular location have been developed in the recent decades, however, existing methods differ in the protein sequence representation techniques and classification algorithms adopted.

Results: In this paper, we firstly introduce two kinds of protein sequences encoding schemes: dipeptide information with space and Gapped k-mer information. Then, the Gapped k-mer calculation method which is based on quad-tree is also introduced.

Conclusions: >From the prediction results, this method not only reduces the dimension, but also improves the prediction precision of protein subcellular localization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12859-019-3232-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6936157PMC
December 2019

[Spatial variability of plant community characteristics and its influencing factors in a small watershed of wind-water erosion crisscross region on the Loess Plateau, China].

Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 2019 Aug;30(8):2521-2530

State Key Laboratory of Soil Erosion and Dryland Farming on the Loess Plateau, Institute of Soil and Water Conservation, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Water Resources, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China.

The small watershed is the basic unit of soil erosion control on the Loess Plateau. Consequently, the study of the spatial distribution and influencing factors of vegetation is the basis of vege-tation restoration and reconstruction in this region. A small watershed in the wind-water erosion crisscross region with the most serious soil erosion in the Loess Plateau was selected to investigate the changes of vegetation distribution and soil properties. The spatial variability of plant community characteristics and its main driving factors were studied by geo-statistical method and redundancy analysis (RDA). The results showed that there were 27 plant species in the small watershed, belonging to 12 families and 25 genera. Leguminous, Gramineous and Compositae plants were dominant families, contributing 59.3% of the total species. In general, the community structure was simple and the organization level was low. The aboveground biomass (AGB) and coverage (C) of the community reached 205.7 g·m and 57.7%, which was higher than the mean value of grassland in northern China, but the level of species diversity was lower. There were medium spatial correlation in AGB, but stronger spatial correlation for C, Patrick richness index (R), Shannon diversity index (H), Simpson dominance index (D) and Pielou evenness index (J). The spatial distribution of AGB was mainly patchy and striped, which was highest at the semi-shady slope and near the outlet of watershed. Other community characteristics were relatively fragmented, and R, H and J were higher at the top of the semi-shady slope. AGB and C were mainly affected by soil organic carbon, mineral nitrogen, total nitrogen, soil water content, and altitude, while R, H, D and J were mainly affected by soil saturated hydraulic conductivity, bulk density, sand content, and silt content. The results are helpful for vegetation restoration and evaluation of ecosystem structure and function in the wind-water erosion crisscross region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13287/j.1001-9332.201908.001DOI Listing
August 2019

Adsorptive removal of organic dyes from aqueous solution by a Zr-based metal-organic framework: effects of Ce(iii) doping.

Dalton Trans 2018 Mar;47(11):3913-3920

School of Chemistry & Chemical Engineering, Linyi University, Linyi 276005, P.R. China.

Herein, we report the synthesis and characterization of Ce(iii)-doped UiO-66 nanocrystals, revealing their potential to efficiently remove organic dyes such as methylene blue (MB), methyl orange (MO), Congo red (CR), and acid chrome blue K (AC) from aqueous solutions. Specifically, the room-temperature adsorption capacities of Ce(iii)-doped UiO-66 equaled 145.3 (MB), 639.6 (MO), and 826.7 (CR) mg g, exceeding those reported for pristine UiO-66 by 490, 270, and 70%, respectively. The above behavior was rationalized based on zeta potential and adsorption isotherm investigations, which revealed that Ce(iii) doping increases the number of adsorption sites and promotes π-π interactions between the adsorbent and the adsorbate, thus improving the adsorption capacity for cationic and anionic dyes and overriding the effect of electrostatic interactions. The obtained results shed light on the mechanism of organic dye adsorption on metal-organic frameworks, additionally revealing that the synergetic interplay of electrostatic, π-π, and hydrophobic interactions results in the operation of two distinct adsorption regimes depending on adsorbate concentration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8dt00217gDOI Listing
March 2018

Retrospective analysis of non-laboratory-based adverse drug reactions induced by intravenous radiocontrast agents in a Joint Commission International-accredited academic medical center hospital in China.

Ther Clin Risk Manag 2017 26;13:565-573. Epub 2017 Apr 26.

Department of Pharmacy, The Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, People's Republic of China.

