Publications by authors named "Hui Zhao"

2,485 Publications

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Contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the assessment of Crohn's disease activity: comparison with computed tomography enterography.

Radiol Med 2022 Aug 9. Epub 2022 Aug 9.

Department of Ultrasound, Zhongshan Hospital, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200032, China.

Background And Objective: Continuous assessment of disease activity remains a huge challenge during the follow-ups of patients with Crohn's disease (CD). In this paper, we aimed to evaluate the performance of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) by comparing with computed tomography enterography (CTE) in the assessment of disease activity in CD.

Materials And Methods: Fifty-two patients diagnosed with CD were included in this study, using the CEUS and CTE as imaging methods for comparison. The selected parameters included the location and thickness of the thickest part of the intestinal wall, mesenteric fat proliferation, mesenteric vessels change, enhancement pattern and the presence of complications. Patients were clinically assessed using the Crohn's disease activity index (CDAI), C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). Simple endoscopic score for Crohn's disease (SES-CD) was regarded as the reference standard.

Results: The location of the thickest part of the intestinal wall (κ = 0.653), bowel wall thickness (ICC = 0.795), mesenteric vessels change (κ = 0.692) and complications (κ = 0.796) displayed substantial agreement (0.61-0.80) between CEUS and CTE, while the detection of mesenteric fat proliferation (κ = 0.395) and enhancement pattern (κ = 0.288) showed fair consistency (0.21-0.40) for comparison. In CEUS, bowel wall thickness, mesenteric fat proliferation, enhancement pattern and mesenteric vessels change were statistically significant in assessing CD activity, while bowel wall thickness, mesenteric fat proliferation and mesenteric vessels change in CTE. Bowel wall thickness showed the best diagnostic performance in the assessment of CD activity at CEUS and CTE.

Conclusion: CEUS provides a radiation-free and effective way to assess the CD activity in comparison with CTE, which also avoids frequent colonoscopy examinations, improves tolerance of patients, and reduces the cost of medical care, thereby serving as a useful tool for CD follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11547-022-01535-zDOI Listing
August 2022

Central nervous system efficacy of furmonertinib (AST2818) versus gefitinib as first-line treatment for EGFR mutated non-small cell lung cancer: results from the FURLONG study.

J Thorac Oncol 2022 Aug 3. Epub 2022 Aug 3.

Shanghai Allist Pharmaceuticals, Shanghai, People's Republic of China.

Introduction: Furmonertinib (AST2818) is a pan epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) with central nervous system (CNS) anti-tumor activity. We report the CNS efficacy of furmonertinib compared with gefitinib in untreated EGFR sensitizing mutation positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) from the FURLONG study.

Methods: FURLONG was a randomized, double-blind, phase 3 study conducted in 55 hospitals in People's Republic of China. Patients 1:1 randomly received furmonertinib 80mg Qd or gefitinib 250mg Qd treatment. At screening, all the patients underwent brain scan. Patients with asymptomatic steady CNS metastases at baseline constituted this pre-planned CNS subgroup analysis.

Results: A total of 358 patients were enrolled in the FURLONG study. In the 133 (37%) patients who had measurable or non-measurable CNS lesions, CNS progression-free survival (PFS) was 20.8 months (95% confidence interval [95%CI] 15.2, 25.3) in the furmonertinib group and 9.8 months (95%CI 7.2, 18.0) in the gefitinib group (hazard ratio 0.40 [95%CI 0.23, 0.71]; p=0.0011). In the 60 (17%) patients who had measurable CNS lesions, CNS objective response rate (ORR) was 91% (95%CI 72, 99) with furmonertinib and 65% (95%CI 48, 80) with gefitinib (odds ratio 6.82 [95%CI 1.23, 37.67]; p=0.0277). The least square mean difference of CNS depth of response (DepOR) between furmonertinib and gefitinib was 23% (95%CI 10, 37; p=0.0011).

Conclusions: Furmonertinib first-line treatment showed superior efficacy in CNS PFS, CNS ORR and CNS DepOR compared with gefitinib in EGFR mutated NSCLC patients with CNS metastases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtho.2022.07.1143DOI Listing
August 2022

[Assessment of effects of intra-abdominal pressure monitoring on evaluating early enteral nutrition in patients with acute pancreatitis].

Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue 2022 Jun;34(6):630-634

Department of Criticle Care Medicine, Baoshan Branch of Huashan Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University, 200000, Shanghai, China. Corresponding author: Xia Zhijie, Email:

Objective: To explore the role of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) monitoring in evaluating the efficacy of early enteral nutrition (EN) in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP).

Methods: The clinical data were collected from the AP patients in department of criticle care medicine of Baoshan Branch of Huashan Hospital Affiliated to Fudan University from July 2020 to June 2021. The patients were divided into three groups according to their treatments: no gastrointestinal decompression with fasting group, gastrointestinal decompression with fasting group, gastrointestinal decompression with indwelling jejunal tube within 24 hours group. The data of white blood cell (WBC), procalcitonin (PCT), serum amylase (AMY) and IAP were analyzed before and after treatment, the initiation time oral feeding were also analyzed.

Results: The decrease of WBC, PCT, AMY, and IAP in gastrointestinal decompression with indwelling jejunal tube within 24 hours group were significantly greater than those in the other groups [WBC (×10/L): -1.72±0.74 vs. -0.68±0.36, -1.23±86.97; PCT (μg/L): -3.14±5.19 vs. 0.06±0.48, -1.57±0.78; AMY (U): -148.43±75.89 vs. -74.85±78.84, -93.78±1.17; IAP (cmHO, 1 cmHO ≈ 0.098 kPa): -4.82±1.66 vs. 0.36±1.32, -3.22±4.36, all P < 0.05]. There were no correlation between the changes of IAP and the changes of WBC, PCT or AMY in the non-gastrointestinal decompression with fasting group and the gastrointestinal decompression with indwelling jejunal tube within 24 hours group (all P > 0.05). The decreasing trend of IAP in patients with gastrointestinal decompression with fasting group was positively correlated with the change of AMY (r = 0.65, P < 0.001). The initiation time of oral feeding in gastrointestinal decompression with indwelling jejunal tube within 24 hours group was significantly shorter than that in the other groups (hours: 89.538 vs. 111.273, 109.714), the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: IAP monitoring, as an emergency means of monitoring the efficacy of early EN in AP patients, has the advantages of simplicity, efficiency and rationality, which has a more objective basis than the previous empirical treatment and open oral feeding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3760/cma.j.cn121430-20220124-00089DOI Listing
June 2022

Postoperative high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level: an independent prognostic factor for gastric cancer.