The authors retrospectively analyzed the pattern and characteristics of non-laboratory-based adverse drug reactions (ADRs) induced by intravenous radiocontrast agents in a large-scale hospital in China during 2014-2015. There were 314 ADR cases among 118,208 patients receiving enhanced CT or MRI examinations. The frequency of moderate/severe ADRs defined by Chinese Society of Radiology (ie, severe vomiting, systematic urticaria, facial swelling, dyspnea, vasovagal reaction, laryngeal edema, seizure, trembling, convulsions, unconsciousness, shock, death, and other unexpected adverse reactions) was rare (0.0431%), whereas the mild ADRs were uncommon (0.2225%) and accounted for 83.76% of ADRs. Frequency of ADRs induced by iodinated contrast agents was related with examination site, sex, and type of patient settings (<0.01) and was higher compared with gadolinium contrast agents (0.3676% vs 0.0504%, <0.01). From 2014 to 2015, frequencies of total and moderate/severe ADRs induced by iodinated contrast agents decreased significantly (0.4410% vs 0.2947%, <0.01; 0.0960% vs 0.0282%, <0.01, respectively). Frequency of ADRs differed among different iodinated contrast and gadolinium contrast (<0.05) agents. Iopromide's ADR frequency in 2014 was significantly higher compared with iopamidol, ioversol, or iohexol (<0.01). Frequency of moderate/severe ADRs induced by iodixanol was 4.1-5.4 times that of iohexol, iopromide, or iopamidol. Rash was the predominant ADR subtype (84.39%) and occurred more frequently with iodixanol compared with iohexol, iopamidol, or ioversol (<0.01). Overall, 21.97% of ADR cases had allergy history or atopy traits, and these cases experienced ADRs earlier than the negative ones (17.19 min vs 85.34 min, <0.01). The mean time to onset of ADRs was increased in patients receiving iodixanol compared with other iodinated contrast agents (323.77 min vs 42.36 min, <0.01). Overall, 37.26% of ADRs occurred within 5 min and 84.08% of ADRs occurred within 30 min. Efficient quality improvement in decreasing ADRs induced by radiocontrast agents has been achieved by multidisciplinary collaboration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S134265DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5414727PMC
April 2017

Mesh Erosion into Sigmoid Colon after Inguinal Hernia Repair.

Chin Med J (Engl) 2017 May;130(9):1133-1134

Department of General Surgery, Weifang People's Hospital, Weighing, Shandong 261041, China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0366-6999.204939DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5421189PMC
May 2017

Assessment of Crohn's disease activity by Doppler sonography.

Saudi Med J 2017 Apr;38(4):391-395

Department of Ultrasound, Weifang People's Hospital, Weifang, Shandong Province, China. E-mail.

Objectives: To investigate the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound for evaluation of inflammatory activity in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). Methods: Fifty-six patients with histologically proven CD (39 with active, 17 with inactive disease) and 30 healthy volunteers as a control group were enrolled in the study at WeiFang People's Hospital, Weifang Province, China from October 2012 to December 2014. Bowel wall thickness, and vascularity pattern were measured by Doppler ultrasound. Results: There was a significant difference in flow volume of the superior mesenteric artery (585 ± 235 ml/min) in the patients with active disease, compared with those with inactive disease (401 ± 238 ml/min) and the control group (390 ± 189 ml/min, p less than 0.001). Wall thickness was 5.1 ± 1.5 mm in the active CD group, 3.3 ± 1.6 mm in the inactive disease group (p less than 0.001) and  less than 3 mm in the control group. Resistance index in the thickened bowel wall showed some differences: 0.68 ± 0.05 in the active disease group, 0.78 ± 0.08 in the inactive disease group, and 0.85 ± 0.07 in the control group (p less than 0.05). Conclusion: Doppler ultrasound is a useful diagnostic tool in detecting CD and assessing inflammatory activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15537/smj.2017.4.17855DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5447191PMC
April 2017

VEGFR2 Expression in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cancer Cells Mediates Proliferation and Invasion.

Asian Pac J Cancer Prev 2016 ;17(4):2217-21

Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Changshu No.1 People's Hospital Affiliated to Soochow University, Changshu, China E-mail :

Vascular endothelial growth factor 2 (VEGFR2) was initially identified as a receptor of VEGF on endothelial cells with a role in regulating angiogenesis during organism development and tumorigenesis. Previously, in cancer tissue, VEGFR2 has been reported to be expressed in endothelial cells. In our research, we found that VEGFR2 was expressed not only in endothelial cells but also cancer cells in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). Knockdown of VEGFR2 in Hep2 cells could arrest the cell cycle in G0/G1, leading to a decrease in proliferation. We also present evidence that MAPK/ERK signal pathways and expression of CDK1 downstream of VEGFR2 might regulate proliferation and cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, we discovered that down-regulate VEGRF2 in Hep2 cells could significantly affect the invasion ability. Taken together, our data suggest that VEGFR2 might regulate proliferation and invasion in HNSCC cancer cells in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7314/apjcp.2016.17.4.2217DOI Listing
January 2017

PGRN Is Associated with Late-Onset Alzheimer's Disease: a Case-Control Replication Study and Meta-analysis.

Mol Neurobiol 2017 03 28;54(2):1187-1195. Epub 2016 Jan 28.

Department of Neurology, Qingdao Municipal Hospital, School of Medicine, Qingdao University, No. 5 Donghai Middle Road, Qingdao, Shandong Province, 266071, China.