Front Oncol 2022 18;12:884371. Epub 2022 Jul 18.

Senior Department of Oncology, The Fifth Medical Center of People's Liberation Army (PLA) General Hospital, Beijing, China.

Objective: The relationship between serum lipids and prognosis of gastric cancer has not been confirmed. Our purpose in the study was to investigate the associations between preoperative and postoperative serum lipids level and prognosis in patients with gastric cancer.

Methods: A retrospective study was performed on 431 patients who received radical (R0) gastrectomy from 2011 to 2013. Preoperative and postoperative serum lipids level were recorded. Clinical-pathological characteristics, oncologic outcomes, disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were collected. The prognostic significance was determined by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression model.

Results: There was no significant difference in DFS and OS according to preoperative serum lipids level. Regarding postoperative serum lipids level, compared to normal high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low postoperative HDL-C level indicated a shorter OS (hazard ratio: 1.76, 99% confidence interval: 1.31-2.38; P=0.000) and a shorter DFS (hazard ratio: 2.06, 99% confidence interval: 1.55-2.73; P=0.000). However, other postoperative serum lipid molecules were not associated with DFS and OS.

Conclusion: Postoperative HDL-C might be an independent prognostic factor of gastric cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2022.884371DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9339602PMC
July 2022

The role of prolactin/vasoinhibins in cardiovascular diseases.

Animal Model Exp Med 2022 Aug 3. Epub 2022 Aug 3.

Department of Cardio-Pulmonary Circulation, School of Medicine, Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai, China.

Prolactin (PRL) is a polypeptide hormone that is mainly synthesized and secreted by the lactotroph cells of the pituitary. There are two main isoforms of PRL: 23-kDa PRL (named full-length PRL) and vasoinhibins (including 5.6-18 kDa fragments). Both act as circulating hormones and cytokines to stimulate or inhibit vascular formation at different stages and neovascularization, including endothelial cell proliferation and migration, protease production, and apoptosis. However, their effects on vascular function and cardiovascular diseases are different or even contrary. In addition to the structure, secretion regulation, and signal transduction of PRL/vasoinhibins, this review focuses on the pathological mechanism and clinical significance of PRL/vasoinhibins in cardiovascular diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ame2.12264DOI Listing
August 2022

Characteristic of red eye related diseases of Han and Uygur population in Urumchi compared with Shanghai, China.

Int J Ophthalmol 2022 18;15(7):1165-1173. Epub 2022 Jul 18.

The First Affiliated Hospital of Xin Jiang Medical University, Urumqi 830011, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, China.

Aim: To study the characteristics, relative distribution and to compare causes of red eye in ophthalmic clinics in Urumchi and Shanghai, China.

Methods: Data on continuous cases of red-eye patients admitted to the Ophthalmology Center of Xinhua Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University and the First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University were collected between November 2018 and September 2019. Demographic data, the incidence of red eye and related disease distribution of all cases were obtained. The independent -test method was used for age comparison, while the Chi-square test was used to compare classified data information.

Results: The information on 335 and 415 patients with red eyes in Shanghai and Urumchi were collected, respectively. The main causes of red eye were conjunctival disease and dry eye. The age of female patients with red eyes was significantly higher than that of males, and the proportion of female patients with dry eyes was also higher. Red-eye-related diseases occurred more frequently in patients over 46 years old than in those under 18, and dry eye was more common with increasing age. The incidence of infectious conjunctivitis in Urumchi was significantly higher than that in Shanghai, and allergic conjunctivitis occurred more frequently in spring, summer, or autumn than in winter (all <0.05).

Conclusion: Significant differences exist in the distribution of red-eye-related diseases in Urumchi and Shanghai regions of China, and distribution varies with age and season, the latter being an important feature of allergic conjunctivitis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18240/ijo.2022.07.18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9318077PMC
July 2022

3D Real Scene Data Collection of Cultural Relics and Historical Sites Based on Digital Image Processing.

Authors:
Feng Li Hui Zhao

Comput Intell Neurosci 2022 21;2022:9471720. Epub 2022 Jul 21.

National Demonstration Center for Experimental Designing Art Education, Tai Yuan University of Technology, Jinzhong 030600, Shanxi, China.

Traditional digital geometry mainly focuses on local geometric features such as curvature and normal of 3D models. Although the curvature can describe the geometric curvature of the model surface, these local geometric properties cannot describe the global functional structure and associated properties of the 3D model. The purpose of this paper was to study the accurate splicing of cultural relic fragments based on the intrinsic structural features of the 3D model, such as geometry, texture, and function, whose method is the key to realizing the virtual reconstruction of damaged cultural relics. In this paper, a method for analyzing the intrinsic structure of 3D point cloud data is proposed, the feature representation method of 3D discrete curves and surfaces is studied, and a method for identifying geometric features of 3D point clouds based on the similarity measure of the principal curvature is proposed, which realizes the effective extraction of geometric features of the 3D point cloud model of cultural relics. By calculating the visual curvature distribution of the model under multiscale constraints, the effective extraction of the structural primitives of cultural relics with rich surface noise is realized. The experimental results in this paper show that the initial matching time is 1.416 seconds, the final matching time is 1.555 seconds, the average number of iterations is 13, the average stitching error is 1.7233 mm, and the standard deviation is 1.0265 mm. The experimental data show that the algorithm proposed in this chapter has good convergence characteristics and effectively avoids the divergence phenomenon that is easy to occur in the existing stitching algorithms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/9471720DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9334105PMC
July 2022

Experimental study on intracranial pressure and biomechanical response in rats under the blast wave.

J Neurotrauma 2022 Jul 29. Epub 2022 Jul 29.

Hunan University of Science and Technology, Hunan Provincial Key Laboratory of Health Maintenance for Mechanical Equipment, Taoyuan Road, Xiangtan., Xiangtan, Hunan, China, 411201.