Progranulin (PGRN) plays an important role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) through participating in altering neurite outgrowth and neuronal survival. Previous studies identified that rs5848 in the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of the PGRN gene (GRN) is strongly associated with AD in Caucasians. In order to assess the involvement of the GRN polymorphism in the risk of late-onset AD (LOAD), we analyzed the genotype and allele distributions of rs5848 in 2350 Han Chinese subjects (AD, 992; control, 1358). The minor T allele of rs5848 was significantly associated with an increased risk of LOAD (P = 0.005, odds ratio (OR) = 1.197, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.057-1.355). Moreover, the association was further validated in the multivariate logistic regression analysis (dominant model: OR = 1.195, P = 0.038, recessive model: OR = 1.386, P = 0.025; additive model: OR = 1.187, P = 0.009). Interestingly, we observed that the interaction between apolipoprotein E (APOE) and rs5848 significantly altered the risk for AD. The rs5848 polymorphism was only significantly associated with LOAD in APOE ε4 allele carriers. Then we included five studies (including the present study) and conducted a meta-analysis which consisted of 3236 cases (male, 1152; female, 2084) and 3405 (male, 1436; female, 1969) controls. The result of the meta-analysis supported T allele of rs5848 within GRN as a risk factor for AD. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that rs5848 polymorphism within GRN was associated with LOAD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12035-016-9698-4DOI Listing
March 2017

The optimal choice of medication administration route regarding intravenous, intramuscular, and subcutaneous injection.

Patient Prefer Adherence 2015 2;9:923-42. Epub 2015 Jul 2.

Department of Pharmacy, The Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China.

Background: Intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), and subcutaneous (SC) are the three most frequently used injection routes in medication administration. Comparative studies of SC versus IV, IM versus IV, or IM versus SC have been sporadically conducted, and some new findings are completely different from the dosage recommendation as described in prescribing information. However, clinicians may still be ignorant of such new evidence-based findings when choosing treatment methods.

Methods: A literature search was performed using PubMed, MEDLINE, and Web of Sciences™ Core Collection to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of SC, IV, and IM administration in head-to-head comparative studies.

Results: "SC better than IV" involves trastuzumab, rituximab, antitumor necrosis factor medications, bortezomib, amifostine, recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, recombinant interleukin-2, immunoglobulin, epoetin alfa, heparin, and opioids. "IV better than SC" involves ketamine, vitamin K1, and abatacept. With respect to insulin and ketamine, whether IV has advantages over SC is determined by specific clinical circumstances. "IM better than IV" involves epinephrine, hepatitis B immu-noglobulin, pegaspargase, and some antibiotics. "IV better than IM" involves ketamine, morphine, and antivenom. "IM better than SC" involves epinephrine. "SC better than IM" involves interferon-beta-1a, methotrexate, human chorionic gonadotropin, hepatitis B immunoglobulin, hydrocortisone, and morphine. Safety, efficacy, patient preference, and pharmacoeconomics are four principles governing the choice of injection route. Safety and efficacy must be the preferred principles to be considered (eg, epinephrine should be given intramuscularly during an episode of systemic anaphylaxis). If the safety and efficacy of two injection routes are equivalent, clinicians should consider more about patient preference and pharmacoeconomics because patient preference will ensure optimal treatment adherence and ultimately improve patient experience or satisfaction, while pharmacoeconomic concern will help alleviate nurse shortages and reduce overall health care costs. Besides the principles, the following detailed factors might affect the decision: patient characteristics-related factors (body mass index, age, sex, medical status [eg, renal impairment, comorbidities], personal attitudes toward safety and convenience, past experience, perception of current disease status, health literacy, and socioeconomic status), medication administration-related factors (anatomical site of injection, dose, frequency, formulation characteristics, administration time, indication, flexibility in the route of administration), and health care staff/institution-related factors (knowledge, human resources).

Conclusion: This updated review of findings of comparative studies of different injection routes will enrich the knowledge of safe, efficacious, economic, and patient preference-oriented medication administration as well as catching research opportunities in clinical nursing practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S87271DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4494621PMC
July 2015

[Change of peripheral blood appetite regulation factor of anorexia children and infect of child anorexia granule].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2014 Dec;39(23):4685-8

Study the infect of child anorexia granule on serum ghrelin and leptin of anorexia children and its clinical efficacy. Selected 81 cases of anorexia children aged 1-6 years old into treatment group (42 cases) and control group (39 cases), in addition, 30 case healthy children as healthy control group. The control group children were treated with domperidone suspension 0.3 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1), tid, orally 30 minutes before meals. Treatment group were treated with child anorexia granule, 1-3 years 1 package, bid; 4-6 years 1 package, tid; po, 4 weeks as a course of treatment. Study the change of serum ghrelin and leptin before and after therapy. The study demonstrates that before treatment, the serum ghrelin level of disease group was lower than healthy group (P < 0.01), and the serum leptin level was higher than healthy group (P < 0.01). After treatment, the serum ghrelin level both increase, and the serum leptin decline. And the change of treatment group was significantly different with control group (P < 0.01). And the clinical effective rate are 95.23% and 74.35% (P < 0.01). After 6 months of follow-up visit, the children weight significantly increase in treatment group (P < 0.01). Results indicate that child anorexia granule can facilitate secretion of ghrelin, and inhibit secretion of leptin, so as to work up an appetite. And the molecular mechanism is its infect on serum ghrelin, leptin.
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December 2014

Salicylate-induced changes in immediate-early genes in the hippocampal CA1 area.