Explosion overpressure propagates extra-cranially and causes craniocerebral injury after being transmitted into the brain. Studies on the extent of skull to reduce impact overpressure are still lacking. Therefore, it is necessary to study the relationship between intracranial pressure (ICP) and external field pressure and the situation of craniocerebral injury under the blast wave. Pressure sensor of 1.2mm was disposed 3 mm posterior to the bregma of rat skull, and type I biological shock tube (BST-I) was used as the source of injury while side-on air pressure sensor was installed at the horizontal position of ICP sensor. 11 groups of blast experiments with peak air overpressure ranging from 167kPa to 482kPa were carried out to obtain the variation law of ICP and injury of rats. Data measured by sensors show that the peak pressure formed in rat's brain are lower than the external air overpressure, the differential pressure between the inside and outside of the brain is 27~231kPa. When side-on air overpressure ≤363kPa, ICP ≤132kPa and the hemorrhage area of the rat's brain <15%, the injury is minor. When side-on air overpressure is 363kPa~401kPa, ICP range from 132kPa to 248kPa, hemorrhage area is about 15%~20%, and the injury increases. When side-on air overpressure is 401kPa~ 435kPa, ICP range from 248kPa to 348kPa, the hemorrhage area is about 20%~24%, and the injury is serious. When side-on air overpressure ≥482kPa, the peak ICP surged to 455kPa and the peak negative ICP reached -84kPa, the hemorrhage area exceeded 26%. When the external blast wave is weak, skull can absorb the blast wave better, reducing the pressure by 81.4%, when the external shock wave is strong, skull only reduces the pressure by 5.6%, but both can play certain protective role. The fitting curve of air overpressure and ICP can be used to predict the changes of ICP under different external blast overpressure. Analysis of cranial injury showed that the area of cranial hemorrhage with extremely severe injury increased by 107.9% compared with mild injury, increased by 53.3% compared with moderate injury, and increased by 21.6% compared with severe injury. This work may provide references for the dynamic response of biological cranial and brain injury mechanism under the effect of blast wave.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/neu.2022.0229DOI Listing
July 2022

Racial and Ethnic Trends and Disparities in NSCLC.

JTO Clin Res Rep 2022 Aug 2;3(8):100374. Epub 2022 Jul 2.

Department of Epidemiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.

Introduction: Detailed evaluations of racial and ethnic trends and disparities in NSCLC outcomes are lacking, and it remains unclear whether recent advances in screening and targeted therapies for NSCLC have benefited all population groups equally.

Methods: Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results 18-registry data, we evaluated trends in overall and stage-specific NSCLC incidence (2007-2018) among patients aged 55 to 79 years by sex and race and ethnicity. Overall and stage-specific 2-year cause-specific survival rates were calculated by sex and race and ethnicity. Health Disparities software calculated absolute (difference) and relative (ratio) disparity measures comparing racial and ethnic groups with the highest and lowest rates (range measures) and comparing white patients (reference group) with other groups (pairwise rate measures). Joinpoint software assessed changes in rates and disparities.

Results: Both men and women experienced substantial declines in NSCLC incidence from 2007 to 2018, largely due to significant declines in the incidence of distant-stage NSCLC over the study period ( < 0.05). During the same time period, the incidence of local-stage NSCLC significantly increased among black and Hispanic women ( < 0.05) and remained stable among all other groups. Overall, 2-year cause-specific survival rates improved across most racial and ethnic groups, especially among those diagnosed in regional and distant stages. For both sexes, absolute disparities in overall and stage-specific incidence of NSCLC significantly decreased over time ( < 0.05), whereas relative disparities remained unchanged. Pairwise comparison revealed persistent disparities in NSCLC burden between black and white men.

Conclusion: We found evidence of narrowing racial and ethnic disparities in NSCLC incidence over time; however, important disparities persist. More work is needed to ensure consistent and equitable access to high-quality screening, diagnosis, and treatment to reduce and eliminate cancer disparities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtocrr.2022.100374DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9309496PMC
August 2022

Lactate promotes metastasis of normoxic colorectal cancer stem cells through PGC-1α-mediated oxidative phosphorylation.

Cell Death Dis 2022 Jul 27;13(7):651. Epub 2022 Jul 27.

Molecular Medicine Center, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, China.

Uneven oxygen supply in solid tumors leads to hypoxic and normoxic regions. Hypoxic cells exhibit increased secretion of lactate, which creates an acidic tumor microenvironment (TME). This acidic TME is positively associated with tumor metastasis. Despite the increased metastatic capacity of hypoxic cells, they are located relatively further away from the blood vessels and have limited access to the circulatory system. Studies have shown that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are enriched for tumor metastasis-initiating cells and generally undergo aerobic respiration, which could be enhanced by lactate. We therefore hypothesized that TME-derived lactate may promote the metastasis of normoxic CSCs. In the present study, the abundance of hypoxic and normoxic CSCs was analyzed in primary CRC tumors. It was found that the proportion of normoxic CSCs was positively associated with tumor stage. Using two human CRC cell lines, LoVo and SW480, and a patient-derived xenograft (XhCRC), it was found that treatment with lactate promoted normoxic CSC metastasis. Metabolism analysis indicated that, upon treatment with lactate, oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) activity in normoxic CSCs was enhanced, whereas hypoxic CSCs were rarely altered. At the molecular level, the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), a master regulator of lactate oxidation, was found to be elevated in normoxic CSCs. Furthermore, PGC-1α knockdown markedly reduced the metastatic potential of normoxic CSCs. Notably, both the PGC-1α-mediated OXPHOS activity and metastatic potential were impaired when hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) was activated in normoxic CSCs. Together, these findings provide a therapeutic strategy against tumor metastasis through the targeting of PGC-1α and, thus, the suppression of lactate-feeding OXPHOS in normoxic CSCs may improve the therapeutic benefit of patients with cancer, particularly CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41419-022-05111-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9329320PMC
July 2022

Physiological and Transcriptome Analysis on Diploid and Polyploid Kom. under Salt Stress.

Int J Mol Sci 2022 Jul 7;23(14). Epub 2022 Jul 7.

State Key Laboratory of Tree Genetics and Breeding, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China.

Kom. is a valuable forest regeneration tree species in the eastern mountainous region of Northeast China. It is known that diploid (CK) performed barely satisfactorily under salt stress, but the salt stress tolerance of polyploid (i.e., triploid (T12) and tetraploid (F20)) is still unknown. In order to compare the salt stress tolerance and salt stress response mechanism between diploid and polyploid , phenotypic observation, biological and biochemistry index detections, and transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) were performed on CK, T12, and F20. Phenotypic observation and leaf salt injury index analysis indicated CK suffered more severe salt injury than T12 and F20. SOD and POD activity detections indicated the salt stress response capacity of T12 was stronger than that of CK and F20. MDA content, proline content and relative electric conductivity detections indicated CK suffered the most severe cell-membrane damage, and T12 exhibited the strongest osmoprotective capacity under salt stress. Transcriptome analysis indicated the DEGs of CK, T12, and F20 under salt stress were different in category and change trend, and there were abundant , , and genes among the DEGs in CK, T12, and F20 under salt stress. GO term enrichment indicated the basic growth progresses of CK, and F20 was obviously influenced, while T12 immediately launched more salt stress response processes in 36 h after salt stress. KEGG enrichment indicated the DEGs of CK mainly involved in plant-pathogen interaction, ribosome biogenesis in eukaryotes, protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, degradation of aromatic compounds, plant hormone signal transduction, photosynthesis, and carbon metabolism pathways. The DEGs of T12 were mainly involved in plant-pathogen interaction, cysteine and methionine metabolism, phagosomes, biosynthesis of amino acids, phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis, plant hormone signal transduction, and starch and sucrose metabolism pathways. The DEGs of F20 were mainly involved in plant hormone signal transduction, plant-pathogen interaction, zeatin biosynthesis, and glutathione metabolism pathways. In conclusion, triploid exhibited stronger salt stress tolerance than tetraploid and diploid (i.e., T12 > F20 > CK). The differences between the DEGs of CK, T12, and F20 probably are the key clues for discovering the salt stress response signal transduction network in .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms23147529DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9319462PMC
July 2022

Rational development of a combined mRNA vaccine against COVID-19 and influenza.

NPJ Vaccines 2022 Jul 26;7(1):84. Epub 2022 Jul 26.

State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing, 100071, China.

As the world continues to experience the COVID-19 pandemic, seasonal influenza remain a cause of severe morbidity and mortality globally. Worse yet, coinfection with SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A virus (IAV) leads to more severe clinical outcomes. The development of a combined vaccine against both COVID-19 and influenza is thus of high priority. Based on our established lipid nanoparticle (LNP)-encapsulated mRNA vaccine platform, we developed and characterized a novel mRNA vaccine encoding the HA antigen of influenza A (H1N1) virus, termed ARIAV. Then, ARIAV was combined with our COVID-19 mRNA vaccine ARCoV, which encodes the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein, to formulate the final combined vaccine, AR-CoV/IAV. Further characterization demonstrated that immunization with two doses of AR-CoV/IAV elicited robust protective antibodies as well as antigen-specific cellular immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 and IAV. More importantly, AR-CoV/IAV immunization protected mice from coinfection with IAV and the SARS-CoV-2 Alpha and Delta variants. Our results highlight the potential of the LNP-mRNA vaccine platform in preventing COVID-19 and influenza, as well as other respiratory diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41541-022-00478-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9315335PMC
July 2022

Short-term health impacts related to ozone in China before and after implementation of policy measures: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Sci Total Environ 2022 Jul 23;847:157588. Epub 2022 Jul 23.

Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), University of Twente, Enschede 7514AE, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

This paper presents a meta-analysis of the impacts of short-term exposure to ozone (O) on three health endpoints: all-cause, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality in China. All relevant studies from January 1990 to December 2021 were searched from four databases. After screening, 30 studies were included for the meta-analysis. The results showed that a significant rise of 0.41 % (95 % confidence interval (CI): 0.35 %-0.48 %) in all-cause, 0.60 % (95 % CI: 0.51 %-0.68 %) in cardiovascular and 0.45 % (95 % CI: 0.28 %-0.62 %) in respiratory mortality for each 10 μg m increase in the maximum daily 8 h average O concentration (MDA8 O). Moreover, results stratified by heterogeneous time periods before and after implementing a policy measure in 2013, showed that the pooled effects for all-cause and respiratory mortality before were greater than those after, while the pooled effects for cardiovascular mortality before 2013 were slightly smaller than those after. The finding that short-term exposure to O was positively related to the three health endpoints was validated by means of a sensitivity analysis. Furthermore, we did not observe any publication bias. Our results present an updated and better understanding of the relationship between short-term exposure to O and the three health endpoints, while providing a reference for further assessment of the impact of short-term O exposure on human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2022.157588DOI Listing
July 2022

Genomic Characterization of CIAV Detected in Contaminated Attenuated NDV Vaccine: Epidemiological Evidence of Source and Vertical Transmission From SPF Chicken Embryos in China.

Front Vet Sci 2022 6;9:930887. Epub 2022 Jul 6.

College of Veterinary Medicine, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, China.

Live attenuated vaccines have been extensively used to prevent infectious disease in poultry flocks. Freedom from exogenous virus is a high priority for any veterinary vaccines. Recently, attenuated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccines were detected to be contaminated with chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) in a routine screening for exogenous viruses. To investigate the possible source of the contamination, we conducted virological tests on a specific-pathogen-free (SPF) layer breeder flock that provide the raw materials for vaccines in this manufacturer. Firstly, CIAV antibodies in serum and egg yolks samples of the SPF laying hens were detected by ELISA assays. The results showed that CIAV antibodies in serum and egg yolks were 62% positive and 57% positive, respectively. Then, DNA was extracted from the NDV vaccines and SPF chicken embryonated eggs, and detected by molecular virology assays. The results showed that three assays for pathogens in embryonated eggs had similar positive rates (35.8%). And the sequences of CIAV from SPF embryos and NDV vaccines consisted of 2,298 nucleotides (nt) with 100% homology. The new full-length genome of CIAV was designated SDSPF2020 (Genbank accession number: MW660821). Data showed SDSPF2020 had the sequence similarities of 95.8-99.6% with reference strains, and shared the highest homology with the Chinese strain HLJ15125. These results strongly suggested that exogenous CIAV contamination is most likely caused by wild virus infection in SPF flocks and vertical transmission to chicken embryos. Collectively, this study illustrated that vertical transmission of CIAV from a SPF layer breeder flock to embryos was a non-neglible way for exogenous virus contamination in vaccine production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2022.930887DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9298830PMC
July 2022

Inflammation Disrupts Cognitive Integrity via Plasma Neurofilament Light Chain Coupling Brain Networks in Alzheimer's Disease.

J Alzheimers Dis 2022 Jul 20. Epub 2022 Jul 20.

Department of Neurology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital of The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, and The State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Institute of Brain Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing, China.

Objective: Background: Plasma neurofilament light chain (NFL) is a recognized biomarker for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and inflammation. Intrinsically organized default mode network core subsystem and frontoparietal network (FPN) and their interactions support complex cognitive function. The present study investigated the inflammatory effect on cognitive integrity via plasma NFL coupling internetwork interactions in AD.

Objective: Objective: This study investigates the hypothesis that inflammation-related plasma NFL could affect the interactions of the core subsystem and FPN, which leads to the aggravation of the clinical symptoms of AD-spectrum patients.