Mol Med Rep 2015 Aug 14;12(2):1625-30. Epub 2015 Apr 14.

Department of Otolaryngology‑Head and Neck Surgery, Affiliated Hospital of Nantong University, Nantong, Jiangsu 226001, P.R. China.

Studies have suggested that salicylate affects neuronal function via interactions with specific membrane channels/receptors. However, the effect of salicylate on activity and synaptic morphology of the hippocampal Cornu Ammonis (CA) 1 area remains to be elucidated. The activation of immediate-early genes (IEGs) was reported to correlate with neuronal activity, in particular activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein and early growth response gene 1. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of these IEGs, as well that of N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit 2B in rats following acute and chronic salicylate treatment. Protein and messenger RNA levels of all three genes were increased in rats following chronic administration of salicylate (300 mg/kg for 10 days), returning to baseline levels 14 days post-cessation of treatment. The transient upregulation of gene expression following treatment was accompanied by ultrastructural alterations in hippocampal CA1 area synapses. An increase in synaptic interface curvature was observed as well as an increased number of presynaptic vesicles; in addition, postsynaptic densities thickened and lengthened. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that chronic exposure to salicylate may lead to structural alteration of hippocampal CA1 neurons, and it was suggested that this process occurs through induced expression of IEGs via NMDA receptor activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2015.3608DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4464479PMC
August 2015

Riccardin D, a macrocyclic bisbibenzy, inhibits human breast cancer growth through the suppression of telomerase activity.

Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2014 Dec 6;115(6):488-98. Epub 2014 Jun 6.

Department of Pharmacology, Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Riccardin D, a liverwort-derived naturally occurring macrocyclic bisbibenzyl, has been found to exert anticancer effects in multiple cancer cell types. In this study, we investigated the effect and mechanism of Riccardin D on human breast cancer. Experiments were performed on human breast cancer MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. The antitumour effects of Riccardin D were assessed by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and human breast cancer xenografts mice model. TRAPeze(®) XL Telomerase Detection assay was used for the detection of telomerase activity. γ-H2 AX foci formation was tested for the induction of DNA damage response. Cell cycle distribution was analysed by flow cytometry, and cell apoptosis was determined by annexin V-FITC/PI staining, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay and Western blotting. Riccardin D effectively inhibited the growth of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells in vitro. And Riccardin D also effectively delayed the growth of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231-luc-D3H2LN xenografts without significant loss of body-weight. Further analysis suggested that Riccardin D's effects may arise from its suppression of telomerase activity, which led to telomere dysfunction. Telomerase inhibition and telomere dysfunction could activate the canonical ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) kinase-mediated DNA damage response, as shown by elevated expression of γ-H2 AX, p-ATM and p-Chk2. This is finally followed by the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, as shown by the increase of TUNEL-stained cells, caspase activation, PARP cleavage and the increase of bax/bcl-2 ratio. Moreover, Riccardin D induced p53-proficient MCF-7 cells to arrest in G1 phase and p53-deficient MDA-MB-231 cells to arrest in G2/M phase. Overall, these results demonstrate that Riccardin D may inhibit human breast cancer growth through suppression of telomerase activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bcpt.12267DOI Listing
December 2014

Use of evidence-based pharmacotherapy for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease: a Chinese medicine hospital versus a general hospital.

Chin J Integr Med 2014 May 23;20(5):375-80. Epub 2014 Jan 23.

Department of Pharmacy, the Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310009, China.

Objective: To determine differences in adherence to secondary prevention guidelines (pharmacological interventions) among coronary heart disease (CHD) patients between a Chinese medicine (CM) hospital and a general hospital in a Chinese city.

Methods: Medical records of 200 patients consecutively discharged from the CM hospital and the general hospital for CHD were reviewed to determine the proportions of eligible patients who received antiplatelet agents, β-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and statins at discharge. The effects of patient characteristics and hospital type on the use of these medicines were estimated using logistic regression models.

Results: Patients discharged from the CM hospitals were older; more likely females; had greater history of hyperlipidemia, cerebrovascular diseases and less smoker (P<0.01 or P<0.05). They were less likely to receive coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention, and had a longer length of stay than those discharged from the general hospital (P<0.01 or P<0.05). There were no significant differences in antiplatelet agents (96% vs. 100%, P=0.121) or statins (97.9% vs. 100%, P=0.149) use between the CM hospital and the general hospital. In multivariable analyses that adjusted for patient characteristics and hospital type, there was no significant difference in use of β-blockers between the CM hospital and the general hospital. In contrast, patients discharged from the CM hospital were less likely to receive ACE inhibitors/ARBs compared with those discharged from the general hospital (odds ratio: 0.3, 95% confidence interval: 0.105-0.854).