Objective: Methods: A total of 112 AD-spectrum participants underwent complete resting-state fMRI, neuropsychological tests, and plasma NFL at baseline (n = 112) and after approximately 17 months of follow-up (n = 112). The specific intersystem changes in the core subsystem and FPN were calculated and compared across groups. Then, the classifications of different AD-spectrum groups were analyzed using the association of plasma NFL and the changed intersystem interacting regions. Finally, mediation analysis was applied to investigate the significance of plasma NFL coupling networks on cognitive impairments in these subjects.

Objective: Results: Discrimination of disease-related interactions of the core subsystem and FPN was found in AD-spectrum patients, which was the neural circuit fundamental to plasma NFL disrupting cognitive integrity. Furthermore, the clinical significance of plasma NFL coupling networks on AD identification and monitoring cognitive impairments were revealed in these subjects.

Conclusion: The characteristic change in inflammation-related plasma NFL coupled with brain internetwork interactions could be used as a potential observation indicator in the progression of AD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3233/JAD-220475DOI Listing
July 2022

Impacts of Medicaid Expansion on Stage at Cancer Diagnosis by Patient Insurance Type.

Am J Prev Med 2022 Jul 20. Epub 2022 Jul 20.

Department of Epidemiology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.

Introduction: The expansion of Medicaid under the Affordable Care Act increased access to health care for millions of low-income Americans. However, the longer-term impacts of the policy on cancer outcomes remain unknown. This study examined the impact of Medicaid expansion on early- and late-stage diagnosis for 4 common cancers (breast, cervical, colorectal, and lung) using 4 full years of postpolicy data.

Methods: Patients aged 40-64 years diagnosed with breast, cervical, colorectal, or lung cancer from 2010 to 2017 were identified using the National Cancer Database. Difference-in-difference analyses compared changes in early-stage and late-stage diagnoses among expansion states with those among nonexpansion states. Subgroup analyses explored potential effect modification by insurance type. Data analysis was performed from June to October 2021.

Results: The proportion of early stage diagnosis of breast (difference in difference=1.58, 95% CI=0.89, 2.27), cervical (difference in difference=3.20; 95% CI=0.44, 5.95), colorectal (difference in difference=1.98; 95% CI=1.18, 2.78), and lung (difference in difference=1.74; 95% CI=0.98, 2.50) cancers increased more in expansion states than in nonexpansion states, whereas late-stage diagnosis of colorectal (difference in difference= -2.12; 95% CI= -2.98, -1.27) and lung (difference in difference= -1.87; 95% CI= -2.89, -0.84) cancers decreased more in expansion states following implementation of the Affordable Care Act. In subgroup analyses, difference-in-difference estimates for all sites and stages (except late-stage cervical cancer) were significant and larger in magnitude among Medicaid-insured than among privately insured patients.

Conclusions: Study results highlight the positive impacts of Medicaid expansion on earlier diagnosis of several cancers for which screening and early detection exist, and subgroup analyses revealed greater positive effects among Medicaid-insured patients most targeted by the policy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2022.06.001DOI Listing
July 2022

Study on the Anti-demyelination Mechanism of Bu-Shen-Yi-Sui Capsule in the Central Nervous System Based on Network Pharmacology and Experimental Verification.

Mediators Inflamm 2022 12;2022:9241261. Epub 2022 Jul 12.

School of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing Key Lab of TCM Collateral Disease Theory Research, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069, China.

Methods: The potential active ingredients and corresponding potential targets of BSYS Capsule were obtained from the TCMSP, BATMAN-TCM, Swiss Target Prediction platform, and literature research. Disease targets of CNSD were explored through the GeneCards and the DisGeNET databases. The matching targets of BSYS in CNSD were identified from a Venn diagram. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed using bioinformatics methods. Gene Ontology (GO) function and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses were performed to predict the mechanisms of BSYS. Furthermore, the neuroprotective effects of BSYS were evaluated using a cell model of hydrogen peroxide- (HO-) induced cell death in OLN-93 cells.

Results: A total of 59 potential bioactive components of BSYS Capsule and 227 intersection targets were obtained. Topological analysis showed that AKT had the highest connectivity degrees in the PPI network. Enrichment analysis revealed that the targets of BSYS in the treatment of CNSD were the PI3K-Akt and MAPK signaling pathway, among other pathways. GO analysis results showed that the targets were associated with various biological processes, including apoptosis, reactive oxygen species metabolic process, and response to oxidative stress, among others. The experimental results demonstrated that BSYS drug-containing serum alleviated the HO-induced increase in LDH, MDA, and ROS levels and reversed the decrease in SOD and mitochondrial membrane potential induced by HO. BSYS treatment also decreased the number of TUNEL (+) cells, downregulated Bcl-2 expression, and upregulated Bax and c-caspase-3 expression by promoting Akt phosphorylation.

Conclusion: BSYS Capsule alleviated HO-induced OLN-93 cell injury by increasing Akt phosphorylation to suppress oxidative stress and cell apoptosis. Therefore, BSYS can be potentially used for CNSD treatment. However, the results of this study are only derived from in vitro experiments, lacking the validation of in vivo animal models, which is a limitation of our study. We will further verify the underlying mechanisms of BSYS in animal experiments in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/9241261DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9296285PMC
July 2022

Comparative genomic and transcriptomic analyses uncover the molecular basis of high nitrogen use efficiency in the wheat cultivar Kenong 9204.

Mol Plant 2022 Jul 20. Epub 2022 Jul 20.

Computer Network Information Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China.

Studying the regulatory mechanisms driving nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) of crops is important for sustaining agriculture and protecting environment. In this study, we generated a high-quality genome assembly for a high-NUE wheat cultivar Kenong 9204 and systematically analyzed the genes related to nitrogen uptake and metabolism. By comparative analysis, we found that the high-affinity nitrate transporter gene family expanded in Triticeae. Further study showed that subsequent functional differentiation endowed the expanded family members with salinity-inducible ability, which provides a genetic basis for improving the adaptability of wheat to nitrogen deficiency in various habitats. To explore the genetic and molecular mechanisms of high NUE, we compared the genomic and transcriptomic data between the high NUE cultivar KN9204 and a low-NUE cultivar Jing 411, and quantified their nitrogen accumulation under high and low nitrogen conditions. Compared with Jing 411, Kenong 9204 absorbed significantly more nitrogen at reproductive stage after shooting and accumulated in its shoots and seeds. Transcriptome data analysis revealed that nitrogen deficiency obviously suppressed the expression of the genes related to cell division in young spike of Jing 411, while such suppressed effect on gene expression was much less in Kenong 9204. In addition, Kenong 9204 maintained a longer time to keep a relative high expression of NPF genes than Jing 411 during seeds maturity. Physiological and transcriptome data revealed that Kenong 9204 was more tolerant to nitrogen deficiency than Jing 411, especially at its reproductive stage. The high NUE of KN9204 is an integrated effect controlled at different levels. Overall, our data obtained in this study provide a new insight to help understand the molecular mechanisms of NUE and a potential gene resource for improving wheat cultivars with higher NUE trait.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molp.2022.07.008DOI Listing
July 2022

The infectivity and pathogenicity of Hepatitis A virus live-attenuated vaccine strain H2 in type I interferon receptor-deficient mice.