Conclusion: In this study, the CM hospital provides the same quality of care in CHD for prescribing evidence-based medications at discharge compared with another general hospital except for ACE inhibitors/ARBs use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11655-013-1663-8DOI Listing
May 2014

Astershionones A-F, six new anti-HBV shionane-type triterpenes from Aster tataricus.

Fitoterapia 2014 Mar 3;93:98-104. Epub 2014 Jan 3.

State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201, Yunnan, People's Republic of China. Electronic address:

Six new shionane-type triterpenes, astershionones A-F (1-6), were obtained from the roots and rhizomes of Aster tataricus. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data, mainly NMR and MS data. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and CD analysis. 3 showed inhibitory activity against HBsAg and HBeAg secretion with IC50 values of 23.0 and 23.1 μM, and cytotoxicity against HepG 2.2.15 cells with a CC50 value of 170.5 μM. 3 also exhibited inhibitory activity against HBV DNA replication with an IC50 value of 22.4 μM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2013.12.021DOI Listing
March 2014

Pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions between 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers and statins: factors determining interaction strength and relevant clinical risk management.

Ther Clin Risk Manag 2014 20;10:17-26. Epub 2013 Dec 20.

Department of Pharmacy, the Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, People's Republic of China.

Background: Coadministration of 1,4-dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers (DHP-CCBs) with statins (or 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A [HMG-CoA] reductase inhibitors) is common for patients with hypercholesterolemia and hypertension. To reduce the risk of myopathy, in 2011, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Drug Safety Communication set a new dose limitation for simvastatin, for patients taking simvastatin concomitantly with amlodipine. However, there is no such dose limitation for atorvastatin for patients receiving amlodipine. The combination pill formulation of amlodipine/atorvastatin is available on the market. There been no systematic review of the pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction (DDI) profile of DHP-CCBs with statins, the underlying mechanisms for DDIs of different degree, or the corresponding management of clinical risk.

Methods: The relevant literature was identified by performing a PubMed search, covering the period from January 1987 to September 2013. Studies in the field of drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics that described DDIs between DHP-CCB and statin or that directly compared the degree of DDIs associated with cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A4-metabolized statins or DHP-CCBs were included. The full text of each article was critically reviewed, and data interpretation was performed.

Results: There were three circumstances related to pharmacokinetic DDIs in the combined use of DHP-CCB and statin: 1) statin is comedicated as the precipitant drug (pravastatin-nimodipine and lovastatin-nicardipine); 2) statin is comedicated as the object drug (isradipine-lovastatin, lacidipine-simvastatin, amlodipine-simvastatin, benidipine-simvastatin, azelnidipine- simvastatin, lercanidipine-simvastatin, and amlodipine-atorvastatin); and 3) mutual interactions (lercanidipine-fluvastatin). Simvastatin has an extensive first-pass effect in the intestinal wall, whereas atorvastatin has a smaller intestinal first-pass effect. The interaction with simvastatin seems mainly driven by CYP3A4 inhibition at the intestinal level, whereas the interaction with atorvastatin is more due to hepatic CYP3A4 inhibition. The interaction of CYP3A4 inhibitor with simvastatin has been more pronounced compared with atorvastatin. From the current data, atorvastatin seems to be a safer CYP3A4-statin for comedication with DHP-CCB. There is no convincing evidence that amlodipine is an unusual DHP-CCB, either as a precipitant drug or as an object drug, from the perspective of CYP3A4-mediated drug metabolism. Amlodipine may have interactions with CYP3A5 in addition to CYP3A4, which may explain its particular characteristics in comparison with other DHP-CCBs. The degree of DDIs between the DHP-CCB and statin and the clinical outcome depends on many factors, such as the kind of statin, physicochemical proprieties of the DHP-CCB, the dose of either the precipitant drug or the object drug, the sex of the patient (eg, isradipine-lovastatin), route of drug administration (eg, oral versus intravenous nicardipine-lovastatin), the administration schedule (eg, nonconcurrent dosing method versus concurrent dosing method), and the pharmacogenetic status (eg, CYP3A5-nonexpressers versus CYP3A5-expressers).

Conclusion: Clinical professionals should enhance risk management regarding the combination use of two classes of drugs by increasing their awareness of the potential changes in therapeutic efficacy and adverse drug reactions, by rationally prescribing alternatives, by paying attention to dose adjustment and the administration schedule, and by review of the appropriateness of physician orders. Further study is needed - the DDIs between DHP-CCBs and statins have not all been studied in humans, from either a pharmacokinetic or a clinical perspective; also, the strength of the different pharmacokinetic interactions of DHP-CCBs with statins should be addressed by systematic investigations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S55512DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3873236PMC
June 2014

Sampling times and genotyping concerns in bioequivalence evaluation of branded and generic formulations.

Ther Clin Risk Manag 2013 25;9:463-8. Epub 2013 Nov 25.

Department of Pharmacy, The Second Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang Province, People's Republic of China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S54607DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3849151PMC
December 2013

Astataricusones A-D and astataricusol A, five new anti-HBV shionane-type triterpenes from Aster tataricus L. f.

Molecules 2013 Nov 25;18(12):14585-96. Epub 2013 Nov 25.

State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Heilongtan, Kunming 650201, China.

Five new shionane-type triterpenes, astataricusones A-D (compounds 1-4) and astataricusol A (5), together with one known shionane-type triterpene 6 were obtained from the roots and rhizomes of Aster tataricus L. f. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data, mainly NMR and MS data. The absolute configurations of 1 and 4 was determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction and CD analysis. Compound 2 showed inhibitory activity on HBsAg secretion with an IC50 value of 23.5 μM, while 2 and 6 showed inhibitory activities on HBeAg secretion with IC50 values of 18.6 and 40.5 μM, and cytotoxicity on HepG 2.2.15 cells with CC50 values of 172.4 and 137.7 μM, respectively. Compounds 2 and 6 also exhibited inhibitory activities on HBV DNA replication with IC50 values of 2.7 and 30.7 μM, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules181214585DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6270206PMC
November 2013

CYP2C9*3(1075A > C), ABCB1 and SLCO1B1 genetic polymorphisms and gender are determinants of inter-subject variability in pitavastatin pharmacokinetics.

Pharmazie 2013 Mar;68(3):187-94

Department of Pharmacy, the 2nd Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

A pharmacokinetics study was conducted in 12 Chinese volunteers following a single dose of 1 mg, 2 mg and 4 mg of pitavastatin calcium in an open-label, randomized, three-period crossover design. Plasma concentrations of pitavastatin acid and pitavastatin lactone were determined by a HPLC method. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ABCB1, ABCG2, SLCO1B1, CYP2C9 and CYP3A5 were determined by TaqMan (MGB) genotyping assay. An analysis was performed on the relationship between the aforementioned SNPs and dose-normalized (based on 1 mg) area under the plasma concentration-time curve extrapolated to infinity [AUC(0-infinity)] and peak plasma concentration (Cmax) values of the acid and lactone forms of pitavastatin. Pitavastatin exhibited linear pharmacokinetics and great inter-subject variability. Compared to CYP2C9*1/*1 carriers, CYP2C9*1/*3 carriers had higher AUC(0-infinity) and Cmax of pitavastatin acid and AUC(0-infinity) of pitavastatin lactone (P<0.05). With respect to ABCB1 G2677T/A, non-G carriers had higher Cmax and AUC(0-infinity) of pitavastatin acid, and Cmax of pitavastatin lactone compared to GT, GA or GG genotype carriers (P<0.05). Gene-dose effects of SLCO1B1 c.521T> C and g.11187G > A on pharmacokinetics of the acid and lactone forms were observed. Compared to non-SLCO1B1*17 carriers, SLCO1B1*17 carriers had higher Cmax and AUC(0-infinity) of the acid and lactone forms (P<0.05). Significant sex difference was observed for pharmacokinetics of the lactone. Female SLCO1B1 521TT subjects had higher Cmax and AUC(0-infinity) of pitavastatin lactone compared to male 521TT subjects, however, such gender difference disappeared in 521 TC and 521CC subjects. Pitavastatin pharmacokinetics was not significantly affected by ABCB1 C1236T, ABCB1C3435T, CYP3A5*3, ABCG2 c.34G > A, c.421C > A, SLCO1B1 c.388A>G, c.571T>C and c.597C>T. We conclude that CYP2C9*3, ABCB1 G2677T/A, SLCO1B1 c.521T>C, SLCO1B1 g.11187G > A, SLCO1B1*17 and gender contribute to inter-subject variability in pitavastatin pharmacokinetics. Personalized medicine should be necessary for hypercholesterolaemic patients receiving pitavastatin.
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March 2013

Drug-induced liver injury in hospitalized patients with notably elevated alanine aminotransferase.

World J Gastroenterol 2012 Nov;18(41):5972-8

Department of Pharmacy, the 2nd Affiliated Hospital, School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310009, Zhejiang Province, China.

Aim: To identify the proportion, causes and the nature of drug-induced liver injury (DILI) in patients with notably elevated alanine aminotransferase (ALT).

Methods: All the inpatients with ALT levels above 10 times upper limit of normal range (ULN) were retrospectively identified from a computerized clinical laboratory database at our hospital covering a 12-mo period. Relevant clinical information was obtained from medical records. Alternative causes of ALT elevations were examined for each patient, including biliary abnormality, viral hepatitis, hemodynamic injury, malignancy, DILI or undetermined and other causes. All suspected DILI cases were causality assessed using the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences scale, and only the cases classified as highly probable, probable, or possible were diagnosed as DILI. Comments related to the diagnosis of DILI in the medical record and in the discharge letter for each case were also examined to evaluate DILI detection by the treating doctors.