Virol Sin 2022 Jul 18. Epub 2022 Jul 18.

State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Academy of Military Medical Sciences (AMMS), Beijing, 100071, China; Research Unit of Discovery and Tracing of Natural Focus Diseases, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, 650018, China. Electronic address:

Hepatitis A virus (HAV) live-attenuated vaccine H2 strain has been approved for clinical use for decades with ideal safety profiles in nonhuman primate models and humans. Recently, type I interferon (IFN) receptor-deficient mice were shown to be susceptible to HAV infection. Herein, we sought to determine the infection and replication dynamics of the H2 in Ifnar-/- mice that lack receptors for type I IFN. Following intravenous injection, the H2 failed to cause obvious clinical symptoms in Ifnar-/- mice, and no significant upregulation in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels was observed. Notably, the histopathological examination showed that there were significant focal infiltration of lymphocytes and neutrophils in the portal area,but no focal necrosis in liver tissues, and viral RNA levels was sustained in the liver, and the infectious virus could be recovered from the live tissue until 42 days post-infection. More importantly, H2 infection induced obvious viremia and persistent viral shedding in feces. In addition, robust HAV-specific humoral immune responses were induced in Ifnar-/- mice. Overall, our study revealed the safety profile of H2 in Ifnar-/- mice, which not only helps understand the attenuation mechanism of H2, but also expands the application of the Ifnar-/- mouse model for HAV study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.virs.2022.07.009DOI Listing
July 2022

A Double-blind Randomized Placebo-controlled Phase-3 Trial of Tobramycin Inhalation Solution in Adults with Bronchiectasis with Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection.

Chest 2022 Jul 18. Epub 2022 Jul 18.

State Key Laboratory of Respiratory Disease, National Clinical Research Center for Respiratory Disease, Guangzhou Institute of Respiratory Disease, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China. Electronic address:

Background: Few large-scale studies demonstrated the efficacy of tobramycin nebulization in bronchiectasis. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of nebulized tobramycin inhalation solution (TIS) in adults with bronchiectasis with Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.

Research Question: Can TIS effectively reduce sputum Pseudomonas aeruginosa density and improve the bronchiectasis-specific quality-of-life in bronchiectasis patients with Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection?

Study Design: S AND METHODS: This was a phase III, 16-week, multi-center, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Eligible adults with bronchiectasis were recruited from October 2018 to July 2021. Based on usual care, patients nebulized TIS (300 mg/5 ml twice daily) or normal saline (5 ml twice daily) via vibrating-mesh nebulizer. Treatment consisted of two cycles of 28 days on- and off-treatment alternating periods. The co-primary endpoints were changes from baseline in P. aeruginosa density and Quality-of-life-Bronchiectasis Respiratory Symptom Score at day 29.

Results: The modified intention-to-treat population consisted of 167 patients in tobramycin group and 172 patients in placebo group. Compared with placebo, TIS resulted in a significantly greater reduction in P. aeruginosa density (adjusted mean difference: 1.74 Log colony forming units/g, 95% confidence interval: 1.12 to 2.35, P<0.001) and greater improvement in Quality-of-life-Bronchiectasis Respiratory Symptom Score (adjusted mean difference: 7.91, 95% confidence interval: 5.72 to 10.11, P<0.001) at day 29. Similar findings were observed at day 85. TIS resulted in a significant reduction in 24-hour sputum volume and sputum purulence score at days 29, 57 and 85. More patients became culture negative for P. aeruginosa in tobramycin group than in placebo group at day 29 (29.3% vs. 10.6%). The incidence of adverse events and serious adverse events were comparable between the two groups.

Interpretation: TIS is an effective treatment option and has an acceptable safety profile in bronchiectasis patients with P. aeruginosa infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chest.2022.07.007DOI Listing
July 2022

[Enlightenment of WHO guideline on institutionalizing health technology assessment mechanism for traditional Chinese medicine].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2022 Jun;47(12):3161-3165

Center for Evidence-based Chinese Medicine, Institute of Basic Research in Clinical Medicine, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences Beijing 100700, China.

To promote the institutionalization of the health technology assessment(HTA) mechanism in various countries, World Health Organization(WHO) has published the Institutionalizing Health Technology Assessment Mechanisms: a How to Guide to introduce five steps of institutionalizing the HTA mechanism systematically, specifically, "establishing a mandate; establishing the legal framework; reviewing or establishing the legal framework; establishing institutional and governance arrangements; processes and evidence required for assessment and appraisal; and monitoring and evaluation". Traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) HTA can provide scientific information and decision-making evidence for decision-makers at all levels to select TCM health technology reasonably, and promote the high-quality development of the TCM healthcare system. However, TCM HTA is in its infancy, and it is imperative to carry out relevant work under the guidance of global standard documents to ensure standardization, transparency, and fairness. In light of the WHO guidance, this research group put forward the necessity and logical framework for the institutionalizing HTA mechanism of TCM, which is helpful to establish the institutionalizing HTA mechanism in line with national conditions and suitable for TCM, provide scientific guidance for the research of TCM HTA, and contribute to TCM healthcare decision-making.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20220401.501DOI Listing
June 2022

[Rapid health technology assessment of four oral Chinese patent medicines for constipation].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2022 Jun;47(12):3144-3154

Center for Evidence-based Chinese Medicine, Institute of Basic Research in Clinical Medicine, China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences Beijing 100700, China.

This study evaluated the safety, efficacy, and cost effectiveness of Biantong Capsules(Tablets), Maren Runchang Pills, Qirong Runchang Oral Liquid, and Qihuang Tongmi Soft Capsules in the treatment of constipation by the rapid health technology assessment(RHTA) to provide evidence for clinical decision and references for rapid evaluation of Chinese patent medicine(CPM). CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, SinoMed, PubMed, EMbase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library were searched for research articles from database inception to February 2022. Two reviewers conducted literature screening, data extraction, and quality evaluation according to the predetermined standards. Descriptive analysis of the results combined with visual charts was performed. Sixty research articles were included, involving 44 randomized controlled trials(RCTs), 7 clinical controlled trials(CCTs), 4 systematic reviews/Meta-analyses, and 5 economic analysis studies. As revealed by the results, Biantong Capsules(Tablets) could be used for postoperative and senile constipation, in which some studies reported Biantong Capsules(Tablets) were superior to Maren Runchang Pills and Qirong Runchang Oral Liquid. Maren Runchang Pills were mainly used for senile constipation, and the efficacy was similar to that of conventional wes-tern medicine, but the cost was low and the compliance of patients was good. Qirong Runchang Oral Liquid was indicated for disease-derived or drug-induced constipation, chronic constipation, and senile constipation with fewer adverse reactions. Qihuang Tongmi Soft Capsules had good efficacy and safety in the treatment of functional constipation. Overall, compared with western medicine glycerine enema and lactulose, the number of clinical studies of the four CMPs was small, but they targeted constipation patients with different subtypes. In conclusion, the four CMPs have their advantages and characteristics in the treatment of constipation, but they are restric-ted by sparse existing evidence, low quality of evidence, and insufficient economic research. In the future, more high-quality and long-term follow-up studies should be carried out to obtain reliable evidence. Meanwhile, it is called for strengthening the economic evaluation of CMPs to provide evidence for decision-making.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20220412.502DOI Listing
June 2022

[Scoping review of rapid health technology assessment].

Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 2022 Jun;47(12):3125-3135

Center for Evidence-based Chinese Medicine,Institute of Basic Research in Clinical Medicine,China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences Beijing 100700,China.

This study aims to summarize the research on rapid health technology assessment(RHTA) based on scoping review, which is expected to serve as a reference for future research on RHTA. First, articles on RHTA were retrieved from both Chinese and English databases. After data screening and extraction by two personnel independently, descriptive analysis was conducted on the results, and evidence distribution was analyzed based on tables, bar charts, line charts, radar charts, and pie charts. Finally, a total of 82 eligible articles were included and the characteristics were as follows.(1) Articles on RHTA were mainly published from 2011 to 2022. The number of articles showed an obvious increase from 2014 and surged in 2019.(2) Among the journals with the above RHTA papers published, Chinese Journal of New Drugs(21.5%), Evaluation and Analysis of Drug-Use in Hospitals of China(16.9%), and Chinese Pharmacy(15.4%) topped the Chinese journals in the number of the papers, while International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care(23.5%), Reviews in Medical Virology(11.8%), and Value in Health(11.8%) came out on top in the English journals.(3)The RHTA of drugs(especially western medicine)(68.7%) dominated the eligible articles, followed by the RHTA of therapy technology(13.1%), detection technology(5.1%), and diagnosis technology(1.0%). There was a significant gap in the number of studies among different health technology categories and an imbalance in the types of health technologies involved in the overall RHTA studies.(4) RHTA of tumors has been the research focus in recent years. In summary, RHTA plays a positive role in rapid health decision-making, but there is a lack of primary data sources at present. Compared with the systematic review, Meta-analysis, and pharmacoeconomic studies, a few reports on health technology assessment(HTA) were included. In the future, research on the evaluation of the safety, efficacy, cost effectiveness and social applicability of health technologies should be further strengthened.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19540/j.cnki.cjcmm.20220315.503DOI Listing
June 2022

Cancer cells corrupt normal epithelial cells through miR-let-7c-rich small extracellular vesicle-mediated downregulation of p53/PTEN.

Int J Oral Sci 2022 Jul 19;14(1):36. Epub 2022 Jul 19.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial-Head and Neck oncology, School & Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University, Wuhan, China.

Tumor volume increases continuously in the advanced stage, and aside from the self-renewal of tumor cells, whether the oncogenic transformation of surrounding normal cells is involved in this process is currently unclear. Here, we show that oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC)-derived small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) promote the proliferation, migration, invasion, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of normal epithelial cells but delay their apoptosis. In addition, nuclear-cytoplasmic invaginations and multiple nucleoli are observed in sEV-treated normal cells, both of which are typical characteristics of premalignant lesions of OSCC. Mechanistically, miR-let-7c in OSCC-derived sEVs is transferred to normal epithelial cells, leading to the transcriptional inhibition of p53 and inactivation of the p53/PTEN pathway. In summary, we demonstrate that OSCC-derived sEVs promote the precancerous transformation of normal epithelial cells, in which the miR-let-7c/p53/PTEN pathway plays an important role. Our findings reveal that cancer cells can corrupt normal epithelial cells through sEVs, which provides new insight into the progression of OSCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41368-022-00192-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9293927PMC
July 2022

Treatment of status epilepticus in pediatrics: curriculum learning combined with in-situ simulations.

BMC Med Educ 2022 Jul 19;22(1):557. Epub 2022 Jul 19.

Department of Emergence, Maternal and Child Health Hospital of Hubei Province, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430070, China.

Background: Appropriate and timely treatment of status epilepticus (SE) reduces morbidity and mortality. Therefore, skill-based identification and management are critical for emergency physicians.

Purpose: To assess whether the ability of training physicians, residents, nurses, and others to respond to SE as a team could be improved by using curriculum learning [Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety of Team (TeamSTEPPS) course training] combined with in-situ simulations of emergency department (ED) staff.

Approach: A pre-training-post-training design was used on SE skills and teamwork skills. Emergency training, residents, and N1 and N2 nurses completed the SE skill and teamwork assessments (pre-training) through in-situ simulation. Next, the participating physicians and nurses attended the SE course [Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety of Team (TeamSTEPPS) course training], followed by conscious skill practice, including in-situ simulation drills every 20 days (eight times total) and deliberate practice in the simulator. The participants completed the SE skill and teamwork assessments (post-training) again in an in-situ simulation. Pre-training-post-training simulated SE skills and teamwork performance were assessed. The simulation training evaluation showed that the training process was reasonable, and the training medical staff had different degrees of benefit in increasing subject interest, improving operational skills, theoretical knowledge, and work self-confidence.

Findings: Sixty doctors and nurses participated in the intervention. When comparing the SE skills of 10 regular training physicians pre-training and post-training, their performance improved from 40% (interquartile range (IQR): 0-1) before training to 100% (IQR: 80.00-100) after training (p < 0.001). The teamwork ability of the 10 teams improved from 2.43 ± 0.09 before training to 3.16 ± 0.08 after training (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: SE curriculum learning combined with in-situ simulation training provides the learners with SE identification and management knowledge in children and teamwork skills.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12909-022-03626-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9295428PMC
July 2022

The : A Review of Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry and Pharmacology.