Results: A total of 129 cases with ALT > 10 ULN were identified. Hemodynamic injury (n = 46, 35.7%), DILI (n = 25, 19.4%) and malignancy (n = 21, 16.3%) were the top three causes of liver injury. Peak ALT values were lower in DILI patients than in patients with hemodynamic injury (14.5 ± 5.6 ULN vs 32.5 ± 30.7 ULN, P = 0.001). Among DILI patients, one (4%) case was classified as definite, 19 (76%) cases were classified as probable and 5 (20%) as possible according to the CIOMS scale. A hepatocellular pattern was observed in 23 (92%) cases and mixed in 2 (8%). The extent of severity of liver injury was mild in 21 (84%) patients and moderate in 4 (16%). Before discharge, 10 (40%) patients were recovered and the other 15 (60%) were improved. The improved patients tended to have a higher peak ALT (808 ± 348 U/L vs 623 ± 118 U/L, P = 0.016) and shorter treatment duration before discharge (8 ± 6 d vs 28 ± 12 d, P = 0.008) compared with the recovered patients. Twenty-two drugs and 6 herbs were found associated with DILI. Antibacterials were the most common agents causing DILI in 8 (32%) cases, followed by glucocorticoids in 6 (24%) cases. Twenty-four (96%) cases received treatment of DILI with at least one adjunctive drug. Agents for treatment of DILI included anti-inflammatory drugs (e.g., glycyrrhizinate), antioxidants (e.g., glutathione, ademetionine 1,4-butanedisulfonate and tiopronin), polyene phosphatidyl choline and herbal extracts (e.g., protoporphyrin disodium and silymarin). Diagnosis of DILI was not mentioned in the discharge letter in 60% of the cases. Relative to prevalent cases and cases from wards of internal medicine, incident cases and cases from surgical wards had a higher risk of missed diagnosis in discharge letter [odds ratio (OR) 32.7, 95%CI (2.8-374.1), and OR 58.5, 95%CI (4.6-746.6), respectively].

Conclusion: DILI is mostly caused by use of antibacterials and glucocorticoids, and constitutes about one fifth of hospitalized patients with ALT > 10 ULN. DILI is underdiagnosed frequently.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v18.i41.5972DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3491606PMC
November 2012

Riccardin D-26, a synthesized macrocyclic bisbibenzyl compound, inhibits human oral squamous carcinoma cells KB and KB/VCR: In vitro and in vivo studies.

Biochim Biophys Acta 2013 Jan 17;1830(1):2194-203. Epub 2012 Oct 17.

Department of Pharmacology, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Background: Riccardin D-26, a synthesized macrocyclic bisbibenzyl compound, might possess anti-cancer properties. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of Riccardin D-26 as a candidate compound for treatment of cancers with sensitive or drug resistant cells.

Methods: Experiments were performed on human oral squamous carcinoma KB cells and vincristin-selected MDR KB/VCR cells. The inhibition of cell growth was evaluated by colorimetric and clonogenic assays. The apoptotic cells were determined by the Annexin V-FITC/PI staining assay. JC-1 fluorescence probe was used to examine the mitochondria membrane potential (MMP). Further experiments were performed in nude mice bearing KB or KB/VCR xenografts. Riccardin D-26 was administered by injection for 2weeks. The specimens of KB and KB/VCR xenografts were removed for TUNEL staining and Western blotting analysis.

Results: Riccardin D-26 significantly inhibited cancer growth in both KB and KB/VCR cells. Riccardin D-26's activity in cancer cells was greater than that in human normal liver cells. In mice, Riccardin D-26 effectively prevented the growth of KB and KB/VCR xenografts without significant toxicity. Further studies suggested that Riccardin D-26 inhibited cancer growth by inducing apoptosis in the activation of mitochondria-mediated intrinsic apoptosis pathway. Riccardin D-26 also possessed this activity in regulation of mitogen-related protein kinases such as MAPK and PI3K/Akt, which is associated with its inhibitory effect on KB/VCR cells.

Conclusions: Riccardin D-26 possessed an anti-proliferation activity against both sensitive KB and MDR KB/VCR cancer cells.

General Significance: Riccardin D-26 could be a promising agent for treatment of cancers with sensitive or drug resistant cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbagen.2012.10.011DOI Listing
January 2013

Riccardin D-26, a synthesized macrocyclic bisbibenzyl compound, inhibits human hepatocellular carcinoma growth through induction of apoptosis in p53-dependent way.

Cancer Lett 2013 Jan 18;328(1):104-13. Epub 2012 Sep 18.

Department of Pharmacology, Key Laboratory of Chemical Biology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, China.

Riccardin D-26 is a synthesized macrocyclic bisbibenzyl compound. We investigated the effect of Riccardin D-26 on human hepatocellular carcinomas. Riccardin D-26 possessed stronger activity against SMMC-7721 cells than human normal liver cells. Riccardin D-26 injection effectively delayed the growth of SMMC-7721 xenografts in mice without significant toxicity. This effect of Riccardin D-26 was associated with the status of p53 and its targets, bax and p21(Waf1)(/)(Cip1). Riccardin D-26 activated p53 expression and induced cancer cells to apoptosis through the p53-mediated transcription-dependent and -independent pathway. Overall, Riccardin D-26 may inhibit hepatocellular carcinoma growth through induction of apoptosis in p53-dependent pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2012.09.002DOI Listing
January 2013

Modified Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for type 2 diabetes mellitus in China.

Hepatogastroenterology 2013 Jan-Feb;60(121):129-31

Department of General Surgery, WeiFang People's Hospital, WeiFang, ShanDong, China.

Background/aims: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of modified Roux-en-Y gastric bypass for type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Methodology: Forty-five type 2 diabetes mellitus patients underwent modified Roux-en-Y gastric bypass at WeiFang People's Hospital. Data on patient demographics, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), body mass index (BMI), medication use, remission and hemoglobin A1c (HbAlc) were prospectively collected and analyzed.

Results: At 6 months after surgery, all of these 45 patients obtained remission or a marked improvement. FPG was in the normal range in 39 (86.7%) patients stopping medicine treatment for their diabetes. Six patients (13.3%) had an obvious reduced abnormal FPG and they only required lower drug dosage. No statistically significant differences were found between the obese or non-obese groups (p=0.311). The mean BMI dropped from 28.9±3.0 kg/m2 to 27.4±2.8 kg/m2 (p=0.000) at the third month and 26.3±2.5 kg/m2 (p=0.000) at the sixth month. HbAlc decreased from their preoperative values of 7.4%±2.2% to 6.3%±1.5% (p=0.000) at the third month and 5.1%±0.9% (p=0.000) at the sixth month.

Conclusions: Modified Roux-en-Y gastric bypass was effective in treating type 2 diabetes mellitus, independent of body mass index.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5754/hge12545DOI Listing
July 2013

[Evaluation of adrenocortical function in children with severe and critical enterovirus 71 infection].

Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi 2012 Apr;50(4):249-54

Department of Emergency Center, Beijing Children's Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100045, China.

Objective: To evaluate the adrenocortical function in children with severe and critical enterovirus 71 infection by using a high-dose (250 µg) adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test. And to at provide experimental basis for glucocorticoid in the treatment of hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD).

Method: This was a prospective multi-center study which was carried out in PICUs of Beijing Children's Hospital, Zhengzhou Children's Hospital, Kaifeng Children's Hospital and Linyi People's Hospital in Shandong province. Children with severe and critical hand-foot-mouth disease admitted to PICUs of the four hospitals from June 2009 to April 2010 were enrolled in this study, and EV71 virus nucleic acid test and high-dose (250 µg) ACTH stimulation started at the same time. EV71 virus nucleic acid positive 51 cases were eventually enrolled in the study. Cortisol test was performed at baseline (T0) and after high-dose (250 µg) ACTH stimulation at 30 minutes (T30), 60 minutes (T60) in the first 6 hours after admission, but before glucocorticoid was given. The adrenocortical function was evaluated according to ΔTmax [ΔTmax=(T30, T60 maximum)-T0]. Diagnostic criteria of adrenal insufficiency (AI) is increment (ΔTmax)≤9 µg/dl.

Result: The incidence of AI in 51 cases was 52.94% (27/51). The incidence of AI in severe group was 44.74% (17/38), which was significantly higher in critical group 76.92% (10/13), P<0.05. Of the cases with a pediatric critical illness score (PCIS)≤70, 81.82% (9/11) had adrenal insufficiency, and it was 28.57% (4/14) when PCIS≥90. The incidence of AI was 75% (6/8) and 48.84% (21/43) in death and survivor group respectively, but there were no significant difference between the two groups (P>0.05). Baseline (T0) cortisol in death group was higher than survivor group (P<0.05).

Conclusion: AI may occur in children with enterovirus 71 infection. The critical enterovirus 71 infection had a high incidence of AI. AI may affect the prognosis of patients with severe and critical enterovirus 71 infection. Exogenous glucocorticoids administration may be considered when AI is identified or highly suspected. The timing, dosage and regimen of glucocorticoid are still unclear. Further animal experiments and clinical trials are needed.
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April 2012

[Progress in the study of some important natural bioactive cyclopeptides].

Yao Xue Xue Bao 2012 Mar;47(3):271-9

State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201, China.

Natural cyclopeptides are hot spots in chemical and pharmaceutical fields because of the wide spreading bio-resources, complex molecular structures and various bioactivities. Bio-producers of cyclopeptides distribute over almost every kingdom from bacteria to plants and animals. Many cyclopeptides contain non-coded amino acids and non-pepditic bonds. Most exciting characteristic of cyclopeptides is a range of interesting bioactivities such as antibiotics gramicidin-S (2), vancomycin (3) and daptomycin (4), immunosuppressive cyclosporin-A (1) and astin-C (8), and anti-tumor aplidine (5), RA-V (6) and RA-VII (7). Compounds 1-4 are being used in clinics; compounds 5-8 are in the stages of clinical trial or as a candidate for drug research. In this review, the progress in chemical and bioactive studies on these important natural bioactive cyclopeptides 1-8 are introduced, mainly including discovery, bioactivity, mechanism, QSAR and synthesis.
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March 2012