Front Pharmacol 2022 1;13:896637. Epub 2022 Jul 1.

Clinical Experimental Center, Xi'an International Medical Center Hospital, Xi'an, China.

() root is a famous edible medicinal herb that has been used in China for thousands of years. To date, more than 300 chemical constituents have been discovered from . Among these ingredients, coumarins and volatile oils are the major active compounds. Moreover, a few other compounds have also been isolated from the root of , such as alkaloids, phenols, sterols, benzofurans, polyacetylenes and polysaccharides. Modern pharmacological studies demonstrated that the root of and its active components displayed various bioactivities such as anti-inflammation, anti-tumor, anti-oxidation, analgesic activity, antiviral and anti-microbial effects, effects on the cardiovascular system, neuroprotective function, hepatoprotective activity, effects on skin diseases and so on. Based on these studies, this review focused on the research publications of and aimed to summarize the advances in the traditional uses, phytochemistry and pharmacology which will provide reference for the further studies and applications of .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2022.896637DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9283917PMC
July 2022

Automatic segmentation of hyperreflective dots via focal priors and visual saliency.

Med Phys 2022 Jul 15. Epub 2022 Jul 15.

Department of Radiology, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, China.

Purpose: Hyperreflective dots (HRDs) can be observed in spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), which can provide a sensitive marker in the treatment decision process. Quantitative analyses of HRDs are the key to make appropriate decisions on observation, treatment, and retreatment. The purpose of this study is to automatically and accurately segment HRDs in SD-OCT B-scans with diabetic retinopathy (DR).

Methods: The authors propose an automatic segmentation algorithm of HRDs via focal priors and visual saliency. The algorithm is divided into three stages: segmentation of retinal layers, calculation of the multiscale local contrast saliency map, and adaptive threshold segmentation. First, a method based on improved graph search is used to segment retinal layers to obtain the region of interest (ROI) and the reflectivity estimation of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) layer; then, the multiscale local contrast saliency map is obtained by using a local contrast measure, which measures the dissimilarity between the current pixels and corresponding neighborhoods; finally, an adaptive threshold is applied to segment HRDs.

Results: Experimental results on 20 SD-OCT B-scans demonstrate that our method is effective for HRDs segmentation. The average dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and detection accuracy are 71.12% and 85.07%, respectively.

Conclusions: The proposed method can accurately segment HRDs in SD-OCT B-scans with DR and outperforms current state-of-the-art methods. Our method can provide reliable HRDs segmentation to assist ophthalmologists in clinical diagnosis, treatment, disease monitoring, and progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mp.15848DOI Listing
July 2022

Wnt signaling in colorectal cancer: pathogenic role and therapeutic target.

Mol Cancer 2022 07 14;21(1):144. Epub 2022 Jul 14.

State Key Laboratory of Southwestern Chinese Medicine Resources, Department of Pharmacology, Chengdu University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chengdu, 611137, China.

Background: The Wnt signaling pathway is a complex network of protein interactions that functions most commonly in embryonic development and cancer, but is also involved in normal physiological processes in adults. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway regulates cell pluripotency and determines the differentiation fate of cells during development. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway (also known as the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway) is a recognized driver of colon cancer and one of the most representative signaling pathways. As a functional effector molecule of Wnt signaling, the modification and degradation of β-catenin are key events in the Wnt signaling pathway and the development and progression of colon cancer. Therefore, the Wnt signaling pathway plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diseases, especially the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer (CRC).

Objective: Inhibit the Wnt signaling pathway to explore the therapeutic targets of colorectal cancer.

Methods: Based on studying the Wnt pathway, master the biochemical processes related to the Wnt pathway, and analyze the relevant targets when drugs or inhibitors act on the Wnt pathway, to clarify the medication ideas of drugs or inhibitors for the treatment of diseases, especially colorectal cancer.

Results: Wnt signaling pathways include: Wnt/β-catenin or canonical Wnt signaling pathway, planar cell polarity (Wnt-PCP) pathway and Wnt-Ca signaling pathway. The Wnt signaling pathway is closely related to cancer cell proliferation, stemness, apoptosis, autophagy, metabolism, inflammation and immunization, microenvironment, resistance, ion channel, heterogeneity, EMT/migration/invasion/metastasis. Drugs/phytochemicals and molecular preparations for the Wnt pathway of CRC treatment have now been developed. Wnt inhibitors are also commonly used clinically for the treatment of CRC.

Conclusion: The development of drugs/phytochemicals and molecular inhibitors targeting the Wnt pathway can effectively treat colorectal cancer clinically.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12943-022-01616-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9281132PMC
July 2022

Range dependent expected utility theory based model for NIMBY conflicts in China: An evolutionary game analysis.

PLoS One 2022 12;17(7):e0271120. Epub 2022 Jul 12.

School of Management Engineering, Qingdao University of Technology, Qingdao, China.

In recent years, NIMBY(Not In My Backyard) conflicts gradually become hot and difficult in the international community governance, people have realized that the government and people on both sides of the emotional factors have great influences on the results of the conflicts, especially to study the effects of emotion on the evolution of conflicts in China, this article from the following several aspects. First of all, a game model under the influences of emotion is constructed by using Range Dependent Expected Utility(RDEU) theory and emotional function. Secondly, the Jacobian matrix is utilized to analyze the stability of the equilibrium point for the model constructed above. Next, numerical simulation is used to analyze the evolution trend of discrete emotions. The evolutionary results show that when one party holds an optimistic mood, equilibrium evolves to a relatively optimal state; while when one party holds a pessimistic mood, the more pessimistic the party is, the more likely it is to cause NIMBY conflicts. Compared with the people's sentiments, the government's moods have a greater impact on the evolutionary consequences. Finally, depending on the conclusions of the evolutionary analysis, some suggestions on the governance of NIMBY conflicts are put forward.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0271120PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9275717PMC
July 2022

Insights into 2D materials.

Authors:
Hui Zhao Sunmin Ryu

Phys Chem Chem Phys 2022 07 21;24(28):16940-16941. Epub 2022 Jul 21.

Department of Chemistry, Pohang University of Science and Technology (POSTECH), Pohang, Gyeongbuk 37673, Republic of Korea.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d2cp90105fDOI Listing
July 2022
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